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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*d   

da    de    di    do    dr    du    

da

da

dabuk₁

dabuk₂

dabuŋ

dabuq

dada

dadaN

dagepak

dahak

dahemuR

dahun

dajam

dajem

dakdak

dakél

dakep

da(ŋ)ket

daki

dakiS

dakit

dakuC

dalág

dalágan

dalak

dalayap

dalej

dalem

dalig

dalij

dalikan

daliŋ

dalis

dalit₁

dalit₂

dalu₁

dalu₂

damaR

damdam

damwa

dana

danaw

daNum

daŋanan

daŋaq

daŋdaŋ

daŋi

daŋkaq

daŋkeq

daŋuy

dapa

da(m)paD

dapal

dapaN

dapaR

dapdáp

dapdap₁

dapdap₂

dapet

da(m)pil

dapit

dapuR

daqan₁

daqan₂

daqaN

daqaNi

daqiS

daqu₁

daRa₂

daRaq

daRat

daRayaʔ

daRehuŋ

daReq

daRi

daRiŋ

da(ŋ)sek

daSdaS

dataR

dateŋ

datu

dawak

daya

30939

*da locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du)

8797

PAN     *da locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du)

Formosan
Puyuma daconstruction marker for common nouns, oblique

8798

PMP     *daₐ locative case marker for plural personal names

WMP
Ivatan dalocative case marker for plural personal names (living people)
Talantang Dusun dooblique case marker for common nouns
Lotud dooblique case marker for common nouns
Murut (Papar) daoblique case marker for common nouns
Kadazan (Kimanis) dooblique case marker for plural personal names
Kadazan (Membakut) dooblique case marker for common nouns and plural personal names
Murut (Paluan) daoblique case marker for common nouns
Murut (Timugon) raoblique case marker for common nouns
Bisaya (Sabah) da ~ dooblique case marker for common nouns

25953

*dabuk₁ pound, beat

2179

PMP     *dabuk₁ pound, beat     [disjunct: *rabuk 'knock, pound, beat']

WMP
Malagasy dabokabeat, thump
OC
'Āre'āre rapuhit, strike, whip, beat

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’.

30194

*dabuk₂ dust

7021

PPh     *dabuk₂ dust

WMP
Pangasinan dabókdust
  ma-rabókdusty, full of dust
Cebuano dábukcrush by pounding; crushed to fine bits, crumbled
Mansaka dabokto decay

Note:   Also Ibaloy tapok ‘dust as it swirls in the air or has settled on something (as when stirred by a vehicle)’. This word may contain the monosyllabic root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’, with the connection being from pounding to the result of pounding substances (into fine particles).

30197

*dabuŋ bamboo shoot

7024

PPh     *dabuŋ bamboo shoot

WMP
Kapampangan dábuŋshoots, young leaves
  ma-lábuŋleafy
Aklanon dáboŋbamboo shoot (Masbatenyos, like most Filipinos, boil young bamboo shoots for food); immature, young (refers to children, unripe fruits or untempered metal)
Cebuano dábuŋyoung, immature; unripe fruits and vegetables; metal tempered in such a way that it is too soft; bamboo shoots
Maranao daboŋ(plant) shoot
Binukid dabuŋbamboo shoots
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) davuŋthe edible shoots of the kewayan, (Bambusa spinosa), or the bentung bamboo
Mansaka daboŋbamboo shoot

Note:   Mapun dabuŋ ‘bamboo shoots (used as a vegetable)’, Yakan dabuŋ ‘edible shoot of bamboo (in some areas of Basilan these are called umbut)’ are assumed to be loans from one or more Philippine sources.

30221

*dabuq to fall

7075

PWMP     *dabuq to fall

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) dáboʔto fall
Dairi-Pakpak Batak en-dabuhto fall; to set, of the sun
Toba Batak man-dabu-honlet something fall
  dabu-dabu-andeduction
Old Javanese ḍawuhfalling, coming down (order, curse, anger, love); to fall, come down
  a-ḍa-ḍawuhto give food, bestow gifts (on the part of the king)
  ḍ<um>awuhto fall, come down
  ḍawuh-andam
Javanese ḍawuhan order, command; to say, speak; advice; to say, tell

7076

PWMP     *ma-dabuq to fall

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) ma-dáboʔto fall
Toba Batak ma-dabuto fall; be fallen

Note:   With root *-buq ‘fall’. The rather dramatic semantic changes in Modern Javanese ḍawuh are prefigured in the Old Javanese form, which still retains the basic physical sense of falling, but evidently employed the term in a social sense as well (orders, curses or gifts ‘falling’ from the higher position/authority of the king onto his subjects). The resemblance of this form to Arosi rahu-taʔi ‘fall down, be prostrate; cast down, prostrate oneself’ probably is due to chance.

30499

*dada to pull, haul, drag

7728

PCMP     *dada to pull, haul, drag

CMP
Tetun dadapull, haul, drag
  dada iis(the last breath) to cause agony
Buruese dada-kto drag

30192

*dadaN old, of things; ancient times

7018

PAN     *dadaN old, of things; ancient times

Formosan
Atayal raralold times, the old days, formerly, a long time ago, of yore, ancient
Favorlang/Babuza rarasold, contracted
Thao sasazold, of things (as a house, clothes)
  min-sasazbecome old, of material objects
  shi-sasazfor a long time, from the remote past; always

7019

PMP     *dadan old, of things; ancient times

WMP
Ifugaw dadánold, not new, no longer new; applied to clothes, bags, blankets, anything that has been used for a long time
Ifugaw (Batad) dadánold; long-time, as an old jar, a long-time position of an agricultural leader
Kelabit dadanold, of things; long, of time
  dadan dadanfor a long time

Note:   The relationship of this form to PPh *daqan ‘old, ancient’ remains unclear, since a reduplicated form *da-daqan would not normally lose the *q in either Atayal or Kelabit.

27336

*dagepak loud slap

3858

PWMP     *dagepak loud slap

WMP
Cebuano dágpakslap hard enough to make a noise
Malay dəpaka smack

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

30181

*dahak phlegm; cough up phlegm

6981

PWMP     *dahak phlegm; cough up phlegm

WMP
Tagalog dáhakeffort to gather phlegm in the throat in order to expectorate
  d<um>áhakto clear the throat and spit; to hawk; to cough forcibly; to expectorate
Iban dakphlegm, mucus, sputum
Malay dahakcoughing up phlegm; mucus from the chest; cold that has settled on the chest
Javanese rakdry, of the throat; creaky, hoarse, of the voice

Note:   Also Kelabit bə-dhək ‘nasal mucus’, Javanese kerak ‘hoarse’.

25954

*dahemuR dew

2180

PWMP     *dahemuR dew     [doublet: *ñamuR]    [disjunct: *lamuR]

WMP
Tagalog hamóg (< earlier *lamog)dew
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dehemugdew, drops of water on plants and grass after a rain
Balinese damuhdew
Proto-South Sulawesi *damu(ɣ?)dew

30162

*dahun leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating

6923

PMP     *dahun leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating

WMP
Ibanag donleaf
Agta (Dupaningan) donleaf
Isneg adónleaf (of a plant)
Itawis donleaf
Yogad donleaf
Casiguran Dumagat dɔnleaf
Tagalog dáhonleaf of a plant or book; sheet of paper
Bikol dáhonleaf, foliage; page
  dáhon nin tubówhip snake (small, green and poisonous)
Hanunóo dáwunleaf; large leaves which have been cut and removed from banana plants or banana-like (Musae) plants; leaves which are still on the stalk are known as lábuŋ
Masbatenyo dáhonleaf, foliage
Aklanon dáhonleaf, leaves; to produce leaves
Waray-Waray dáhonleaf, foliage
Agutaynen daonleaf of a plant or tree
Hiligaynon dáhunleaf
Palawan Batak daʔonleaf
Cebuano dáhunleaf; grow leaves
Maranao raʔonleaf
Binukid dahunleaf, blade (of a tree or plant)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dahunleaf of a tree or plant
Tiruray daʔuna leaf; to produce leaves
Mapun dawun ~ dunleaf; hair (on one’s head); blade of grass
Yakan dawena leaf (of plants and trees)
Bonggi doudnleaf
Tboli doun(of trees, plants) leaf; to leaf out
Tausug dahuna leaf (of plants and trees)
Tombonuwo rounleaf
  roun nu posuwonkind of insect
Ida'an Begak daunleaf
Bisaya (Limbang) daunleaf
Kelabit daʔunleaf
Berawan (Long Terawan) dionleaf
Narum dəʔonleaf
Kenyah (Long San) laʔunleaf
Murik laʔunleaf (singular; cf. itun ‘leaves, foliage’)
Kayan daʔunleaf of a tree or any plant
Kayan (Uma Juman) daʔunleaf
Kiput dunleaf
Bintulu raʔunleaf
Melanau (Mukah) daʔunleaf
Seru daonleaf
Tunjung rounleaf
Dohoi daunleaf
Ngaju Dayak dawenleaf (of plants, tree, table, rudder)
  man-dawento leaf out, sprout leaves
Ma'anyan rawenleaf
Malagasy rávinaa leaf; fig., thin, slender
Iban daunleaf; page (of book); blade (of knife); sheet (of paper), card
  ular daunwhip snakes, Dryophis spp.
  pantak daunlesser green leafbird
  pantok daungreen broadbill
Maloh daunleaf; cooked rice
Moken daʔonleaf
Malay daunleaf; playing-card; leaf-like object; table top; blade of oar
  daun pintubody of door
  daun dayoŋblade of oar
  makan sa-daunto eat off the same plate
  ular kapak daungreen viper: Lachesis gramineus
  buroŋ daunMalayan black-throated blue flycatcher: Stoparola thalassinoides
  buroŋ sapu daunwagtail: Motacilla melanope
  ikan daunbatfish: Platax sp.
  ikan daun baruspotted moonfish: Drepane punctata
  belalaŋ daunleaf insect: Phyllium spp.
Talaud roŋŋaleaf
Sundanese daunleaf (of a tree, plant, or table)
  manuk daunkind of bird
Old Javanese ron ~ rwanleaf
Madurese dhaunleaf
Balinese donleaf
  dondonfoliage
  don-an ~ dahun-anleaves used as plates
  don-donn-anleaves of many kinds, gathered to be eaten as vegetables
Sasak daunleaf
  be-daunhave leaves
Sangir dauŋleaf of plants
  me-dauŋto get leaves
  dauŋ u waŋokind of small green fish
Mongondow daunleaf, leaves
  daun kayusubstitute name for the bonikulu bird
Gorontalo duuŋoleaf
Boano aʔunleaf
Tialo looŋleaf
Balantak roonleaf
Uma rauleaf
Tae' daunleaf
Mandar dauŋleaf
Buginese dauŋleaf
Makasarese rauŋleaf
Muna rooleaf
Chamorro hagonleaf, foliage, frond
  hagon fahafilefish: Oxymonacanthus longirostris
CMP
Alune loi-niits leaf; leaf of

6924

PCEMP     *daun leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects

CMP
Bimanese roʔoleaf
Manggarai sauŋleaf
  sauŋ giloa fish, the murrel: Ophiocephalus striatus
  sauŋ paraa door
Sika rouŋleaves of a tree; paper, page of a book; head hair
Lamboya roleaf
Anakalangu rauleaf
Kambera rauleaf; hair
Rotinese do-kleaf, leaf of a tree; classifier used in counting hairs, strings of beads
Atoni noʔoleaf
Erai ronleaf
Tugun ai ronleaf
Ujir rawinleaf
Dobel rakwunleaf
Paulohi lauleaf
Asilulu lauleaf; shutter, page; numerical connector for sheets of paper, etc.
  matanulu laudoor
SHWNG
Ansus we-rauŋleaf

6925

PEMP     *raun leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects

WMP
Itbayaten rahonwide leaf, big leaf, broad leaf
SHWNG
Moor ranuleaf
Wandamen rauleaf
Serui-Laut re-rauleaf
OC
Nali yow keyleaf of a tree
Titan laun keyleaf of a tree
Leipon low keyleaf of a tree
Likum leʔu kayleaf of a tree
Sori lauŋleaf
Lindrou laʔu keyleaf of a tree
Wuvulu xau-leaf
Bali (Uneapa) rauŋuleaf
Manam dauleaf
Gitua rauleaf; head hair
  rau bitaikind of green snake
Numbami lauleaf; page, sheet of paper
Keapara lauleaf
Motu rauleaf
Nehan rau-raua plant species; two types: a yellow leaf and green leaf variety, fam. Leguminoseae, coral bean species; coral trees (leaves can be eaten as a spinach substitute: Erythrina variegata, Erythrina indica
Nggela rauleaf; prefix to names of trees
  rau-rauleaves, leavage, foliage
Toqabaqita rauleaf, leaflet
Sa'a räuleaf; leaf used as a wrapper in cooking
Arosi rauleaf; prefix to names of trees; plank
Pohnpeian tehleaf, sheet, page
Chuukese chééleaf; sheet; width, breadth (of flat objects only)
Puluwat rééleaf
Araki dauleaf, palm leaf
Raga rauleaf
Rotuman rauleaf, (of grass) blade; tobacco; sheet or leaf of paper
Wayan rauleaf; ; hair of the head; page, leaf of paper
Fijian drauleaf; hair of the head
  drau ni kauleaf of a tree
  drau ni kurokind of fish
Tongan lau ~ louleaf; sheet, layer, of paper, board, etc.; blade; flat, of bat, saw, etc.; hair of the head
  lau-papaboard, plank
Niue lauleaf of a tree; page of a book
  lau-uluhair
  lau-lautable; plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread; to spread
  lau-papafloor; board, platform
Samoan lauleaf; blade of a knife; thatch; classifier for flat, thin objects
Kapingamarangi lauleaf; eave of a house; long hair on the temples (former masculine hair style)
  lau-iga-dagalargest kind of tuna
Rennellese gauleaf; bark, as of hibiscus or Gnetum latifolium; count with classifier
Anuta rauleaf; frond; head hair; sheet of paper
  te rau poethe flat surface of canoe paddle blade
Rarotongan rauleaf (in composition)
Maori rauleaf; blade of a weapon; plume, spray, feather
  rau-raufoliage; thatch
Hawaiian lauleaf; frond; to leaf out
  hoʔo-lauto grow leaves, to leaf out
  lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled
  lau-papaa broad flat, as of coral, lava, reef; board, lumber


Note:   Also Toba Batak daon ‘leaf, medicine’, Arosi rawa Also Toba Batak daon ‘leaf, medicine’, Arosi rawa ‘leaf’. The secondary meaning ‘head hair’ is widespread in the languages of eastern Indonesia and the Pacific, and looks very much like a Papuan contact feature. Since this apparent innovation is found as far east as Polynesia it probably was acquired by or before Proto-Oceanic times, and then transmitted like any other feature of the language as Austronesian speakers spread eastward beyond the reach of Papuan contact. The fact that it also appears in Sama-Bajaw languages, but nowhere else in western Indonesia or the Philippines, lends strength to the hypothesis that it is due to Papuan contact, since the Sama-Bajaw almost certainly were involved in the spice trade that linked the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia with various ports in western Indonesia and the southern Philippines, and so would have had many opportunities for contact with Papuan-speaking groups.

In addition, polymorphemic reflexes in Bikol, Iban, Malay, and Gitua suggest that *dahun figured in the name for the whip snake, a small, green poisonous species that presumably is well camouflaged in foliage, and hence extremely dangerous. Although a specific term cannot be reconstructed on the basis of known evidence, this may have been PMP *hulaR dahun. The names of various birds (Iban, Malay, Sundanese, Bolaang Mongondow) fish (Malay, Sangir, Chamorro, Manggarai, Fijian, Kapingamarangi), and insects (Tombonuwo, Malay) that incorporate a reflex of PMP *dahun may be products of convergence, or retentions of terms for which the surviving evidence is too fragmentary for reconstruction, and the common element in expression such as Malagasy daun pintu ‘body of door’, Manggarai sau? para, Asilulu matanulu lau ‘door’ probably is the result of historically secondary changes.

6926

PWMP     *ma-dahun leafy, dense, of foliage

WMP
Isneg m-adónto produce one leaf
Tagalog ma-dáhonleafy, having many leaves
Bikol ma-dáhonleafy
Waray-Waray ma-dáhonabundant, of leaves
Old Javanese ma-ron ~ ma-rwanwith leaves, sprouting leaves
Uma mo-rauto have leaves
Mandar ma-dauŋleafy, dense, of foliage

6927

PWMP     *maŋ-dahun to have or sprout leaves

WMP
Cebuano manáhunprosper, do well financially
Mapun nawunbegin to develop leaves
Malagasy man-drávinato bud, as leaves, to bear leaves
Tae' men-daunrich in leaves, having leaves
Mandar men-dauŋto have or sprout leaves

6928

PWMP     *maR-dahun to leaf out, sprout leaves

WMP
Isneg mag-dónto produce one leaf
Tagalog mag-dáhonto grow or sprout leaves
Bikol mag-dáhonto sprout leaves
Masbatenyo mag-dáhonto grow leaves
Tausug mag-dahunto develop leaves
Iban be-daunhave leaves; to flame, of fire
Malay ber-daunleafy, to have leaves


Note:   Possibly also Buginese mad-dauŋ ‘to flutter in the breeze, as a flag or pennant’.

6929

PMP     *dahun-dahun foliage, leaves

WMP
Aklanon dahón-dahóngrass snake
Cebuano dáhun-dáhunany insect that looks like a leaf
Old Javanese ron-ḍonleaves
Balinese don-donfoliage

6930

POC     *raun-raun foliage, leaves

OC
Nggela rau-rauleaves, foliage
Wayan rau-rauleaves
Fijian drau-drauthe leaves on which food is served up; the cover or wrapper of anything
  drau-drau tabonohidden by leaves, as fruit on a tree
Niue lau-lautable, plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread
Maori rau-raufoliage; thatch; a divination rite in which leaves were used
Hawaiian lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled


Note:   The agreement between Malay makan sa-daun ‘eat from the same plate’ and Fijian drau-drau ‘the leaves on which food is served up’ are a reminder that in the Austronesian world traditional ‘tables’ (at least for feasts) probably were banana leaves laid out on the ground on which the food was placed.

6931

PMP     *dahun nu taliŋa the auricle or shell of the ear

WMP
Isneg adón talíŋathe auricle or pinna of the ear
Yakan dawen teyiŋethe external ear
Malay daun teliŋaouter edge of earlobe
Tae' daun taliŋa ~ don taliŋashell of the ear

6932

POC     *raun ni taliŋa the auricle or shell of the ear

OC
Anuta rau tariŋaearlobe


Note:   Also Balinese don kupiŋ ‘the tip of the ear’, Manggarai sauŋ tilu ‘shell of the ear’.

25955

*dajam accustomed to, tame

2181

PAN     *dajam accustomed to, tame

Formosan
Pazeh daxamaccustomed to

2182

PAN     *ma-dajam accustomed to, tame     [doublet: *ma-najam]

Formosan
Favorlang/Babuza ma-darramaccustomed to
OC
Tolai ma-rămdocile, tame, domesticated

Note:   Also Fijian lasa ‘easy, contented, tame, accustomed’.

25956

*dajem chills, as of malaria

2183

PAN     *dajem chills, as of malaria

Formosan
Saaroa ma-saremecold
WMP
Kelabit dademcold, fever
Ngaju Dayak daremfever
Iban dadampuerperal fever
Palauan kər-rásəmcold, chills

2184

PAN     *ma-dajem chills, as of malaria

WMP
Bintulu mə-rarəmshiver
Maloh ma-rasemcold (Hudson 1967)
  ba-rasamcold (King 1976)

Note:   Also Paiwan djadjełem ‘shivering (with cold or malaria)’, ragem ‘chills and fever’, Ilokano daggáŋ ‘fever’, Miri dasem ‘cold’, Nggela malaho ‘cold, chill; be ill with malaria’, Mota malaso ‘cold’.

30182

*dakdak slam down with force

6982

PWMP     *dakdak slam down with force

WMP
Cebuano dakdákfall down with a bang; throw something down with force that is heavy, fall down with a bang on the rump; knock someone on the head; heap blame, abuse on someone
  dakdák ulánfor a rainstorm to break
Binukid dakdakto slam, throw something down with heavy force
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakdakto slam something down on something
Mapun dakdakstrike something or someone repeatedly (as laundry with a wooden paddle)
Kelabit dedʰakway of slapping or tamping something to make it more compact
  nedʰakwhen constructing a levee in the paddy field, to slap the wet clay with a large paddle or club to make it more compact; prior to wrapping cooking rice in leaf packages, to pat, squeeze and press the rice into a compact massusing a small wooden padded called bugo
Toba Batak man-dakdakreduce, knock off; to hammer, pound, chip off
  man-dakdak batuto hew stone
  ma-dakdakto fall, of fruits
Muna dhadhathe sound of something falling in great numbers (as mangoes falling in quantity all at once from a tree)

30198

*dakél big, large (in size or quantity)

7025

PPh     *dakél big, large (in size or quantity)

WMP
Yami rákovery big, large
  rak-rakoolder (as an elder brother)
Itbayaten rakoxlarge, big, huge, vast
  ka-rako-rakoxsize, magnitude
  pa-rakox-anto enlarge
Agta (Dupaningan) dakálbig, large
  dad-dákalparents
Itawis dakálbig
  mad-dakálto grow
Bontok dakə́lbig, large, bulky
  cakə́l si búlanfull moon
Ifugaw dakólmuch, many
Pangasinan dakélmuch, many; often
  dake-rakélabundant
Kapampangan dakálmany, much
Bikol dakólmany, much, plenty, a lot; abundant, bountiful
  mag-dakólto abound, accumulate, increase in number
Palawan Batak dakə́lmany
Maranao dakelmany, plenty
Binukid mig-dakelto increase in number, make plentiful
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakelbig
Proto-Sangiric *dakelbig; many

7026

PPh     *ma-dakél many

WMP
Pangasinan ma-rakélmany
Binukid ma-dakelmany, much, lots of, plenty
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zakelmany

7027

PPh     *ka-dakel-án majority, largest part

WMP
Yami ka-rako-anthe rest; majority
Itbayaten ka-rakox-anbody (person, car, etc.)
Bikol ka-dakl-ána majority, a large part
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-zekel-anmajority

Note:   Also Ilokano dakkél ‘big, large; great’, d<um>akkél ‘to grow, grow up, become large’, Isneg dakkál ‘great, large, big’, manakkál ‘to increase, said of water’, Casiguran Dumagat dikkél ‘big, large; much’, Kankanaey dak-daké ‘great, large, big; high, lofty, tall; wide, capacious, immense’, Bikol dakúlaʔ ‘big, large, great, gross’, Hanunóo daká ‘large, big, great; broad, wide, expansive; tall’, d<um>aká ‘grow, increase in size, expand, grow up’, Palawan Batak dakúlaʔ ‘big, large’, Waray-Waray , Cebuano dakúʔ ‘big, great’, Mansaka dakoraʔ ‘large, big’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dekelaʔ ‘big’, Tiruray dakel ‘big’, ke-dakel-on ‘a large supply of something’, Maranao dakolaʔ ‘large, big, main, great’, Tausug dakulaʔ ‘great, large, big, huge (referring to objects, people, projects, etc., but not emotions or feelings)’.

This is one of the most distinctive innovations defining the Philippine subgroup, as it is an item of basic vocabulary that appears to have replaced *Raya ‘big, large, great’. Despite its general regularity there are a surprising number of irregular reflexes of this form, including unexplained gemination of *k in several northern Philippine languages, loss of *-l in Kankanaey and replacement of *l by glottal stop in Cebuano Reflexes of *dakelaq are confined to members of the Greater Central Philippine group and appear to be derivatives of *dakel, although the actual morphological relationship is obscure in most languages. Chamorro dankolo ‘big, large, great, huge’ shows a general similarity to this word, but multiple irregularities show that if it is not a chance resemblance it must be borrowed from a Philippine source.

30222

*dakep catch, seize; embrace

7077

PAN     *dakep catch, seize; embrace

Formosan
Thao sakup ~ sapukto catch, as a runaway pig
  mapa-sakupplay tag, play a game of catching one another
WMP
Itbayaten rakepwrestling
  mi-rakepto wrestle (of two persons)
Ilokano daképcopulation between animals
  ag-daképto embrace; catch; copulate (animals)
  pa-dakep-anto copulate; breed
Isneg mag-dakápto handle a scoop net
Bontok dakə́pto copulate, of animals in general
Kankanaey men-daképcopulate
Casiguran Dumagat dikəpto catch, grab, snatch
Kapampangan mag-dakápto catch, apprehend
Tagalog dakípcatching, holding onto
  ma-dakípable to catch or arrest
Bikol mag-dakópto apprehend, catch, capture; to collar, arrest, take into custody
Hanunóo dakúpseizure, arrest, capture
Aklanon dakópto capture, catch (as dog, person, fish)
Waray-Waray dakópthe act of catching or capturing
Hiligaynon mag-dakúpto catch, to trap, to snare, to capture; to arrest
Cebuano dakúpto catch; apprehend, arrest; catch fire
  d<in>akp-ana suspect (one apprehended on suspicion of guilt)
  dakup-dákupgame of tag; play tag
Maranao dakepcatch, capture, arrest
Binukid dakepto catch, seize, capture, arrest (someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakepto seize, arrest
Mansaka dákupto catch, seize (as a dog or chicken)
  dakúpto wrestle
Ida'an Begak rakopcatch
Kenyah dakepcaught, used in story-telling
Malay dakapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing
Karo Batak sin-dakepa measurement, as much as a man can enclose with both arms encircling
  n-dakep-iembrace someone, hold in the arms
Toba Batak man-dahopto embrace
  san-dahopas much as a man can enclose with encircling arms
Sundanese si-dakepcross the hands over one another
  di-si-dakep-keuncrossed over one another, of hands or arms
Balinese nakepgrab something with the flat hand (e.g. a fly); seize, arrest
  dakep-abe arrested
  dakep-dakeptry several times to catch a fly
Sasak be-se-dakepwith arms crossed over the chest
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rakoQto catch (as fish)
Makasarese rakaʔunit of measure: as much as a man can encircle with both arms (as a tree)
  an-rakaʔto embrace
Wolio rakocatch, arrest, take prisoner
  rako-aprisoner of war
Muna rakoto catch, capture
  rakof-icatch many times (as fish)

7078

POC     *rakop embrace

OC
Fijian rakov-ato embrace

7079

PAN     *d<um>akep to catch, capture; embrace

Formosan
Thao s-m-akupcatch, seize, grasp in the hands or arms
WMP
Tagalog d<um>akípto catch, capture, arrest

7080

PAN     *dakep-en be caught, captured

Formosan
Thao sakp-inbe caught (as fish, animals, people)
WMP
Itbayaten rakp-ento wrestle with
Ilokano dakp-ento catch, seize, capture
Bontok dakp-ənto copulate, of animals in general
Kapampangan dakp-anbe caught, be apprehended
Tagalog dakp-ínto catch, capture, arrest

Note:   Also Manggarai daké ‘embrace’. This verb is well-supported by reflexes in the Philippines and western Indonesia which are clearly cognate with Thao sakup, but reflexes in CEMP languages are virtually unknown (Capell 1968 lists Fijian rako-va ‘embrace’ only in the English index, and this may be a chance resemblance).

The fundamental meaning of PAn *dakep appears to have been ‘to seize, catch something that is trying to escape’. With smaller animals this would involve use of the hands, but with larger animals (as pigs) or people it would involve both arms, thus leading to the extended meaning ‘to embrace’ in several languages (where the object is not trying to escape). However, semantic agreements between Thao and Cebuano forms of this base suggest that an affixed (perhaps reduplicated) may also have referred to the childrens’ game of ‘tag’, and agreements between the Batak languages of northern Sumatra and Makasarese of southern Sulawesi indicate that at a later period it may have functioned further as a term of measurement for the girth of trees or other objects that are measured by an ‘embrace’.

25983

*da(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to

2213

PMP     *da(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to

WMP
Tiruray daŋketadhere to something
Sundanese daŋkɨtnear, very near
CMP
Manggarai daketsticky, viscous
OC
Nggela raŋgostick, adhere

Note:   Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak darket ‘be parasitic on’. With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.

29932

*daki dirt on skin; dandruff

6611

PAN     *daki₁ dirt on skin; dandruff

Formosan
Basai tsakidirt
Kavalan zaqidirt on skin
  sa-zaqihave dirt on one’s skin
Pazeh dakidirt, garbage, waste; dandruff
  daki-anget dirty
Tsou caʔidirty

6920

PMP     *daki₂ dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth

WMP
Isneg dakítartar of the teeth
Kankanaey dákisoiled, dirty (applied to cups, etc.)
Aklanon dakídandruff
  daki-hónhaving dandruff
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakito soil something
Mansaka dakidirt in hair
Iban dakiʔdirt or stain on the skin
Malay dakidirty secretion on the body; dirt on the person
Simalur dai ~ daxidirt on the skin
  dai-m balaŋsoot on the bottom of a cooking pot
Karo Batak ndakidirt on the teeth, tartar
  ndakin-ndirty, of the teeth
Toba Batak dahidirt
  dahi mateold, scrub-resistant dirt
Nias daʔidirt (especially on body and clothing)
  mo-daʔidirty
Sundanese dakidirt on the skin, dirty crust on the skin
Balinese dakidust, dregs, dirt, mud; dirty, muddy
  daki-n limaexhaustion
Sasak dakidirty
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rakifine dirt
CMP
Manggarai sakidirty (of the body)
Ngadha zakidirt, filth; dirty, soiled
Li'o rakidirty (of the body)
Mambai raidirty
Selaru raidirty
Kamarian lai-adirty, filthy
Paulohi laibody dirt
Alune laidirt

Note:   Also Isneg daí, daxí ‘tartar of the teeth’, Maranao dakiʔ ‘dirt, filth, residue left in pipe, dandruff’. This term evidently referred to dirt on the skin, including dandruff, and perhaps at a later point in time it also referred to tartar on the teeth, as attested by semantic agreements between Isneg of northern Luzon and Karo Batak of northern Sumatra.

29933

*dakiS climb, ascend

6612

PAN     *dakiS climb, ascend

Formosan
Kavalan zaqisto climb (tree, ladder), to ascend
Saisiyat manaki ʃascend
Pazeh mu-dakisto ascend, to climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.)
WMP
Ngaju Dayak dakiwhat is climbed (mountain, other things)
  man-dakito climb
Malay dakiuphill work, climbing (of the sun rising towards its zenith; also of people scaling a hill together)
  men-dakiclimb (mountain, hill); ascend (sun)

6613

PAN     *d<um>akiS climb, ascend

Formosan
Trobiawan ɮ<um>akisto climb
Kavalan m-zaqis ~ z<m>aqisto climb, ascend
  (sa)-zaqis-anladder
Pazeh mu-dakisascend, climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.)

Note:   Also Tajio pan-daʔe ‘climb (a mountain)’, Bare'e mo-dake ‘climb up, ascend’. This comparison is very thinly distributed, being attested so far only in Formosan languages, Malay and Ngaju Dayak (where it may be a Malay loanword), and in some of the languages of central and northwest Sulawesi, where it shows an irregular lowering of the final vowel.

25957

*dakit join along the length; raft

2185

PMP     *dakit join along the length; raft

WMP
Binukid dakitadjacent, next to (land); for a plot of land to adjoin, be located next to, or be adjacent to another plot of land
Kadazan Dusun dakitto dock, berth, come alongside
Balinese dakitput very close
Mongondow dakitraft
CMP
Sika dakit-wiiŋcleave, stick together (earth, flour, resin)
OC
Motu rai-aprepare a canoe for the sea; tie the outrigger on; tie two canoes to make an irai (double-hulled canoe)

Note:   Also Ivatan daakit (length unexpl.) ‘raft’, Maloh daʔit, dahit ‘raft’. With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.

30183

*dákit ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.)

6983

PPh     *dákit ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.)

WMP
Itawis mad-dákitto cross (river, street, etc.)
  ma-dákitto be able to cross (river, street, etc.)
Ifugaw dákitto cross a river
  dakít-anplace where a large river can be crossed
Bikol mag-dákitto ford or cross a stream
  dakít-anto move to a different house

25958

*dakuC snatch, grab

2186

PAN     *dakuC snatch, grab

Formosan
Paiwan djakutsgrab, take in hand (noncylindrical objects)
WMP
Tagalog dakóta handful, a graspful
Chamorro hakotsnatch, grab
CMP
Tetun rakutpull, grab, snatch away

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *Dakut ‘handful, scoop up’. Normally *d, *D, and *k became h in Chamorro.The retention of *k as a stop in this form is unexplained.

30184

*dalág mudfish, murrel

6984

PPh     *dalág mudfish, murrel

WMP
Ilokano dalágkind of freshwater mudfish, called borikikkik when very small, or borikaw when small, Ophiocephalus striatus
  dal-daláglizard fish of the Synodontidae family
Isneg dalágkind of freshwater mudfish
Bontok dalágkind of freshwater fish
Pangasinan dalágmudfish
Tagalog dalágmudfish
  dalág dágatsergeant fish
Hanunóo dalága species of mudfish (Opiocephalus striatus Bloch)
Cebuano dalágsnakehead, edible freshwater fish: Ophiocephalus spp. (also called haluan)
  dalág tásikfish similar to the snakehead but found in the sea

Note:   Also Itbayaten dalag ‘mudfish’, Hanunóo darág ‘mudfish sp. (Opiocephalus striatus Bloch)’, Mapun dalag ‘mudfish’. The Itbayaten and Mapun words almost certainly are loans from Tagalog or some other Central Philippine language.

30185

*dalágan rushing of water; rapids, cascade

6985

PPh     *dalágan rushing of water; rapids, cascade

WMP
Ilokano daláganrapids, cascade
Bikol daláganto run, dash, scamper, scurry; gallop, jog, lope, trot
  pa-dalagán-onto propel forward; to run a business; to manage, operate, supervise
Hiligaynon daláganrun, dash, dart, scamper
Cebuano daláganfor a person to run; for a machine to run, function; speed, velocity; circulation

25959

*dalak thunder

2187

PWMP     *dalak thunder     [disjunct: *delek]

WMP
Subanun (Sindangan) dɨ-dalakthunder
Maloh dalakthunder

30199

*dálaw pay a visit, drop by to see someone

7028

PPh     *dálaw pay a visit, drop by to see someone

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat dálawto visit
Pangasinan dálawto pay a visit
Kapampangan dálovisitor, especially an unexpected visitor
  d<um>áloto pay a visit
Tagalog dálawvisitor, guest; a visit
  pag-dálawa visit, a call
  dalaw-into visit someone
  d<um>álawto visit, to call; drop in, pay a visit
Bikol mag-dálawto visit

Note:   Given its fairly tight geographical clustering this comparison may be a product of borrowing from Tagalog

30123

*dalayap kind of citrus tree and fruit

6856

PAN     *dalayap kind of citrus tree and fruit

Formosan
Paiwan djalayapCitrus depressa (tree and fruit)
WMP
Ilokano daláyapshrub with lemonlike fruits, Citrus lima, used in native medicine to cure fever
Isneg daláyapa variety of lemon, Citrus lima
Ifugaw daláyaplemon
Pangasinan dalayáplime (fruit or tree)
Tagalog dáyaplime tree, also known as bilulo, the fruit of which makes pleasant ale: Citrus aurantifolia

Note:   Also Hanunóo dáyap ‘a lemon tree (probably Citrus aurantifolia) and its edible fruit; the leaves are boiled and the resultant decoction is drunk for sore throat’. While Tagalog dáyap is a possible reflex of *dalayap, Hanunóo dáyap is not, and it remains unclear whether this is a loanword from Tagalog, or whether disyllabic reflexes of this form point point to a PPh doublet *dáyap.

30425

*dalej housefly

7563

PWMP     *dalej housefly     [doublet: *lalej]

WMP
Berawan (Long Terawan) dilənhousefly
Simalur daloghousefly

30230

*dalem in, inside; deep

7088

PAN     *dalem in, inside; deep

Formosan
Favorlang/Babuza lalluminside

7108

PMP     *dalem insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings

WMP
Yami rahemdeep
  ma-rahemvery deep
  ka-rahem-andeep place
Ilokano dálemliver
Itawis a-dálamdeep
Bontok dáləminside, of a container; underneath, when something is resting on top, as a knife beneath a basket
Kankanaey a-dáemdeep, profound
Ifugaw dalómunder, beneath; deep, low
  a-dálomdeep (depth of a river, pond, or lake)
  ad-dalómbeneath, at the bottom (of a container); at the underworld
  mun-dalómthe unwoven ‘lowest’ part of the warp (in loom weaving)
Ifugaw (Batad) dālomthe lower belly of an animal, person; the lower flank cut, of a butchered animal
Ibaloy nay-daemthe area inside, esp. inside a house
Pangasinan daléminside (a pile, etc.); depth
  a-ralémdeep; become deep
  kaa-ralémdepth
Tagalog lálimdepth; drop; a distance down
  ka-lálim-anprofundity, depth
  l<um>álimto deepen, become deeper
Bikol ha-ráromdeep, profound
  mag-ráromto grow deeper
Masbatenyo ha-dalómas a cough that is deep inside; deaf
  ka-ha-dalómdepth
  hi-dalómdeep (this has both a literal and a figurative meaning); deep part
Abaknon lalomdeep
Aklanon dáeomto get deep(er)
  ka-dáeomdepth
Hiligaynon mag-dálumto deepen, become deep
Cebuano dálumbeneath, below (a house, etc.)
Binukid dalemto deepen, as of water
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalemto deepen, as of water
Mansaka darumspace below and around a house; yard; down; below
Tiruray dalemthe insides, the middle; any plant seed that develops inside some covering of plant tissue; (taboo) the clitoris
Mapun lawomdepth (as of the tide); deep (of thinking, common sense, wisdom, speech, understanding, etc.); late into the night; serious, of a sickness
Yakan lalemdeep (of a hold or body of water, also figuratively of thinking, speaking or wisdom)
Tombonuwo o-lalomdeep
Ida'an Begak dallomdeep
Bisaya (Limbang) lalomdeep
  si-alomin, inside
Bisaya (Bukit) sa laləmin, inside
Lun Dayeh dalemdepth; within
  ŋe-dalemto deepen (as knowledge)
Kelabit dalemdeep
  ŋe-dalemto deepen
Sa'ban beləmdeep
Kenyah (Long Anap) daləmdeep
  kaʔ daləmin, inside
Kayan dalemdeep; thoughtful, peaceful; understanding; intelligent, wise, sensible
Bintulu daləmdeep
Melanau (Mukah) daləmdepth, as of water
Ngaju Dayak han-dalemdeep (water, river); hole in wood, wound; jealous
  kan-dalemthe depths, profundity
  man-dalemto deepen, make deeper, as by letting water into a flooded area
Malagasy lálinadeep, profound
  man-dalinato deepen, make deep, aggravate guilt
  lalin-tsainadeep, profound, sagacious, shrewd, sensible (saina = ‘the mind’)
Iban dalamdeep (as water); sensible, judicious, thoughtful; in, into, inside, referring to house, heart (usually alam); however (much)
  ŋe-nalamto deepen, make deeper
  pe-nalamdepth
Malay dalampalace, prince’s home; inside, inner, used as a locative (di dalam ‘in’, dari dalam ‘from within’); inner, as the inner part or central room of a house; depth; deep, profound
Toba Batak di dalom lautpregnant (an allusion, lit. ‘in the sea’)
  dalom-an(of cattle) have a stillbirth
Sundanese dalemtitle and dwelling of a regent
  di dalemin; within a certain time period
  pa-dalem-andwelling of a prince, palace
Old Javanese daleminner part, interior; inner part of the kraton (palace)
  a-dalemdeep
Javanese daleminside of, within; the inner rooms of a house; house, home; walled-in residence compound of an aristocratic family
  (a)dalem kame; my (also a response when called)
  pa-dalem-ana building lot
Balinese dalemdeep, as the sea; the deep (sea); respect, regard; king
  dalem-aŋbe made deep
Sasak dalemdepth, innermost part; deep, within
  be-dalemgo inside
  pe-dalemto deepen, make something deeper
Mongondow ko-daḷomdepths
  poko-daḷom-onmake it deep!
  si-daḷomliver
Totoli dei lalominside
Uma ralainside, inside part
  hi ralain, inside, within
Bare'e rayainternal part, interior
  ri rayain, within
  raya banuathe interior of a house
  tasi rayainner sea, small, partly enclosed gulf or bay
  raya ntaua person’s inner self; mind, heart, thinking, opinion, emotions
  kodi rayaoffended, aggrieved
  majaʔa rayaangry
  masusa rayabeset with thoughts, worried, concerened
  mawoŋko rayahappy
Tae' man-dalandeep
Mandar lalaŋinside; at
Makasarese lalaŋin, inside, inmost
Muna laloheart; seat of emotions (many idioms relating to feelings are formed with this word); wish, desire
  so lalo(according to) one’s inner conviction
  lalo mpoolihealthy
  po-lalowin someone’s heart, try to become favorite
  si-laloof one heart, in harmony, united
Chamorro halomin, into, inside; enter
  san-halominside, interior; internal; in, into
CMP
Hawu ɗarain, within (both spatial and temporal)
Rotinese dale(k)inside, within; insides of something (particularly a person); heart, the inner person
Atoni t-nananinside; between
Erai ralanin, within, inside; heart; contents, usually postposed
Tugun oi-ralaninside
Leti rarmathe interior, what is inside; fig. heart, feelings; in, inside
  ai rarmeheartwood
  raram-riarmawill, desire
Wetan ralmainside (a house, etc.) interior; heart, feelings
  ralam-(with various qualifying words) to like, love, be in love, long for, pity; worry, be worried, depressed; angry, embittered; sick
Selaru ralainside; inner feelings; heart
Yamdena dalaminside; contents; in
  dalam loloisad, sorrowful
  dalam mabuwehumble, lowly
  dalam mefanashot-tempered
  dalam ŋamoneopen-handed, generous
  dalam yatakmiserly, stingy
Alune laleheart, inner part; contents

7089

POC     *ralom insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings

OC
Numbami laloinside; mind, intelligence, understanding
Motu lalothe inside; the mind
  lalo-ato think; to remember
  lalo-anipersuasion (lit. ‘eating of the mind’)
Nggela lalodeep, as the sea; profound, as a remark
Lau lalocenter, middle, as of a garden; inner room, yard, enclosed space; between two things, not one or the other (as between black and white)
  lalo-ito pity
  lalo-nacentral, inner
Sa'a laloinside, within; middle
Arosi rarothe inside, inner part; the feelings, heart, mind, disposition; in, within
Proto-Micronesian *laloinside
Gilbertese nanothe interior, the inside; contents; soul, conscience, heart, will, desire, sentiment, opinion, conviction, disposition, inclination, etc. (many derivatives relating to character, feelings, etc.)
  nano-nanodeep, abstract, sublime, unfathomable, hard to understand
  nano-ato think about, keep in mind, be preoccupied with, be busy about
  nano-aŋacompassion, pity, sympathy; to sympathize
  nano-raupeace, tranquillity of soul, peace of mind
Pohnpeian loaldeep
  loal-einside (him, her, it)
  loal-mwahugood-hearted
  loal-eidmiss a person or place, be homesick
  loal-ekeŋintelligent, smart
  loal-lapdaring, reckless, bold, adventurous
Chuukese nónu-deep; under or below the surface; interior (in compounds only)
Woleaian laldeep; deep place; inside, mind, heart
  lalo i laŋiworried, frightened, insecure
Tongan laloplace or space below or lower down; lower
  lalo-ʔakau-abe subject to, habitually give way to, defer to or be under the influence or control of (lit. ‘under the tree’?)
Niue lalobelow, under; the bottom; the west
  lalo laŋithe earth, world (lit. ‘beneath the sky’)
  lalo taŋatathe common people
Futunan lalothe bottom, area beneath
Samoan lalodown; under, below, beneath
  faʔa-laloto cook, roast (in a stone oven)
  lalo laŋiearth, world; region, area; human race, mankind
Tuvaluan lalounder; below; the bottom
  ki lalodownwards, to the bottom
  mau-lalodeep (of water or holes); high (of cliffs, trees, etc., when speaker is at the top); low
  faka-mau-lalohumble; humility
  lalo laŋithe earth
Nukuoro lalodown; under
  lalo de laŋibeyond the horizon, far away from the atoll
Rennellese gagobelow, under, underneath, alongside; bottom; west, western; to go down or westward; below in rank
Anuta rarodown (direction); below (place); west
Rarotongan rarobeneath, under, below; down; the under or lower part or portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward
Maori rarothe bottom, the under side; down, downwards, down below; beneath, under, the underworld; the north, north wind
Hawaiian lalodown, downward, low, lower, under, beneath; depths, lowness; leeward, southern
  ko laloof or belonging to below; the people from below

7090

PMP     *i dalem below, beneath; inside

WMP
Ibaloy i-daemto put something inside, into the interior (as inside a house or car)
Tagalog i-lálimbottom; space just below a surface (not necessarily the bottom space)
  ka-i-lálim-anthe very bottom; uttermost depth; the lowest point
  maŋ-i-lálimto be present underneath; to be underlying; to be deep-seated
Bikol i-ráromunderneath, under, below, beneath; on the bottom, underlying
  mag-i-ráromto place beneath
Masbatenyo i-dalóminterior; beneath (the skin, etc.); deep inside
Aklanon i-dáeombelow, bottom, underneath
Makasarese i-lalaŋin, inside; at, upon, by
  tu-ma-i-lalaŋtitle of the highest official in the pre-Islamic Kingdom of Goa

7091

POC     *i rarom below, beneath; inside

OC
Lau i lalowithin
Sa'a i laloin the middle of
Chuukese i-nónunderwater
Hawaiian i lalobelow, underneath

7092

PAN     *ma-dalem deep

Formosan
Favorlang/Babuza mo-lallumin; deep
WMP
Tagalog ma-lálimdeep, as a river; deep, meaning hard to understand; profound
Bikol ha-ráromdeep, profound
  mag-ráromto grow deeper
Aklanon ma-dáeomdeep
Hiligaynon ma-dálumdeep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zalemdeep
Lun Dayeh me-dalemdeep
Mongondow mo-dalomdeep
Totoli ma-lalomdeep

7093

POC     *ma-ralom deep

OC
Hawaiian ma-lalobelow, underneath

7094

PWMP     *pa-dalem make something deep, deepen

WMP
Bikol pa-rarom-onto deepen
Mapun pa-lawommake something deep

7095

PWMP     *dalem-en put something into a container

WMP
Bontok dalm-ənto put underneath, as a basket; to bury, of weeds
Mapun lawom-unput something into one’s mouth

7096

PMP     *dalem qatay hold within (of emotions, thoughts)?

WMP
Malay dalam hatito oneself, secretly or silently (lit. ‘in one’s heart/liver’)

7097

POC     *ralom qate (gloss uncertain)

OC
Nukuoro lalo adesolar plexus (considered the seat of feeling); ade = ‘liver’

Note:   Also Taokas yarum ‘inside’, Pazeh karum ‘inside of the house’, Tausug karajum ‘deep (of the ocean)’, Kayan alem ‘deep’, Kayan (Uma Juman) haləm, Murik tələm, Miri aləm ‘in, inside’, Mota roro ‘sink down, be low, be deep’. Tagalog dalamhátiʔ ‘affliction; grief; extreme sorrow; wrench, pain’, ipag-dalamhátiʔ ‘to mourn; to feel or show sorrow over’ is a transparent borrowing of an idiomatic expression from Malagasy attesting to the considerable influence that Malay was beginning to have in the region of Manila Bay in the period immediately preceding the arrival of the Spanish.

This is an extremely rich comparison in terms of the many directions that the primary sense has taken in various daughter languages. The basic meaning of PMP *dalem appears to have been ‘insides, area within, inner part of something’. From this sense it originally had or developed a secondary sense of ‘inner self, feelings, disposition’, an association that is strikingly exhibited by Ilokano dálem or Mongondow si-daḷom ‘liver’ (the seat of the emotions in traditional Austronesian-speaking societies), and that becomes increasingly more prominent in the glosses of compounds in southern Sulawesi, eastern Indonesia, Melanesia and Micronesia (but not in Polynesia).

A second meaning of this term that is found throughout the language family is ‘deep’, both in a physical sense (deep water, deep pit), and in the abstract sense of ‘profound, as an idea’. Through the latter nuance it has developed into the verb ‘to think, to remember’ in languages such as Motu. Finally, preceded by the generic locative marker *i the expression *i dalem meant ‘in, inside, within’. For a possible explanation of the connection between the notions ‘inside’ and ‘below’ cf. Blust (1997).

25960

*dalig buttress root

2188

PPh     *dalig buttress root     [doublet: *dalij, *daliŋ]

WMP
Kapampangan dalígwall, partition
Maranao daliglarge root, buttress
Manobo (Tigwa) daligroot
Sangir daligəbuttress root and the groove between buttress roots that project above ground

Note:   Simalur dalig ‘buttress root’ could also be assigned to *dalig, thus raising the level of this reconstruction from PPh to PWMP. However, since Simalur –g can reflect either *g or *j this form has been assigned to the more robustly attested variant.

25961

*dalij buttress root

2189

PMP     *dalij buttress root     [doublet: *dalig, *daliŋ]

WMP
Hanunóo dalídtree buttress
Cebuano dalídlarge root which is flat and projects above the ground
Binukid dalidlarge root which projects above the ground
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalidroot of a tree or plant; figuratively, the supporter of a datu’ or a person’s source of livelihood, such as his field, his garden, his pigs, etc.
Mansaka daridmain root
Tiruray darira root or rootlet; to produce roots
Yakan dalilbuttress root
Tboli dolilroot of a tree, problem; to take root, of plants
Blaan (Koronadal) dalilroot
Kadazan Dusun dahidbuttress root
Bukat la:litroot
Simalur daligbuttress root
Nias lalibuttress root
Taje (Tanampedagi) dalil-ñaroot
Dampelas rariroot
Uma raliʔroot
Bare'e lari <Mplank-shaped roots of large trees
Palauan ráysroot
  ris-elit’s root
Chamorro haleʔroot (of a plant); source, origin
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai rarinroot

7420

POC     *ralic buttress root

OC
Nggela lalibuttress root
Kwaio lalibig tree root
  lali-naroot; base, origin
Lau laliroot, small roots
Toqabaqita laliroot
Arosi rariroot; shin
Bauro raributtress root
Rotuman rɔriprojecting portion of tree trunk, as of the ‘ifi (Tahitian Chestnut) tree

Note:   Also Tolai lalit ‘the space between the buttresses of a tree’. This form is intriguing, as it suggests that some instances of PMP *d in word-final position devoiced in POc before the change *d > r in all positions.

25962

*dalikan trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed

2190

PMP     *dalikan trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed

WMP
Itbayaten dalikanpart of clay stove
Ilokano dalikánhearth. Any kind, but more especially a portable earthen contrivance, more or less in the shape of a cradle, with a flat bottom and three hornlike projections ... at one end, upon which are placed the jars used in cooking
Bontok dalikána fire-place having three equidistant stones for supporting a pot
Kankanaey dalikánhearth. Pots and jars are placed on three stones; there is no chimney
Ifugaw dalikántrivet for cooking pot
Pangasinan dalikanstove (trivet)
Karo Batak dalikanthe (five) stones in the hearth which form the two trivets
Toba Batak dalihanthe three hearth-stones on which the pot is placed when cooking
Proto-Sangiric *dalikanfire-place, hearth
Wolio dalikahearth-stone, trivet
Chamorro halihanstone -- used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace
  halihanstone used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace
CMP
Tetun lalianfireplace
  fatuk lalianthe stones of the fireplace

Note:   Also Ifugaw dalik ‘trivet for cooking pot’, Chamorro alihan, haliʔan, NESAS (Teeuw 1958:127, 170) jalik, Bimanese riha, Manggarai likan ‘trivet’. Verheijen (1967-70), Verheijen (1977a:36) points out the essential evidence on which this reconstruction rests, though he does not reconstruct a protoform himself. His suggestion that the word originally contained a suffix *-an may have been inspired by Costenoble (1940:61), who proposed a reconstruction *dalik, but without the benefit of supporting data. Mills (1981:69), on the other hand, suggests an etymon "Proto-Indonesian" *likAn ‘hearth’. Until further evidence of morphological complexity is forthcoming, it appears best to reconstruct a trisyllable.

29929

*daliŋ buttress root

6608

PWMP     *daliŋ buttress root     [doublet: *dalig, *dalij]

WMP
Tausug daliŋflange; buttress of a tree; comb (of a cock)
Karo Batak daliŋbuttress root
Dairi-Pakpak Batak daliŋbuttress root
Toba Batak daliŋbuttress root
Taje (Tanampedagi) daliŋ-ñaroot

Note:   Since Karo Batak daliŋ could reflect either *dalij or *daliŋ, and the former variant is far more robustly attested, the first choice would be to assign the Karo Batak form to *dalij. However, this leads to the rather improbable conclusion that Toba Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak daliŋ are loanwords from Karo Batak. Since Tausug and Taje (Tanampedagi) daliŋ require the reconstruction of a doublet with final velar nasal in any case the simplest hypothesis appears to be that all of the Batak forms reflect this third variant.

25963

*dalis smooth, slippery

2192

PAN     *ma-dalis smooth, slippery     [doublet: *dulas 'slip, slide']    [disjunct: *dalit₂]

Formosan
Saaroa ma-salisismooth
OC
Manam ma-lazi <Mslippery
Bugotu ma-dalislippery
Nggela ma-ndalislippery
Sa'a ma-daligreasy, slippery
Arosi ma-dariwet and slippery, as rocks

Note:   Also Palu'e sali ‘smooth’.

25964

*dalit₁ glue, paste, plaster, caulk

2193

PMP     *dalit₁ glue, paste, plaster, caulk

WMP
Sundanese dalitunited, closely connected; confidential, intimate
Javanese dalita patched place, esp. in earthenware; to patch
Balinese dalitglue, paste, plaster, caulking
CMP
Manggarai dalitto plaster or stick on, lay one on another; thin outer casting
Sika dakit-dalitstick together

Note:   Also Manggarai salit ‘to smear on, as medicine’. With root *-lit₁ ‘caulk; glue’. For the semantic connection of Sundanese dalit to the other forms, see *buket.

25965

*dalit₂ smooth, slippery

2194

PMP     *dalit₂ smooth, slippery     [disjunct: *dalis]

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dalitsmooth, slippery

2195

PMP     *ma-dalit smooth, slippery

OC
Kayupulau me-daricslippery
Yotefa me-daricslippery

30234

*dalu₁ a flying white ant or termite

7102

PMP     *dalu₁ a flying white ant or termite

WMP
Hanunóo dal-dálua queen termite, a fat “flying ant,” particularly numerous in July; the Hanunóo use queen termites for bait and also eat them with relish after they are fried; they have a fatty taste
Malay de-daluflying white ant
Balinese da-dalua flying white ant
CMP
Bimanese (afi) ndarufirefly

Note:   Also Manggarai salo ‘lamp fly, firefly’, Ngadha salu ~ halu ‘termite, flying ant’. Since the general word for ‘termite’ in PMP was *anay, this base apparently referred only to flying termites/white ants, and perhaps only to the queen. A lexical distinction between termite as a general term and flying termite is maintained in some modern languages, as Malay, and Tae' of central Sulawesi, and so evidently continues a similar distinction in PMP. The available lexical resources for Bimanese leave much to be desired, but since the word (afi) ndaru ‘firefly’ optionally incorporates the word for ‘fire’ (afi) it appears possible or even likely that ndaru itself refers to some other type of flying insect. First recognized by Verheijen (1967).

30894

*dalu₂ jealousy; anger; a quarrel

8725

PWMP     *dalu₂ jealousy; anger; a quarrel

WMP
Tiruray dalewjealousy
  me-dalewjealousy
Kelabit daluha fight, quarrel
  kə-daluha fight, quarrel
  pə-daluhto fight, quarrel with one another
Kiput dalawanger, angry; jealous, jealousy
  kə-daluhto be the object of someone’s anger or jealousy
  ŋə-dalawto be angry at or jealous of someone
Bintulu daləwa quarrel
  bə-daləwto quarrel
Melanau (Mukah) daləwa quarrel, altercation
  pə-daləwto quarrel
  d<ən>aləwto be on bad terms

30618

*damaR tree resin used in torches (?)

8079

PAN     *damaR tree resin used in torches (?)

Formosan
Kavalan zamaRfire
Siraya (Gravius) rämäxlight
Proto-Siraya *damaγlight
WMP
Maranao ramagshine, lustre
Tiruray damarto work after dark, either in the dark or by some light
Malagasy ramia tree from which oozes gamboge [a gum resin], also called rami; it is burned sometimes by the Betsileo during the ceremony of Salamanga, and it is also used by them to anoint their idols
Iban damarresin, trade name for a natural exudation from trees (mostly of Dipterocarp spp., esp. Shorea spp.)
Malay damarresin or gum exuded by certain trees, notably of the genera Shorea and Hopea; resinous torch; resinous tree
Karo Batak damartree resin; resinous torch
Toba Batak damartree resin; resinous torch

8080

POC     *ramaR light, luminosity

OC
Proto-Micronesian *ramalight, luminous
Chuukese sa-ram ~ sa-ramaramlight; bright, full of light, lit up, illuminated
Puluwat ha-ŕamlight, daylight; to be light
Woleaian te-ram(a)light; to be lighted, brightened
Fijian rā-ramalight, as opposed to darkness
Tongan amato fish at night by the light of a torch
Niue amato fish for crabs, etc. with a torch
Samoan lamatree (Aleurites sp.), the candle-nut tree; the oil has many uses and the nuts are purgative; dried candle-nut kernel (a number of them may be threaded together on a stick to make a primitive torch); torch; method of fishing by torchlight
Tuvaluan lamatorch of two or three coconut leaves bound together, used in reef-fishing
  la-lamago torch fishing for flying fish beyond the reef in canoe
Kapingamarangi lamatorch; dry coconut leaves
Nukuoro lamaa dry coconut leaf
Rennellese gamalong torch made of dried coconut leaves
  gama meakind of tree (Aglaia sapindina) with inedible berries; its light-weight pink wood, split and dried, is used for torches, mallets, and formerly for handles of tattooing needles
Rarotongan ramaa torch of any kind; to catch fish by torchlight
Maori ramatorch or other artificial light; catch eels, etc. by torchlight
  rama-ramagleam
Hawaiian lamatorch, light, lamp
  lama-lamatorch fishing; torch; to go torch fishing

8081

POC     *ma-ramaR to shine; shining, bright

OC
Nggela ma-ramato shine, shining; bright
Proto-Micronesian *ma-ramamoon; bright, luminous
Marshallese me-rambright; light; flash; glow; illuminate; luminous
Chuukese ma-rammoon, month
Puluwat ma-ŕammonth, moon
Woleaian me-ram(a)moon, month
Tongan ma-lamato shine, to give light, or send out light
Futunan ma-lamatorch
  mā-lamaclear, transparent
Samoan ma-lama(of the dawn, day) break
  mā-lamadawn; twilight
  faʔa-mālamalamalight up; explain, clarify
Tuvaluan ma-lamalight (not dark); becoma light
  faka-malamamake clear (of glass or mirror); window
  faka-maalamalamaexplain; translate
Kapingamarangi ma-lamamoon, month; lantern
Nukuoro ma-lamamonth, moon
Rennellese ma-gamagamato be fairly light, as at twilight
Anuta maa-ramathe light part of the day; daylight; light, bright; intelligent
Rarotongan ma-ramamoon, month
  mā-ramalight, daylight; that which shines or is brilliant; light, bright, clear, as to sight, sound or hearing; transparent, as of water; easy to understand; to understand, comprehend; to have intellectual faculties
Maori ma-ramalight, not dark; clear, of sight or sound; transparent; easy to understand, plain
  whaka-ma-ramamake light, illuminate; explain
  mā-rama-ramasomewhat light
Hawaiian ma-lamalight, month, moon
  mā-lama-lamalight of knowledge, clarity of thinking or explanation, enlightenment, shining...

Note:   Also Kavalan Ramaz ‘fire; to cook rice’, Binukid lamʔag ‘full (moon)’, Ida'an Begak damar ‘resinous wood’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak damar ‘trees that yield a resin used in torches’ (< Banjarese Malay, the native term being ñatiŋ), Fijian rāma ‘to enlighten, cast light on, chiefly of the blaze of a fire’. This etymology has always been somewhat problematic. Very few reflexes are found in island Southeast Asia, and some of these are likely Malay loanwords. Oceanic reflexes are somewhat better supported, but it is not entirely clear that they are related to those further west.

30616

*damdam fever, illness

8077

PWMP     *damdam fever, illness

WMP
Tagalog ka-ramdam-andisorder, illness, ailment
Maranao dandamfear
Iban dadamvery cold, be cold and shivery
  demam dadampuerperal fever
CMP
Tugun pa-putiwhite

Note:   Also Mapun dandam ‘a longing for someone’ (< Malay), Tausug damdam ‘longing, yearning’ (< Malay), Bintulu mə-rarəm ‘to shiver’, Malay dendam ‘yearning; longing; feeling of love or spite’.

32685

*damwa forehead

11091

POC     *damwa forehead

OC
Seimat kawã-forehead
Wuvulu xawaforehead
Wogeo damwaforehead
Manam damwaforehead
Gedaged damo-nforehead
Mbula ndomoforehead
Gitua damoforehead
Sudest amwaforehead
Proto-Micronesian *camwaforehad, brow
Pohnpeian tahmwforehead
Mokilese soamwforehead

30617

*dana old, of things

8078

PWMP     *dana old, of things

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) danʌold (persons)
Melanau (Mukah) danaold, of things

Note:   Cf. PAn *ma-tuqaS ‘old, of persons’. This comparsion may be a product of chance.

30239

*danaw lake

7109

PAN     *danaw lake     [doublet: *banaw]

Formosan
Puyuma danawhole filled with water (which will evaporate)
Paiwan (Western) djanawlake without outlets; estuary
WMP
Itbayaten ranawsea lagoon
Ilokano dánawlake, pond
Tagalog dánawlagoon; pond
Bikol dánawlake; lagoon
Hanunóo dánawlake, pond
Aklanon danáwlake, pond
Waray-Waray danáwlake; lagoon
Cebuano dánawpool of water
  mag-dánawform a pool in, flood
Maranao ranawlake
Binukid danawlake
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ranewlake; of a supernatural, to flood an area turning it into a lake as a punishment for misbehavior
Mansaka danawlake
Tiruray ranawlake
Mapun danawlake
Tboli lanawlake
Kadazan Dusun danawpaddyfield, wet ricefield
Ida'an Begak danowlake
Narum daniəwlake
Murik lanodirty
Kayan danawmud, muddy
Kayan (Uma Juman) danomuddy water or soft muddy area in the jungle
Kiput danaawlake
Melanau (Mukah) danawlake
Ngaju Dayak danawlake (must be at least 500 feet long; smaller ones are talaga)
  dana-danawlike a lake, entirely covered with water (as a field, etc.)
Lawangan danolake
Ma'anyan danawlake
Malagasy ranuwater
Iban danawlake, natural pond, shallow pool, land flooded permanently or for long periods at regular intervals
Malay danawlake; sheet of enclosed water
Toba Batak danolarger lake; pond (larger than ambar)
Rejang daneuwlake
Lampung danawlake
Sundanese danonatural lake, pool, puddle
Sangir danolake; puddle, pool
Mongondow danowlake; the large lake between Bolaang Mongondow and Minahasa
Balaesang ranolake
Uma ranolake
Bare'e ranolake, for example the large lake from which the Poso (river) arises
  mo-ranoform a puddle (as rainwater)
  wiwi ndanolake shore, edge of a lake
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ranolake
Wolio ranolake, large swamp
CMP
Bimanese ndanolake
Manggarai sanolake Rana-Mésé (proper name)
Rembong ranalake
Rotinese danolake, pool

7110

POC     *rano lake

OC
Rotuman ranoswamp, marsh, low-lying ground that is often swampy
Wayan dranoa large body of fresh water lying inland, a lake or pond
Fijian dranoa lake or piece of fresh water inland
Tongan anomarsh, swamp, large pool, lake
  ta-anoto be more or less flooded, to have pools of water in or on it; sheet of water, large pool
Samoan lanolake
Rennellese ganolake; fetal water
  Te ganoeastern district of Re and village (lit. ‘The Lake’)

Note:   Also Ilokano danʔáw ‘lake, pond’, Tagalog lánaw ‘pool, small lake; lagoon’, Aklanon baeanáw ‘puddle (of water)’, Kadazan Dusun anaw ‘paddyfield, wet ricefield’, Balinese danu, Manggarai rana ‘lake’.

Although PAn *danaw apparently meant ‘lake’, the exact meaning of this term would have depended upon the region of Taiwan that was occupied while Proto-Austronesian remained a single language, since lakes are found in some parts of the island but not in others. The wide but rather scattered distribution of reflexes elsewhere can probably be attributed to the absence of lakes or significant large bodies of fresh water in many of the environments in which Austronesian speakers settled after leaving Taiwan. In some areas a reflex of *danaw came to apply to lagoons (salt water), ponds (permanent but small collections of fresh water), or just puddles (temporary collections of fresh water after rain).

In parts of interior Borneo, where rivers are of major importance but lakes are virtually nonexistent, reflexes of this term were retained but shifted in meaning to refer to muddy areas where rainwater tended to collect but not cover the ground for long; this tendency was carried furthest in Murik where from ‘muddy area, mudpatch’ the meaning developed to ‘muddy’ (still attested in the closely-related Kayan), and then to ‘dirty’. In other areas where lakes occur, but are rare a reflex of *danaw came to refer to a particular lake, and so was preserved only in proper names, as in Mongondow and Manggarai.

The most puzzling distribution is seen in the Oceanic group, where no reflex has been identified so far except in the Central Pacific languages (Rotuman, Fijian, Polynesian), which implies that prior to reaching western Polynesia Austronesian speakers were either in continuous contact with bodies of fresh water that were designated by a reflex of POc *rano, or that they moved through areas that lacked lakes so rapidly that the term was retained in the absence of a referent until arriving in a new environment in which lakes were again encountered.

With root *-naw ‘enclosed body of water’.

30381

*daNum fresh water

7456

PAN     *daNum fresh water

Formosan
Basai nanomwater
  ranumwater
Kavalan zanumwater
Saisiyat ralomwater
Papora domwater
Pazeh dalumwater
  dalum-anpond; well water
Amis nanomwater
Favorlang/Babuza dalomwater
Thao sazumwater
  min-sazumdissolve, melt
  mu-sazumenter the water, immerse oneself
Bunun danumwater
Tsou chumuwater
Kanakanabu canúmuwater
Saaroa salhumuwater
Siraya salomwater
Puyuma nanumwater (ritual term). Only used by male practitioners, as bru is used by female shamans (cf.ənay ‘water’)
Paiwan zalʸumwater

7457

PMP     *danum fresh water

WMP
Yami ranomwater
Itbayaten ranomwater
  ma-ranomwatery
Ilokano danúmwater; pus
Ibanag danumwater
Agta (Dupaningan) dinómwater
Isneg danúmwater; sap, liquid
Itawis danúmwater
  ma-danúmto flood
Bontok danúmwater; juice; sap; suppuration; fluid
Kankanaey danúmwater; liquid; sap, juice
Ifugaw danúmwater; also applied to whatever is watery, juicy, succulent
Ifugaw (Batad) danúma liquid, such as broth, juice of fruits and plant stalks, milk, rice beer, tree sap, water, wine
  d<um>anumto urinate (used euphemistically)
Casiguran Dumagat dinomwater, river, stream
Ibaloy shanomwater; river or other body of water (as dam reservoir); juice (as of fruit); pus, or serious drainage from a wound or sore
  ma-renomhaving abundant water, liquid; (of fruit, etc.) juicy; (of mother’s milk) abundant
Pangasinan danúmwater; become wet, watery
Sambal (Botolan) lánumwater
Kapampangan danúmwater
  danúm-anocean, body of water
Hanunóo danúmwater; juice, as of fruits
Bulungan danumwater
Bekatan danumwater
Seru danomwater
Kanowit danomwater
Dohoi danumwater
Ngaju Dayak danumwater; juice (of fruits, sugarcane, etc.)
  ha-danumfull of water (as a field or boat); juicy (of fruits)
Lawangan danumwater
Taboyan danumwater
Maloh danumwater
Palauan ralmfresh water
  bə-rálmwatery; flat-tasting (e.g. not sweet or salty enough)
  om-rálmrinse clothes
Chamorro hanomwater, liquid

7458

POC     *ranum fresh water

OC
Nauna cɨnfresh water
  canu-n mattears (water-of eye)
Penchal tɨnfresh water
Loniu ʔanfresh water
Nali dranfresh water
Leipon dranfresh water
Bipi xanfresh water
Seimat kanfresh water
Wuvulu xanufresh water
Aua ranufresh water
Yapese raenwater, juice
Mendak ndanfresh water
Tanga daanwater
Lakalai la-lalufresh water; stream; river; coconut shell water jug
Kairiru rryanwater, drink
  niu rryancoconut milk (= water)
Wogeo danfresh water
Manam daŋfresh water
Keapara nanuwater
Motu ranuwater; juice; liquid
  ranu seiato bail out water, to pour water
Gilbertese ranfresh water, liquid, juice, sap, milk
  ae ranranwatery, liquid, juicy
Marshallese dānwater; liquid; beverage; fluid; juice; sap of coconut tree
  dān-dānwatery, slimy
Chuukese chaanliquid, juice; fresh water
  chénún maastears
Puluwat raan, liquid of any kind, pond
Woleaian shal(iu)liquid, fresh water, water-well, lake
Wusi-Mana čanufresh water
Wusi-Valui tranufresh water
Namakir na-ranfresh water
Wayan dranufresh, pure (not salty)
  wai dranufresh water (contrast wai taci)
  vaka-dranuwash oneself in fresh water after being in the sea
  dranu-dranube fresh, pure (as water that is not salty); (of food) tasteless, unsalted, unseasoned
Fijian dranufresh, of water, not salt; to wash in fresh water after having bathed in salt
  vei dranu-mithe place where the tide meets the fresh water of a river
Tongan na-ranfresh water
  lanuto wash or rinse in fresh water (of something that has been in salt water); to wash oneself with fresh water after a sea bath
Futunan lanurinse off with fresh water; give a bath in a basin (of a baby)
  faka-lanurinse off with fresh water
Samoan lanuwash salt off in fresh water; liquor amnii, amniotic fluid
Tuvaluan faka-lanubathe in fresh water after a swim
Rennellese ganuto be full of liquid, as the stomach; to be rich and oily, as with coconut oil; to be saturated; to rise, as tide
  haka-ganuto fill with liquid
  ganum-iato be full of liquid; to be quenched, as thirst, or satisfied with food
Rarotongan lanuthe liquor amnii, amniotic fluid
Maori ranugravy, juice of anything cooked

7459

PWMP     *ma-nanum pour water on

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-nanumfor someone to water something, such as cooking food, plants, a pond field
Ngaju Dayak ma-nanumfill with water, pour water

7460

PAN     *pa-daNum to irrigate

Formosan
Paiwan pa-zalʸumto irrigate

7461

PMP     *pa-danum to irrigate

WMP
Ilokano pa-danúmirrrigation
Pangasinan pa-ranúmirrigation system
Kapampangan pa-ranumditch or inlet that directs water to the seed-bed

7462

PAN     *pu-daNum to water, irrigate

Formosan
Kavalan pu-zanumto water, as vegetables, to put in water
Thao pu-sazumto water, irrigate
Paiwan pu-zalʸumto put water in or on

7463

PAN     *danum-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Pazeh dalum-anpond, well water
WMP
Itbayaten ranom-anto apply, add water
Ilokano danum-anto add water to
Casiguran Dumagat dinum-anto pour water into; wet, watery
Ibaloy shenom-anto add water to something (as cooking pot, rice field)

Note:   Also Tunjung anum ‘water’. This is one of the rare widely-distributed forms in AN languages that is absent from Dempwolff (1934-1938), since it does not appear in any of the three languages used for his ‘inductive reconstruction of Proto-Indonesian’ (1934), namely, Tagalog, Toba Batak and Javanese, and is found in only one of the eight languages used to test his reconstruction deductively, namely Ngaju Dayak. Nonetheless, throughout the AN language family outside of Taiwan *danum and *wahiR are in competition for the meaning ‘fresh water’. PMP *wahiR appears to have meant ‘stream, river’ (and the fresh water in it), while *danum referred only to the water itself.

Reflexes of PMP *danum have a peculiar distribution: they are common in Taiwan and the northern Philippines, but were replaced by other terms throughout the central and southern Philippines, and throughout all of Indonesia apart from the Barito Basin in southeast Borneo. In the Pacific they have a rather scattered distribution, being absent from Vanuatu except for two very small areas in west Santo and the Shepherd Islands. Finally, although most languages reflect only one or the other of these two terms both are found in the Admiralty Islands, where one is the common word for ‘fresh water’ in one language, and the other the semantic equivalent in a closely related language. In Fiji and Polynesia both occur in the same languages, but with different meanings (PPn *wai ‘fresh water’ : (*faka-)ranu ‘rinse with fresh water after bathing in the sea’), and in Wayan of western Fiji they co-occur in a single expression (wai dranu ‘fresh water’, as opp. wai tasi ‘salt water’).

25975

*daŋanan handle of a knife or sword

2205

PWMP     *daŋanan handle of a knife or sword

WMP
Maranao daŋananceremonial sword hilt
Tiruray daŋananhandle of a kris
Malay deŋananhilt of a weapon (said to be from Balinese)
Old Javanese daŋananhilt of a kris
Javanese daŋananhandle (of knife, broom, etc.)
Balinese daŋananhilt of a kris

Note:   The Philippine forms may be loans from western Indonesia. However, Malay (the usual source of western Indonesian loans in Philippine languages) is not a likely source language.

25976

*daŋaq wide open

2206

PWMP     *daŋaq wide open

WMP
Malagasy dana-danawide open (door, box, etc.)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak da-l-ŋahwide open (as the mouth)

Note:   With root *-ŋaq ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.

30173

*daŋdaŋ broil; warm oneself or something near a fire

6963

PAN     *daŋdaŋ₁ broil; warm oneself or something near a fire

Formosan
Kavalan zazaŋto broil; to dry clothing by a fire
Pazeh dadaŋwarm (body); broil
Puyuma ɖaŋɖaŋhot; warm (from sun, fire); dry in the sun or by the fire

6964

PMP     *daŋdaŋ₁ warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire     [doublet: *gaŋgaŋ]

WMP
Yami daŋdaŋget warm
  manaŋdaŋget warm near the fire
Ilokano dadáŋwarmth of a fire; warming by a fire
Agta (Dupaningan) daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm
Isneg daŋdáŋto warm at a fire, to place near the fire
Itawis mad-dadáŋto warm
Bontok ʔi-daŋdáŋto place close to a fire (as clothes to dry)
  d<um>aŋdáŋto radiate heat
Kankanaey i-daŋdáŋto heat; to warm, putting it close to the fire
Ifugaw dadáŋwhat is burnt, i.e., food that has been fried or boiled over the fire until it is black
  daŋdáŋact of removing the cooking pot with boiled rice from the dalikán (trivet), and depositing it on the ashes of the hearth more or less near the fire, so that the boiled rice will be somewhat dry before it is served
Pangasinan dáŋdaŋheat; to heat
Tagalog daŋdáŋ ~ dandáŋwarming, heating or toasting by exposing to fire or glowing coals
  daráŋexposing something to the heat of flames or glowing coals
Bikol daŋdáŋgo near a fire to warm up, dry off
Hanunóo daŋdáŋroasting directly on coals, as of bananas
Aklanon dáŋdaŋwarm up, put near the fire, heat up
Waray-Waray daŋdáŋthe act of drying up or heating something before the fire; a direct exposure to fire; singe
Cebuano daŋdáŋheat something slightly near fire or under the sun
Binukid dadaŋ ~ daraŋto heat, dry out something slightly near a fire; put something over the coals to dry or heat
Mansaka daŋdaŋto warm over the fire (as cold hands); to dry over fire
Tausug daŋdaŋto broil or roast something (as fish) on the embers, as meat or fish
Kadazan Dusun dadaŋput something near a fire for drying; heat from a fire or rays
Eastern Kadazan dadaŋ-onto broil
Ida'an Begak daraŋto warm the body
Lun Dayeh dadaŋwarmth, heat from a fire
Kelabit dadaŋheat from a fire; be exposed to heat (as a person sitting near a fire)
Malay dandaŋlarge copper vessel for steaming rice
Toba Batak dadaŋto shine (of sun); expose to heat; put in the sun or fire to dry
Balinese daŋdaŋcopper pot, kettle
Sasak daŋdaŋpot for steaming rice
Tontemboan raraŋto dry; to roast fish
  mə-raraŋwarm oneself by a fire
Tae' raraŋbake, roast over a fire, esp. meat; do something quickly, in the blink of an eye (as in retrieving something that is roasting over a fire so that it doesn’t burn)
Makasarese raraŋradiation (of sunlight)
  aʔ-raraŋto shine, of the sun; warm oneself by a fire or in the sun
Muna dadano longer fresh, wither (of leaves, skin); cook vegetables in water
CMP
Yamdena n-dadanstay by a fire; warm oneself by a fire
Fordata n-raranstay by a fire
OC
Bali (Uneapa) raraŋaburned skin
Lakalai lalato hold over a fire, to wilt
Manam raráŋto warm many things
  ráraŋ-ito warm something (food)
Molima lalato wilt leaves over a fire
Bugotu raraŋ-eto warm oneself at a fire
Kwaio lalalight, illuminate, warm
  alu lalaput by the fire to warm
Lau rarato shine; to be hot, warm
'Āre'āre rarato be warm, hot, of sun; fade, wither, dry up
Sa'a rara ~ raa-rarabe in the sunlight, be hot, pungent; be zealous over, be jealous over
  rara meaadminister a public rebuke (lit. ‘burn the tongue’)
Arosi rarato shrivel up, as leaves; to be hot
Marshallese rarto bleach pandanus leaves over a fire, to dry leaves by fire
Chuukese rarbe warm
Mota rarato dry before a fire
Rotuman rarato warm by the fire (oneself, a child); to fumigate; to toast or roast before an open fire; of leaves, etc., to place on the fire for a few seconds
Wayan rarabe heated, warmed; be baked hot, glowing hot (of pots being fired); be smoke, as fish
  rara-ni ~ rara-vito warm or heat something; what is warmed; wither something, dry something up, as vegetation
Fijian rarato warm oneself at a fire; of a pain, to smart slightly
  (vaka)-raraŋ-ato warm food again by placing it near a fire; to sear up banana leaves around food
  vei-rara-yakiof two persons, each lying on one side of a fire
  i raraa fire at which one warms oneself; fireplace, hearth
Tongan āto heat (sticks or leaves) over a fire in order to make them limp or soft
Futunan lalato smoke fish
Samoan lala-ŋiplace leaves (esp. banana or breadfruit leaves) on hot stones to make them more supple, and therefore easier to use as wrapping material; to boil
Tuvaluan lalaapply heat to a stick to straighten it
  lala-lalawarm leaves at a fire so they can be used as wrappings
  faka-lalaboiled pulaka (swamp taro) mashed with lolo (coconut cream)
Kapingamarangi lalato heat up
Nukuoro lalato roast
Rennellese gagato smoke, as fish on a fire; to warm, as hands on a fire
Anuta rararoast something on a spit over an open fire (only birds are prepared this way on Anuta)
Hawaiian hoʔo-lalato warm, as over a fire; warm oneself by a fire; bask in the sun; cook over a fire

6965

PPh     *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ expose to the heat of a fire or the sun

WMP
Ilokano i-dadáŋto heat, warm at a fire
Tagalog i-daráŋexpose something to live coals or open fire in order to heat or dry
Cebuano i-daŋdáŋleave something in the sun to heat it

6966

PWMP     *maŋ-daŋdaŋ expose to the heat of a fire or the sun

WMP
Itbayaten ma-naŋdaŋput something near the fire so that it will get heated; to post oneself near the fire
Pangasinan man-dáŋdaŋto heat
Lun Dayeh nadaŋwarm something near a fire
Kelabit nadaŋto heat
Toba Batak man-dadaŋto shine, radiate, expose to the heat of the sun or a fire

6967

PPh     *maR-daŋdaŋ expose to fire

WMP
Ilokano ag-dadáŋgo near a fire, go near the heat
Tagalog mag-daráŋexpose something (as banana leaves) to an open fire in order to heat or dry it; to roast, make hot, singe, parch
Bikol mag-daŋdáŋto reheat; place something near the fire to warm, not putting it into the flames
Hanunóo mag-daŋdáŋroast something directly on coals
Tausug mag-daŋdaŋbroil or roast something on the embers (as meat or fish)

6968

PWMP     *d<in>aŋdaŋ (what) was warmed by a fire

WMP
Ilokano in-dadáŋre-warmed (food)
Lun Dayeh d<in>adaŋput near a fire to warm
Kelabit s<in>adaŋwas heated by someone
Tontemboan ni-raraŋ ~ r<in>araŋwhat is roasted (already taken from the fire)

6969

PAN     *daŋdaŋ-an place something near a fire

Formosan
Puyuma ɖaŋɖaŋ-anWarm it! Dry it by the fire!
WMP
Isneg daŋdáŋ-anto warm at a fire, to place near the fire
Tagalog daraŋ-án ~ daráŋ-anlive coals or open fire used for heating or drying something

6970

PWMP     *daŋdaŋ-en to be dried near a fire or by the sun

WMP
Itbayaten raŋdaŋ-enexpose to fire or live embers to dry, to expose to heat
Tagalog daraŋ-ínbe exposed to live coals or open fire in order to heat or dry
Bikol daŋdaŋ-ónbe reheated, be placed near a fire to warm up
Tausug daŋdaŋ-unbe broiled or roasted on the embers
Kadazan Dusun dadaŋ-onto be dried near a fire or by the sun
Lun Dayeh dədaŋ-ənsomething will be put by a fire to warm it
Tontemboan raraŋ-əndry something by a fire (imper.); grill for roasting flesh


Note:   Also Kambera dàdaluŋu ‘stay by a fire; bring into contact with a fire, set on fire’.

30084

*daŋi near

6799

PCEMP     *daŋi near     [doublet: *qadani]

CMP
Buruese raŋi-nnear

6800

POC     *raŋi near

OC
Mussau kala-ka-laŋi-nanear
Lau ga-raŋinear
Arosi ga-raŋinear

Note:   The POc form may have been *garaŋi.

25977

*daŋkaq branch

2207

PMP     *daŋkaq branch     [disjunct: *daŋkeq]

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak daŋkahbranch of a tree
Toba Batak daŋkabranch of a tree
CMP
Ngadha dakabranch of a tree

25978

*daŋkeq branch, twig

2208

PMP     *daŋkeq branch, twig     [disjunct: *daŋkaq]

WMP
Toba Batak daŋkabranch of a tree
OC
Motu rakotwig

25982

*daŋuy to swim

2212

PWMP     *daŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy]

WMP
Manobo (Sarangani) daŋoyto swim
Piching Land Dayak bi-doŋoito swim

25980

*dapa palm of the hand

2210

PAN     *dapa palm of the hand

Formosan
Atayal rapaʔpalm of the hand
WMP
Cebuano lapalapasole, bottom surface of the foot
Sasak dampapalm, sole

Note:   Thanks to Laurent Sagart for noting the Atayal member of this comparison.

25979

*da(m)paD flat, level

2209

PMP     *da(m)paD flat, level     [disjunct: *da(m)aR, *da(m)pat]

WMP
Ilokano dápatplain, level land
Cebuano lapadflat, level surface
Malay (Jakarta) damparlevel, flat, even
CMP
Buruese rapa-tflat
  em-rapa-tflat

Note:   Also Bikol lápat ‘flat (having a flat surface)’.

30613

*dapal width of the palm (?)

8074

PWMP     *dapal width of the palm (?)

WMP
Hanunóo dápala unit of linear measurement, equal to the width of the four fingers of one hand when placed together and parallel to each other
Cebuano dápalmeasurement equal to the width of the palm with the fingers outstretched and together reckoned from the middle of the thumb to the base of the little finger
Sundanese dampalpalm of the hand; flat part of the sole of the foot

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

30010

*dapaN sole of the foot; footprint

6704

PAN     *dapaN sole of the foot; footprint     [doublet: *da(m)pa]

Formosan
Kavalan zapanleg and foot
  qi-zapantrail; follow the footprints of an animal
  qna-zpan-anfootprints, tracks
Atayal (Squliq) rapalsole of the foot; footprint
Pazeh da-dapalsole of the foot
Thao sapazsole of the foot; footprint
Puyuma dapalfoot
  d<in>apal-anfootprints
Paiwan djapalʸthigh (person); hind leg (animal)

6919

PMP     *dapan sole of the foot

WMP
Itbayaten rapan no limapalm of the hand
Ilokano dapánsole of the foot
  dapan-dapanbarefoot
Agta (Eastern) dapánsole of the foot
Isneg dapānsole of the foot
Bontok dapánsole of the foot
Kankanaey dapánsole of the foot
  d<um>apányoung girl, little girl; young man, little boy
  d<um>a-dapánshallow, not deep
Ifugaw dapánsole, the under surface of a foot
  dapan-ónput one’s foot on something
  d<in>apánfootprint
Yogad dapansole of the foot
Pangasinan dapánsole of the foot
Bikol dapánsole of the foot

Note:   Also Seediq dapil ‘impression, imprint (especially a footprint on the ground, or mark of the hand on some object), Pazeh (Kahabu) sa-sapiɬ ‘footprint; shoes’.

30609

*dapaR flat, level, even

8069

PMP     *dapaR flat, level, even

WMP
Ilokano dapága plain; flat
  pag-dapag-ento flatten
Ngaju Dayak dampahflat, level (of roofs)
  ka-dampahflatness
Malay damparlevel, flat, even

8070

POC     *rapaR flat, level, even

OC
Tongan lafa-lafaflat (not curved or bulging)
Niue lafa-lafalevel, flat-topped

Note:   Also Ifugaw daŋpál ‘flat; applied to certain noses’, Javanese ḍampar ‘low table (usually round) where people sit cross-legged to eat, play cards, etc.’ (< Malay). Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog lapág ‘the space below; the floor level; the ground level’, but this is doubtful.

30615

*dápat to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely

8076

PPh     *dápat to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely     [doublet: *dapet]

WMP
Bontok dápatto be beside someone; to sleep with someone; to sit beside someone; the person beside whom one sleeps, sits, etc.
Kankanaey men-dápatto copulate
Ifugaw dápatto lay things side by side; to lie side by side
Ifugaw (Batad) dāpatfor three or more animals, people to be lying side by side, as in sleeping; of pigs, trussed and waiting to be sacrificed
Hanunóo dápatthe quality of being well joined, closeness of fit
Cebuano dápatbring something into contact with something else; administer medicine; lay hands on one, hit; use in building something; money spent on

30232

*dapdáp cut chips or bits from something, scrape off

7100

PPh     *dapdáp cut chips or bits from something, scrape off

WMP
Bontok dapdápto chip, as wood or clay; to shape wood with short sharp blows of a bladed instrument; to remove hard caked soil with a sharp digging movement, each blow leaving a ‘cockle’ pattern
Kankanaey dapdáp-anto cut away chips of, to cut off small parts of, to lop, to clean, to smooth (wood)
Ibaloy dapdapto strip off something, esp. with a bolo or large knife (as meat from the bone, sod from the earth, skin from an animal to make bitad (cut and twisted hide) rope
Binukid dapdapto cut, slice off the kernels from (an ear of mature corn)

30231

*dapdap₁ a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica

7098

PMP     *dapdap₁ a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica     [doublet: *depdep]

WMP
Itbayaten rapdap ~ raprapa tree: Erythrina indica
Casiguran Dumagat dipdipa tree: Erythrina variegata L. (Madulid 2001)
Kapampangan dapdapbalete (banyan) tree, home of diwataʔ (spirits)
Tagalog dapdápIndian coral tree
Bikol dapdáptree with red, pea-shaped flowers growing in dense clusters, possessing long pods, smooth, gray bark, and young branches with prickles; wood used in fencing and for boundary posts: the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica
Hanunóo dapdápa species of tree: Erythrina variegata Linn.
Masbatenyo dápdapbeautiful red-flowering deciduous tree that loses all its leaves, then bursts forth in deep red flowers: the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica
Aklanon dápdapkind of tree
Cebuano dapdápsmall tree of the seashore, widely planted as an ornamental for its numerous bright red flowers, Erythrina variegata
Ngaju Dayak dadaptree of middling size with beautiful red blossoms; cuttings placed in the earth grow easily and quickly; commonly planted around springs, etc. to prevent erosion of the banks
Karo Batak n-dapdapa tree with red blossoms, Erythrina variegata L. (Fam. Leguminosae)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak en-dapdapkind of shade tree known for its connection with the cultivation of coffee: Erythrina indica
Toba Batak dapdapa fast-growing tree with spongy wood and gorgeous red blossoms
Old Javanese ḍaḍapa tree, Erythrina indica
Javanese ḍaḍapa certain shade tree planted by coffee bushes
Balinese ḍapḍapa species of shade tree
Sasak dadapa species of shade tree
Tontemboan raʔdapa tree, Erythrina indica
Tae' raʔdaʔlow-growing Indian coral tree, perhaps Erythrina microcarpa
Makasarese pokoʔ raʔraʔa tree, Erythrina indica
  buŋa raʔraʔred flower of the Indian coral tree
Palauan róroIndian coral tree: Erythrina variegata L.

7099

POC     *rarap a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica

OC
Nggela raraspecies of tree, Erythrina, red flowers
Lau raraspecies of tree with scarlet leaves, Erythrina fasca
Sa'a rarathe coral tree, Erythrina indica
  i Melutei rara‘In the shade of the coral tree’, name of a village on Uki
Arosi raraa species of tree with red flowers, Erythrina indica
Wayan rarathe coral tree, Erythrina spp. (Leguminosae); deciduous tree found mostly near coast; twigs and branchlets are prickly, flowers red; the juice of the bark is used to dilute bitter-tasting wiriwiri bark juice in medicine to treat infection (thrush) of the tongue
Fijian raraa flowering tree, Erythrina variegata, var. orientalis, Leguminosae

Note:   Also Ilokano bagbág ‘kind of tree with red flowers and leaves used to cure headaches, Erythrina indica’, Ifugaw gabgáb ‘a kind of tree bearing thorns; its fruits are reddish; it merely serves as fuel’ (Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) in Madulid 2001:253), Tagalog karapdáp ‘Indian coral tree’, Balinese ḍabḍab ‘a species of shade tree’, Tae' raʔdeʔ ‘low-growing Indian coral tree with thorny stem and branches, and red blossoms; it grows near river banks and is used as a hedge in planting a field; perhaps Erythrina microcarpa’.

30611

*dapdap₂ to grope

8072

PWMP     *dapdap₂ to grope     [doublet: *gapgap, *kapkap]

WMP
Ilokano dapádapto feel (touching)
  apag-dapádapslight touch with the hand
Toba Batak man-dadapto touch, feel, grope
  dadap-dadapto grope with the hands, of the blind

Note:   This form is irregular in both Ilokano and Toba Batak, where recurrent change would lead us to expect **dapdap in both languages. However, the agreement appears too close and specific to be due to chance, and clearly patterns with the better-supported *gapgap and *kapkap ‘to grope’.

30614

*dapet to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely

8075

PMP     *dapet to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely

WMP
Ilokano dapétto grapple, seize one another; marry (regional)
Bontok dapətto place objects side by side, so that they are touching; to have the edges of two objects together; to meet
Tagalog lapítnearness, contiguity; proximity; closeness
  ka-lapítperson or place nearby, neighbor; nearby, neighboring
  l<um>apítto approach; to draw near; to come close
Tiruray dafetto share a single blanket
Kadazan Dusun dampotto reach
Malay (Jakarta) dapetto be up against, to touch
Old Javanese ḍapətbeing close together, closely joined
  a-ḍapətclosely joined, compact, thick (darkness)
  rapət(pressed) close together, tight, closed tight
  aŋ-rapətto take up positions (closely) side by side
Javanese rapettightly closed up (as a corked bottle); placed closely together (bricks, boards, woven strips, etc.); closed tightly; keep a secret well
Tontemboan rapetattached together, like the toes of birds with paddle-feet
Mongondow dapotcome to or toward; arrive, reach; be fulfilled; bring in contact with, or bump against something; go toward a goal, to lay or set something on something else
Tae' dapeʔto reach, be able to touch
Buginese rapeʔtightly bound
Makasarese rapaʔtightly spaced (as plaiting); joined closely or tightly; bound closely to something; close to the ground
Palauan ráudclosing
  mə-ráudto close (a fishnet)
CMP
Bimanese rapuclosely spaced; nearby; jammed fast between two objects
Manggarai rapetclose together, closely spaced
Rembong rapetpinched between two objects
Ngadha rapécover a roof
Lamaholot dapeʔalmost in contact; bump up against

Note:   Also Hiligaynon dapít ‘near’, Ngaju Dayak rantep ‘close together’, rapet ‘be up against one another, stick together’, Iban rapat ‘close set, without space between’, Malay rapat ‘contact; contiguity’, Minangkabau me-rapat ‘to come together; to meet, of the village-elders meeting at the balai’, Balinese rapet ‘be close, be very near, stick together; close (a wound)’, Tae' dappiʔ ‘close by’.

25981

*da(m)pil nudge, bump against another person

2211

PWMP     *da(m)pil nudge, bump against another person

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat dapilrun into someone, bump into someone while walking
Malay dampiltouching one another -- of contact in contrast to mere proximity
  ber-dampil-dampilcrowding up against one another

Note:   Perhaps also Old Javanese aṇḍampil, though the available texts leave the meaning unclear.

30612

*dapit transport someone across a river (?)

8073

PWMP     *dapit transport someone across a river (?)

WMP
Pangasinan dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.)
Tagalog dapíta solemn religious ceremony in which a dead body is conducted from the house to the church by a priest and acolytes
Bikol mag-dápitto escort the dead (priests)
  dapít-onto escort the dead (priests)
Aklanon dápitto ferry across
  d<ae>apit-ánferry landing
  dapítsituated, located
Waray-Waray dapítin the direction of; towards; near; at the side of; place
Agutaynen dapitto accompany a procession to, from church for a funeral, wedding, baptism, etc.
Hiligaynon dapítnear
Cebuano dápitattract someone or something to go somewhere (as in using a light at night to attract fish); attract notice, attention; divert water somewhere; place; position, relative standing; direction, vicinity of
  pa-dápitput something at some place
  d<in>ápitguests
Maranao rapitfetch a person; transport
Binukid dapitside; direction; vicinity
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dapitside; direction
Mansaka dapítto go get
Tausug dapit(pertaining to direction) at the side of
  mag-dapitto side with or favor someone
  hukuman dapitone-sided judgment
Kadazan Dusun dapitto cross
  ka-dapitcan land, cross
  d<um>apitto land
  dopit-onplace where one crosses, docks
Murut (Timugon) maki-rapitask someone to accompany one to his destination
  rapit-insomeone who accompanies one to his destination
Kenyah dapitreach, extend
Kayan dapitto reach the other side; to go to; to draw alongside of; to come to understand; to have enough rice
Mongondow dapitferry across a river (with boat or raft, also by crocodile)

Note:   Based on agreements between languages reaching from the central Philippines to central Borneo and northern Sulawesi, the original meaning of this term appears to have been ‘to cross to the other side of a river’ (not by fording, but by raft or boat). The notion of accompaniment also seems to be central to this process, hence the semantic inference that *dapit meant something like ‘to ferry across’. In several Philippine languages this earlier sense has been reinterpreted in the Christian context as describing the role of a priest in ‘ferrying’ the deceased from the place of death to the place of worship (from this world to the next). Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian bāravi ‘the seashore or coast’ in a more limited form of this comparison, but it now seems best to abondon this connection and restrict the cognate set to languages in the Philippines and western Indonesia.

30604

*dapuR hearth

8042

PMP     *dapuR hearth

WMP
Ilokano dapúgfirebrand
Agta (Dupaningan) dipogashes, dust
Isneg dappūgthe hearth
Bontok dapuldust, ashes
Kankanaey na-dápugdusty; ashy
Ifugaw (Batad) dapulashes; for something to become ashes, of any combustible material
  mun-dapulsprinkle ashes on something, as on plants to make them grow
  pa-napūl-ana fireplace
Pangasinan dápolash; reduce to ashes
Tagalog dapógan open fire
  dápugthick, black smoke from damp firewood
Bikol dapóghearth, a place for cooking; kitchen
Hanunóo dapúghearth, fireplace; ashes; probably by extension from hearth, fireplace
Aklanon dapógstove, hearth
Agutaynen dapogleaves burned in slash and burn farming
  mag-dapogto burn dried leaves
Hiligaynon dapúgstove, fireplace, fire pit
Cebuano dapúgplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built
Maranao rapogbonfire; build a fire
Binukid dapugto heap, pile up wood, yard trash, etc. (sample sentence indicates that this is preparatory to burning)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rapugto pile logs and branches to that they may be burned
Tausug mag-dapugto set fire to, ignite (something)
Malay dapurcooking-place; kitchen; it is a corner of the house covered with a thick layer of ashes on which are placed three or five stones to support one or two cooking pots
Acehnese dapukitchen, fireplace
  dapu pandésmith’s furnace
  ureuəŋ dapudescendants of slaves
Gayō dapurhearthstones used to support a cooking pot; hearth
  mu-dapurto use hearth stones to support a cooking pot
Karo Batak dapurhearth
Toba Batak dapurkitchen
  anak dapurcook
Bare'e rapuhearth, cooking place
  to wono rapuwoman (‘person under the hearth’); spouse
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rapuRspouse
Buginese dapoʔbrazier
Wolio rapuashes; kitchen; oven; wife, housewife; become ashes
CMP
Tugun kalau rafu-nashes

8043

POC     *rapuR hearth

OC
Motu rahu-rahuashes; fireplace
Ghove nak-rɔfuashes
Poro nap-rafuashes
Nggela ravuashes; burnt out, of a fire; side of a house where the fire is made
Nginia ravuashes
Longgu ravuashes
'Āre'āre rahu-ʔato be old, worn-out and dirty, of things
Sa'a laʔe rahuan albino (laʔe = leprosy)
Arosi rahu-(na)ashes
  rahu-aawhite with dust and dirty; pale with skin disease
  rahu-rahu-ʔagrey
Kahua rahuashes
Santa Ana rafuashes
Wayan dravu-dravu-abe poor, deficient, impoverished; lack richness or quality (as someone’s command of a foreign language)
Fijian dravuashes; slaked lime
  dravu-dravu-acovered with ashes; grey in color; poor; poverty
  matā-dravuhearth, fireplace
  matā-dravu ni sautūthe Magellanic Clouds (‘hearth of peace and plenty’)
Tongan ta-lafufireplace on a canoe or other small vessel
Samoan maŋā-lafuhearth

8044

PWMP     *dapuR-an hearth, cooking place

WMP
Itbayaten rapoy-anstove (in general)
Ibatan rapoy-ana stove, a tripod of three stones used for cooking
Ilokano dapug-ánreceptacle for ashes, makeshift stove; open fire
Arta dupuranhearth
Bontok dapul-anto smear with ashes, to cover with ashes; hearth; general area in a house where the fireplace is located
Ifugaw pun-dapúl-anhearth (‘place where the ashes are’)
Tagalog dapug-ánfireplace, hearth; a stove in the open, using firewood
  dapúg-anto build a fire in the open
Hanunóo dapug-ánstove, cooking place
Agutaynen dapog-anto burn dried leaves
Cebuano dapúg-anplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built
Mapun lapoh-anstove (generic)
Yakan lepoh-anstove (in old times it consisted of a fire table that had a surface of dirt on which the fire was built and supports for the pots placed; a charcoal burner is also a lepohan, and so are gas or electric stoves)
Ngaju Dayak dapoh-anhearth, cooking place
Iban dapurhearth, fireplace for cooking
Sangir dapuh-aŋkitchen, hearth
Tonsea ra-rampor-anhearth
Mandar lapur-aŋkitchen (cooking place)
Buginese dapur-ɨŋkitchen

8045

PPh     *d<um>apuR (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) d<um>apulfor dust to cover a surface
Tausug d<um>apugto set fire to, ignite (something)

8046

PWMP     *dapuR dapuR external part of something

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia dapur-dapurexternal part (of things, or parts of the body)
Karo Batak dapur-dapurthe thick side planks around a house above the floor; upper part of the chest, where the nipples are

Note:   Also Agta (Dupaningan) dapor-an ‘hearth, cooking area’, Kankanaey dapʔó ‘ashes’, Ifugaw dapʔúl ‘ashes’; is incorrectly pronounced dapúl in current speech’, Kapampangan dápug ‘bonfire; trash pile (e.g. leaves and other yard sweepings)’, Romblomanon dapu-dapu ‘dust’, Yakan dapul-an ‘clay stove (it consists of a clay vessel with openings on the sides for feeding the fire and for air; wood is used as fuel)’, Tausug dapul-an ‘a stove (both a fire table and a gas range, any cooking stove)’, Kelabit dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak dapur ‘an earth apparatus on which one cooks’ (< Malay), Javanese ḍapur, Sundanese dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Tontemboan ampor-an ‘fire hearth’, Asilulu dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Makatea refu ‘ashes’ (Polynesian loan?), Tongan efu dust; (of a person) dust, mortal remains’, efu-a ‘covered in dust, dusty’, Niue, Futunan efu ‘dust’, Samoan lefu-lefu, Tuvaluan lefu ‘ash’, Hawaiian lehu ‘ashes; ash-colored, as a chicken’.

PMP *dapuR apparently referred to the hearth, although reflexes of *dapuR-an in a number of the languages of the Philippines and western Indonesia suggest that *dapuR had a verbal meaning, and that the form with the locative suffix specified the place where this activity was performed. The close association of the cooking place in the house with accumulations of ash is reflected in a number of glosses, particularly where the sole semanic reflex is ‘ashes’, as in nearly all Oceanic languages. A similar cross-association between these meanings is seen in reflexes of PAn *qabu ‘ashes’ in some languages, as with Paiwan qavu-qavu-an ‘hearth’. A number of the languages of western Indonesia and the southern Philippines appear to have borrowed Malay dapur while at the same time retaining a native form of this word, as in Yakan, Tausug, or Ngaju Dayak. In such cases the distinction in references is not always clear.

30286

*daqan₁ branch, bough

7201

PMP     *daqan₁ branch, bough

WMP
Tombonuwo raanbranch
Abai Sembuak daanbranch
Sesayap adanbranch
Kelabit daʔanbranch, bough of a tree
Sa'ban laʔinbranch
Murik laʔanbranch
Kayan daʔanbranch of a tree
Kayan (Uma Juman) daʔanbranch
Iban danbranch, bough
Moken dakanbough, branch
Malay dahanminor bough or branch of a tree (cp. cabaŋ ‘main boughs’)
Mentawai ranbranch, bough
Sundanese dahanbranch of a tree or plant
Muna raghabranch, bough
  poka-raghato fork, bifurcate, branch
Palauan ráʔəlbranch, bough; branch of government
CMP
Ngadha daabranch, bifurcation, forking
Ujir ranbranch
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai raʔanbranch

7202

POC     *raqan branch, bough

OC
Lou ran kebranch of a tree
Loniu ʔa-ʔanbranch of a tree
Nali dran-dranbranch of a tree
Leipon dran-dranbranch of a tree
Sori haŋbranch of a tree
Bipi xa-xanbranch of a tree
Wuvulu xa-xa-nabranch of a tree
Mussau laabranch
Nehan ranbranch of tree
Mono-Alu la-la-nabranch
Ghari rara-nabranch
Rotuman bough, branch
Samoan lā-lā-(ʔau)branch
Kapingamarangi laa-hiadead branch
Nukuoro laaa branch (of a tree)
Rennellese gaʔa-inato have many branches
Hawaiian lālābranch, limb, bough, coconut frond; timber, as of outrigger boom or float; wing of an army; to branch out, form branches, diverge

7203

PMP     *daqan kahiw branch of a tree

WMP
Kenyah daʔan kayubranch of a tree

7204

POC     *raqan kayu branch of a tree

OC
Mussau laa-ŋ-aibranch of a tree
Samoan lā-ʔauplant, tree; wood; apparatus, set, machine; instrument
Tuvaluan kau-laabranch of a tree
Kapingamarangi laa-gautree, stick, pole, log; bush
Nukuoro laa-gauwood, stick (of wood)
Rennellese gaʔa-kaugeneral name for any kind of log, stick, or plant (tree, bush, shrub); canoe log; shark tail; fighting club
Anuta raa-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log
Maori rā-kautree; wood, timber; stick, spar, mast; weapon; wooden
Hawaiian lā-ʔautree, plant, wood, timber, forest, stick, thicket, club; blow of a club; strength, rigidness, hardness, male erection; to have formed mature wood, as of a seedling; wooden, woody, stiff, as wood; medicine, medicinal; lump or knot in the flesh; general name for canoe endpiece

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak dan, edan ‘branch’, Tongan vaʔa ‘bough, branch’, vaʔa-kau ‘stick, rod, twig or branch (esp. if broken off); cutting (for planting)’. This term has a wide, but oddly sparse distribution, being fairly well-attested in western Indonesia and Polynesia, but rarely elsewhere. The Polynesian reflexes of POc *raqan kayu ‘branch of a tree’ must have still been morphologically complex after the breakup of Proto-Polynesian, since Tuvaluan was able to transpose the historically separate elements in kau-laa ‘branch of a tree’.

32734

*daqan₂ old, ancient; formerly

11169

PPh     *daqan₂ old, ancient; formerly

WMP
Yami adanold (as a story, or clothing)
Itbayaten aʔdanold, not new, antiquated; formerly
Ivatan adanold (things)
Ibatan adanbe old (as a hat)
Ilokano dáanold, ancient; obsolete; stale
Pangasinan dáanold (i.e. not new)
  ka-daan-ánold, ancient
Sambal (Botolan) daʔanold (objects)
Bikol dáʔanold, referring only to things; stale (as bread)
  mag-dáʔanto age
Hanunóo dáʔanold, ancient, referring to objects and abstract things, but not to people; previously, formerly, anciently
Mamanwa daʔanold (objects)
Maranao daʔanalready; old (as a house)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daʔanold; before
Tausug daanold (in the sense of worn, out-of-date, out of fashion, as of cloth, clothes, shoes, books, or houses)
  daan-unto cause something to be old or worn out (esp. by constant wearing, as clothes or shoes)

30193

*daqaN old, ancient

7020

PAN     *daqaN old, ancient     [doublet: *dadan]

Formosan
Kavalan əzanold (of things)
WMP
Yami adanold (as a story, clothing)
Ilokano dáanold, ancient; obsolete; stale
  d<um>áanto get old, be old (things)
  ka-daan-anold-fashioned, outdated, antique
Pangasinan dáanold (i.e., not new)
  ka-daan-ánold, ancient
Bikol dáʔanold, referring only to things; stale (as bread)
  mag-dáʔanto age
Hanunóo dáʔanold, ancient, referring to objects and abstract things, but not to people; by extension dáʔan often means ‘previously’, ‘formerly’, ‘anciently’.
Aklanon dáanolder, ancient; the former
  kina-daánvery old, ancient
Hiligaynon dáʔanold, used, worn out; beforehand, first of all, right away
Cebuano dáanold, not new; the one before, previous
  ka-ráanolden times; very old, leftover from an olden time
  k<in>a-ráanold-fashioned
  paŋa-ráanbe engaged in something over a long period of time
Binukid dáanold, not new; very old, from an olden time, antique; beforehand, ahead of time
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daʔanold; before
Mapun daanold (with respect to objects, in the sense of being worn, used often, out of date, out of fashion, etc.)’
  ma-daanto cause something to be old or worn out (esp. by constant wearing or using)
  pa-daanto become worn out, old

Note:   There is no direct evidence that the final consonant of this form was *N rather than *n, but on the assumption that it is a variant of *dadaN I reconstruct *-N.

25967

*daqaNi day

2197

PAN     *daqaNi day

Formosan
Pazeh dali, dali-anday
WMP
Lampung xaniday
Chamorro haʔaniday

10519

POC     *raqani day

OC
Nauna lɨnday
Talise ndaniday
Lau daniday, daylight; weather
Sa'a däniday
Proto-Micronesian *raaniday
Pohnpeian rahnday
Vatrata ma-randay
Aore raniday
Peterara raniday
Apma renday
Sie ndanday

Note:   Also Paiwan (Western) r-m-aqałi-ałi-an ‘mid-morning (when bees come out)’, Sub-Ambon *daniʔ, Roviana, Hoava rane, Arosi daŋi ‘day’. The semantic distinction between PAn *daqaNi and PAn *waRi remains unclear.

29842

*daqiS forehead; face

6464

PAN     *daqiS forehead; face

Formosan
Kavalan zaisface
Saisiyat ræʔiʃforehead
Papora ddesforehead
Pazeh daisface
Thao shaqishface
Bunun daqisface
Paiwan djaqisforehead

6465

PMP     *daqih forehead; face

WMP
Miri daʔihforehead
Dusun Deyah raiforehead
Ma'anyan raʔiforehead
Iban daiforehead
Malay dahibrow, eyebrow
Old Javanese rahiforehead; face
Javanese raiface; front, façade, surface
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *raqiforehead, face
Muna kon-daghiforehead
Chamorro haʔiforehead

7060

PCEMP     *raqi forehead; face

CMP
Komodo raiforehead
Manggarai saʔiforehead, face

6466

POC     *raqe forehead

OC
Nggela raeforehead
Wayan forehead
Fijian yadreforehead
Niue forehead
Futunan laʔeforehead
Tuvaluan laeforehead
Kapingamarangi laeforehead
Nukuoro laeforehead
Anuta raeforehead
Rarotongan raeforehead
Maori raeforehead, temple; promontory, headland
Hawaiian laeforehead, brow; cape, point, promontory

Note:   Also Tongan laʔe ‘forehead, brow’, Rennellese maga-ŋaʔe ‘forehead’. Known Oceanic reflexes of *daqiS are confined to Central Pacific languages, and all of these show an irregular lowering of the last vowel. In addition, Tongan has an irregular reflex of the initial consonant (POc *r normally > Tongan zero). The original sense of this body-part term appears to have covered both ‘forehead’ and ‘face’, but the ‘face’ sense seems to be more dominant in Formosan languages, and the ‘forehead’ sense outside Taiwan, culminating in Oceanic reflexes which to date have been recorded only in the latter meaning.

25968

*daqu₁ a tree: Dracontomelum edule

2198

PAN     *daqu₁ a tree: Dracontomelum edule

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daHusoapberry tree: Sapindus mukrossi
WMP
Ilokano daóa tree: Dracontomelum sp.
Bikol dáʔoa tree: Dracontomelum dao
Cebuano daúlarge hardwood tree
Simalur daʔukind of tree
Sundanese dahutall tree with edible sour fruits
Old Javanese rahukind of breadfruit tree
Bare'e raʔua tall tree with little durable wood and edible fruits: Dracontomelon mangiferum
Wolio raua tree: Dracontomelum mangiferum.
CMP
Manggarai saʔutall tree with sour fruit: Dracontomelum edule
Ngadha zaukind of tree

Note:   Although *daqu evidently referred to the Dracontomelum edule in PMP, its PAn referent is unclear. The following restricted reconstructions have been proposed: "Proto-Malayo-Javanic" *Dahuq ‘kind of tree’ (Nothofer 1975:148), "PInd" *daqu( ) ‘tree sp., usually Dracontomelum mangiferum Bl.’ (Mills 1981:66), "PHes" *Daqu ‘timber tree: Dracontomelum mangifera’ (Zorc 1982), but the cognate sets proposed by all three of these writers are restricted to WMP languages. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).

30620

*daRa₂ maiden, virgin, unmarried girl

8083

PMP     *daRa₂ maiden, virgin, unmarried girl

WMP
Agutaynen dala-ŋpuberty, male and female
Maranao ragalady, maid, girl who is unmarried; female slave
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) raǥaa single woman; virgin
Moken dalagirl, maiden
Malay daramaiden, virgin
  anak daraunmarried girl, maiden
  ayam darapullet
  ñiur daracoconut palm not yet in bearing
Acehnese anɨʔ daramarriageable girl
Karo Batak anak darathe ring finger
Sundanese daraa young woman who has had her first child; also a female animal that has had its first young
Old Javanese rara ~ rarāgirl, maiden
  a-rarahaving an unmarried daughter or sister
Javanese lɔrɔvirgin girl, young girl of noble birth
  pa-lɔrɔyoung girls of the court
Balinese dahamaid, virgin; virginal, not having borne fruit
  daha twaold maid
Sasak darayoung girl, unmarried woman
Chamorro hagadaughter
CMP
Kisar rarefemale, of animals
Leti rarafemale, of animals that haven’t yet borne young
Wetan rarawoman
Proto-Aru *raRyoung unmarried woman (Richard Nivens, p.c.)

8084

PWMP     *da-daRa maiden, virgin, unmarried girl

WMP
Tagalog da-lágayoung, unmarried woman from adolescence up; maiden (not common)
  mag-dalagáto grow into a teenage girl
  dálaga-hínsaid of a girl who is at the beginning of puberty
  dalaga-ŋ ináan unwed mother
Bikol da-rágayoung, unmarried woman; maiden, damsel, lass
  pagka-daragafeminity; maidenhood, virginity
Hanunóo da-rágamaid, maiden, young girl; virgin; any unmarried girl past the age of puberty
Romblomanon dalāga ~ darāgaan unmarried woman, beginning at puberty until marriage; usually a young unmarried woman; a spinster
  dalag-ītayoung unmarried girl, an adolescent female from about 12 to 17 years
Masbatenyo darágaa young female, unmarried girl, young lady, maiden; refers to a young girl of marriageable age
  mag-darágabecome a marriageable female; refers to females who become of marriageable age
  daragá-honladylike
Aklanon daeágagirl, young lady, young unmarried woman; maiden
Waray-Waray darágamaiden; an unmarried woman; single, as of civil status
  darag-itateenage girl
Agutaynen da-dala-ŋ-dala-ŋteenager: more often used about girls
Hiligaynon dalágaunmarried girl between the age of about fifteen to thirty
Cebuano dalágaunmarried woman; young girl who has reached maturity; reach womanhood by virtue of menstruating
  dalag-ítaa girl close to maturity but not yet mature (ten to thirteen years old)
Maranao da-ragamaiden, young woman
Tausug dāgamaiden girl, adolescent girl in puberty stage (may also be spoken of some animals)
Iban darayoung woman, unmarried woman, maiden; (of women) smart
Sundanese da-darafemales who have borne their first young (collective)
Sasak də-darayoung girl, unmarried woman
Mongondow deagayoung, of land animals and birds
  moŋo-deagayoung, of a daughter
Totoli tau dolagovirgin, young girl
Pendau ren-daavirgin, young girl
Boano tau doagovirgin, young girl
Dampelas han-daavirgin, young girl
Ampibabo-Lauje (u)ŋa-lagavirgin, young girl
Tae' anak darasister of a man
Makasarese anaʔ rarayoung girl from about nine to thirteen years of age
  anaʔ rara suntiŋyoung girl who has had her menarche (11-12 years of age)

8085

PWMP     *ka-daRa-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ka-dalagá-hangroup of unmarried women
Cebuano ka-dalagá-hanmaidens
Old Javanese ka-rara-nmaidenhood

8086

PWMP     *d<um>aRa in one’s maidenhood

WMP
Tagalog d<um>alágayoung female animal that has not yet borne any young
Masbatenyo d<um>arágapullet, young hen
Old Javanese r<um>arain her maidenhood, young (of a woman)
Balinese d<um>ahabe still a virgin

Note:   Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak jarah-jarah ‘female animals in general; a heifer, a hen who has laid her first egg ’. This form is erroneously said to be of Sanskrit origin in several dictionaries, as Coolsma (1930), Richards (1981), and Wilkinson (1959). The regular reflexes of PAn *R in all languages cited here, and the fact that Chamorro has a cognate form shows that this statement is false. The primary meaning of this term appears to be ‘girl between the onset of menstruation and time of marriage’, although scattered references (Tagalog, Masbatenyo, Malay, Sundanese, Tausug, Mongondow) suggest that it also applied to animals, particularly hens that have just begun to produce eggs. It may be that the term *anak daRa was used for humans to distinguish these two senses.

30287

*daRaq blood; to bleed; menstruate

7205

PAN     *daRaq blood; to bleed; menstruate

Formosan
Taokas taxablood
Basai tsalablood
Seediq dalablood
Amis lalaʔto menstruate, have monthly period
Favorlang/Babuza tagablood
Kanakanabu caraʔəblood
Saaroa caraʔəblood
Paiwan djaqmenstrual blood
WMP
Yami ralablood
Itbayaten rayablood
  ka-rayaconsanguine, blood kin
Ilokano dárablood
  d<um>árato bleed
  pa-dara-ento bleed a person or animal
Agta (Dupaningan) digiblood
  d<um>igito bleed
Isneg dáxablood; plants
  d<um>áxato bleed
Itawis daháblood
Bontok dálablood
  ka-dala-ancompatible, suitable for
  d<in>álameat which is recooked in blood, after the broth of the first cooking has been removed
  d<um>álato bleed
Ifugaw dálablood of an animal, fish, person (the blood of animals and chickens is boiled with salt and vegetables and eaten as a side dish)
  in-dálamenstruation
  d<um>álato bleed
Ifugaw (Batad) dālablood
  in-dālato menstruate
  d<um>ālato bleed (nose, teeth, a wound, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat digeblood
Ibaloy shalablood
  on-shalato bleed, to menstruate
  shala-ansmear something with blood
Pangasinan daláblood
  d<in>ala-ánpork, etc. cooked in pig’s blood
Kapampangan dáyaʔblood
  ka-ráyaʔone with same blood type
  matua dáyaʔa nephew older than his uncle (lit. ‘king blood’)
Abaknon lahaʔblood
Tiruray daraʔblood; to bleed
  mere-daraʔto bleed profusely, as from a cut artery
Mapun lahaʔblood
  lahaʔ-anhaving a menstrual cycle, having blood on something
Yakan lahaʔblood
  i-lahaʔto menstruate
  ŋa-lahaʔto bleed
Abai Sembuak daaʔblood
Ida'an Begak ddaʔblood
Bisaya (Limbang) raʔblood
Lun Dayeh daraʔblood
Kelabit daraʔblood
  deraʔ-enbleeding, as the gums
Kenyah (Long Anap) daaʔblood
Bintulu raʔblood
Melanau (Mukah) daaʔblood
Bukat daʔblood
Lahanan laʔablood
Seru dablood
Tunjung dahaaʔblood
Ngaju Dayak dahablood
  ba-dahato bleed
  utaŋ dahablood payment
Lawangan dayablood
Malagasy rablood
  misondro drato be very angry, to faint (lit. ‘the blood rushes up’)
Iban darahblood; bleed; stock, race; the red sap of some trees
Maloh daraʔblood
Singhi Land Dayak doyublood
Jarai drahblood
Moken dalakblood
Malay darahblood, in both literal and metaphorical senses; also found in many plant names
  darah putihroyal blood (lit. ‘white blood’)
Acehnese darahblood
  danoh darahdysentery
Gayō rayohblood
  mu-rayohto bleed
  mure-rayoh-ensoaked with blood, as clothing
Simalur dalablood
Rejang daleaʔblood
  daleaʔ dagiŋkinsmen, blood relatives; flesh and blood
Old Javanese rāh, rahblood
  aŋ-rah-ito inflict a bleeding wound
  rah-enblood-stained, covered with blood
Javanese rahblood (Krama)
Madurese dharablood
  a-dharato bleed
Sangir dahablood; milky sap of plants
  meʔ-dahato bleed
Totoli laablood
  maka-laato bleed
Boano laʔablood
Bare'e daablood
Tae' rarablood; smear with the blood of a sacrificial animal
  ke-rarato bleed, to menstruate
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *raRaQblood
Buginese darablood
Makasarese rarablood
Wolio raablood
  ko-raato bleed, bloody
  sa-raa-raaof the same blood
Muna reablood
Popalia rahablood
Palauan rásəʔblood
Chamorro hagaʔblood
CMP
Bimanese raʔablood
  n-daʔato bleed
Komodo rablood; menstruation; bloody nose
Manggarai darablood
Rembong daraʔblood
Ngadha raablood; menstrual blood, menstruation; blood relationship; to bleed; blood-red colors; bloody, as dysentery
Li'o rablood
Lamaholot raʔablood
Lamboya rablood
Anakalangu rablood
Kambera wai riablood
Hawu rablood
Rotinese da(k)blood; plant sap
Tetun ra-n ~ rablood
Erai rara-nblood
Tugun rara-nblood
Damar (West) rowoblood
Leti rarablood; menses
Selaru la-rblood
Yamdena dareblood
  na-dareto bleed
Watubela lalakblood
Bonfia lasablood
Bobot lasablood
Kamarian lalablood
Paulohi lalablood
Alune lalablood; red
Asilulu lalablood; to bleed
Buruese raha-nblood; bloody
Kayeli lalablood; bleed
Sekar rarablood
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai rarablood
Buli lacoagulated blood; blood clot
Moor rarablood
Waropen rarablood

7206

POC     *draRaq blood

OC
Nauna cayblood
Pak hayblood
Loniu ʔayblood
Nali drayblood
Titan layblood
Leipon drayblood
Drehet khablood
Sori hayblood
Bipi xayblood
Seimat ka-kablood
Wuvulu xa-xablood
Mussau raeblood
  rae-rae-nared
Wogeo darablood
Manam darablood
  dara-darabloody
Takia dala-blood
Keapara ralablood
Motu rarablood; descendants
Tawala tala-blood
Dobuan rarablood
Cheke Holo da-darablood; bleed
Kokota da-dara-nablood
Gilbertese rarablood; stick sap
  ka-rara-eato make bleed; rust; to make rusty
Kosraean srahblood
Marshallese dablood
Pohnpeian ntablood
Mokilese insablood
  insah-n pahraŋrust
Chuukese chchablood; bloody; bleed; menstruate
Puluwat ccablood; red; be bloody
Woleaian chablood; red; bloody
Merlav ndarablood
Raga ndaxa-blood
Lenakel nɨ-ta(a)blood
Iaai drablood; red
Fijian drāblood, sap

7207

PAN     *ma-daRaq bloody, bleeding; to menstruate

Formosan
Paiwan ma-djaqto menstruate
WMP
Itbayaten ma-rayain the menstruation period, to menstruate
Itawis ma-dahábloody
Lun Dayeh me-daraʔbloody or bleeding
Acehnese meu-darahbleeding, bloody
Old Javanese ma-rahbleeding
Bare'e ma-daato bleed, to menstruate

7208

PWMP     *maR-daRaq to bleed

WMP
Ilokano ag-dárato bleed
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-digito menstruate
Isneg mag-dáxato bleed
Itawis mad-daháto bleed
Casiguran Dumagat mag-digeto bleed, to menstruate
Yakan mag-lahaʔto bleed; to menstruate
Malay ber-darahto bleed
Buginese mad-darato bleed

7209

PMP     *daRa-daRaq bloody

WMP
Ilokano dara-darabloody
  dar-darafortitude
Ifugaw (Batad) dala-dālabloody
Ngaju Dayak daha-dahato bleed a little
  ka-daha-dahato bleed continuously
CMP
Buruese rah-rahabloody

Note:   Also Karo Batak dareh ‘blood’, dareh-en ‘to bleed, of a wound’, Toba Batak daro ‘blood, especially menstrual blood’, daro mata ‘coagulated blood’, Alune lalakwe ‘blood; red’, Mota nara ‘blood; bleed’. Oddly, two of the clearest reflexes of this form in the Solomon Islands are Ndovele, Mbilua ndara ‘blood’, a form found in these two non-Austronesian languages, but not in any of their Austronesian neighbors.

29855

*daRat littoral sea, sea near the shore

6503

PMP     *daRat littoral sea, sea near the shore

WMP
Ilokano dáratsand, silt
  ka-darat-ansandy place
Agta (Dupaningan) digetsea, ocean
  ma-digetrough, of the sea
Casiguran Dumagat digetocean, sea, sea water; go to the beach
Kapampangan dáyatrice fields
  dáyat malatocean, sea
Tagalog dágatsea, ocean; bay, gulf; lake
Bikol dágatocean, sea
  ka-dagát-anhigh seas
Hanunóo dágatsea, ocean (as opposed to land)
Aklanon dágatsalt water; sea
  dagátget motion sickness, get seasick
Hiligaynon dágatsea, ocean
  dagátseasickness, nausea
Cebuano dágatsea; sea water; seasick
Maranao ragatsea, ocean
Binukid daǥatsea; ocean
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daǥatthe sea
Mansaka daǥatsea; ocean; large body of water
Tiruray dogota body of saltwater, an ocean; to resemble an ocean, as a huge lake
Tausug dagatsea, ocean, ocean water
  pa-nagatto hunt for shellfish, edible plants or other edible animals along the shore at low tide
Bintulu ratsea, ocean
Melanau (Mukah) daatlittoral sea, sea near the shore
Iban daratland, as opposed to river or sea
Cham daraksea
Malay daratdry land, in contrast to coastal swamp; upland; inner or high land, in contrast to lowland
Acehnese daratland, shore
Karo Batak darat-enland (as opposed to sea or water)
Toba Batak daratland, as opposed to sea
Old Javanese rātthe world; the visible, inhabited world; mankind, created beings
Javanese ratworld
Balinese dahatdry land, shore
Sasak be-daratto land, come ashore
  daratland, solid land, terra firma
Mongondow dagatsea, saltwater; according to some speakers dagat refers specifically to shallow sea near the coast
Pendau dagatsea
CMP
Tetun raatseashore, beach at the edge of the sea
  tasi raatseashore (Mathijsen 1906)

6921

POC     *raRat sea coast (?)

OC
Roviana rarata-nasea coast
  vose rarataclosely follow the coast line in a canoe, etc.

6631

PPh     *ka-daRát-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano ka-darat-ansandy place
Bikol ka-ragát-anhigh seas, open sea
Aklanon ka-ragát-anopen sea; ocean

Note:   Also Pangasinan dáyat ‘sea, ocean’, Javanese ḍarat ‘land (as contrasted with water, air)’, Sundanese darat ‘dry land in contrast with water, terra firma; darat-an ‘land (in a broader sense than darat); figurative for ‘rest’ or ‘intervening space’, Balinese dahet ‘dry land; shore’, Bare'e daga ‘substitute term for sea or lake’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed this term with the meaning ‘surface; level, plain’ (German: Fläche), but this seems clearly to be in error, as reflexes in Melanau (Mukah) of coastal Sarawak, Mongondow of northern Sulawesi, Tetun of central Timor and Roviana of the western Solomons agree in pointing to the meaning ‘littoral sea’, or perhaps ‘line where the land meets the sea’. In most Philippine languages reflexes of *daRat refer to the sea without qualification, and in Malay and some other languages of western Indonesia (as Toba Batak), which may have borrowed their term from Malay, the meaning is ‘land, as opposed to sea’. While these terms are semantically antithetical, the meaning ‘littoral sea’ serves to bridge them and suggests how the unqualified senses ‘sea’ and ‘land’ may have developed from a meaning that bridged the two. Thanks to Arlo Griffiths for pointing out Cham darak.

25969

*daRayaʔ teem, swarm

2199

PWMP     *daRayaʔ teem, swarm

WMP
Hiligaynon dagayaʔmany, plentiful, teeming, swarming
Kayan (Uma Juman) dayaʔswarming of fish during spawning

32741

*daRehuŋ deep booming sound

11177

PWMP     *daRehuŋ deep booming sound

WMP
Cebuano dághuŋgroan
Malay dəroŋdeep booming sound, such as the clanging of a bell

25970

*daReq soil, probably clay

2200

PAN     *daReq soil, probably clay

Formosan
Bunun dalaqground (earth, land, place, soil)
Saaroa sareːearth, soil
Rukai (Tona) daʔéearth, soil
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daReHearth, soil
WMP
Ilokano dagáearth, land, soil
Bikol dagáʔearth, land, soil
CMP
Tetun raiearth, soil, ground; land estate, kingdom; the world
Buruese raheground
  rah(e) isinsoil
OC
Motu raroclay (used in making cooking pots)
Roviana rarocooking pot

Note:   Milke (1965) proposed this as an innovation of the Austronesian languages of New Guinea, while Pawley (1978:43) suggested POc *dado ‘clay pot, clay used by potters’. Tsuchida (1976:169) gives "PHes" *[zZ]aReq₂ ‘earth’, and Zorc (1981) gives "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *daReq ‘earth, clay’. Neither of the latter cognate sets contain Oceanic witnesses -- which show clearly that the initial consonant could not have been a palatal -- and Pawley's cognate set does not include non-Oceanic witnesses -- which show clearly that the medial consonant was *R.

25971

*daRi a fish: Scomberoides sp.

2201

PMP     *daRi a fish: Scomberoides sp.

WMP
Chamorro hagia fish: Scomberoides santi-petri (family Carangidae), pompano or jack crevally
OC
Samoan laia fish: Scomberoides sp.
Hawaiian laia fish: Scomberoides sp.

25972

*daRiŋ groan, moan

2202

PAN     *daRiŋ groan, moan     [doublet: *deReŋ]

Formosan
Bunun da-daliŋto moan (of a man, as when sick)
Tsou troe-creŋito moan (of a man, as when sick)
Saaroa tara-a-sariŋito moan (of a man, as when sick)
Paiwan z-m-aiŋmake noise, shout
WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daɣiŋnoise, sound
  me-zaɣiŋloud, noisy
Sangir dahiŋbreathe loudly, as one suffering from asthma

Note:   All Formosan forms are from Tsuchida (1976:275), who assigns them to Proto-South Formosan *D₂aRiŋ ‘moan, shout’.

25984

*da(ŋ)sek crowd, push together

2214

PWMP     *da(ŋ)sek crowd, push together

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat dasektamp down (as dirt in a hole), shake down (as a container to settle the contents)
Hiligaynon dasúkto fill (as a bag with clothes), to crowd
Maranao dasekpress (as in pressing down the contents of a sack), full (as the mouth)
Balinese daŋseknear, be in a crowd

Note:   With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.

25973

*daSdaS chest (anat.)

2203

PAN     *daSdaS chest (anat.)

Formosan
Kavalan zaszaschest

6980

PWMP     *dahdah chest (anat.)

WMP
Itbayaten rahdahchest, breast
Malagasy tratrathe breast
  tratra-inaconsumptive; asthmatic
Iban dadachest, breast
  luak dadachest cavity
Jarai tədachest
Malay dadabreast, chest, usually in a physical or literal sense; of the whole front of the body and not a single breast (susu); used figuratively of angles and shapes, and especially in technical descriptions of a horse’s forequarters
  dada bidaŋbroad-chested
Acehnese dadachest, breast
Karo Batak tulan dadathe cartilege between ribs and breast bone
Toba Batak dadachest, breast
Rejang dadochest
  tian dadobreast-bone
Sundanese dadachest, bosom
  nepak-an dadapound oneself on the chest
Old Javanese ḍaḍabreast, chest
Balinese (High) dadachest, breast
Sasak dadachest, breast
Bare'e dadachest, breast
Tae' dadachest, breast
Mandar dadachest; lungs; pit of the stomach; breath
Buginese dadachest, breast
Makasarese dadabreast of birds, chickens and ducks

Note:   Based on Javanese ḍaḍa, Malay dada, Malagasy tratra ‘chest’, Fijian vaka-rara-kobi ‘cross the arms over the chest’, Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *ḍaḍa ‘chest’. However, both the Fijian and Malagasy forms are of doubtful cognation, and the Javanese form may be a loan from Malay.

30426

*dataR flat, flat or level land

7564

PAN     *dataR flat, flat or level land

Formosan
Puyuma datarvillage (ritual term)
  ka-datar-anspirits of the true village in Puyuma
Paiwan na ma-zatjato be level
  ka-zatja-zatjato be level
WMP
Yami ratayflatlands, prairie
Itbayaten rataylowlands; plain region of Mayan (a place name)
Ilokano datárfloor, bamboo flooring
  ag-datárto make a bamboo floor
Agta (Dupaningan) ditagplain, small clearing
Isneg datāgfloor, flooring
  mag-da-datāgto weave flooring
Itawis datágfloor
  mad-datágto floor a house
Bontok datalname of a large, relatively level, pondfield area in the Bágiw area near Guinaang
Pangasinan datálwooden or bamboo floor
Aklanon datágopen field, plain, prairie
Cebuano datáglevel land
Tiruray datarflat land, a plain; (of land) level or flat
Tboli datala plain; a flat area; level place; flat, level; ironed out, as a problem
Tausug datagflat, level (as a piece of land)
Kayan datahlevel, flat (as farmland)
Malagasy rátanaa plain, level country
Malay datarsmooth; level; flat (as land)
Old Javanese ratā ~ ra-ratāa level place, plain
Javanese rataevenly distributed or spread (as soil), smooth (as pavement); roughly, approximately
Balinese dataflat, level; all
  datah-aŋbe made completely level; be treated all alike
Proto-Minahasan *dataheven, level; plain, level land
Makasarese dataraʔflat, level
CMP
Kamarian latarflat land
Paulohi latalelevel land, plain
Alune latalelevel land, plain
Buruese rataplain

8136

POC     *rataR flat or level land

OC
Mota ratalevel ground, plain

7565

PWMP     *maŋ-dataR to make level or flat, as in levelling land

WMP
Kayan ŋe-datahto make level or flat
Javanese ŋ-ratato smooth, to make even (as in dividing portions)

7566

PAN     *ka-dataR-an plain, region of level land

Formosan
Paiwan ka-zatja-nlevel land, plain
  k<m>a-zatja-nto level ground
WMP
Yami ka-ratay-anflatlands, prairie
Itbayaten ka-ratay-anplain region of area, plain expanse
Cebuano ka-datág-anplains

Note:   Also Bontok detal-en ‘to level’, Binukid datal ‘to level something’, Yakan datag ‘flat (as a roof)’ (< Bisayan or Danaw language), Ngaju Dayak datar ‘level, even’ (< Banjarese Malay), Sundanese datar ‘flat, even’, tanah datar ‘flat land, plain’ (< Malay), Bare'e rato ‘a plain; flat’, Muna rata ‘flat, level’ (< Malay, and ultimately Javanese). Since Cebuano has datág ‘level land’ the similar forms látad ~ látag ‘spread something out under the sun’, probably are best regarded as not reflecting *dataR, and the same would then follow for Tagalog látag ‘something spread on the floor or ground, as a carpet, mat, rug, etc.’, ma-látag ‘to be spread out’, mag-látag ‘to spread, to lay’, which Dempwolff (1938) assigned to his *DataR ‘level, flat’.

30590

*dateŋ to arrive, reach a place

7986

PMP     *dateŋ to arrive, reach a place

WMP
Yami rateŋarrive back home from the fields or another village
  ka-rateŋjust got home
Itbayaten rateŋidea of arrival
  ka-rateŋarrival, act of arriving
Ilokano datéŋarrival
  mag-teŋ-anto able to reach; (fig.) afford a certain price
Agta (Dupaningan) i-ditáŋbring something
Isneg datáŋto reach
  daʔŋ-an-ānto find, to overtake
Bontok datə́ŋto arrive, especially of an epidemic
Kankanaey datéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive
Ifugaw datóŋarrival; to arrive at one’s destination, to bring something to the place where it has to be, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) datoŋfor someone to arrive at a given place or time
  ipa-datoŋ-nafocus is on an unnamed agent which causes an epidemic sickness to arrive, such as influenza
Isinay datáŋto arrive
  mad-datáŋto arrive
Kapampangan dátaŋarrive, come
Tagalog datíŋarrival; act of arriving
Bikol datóŋto arrive; epilepsy
  mag-datóŋto arrive
  da-datŋ-ónan epileptic
Cebuano tuŋ-bálayto go to someone’s house (from datuŋ balay)
Maranao dateŋsustain, endure; patient; persist in being present
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dateŋfever; to have a fever
Mansaka datuŋto arrive
Tausug datuŋto arrive
Iban dataycome, arrive, reach; send; bring; until, as far as
Malay dataŋto come; to chance upon
  men-dataŋ-ito come up against, assail
  ke-dataŋ-an mautthe coming of death
  dataŋ-dataŋadventitious
Bahasa Indonesia dataŋ-dataŋjust arrived, newly arrived
Sundanese ratəŋthe swarming of insects, the clustering of many flying kites or lamps
Old Javanese ḍatəŋto come, arrive; arrival
Javanese ḍateŋ(to go) to, toward; concerning; to come, arrive
Sasak dateŋcome, arrive; up to, until
Sangir mi-ratiŋarrive, reach
Uma ratacome, reach, arrive at
Tae' ratucome, arrive
  to ratuguest
  (ka)-ratu-iarrive at
Wolio rato-ratokind of bird whose call announces people coming
Muna ratoarrive, come; reach, arrive at something
  ka-ratosuddenly arrive
  rato-haarrival time
  rato-mibring food and drink to someone; take care of someone’s life
  rato-ratolong-horned grasshopper whose call signals the arrival of a guest
CMP
Erai ratanto arrive; as far as, until; enough

7987

PWMP     *maka-dateŋ able to arrive

WMP
Itbayaten maka-rateŋable to arrive
Tagalog maka-ratíŋto be able to arrive at
Murut (Timugon) maka-ratoŋable to arrive
Sangir maka-ratiŋto reach

7988

PWMP     *d<um>ateŋ to arrive

WMP
Ilokano d<um>teŋto arrive, come, reach one’s destination
Agta (Dupaningan) d<um>itáŋto arrive
Kankanaey d<um>atéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive
Ifugaw d<um>atóŋto arrive
Tagalog d<um>atíŋto arrive
Mansaka d<om>a-datuŋstranger; foreigner; new arrival
Tausug d<um>atuŋto arrive; to appeal a court case
Murut (Timugon) r<um>atoŋto arrive
Abai Sembuak matoŋarrive
Javanese ḍ<um>ateŋto, toward; to go to(ward)
Sangir mə-d<um>atiŋstrive to reach
Muna r<um>ato-novisitor, guest

7989

PWMP     *ka-dateŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ká-ratn-ánpossible result
Malay ke-dataŋ-anadvent, approach, coming
Bahasa Indonesia ke-dataŋ-anthe arrival of something
Old Javanese ka-ḍatəŋ-anbeing reached
Sangir ka-ratiŋ-aŋarrived at through, arrived at via

7990

PWMP     *dateŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ratŋ-anto arrive
Tagalog datn-ánto visit; to come upon; to catch someone in the act; to find someone or something upon arrival; to have menstruation
Bikol datoŋ-ánthe main entrance to a town
Tausug datuŋ-anto be a recipient, be attacked or beset (by something, as a disease, fear, laziness); place where someone stays upon arrival (as a house, hotel, or apartment); a person or body to which a (court) case is brought or referred
Murut (Timugon) rataŋ-antime, place, or reason for arrival
Old Javanese ḍatəŋ-an(recently arrived) guest
Balinese dateŋ-anguest

7991

PWMP     *dateŋ-en (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Kankanaey datŋ-ento arrive at; to attain; to reach; to meet; to find; to light on; to come across
Tagalog datn-ínto reach, attain, or experience
Murut (Timugon) rotoŋ-onthe place where one arrives for some purpose

Note:   Also Bontok gatéŋ ‘to arrive, especially of an epidemic’, Toba Batak man-dataŋ ‘to come; happen, occur’, d<um>ataŋ ‘to appear as the sign of an oracle’, Balinese ḍateŋ ‘come, arrive’ (< Javanese), Erai ratan ‘arrive’ (< Malay?). The semantic distinction between this term and PMP *teka ‘to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete’ is unclear, as both words evidently referred to physical arrival, with extended senses that applied to emotions or physical states caused by the ‘arrival’ of epidemic disease or some adverse peersonal condition (epilepsy, fever, menstruation).

30124

*datu lineage priest (?)

6857

PMP     *datu lineage priest (?)

WMP
Ilokano datoMuslim ruler
Pangasinan dátuleader of a tribal group, chief
Kapampangan dátu-ʔleader, rarely used except with reference to southern Philippines or to olden days
Tagalog dáto-ʔhigh priest (Laktaw 1914); tribal chief in pre-Christian days (Panganiban 1966)
Bikol dáto-ʔ(archaic) headman, chief; also referring to the rich and influential members of pre-Hispanic Bikol society
Masbatenyo dáto-ʔchief, ruler (from Cebuano)
Aklanon dátu-ʔruler, king; rich, wealthy, powerful (through money)
Cebuano dátu-ʔrich, wealthy; title of a chief, now said only to Muslim leaders
Maranao dato-ʔchieftain, leader, boss, lord, master, king, gentleman
Binukid datu-ʔchieftain, mediator
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) datu-ʔchief, leader
Mansaka dato-ʔleader, chief; a dato-ʔ is usually someone who has wealth
Tiruray datu-ʔa Moslem nobleman; a male leader among superhuman beings
Mapun datu-ʔchief; headman; any male member or descendant of a chief’s family
  anak datu-ʔprince, the child of a chief
Yakan datu-ʔchief, headman
Tboli datu-ʔa traditional leader over a group of people living in a particular geographical area … it was expected that the position would be passed on from father to son
Tausug datu-ʔprince, any male member of a royal family; a rank bestowed on certain people
Ba'amang datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Lawangan datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Ma'anyan datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Samihim datugreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Malay dato-khead of family, elder; used as a term of relationship to or of a grandfather; as a term of distinction to or of any great non-royal chief; as a term of respect to any man of age and standing
  dato-k nenekancestors generally
  dato-ŋgrandfather (very literary, and used only of or to one’s own grandfather)
  daturuler, chief … this is the old Malay sovereign title borne by the Srivijaya king of the Kota Kapur inscription (AD 686)
  ke-datu-ankindgom (of Srivijaya)
Acehnese datu ~ datoʔ ~ toʔgrandfather, ancestor; term of address for elders; title for the guardians of traditional law on the west coast; title of animals or things that are regarded as holy or especially feared
Gayō datuancestor in the female line
Simalur datu-ʔhead of a kin group and guardian of traditional law
Karo Batak datu-ktitle of the head of the urungs (federations of different villages related through a “mother” village); he is subordinate to the sultan; title of powerful magicians, spirits and deities
Dairi-Pakpak Batak datufunction among animists (‘orang kafir’) worshipping idols; shaman
Toba Batak datushaman, magician, soothsayer, doctor who makes offerings to the spirits, reads the signs in chicken entrails, selects auspicious days, and whose advice is sought in all matters of daily concern
  ha-datu-onskill in the science of the datu which could sometimes be found in a radja’ (political leader; Vergouwen 1964:132)
Minangkabau datutitle for a native medical practitioner; clever, learned
  datu-aʔtitle for administrators of customary law; term of address to an elder; grandfather (van der Toorn 1891)
Sundanese ratuprince, king, princess; in south Bantam the highest title for noblewomen
Old Javanese ratuking (rarely, queen)
  ka-ratu-nkingship, royal dignity
Javanese ratuking, queen, monarch
  kraton (< *ka-ratu-an)palace, court
Madurese ratoking
  ka-rato-npalace
Balinese ḍatuking, chief (an archaic form of ratu)
Sasak datuprince
Sangir datuprince, king
  ka-ra-ratu-aŋtime or place of ascent to kingship
Mongondow datulord, prince, king; in earlier times people hardly dared to use the word datu, and generally called the prince ki tuang ‘the lord’
  ko-datu-anbe designated a prince
Bare'e datuthe title of the princes of Luwu’, who until 1906 were the overseers of the Toraja people (from Buginese)
Proto-South Sulawesi *datuprince, chieftain
Makasarese datuBuginese princely title
  ratuold word for karaeng, prince
  ka-ratu-aŋ(old and poetic) princely quality
CMP
Ngadha ratulord, king; noble, aristocrat
Sika ratuking
Kambera ratuleader in religious ritual; priest
  marapu ratuoldest, now deified ancestors from whom superior lineages trace their ancestry
Hawu ratuprince
Yamdena ratugreat man, king; guardian of the truth; God
Fordata ratuking
Kei rātking, ruler
Paulohi latuking
Alune latuvillage head
Proto-Ambon *datuking
Asilulu latuking, village chief
  latu kairupaŋthe ancient ruler of Asilulu before the descent to the coast, and the spirit which guards over the site of the old village
OC
Fijian ratuhonorific particle and title of rank before names of males who are chiefs

Note:   Also Balinese ratu ‘king’, Wayan rātū ‘head of a clan, the title given to one who has been installed as chief’, Samoan lātū ‘person in charge of an undertaking, e.g. a party of builders, or, in the case of women, a weaving bee’. Most reflexes of *datu in the Philippines and western Indonesia contain a vocative marker *-q (Blust 1979). PMP *datu is clearly a key cultural marker, but one that is fraught with problems. Despite the temptation to include Standard Fijian ratu in this comparison, the related words in both Wayan and Samoan suggest that Capell (1968) failed to transcribe length on the vowels of this form, and this makes a derivation from PMP *datu much more difficult. For a fuller discussion of the likely meaning of this term cf. Blust (2010).

25974

*dawak curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance

2204

PWMP     *dawak curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance

WMP
Kalinga dawakgeneral term for curing rite in which the medium's spirit helpers are named and invoked, and in which possession takes place
Murut (Timugon) rawakmajor ritual for exorcising of persons or houses (involves communion with a spirit familiar during a self-induced trance)

Note:   Maranao raoak ‘hope for the downfall of an individual by prayer and devilish interference’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rawak ‘a curse; to invoke a curse on someone’ appear to be distinct.

30288

*daya upriver, toward the interior

7210

PAN     *daya upriver, toward the interior

Formosan
Kavalan zayawest; toward the mountains
  qa-zaya-nwestern side
Saisiyat rayaʔinland
Seediq dayaabove, upland, upriver
Pazeh dayaeast
  mia-dayatowards the east; go east
Thao sayauphill, upstream, in an uphill direction
  i-tana-sayalocated uphill from the speaker
  mana-sayago upstream, go uphill; climb a hill or mountain
Rukai (Mantauran) ðaɭaabove
Paiwan zayaupland; upriver
  i-zayato be higher up (as on a mountain)
  lʸia-zaya(go) high upland
WMP
Yami ralanext to the mountain, on the inside, in the north
  i-ralaOrchid Island, the name the Tao have given their own island
Itbayaten ha-rayaidea of dragging a boat toward shore (e.g. from fishing)
  i-rayaland (in contrast with the sea)
  maka-rayato approach the land by sea
Ilokano dáyaeast
  ipa-dáyato point to the east
  makin-dáyaon the east side
Isneg man-dáyaupstream
  i-man-dáyapeople who live upstream
Bontok dáyasky; heaven
Kankanaey dáyaheavens; firmament; sky
Ifugaw dáyacosmic Upstream Region, extending beyond the Sky Cupola; it is conceived as surrounding half of the earth; the cosmic Upstream Region is inhabited by the gods and spirits of the Dáya, who dwell in a number of villages situated above the lower part of the Sky Cupola; the stem dáya is also applied to any site of the Earth proper that lies nearer the cosmic Dáya (i.e. more upstream) than the habitat of the person who speaks
Ifugaw (Batad) DāyaThe Heavens (includes the earth’s atmosphere, touched by mountain peaks, where birds fly; it is the location of clouds, and the source of meteorological events, as rain, hail, thunder and lightning, storms and the like. The territory also includes outer space and involves spirits relating to, and named after various celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, numerous named stars, sunlight and so forth)
Tagalog i-láyainterior part of a territory; upper part of a town; the northern part of a place
Bikol i-ráyaupstream, inland
  mag-i-ráyato go upstream; to carry upstream
Masbatenyo i-rayáupstream, hinerland, inlands, back country
Aklanon eayádry land
  i-layáinland (section of town)
  pa-i-layáto go inland
Waray-Waray i-rayáfarm; a tract of land devoted to agriculture; the upper or interior part of a town
Hiligaynon i-layáhinterland, remote area
Cebuano i-láyaarea away from the coast or town
  pa-i-láyato go inland
  i-laya-nhunhillbilly, one from the remote interior regions
Maranao rayaupriver
Lun Dayeh dayehupriver, the source of a river on a mountain
  Lun Dayehinterior people, people from upriver
Kelabit dayehupriver, toward the interior
  me-dayehgo upriver, go toward the interior
Kenyah (Long Anap) kaʔ dayaupriver
Bintulu razatoward the interior, away from the sea
Singhi Land Dayak doyuxinterior, inland
Moken dayaupstream
Malay barat dayasouthwest
Sangir dalathere behind, on the back side
  dala einland, toward the interior
  in-dalapeople from the interior
Chamorro hayasouth (in Guam and Rota); east (in Saipan)
CMP
Selaru raland, as against sea; land side
Yamdena dayeinland, west
Fordata daainland
  n-daago inland
Asilulu lalandward side, landward direction
Larike laelandward

7211

POC     *raya upriver, toward the interior

OC
Mussau laehinterland, interior

7212

PWMP     *di-daya above, in the interior

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’)
Casiguran Dumagat dí-dyaupriver
Binukid di-rayaupriver, upstream direction
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) di-zayain an upstream direction
Mandar di-ayaabove, from the interior

Note:   Forms of this base with a fossilized or near-fosslized locative marker *i or *di appear in a number of Philippine languages and in South Sulawesi languages, suggesting that in many languages the notion of ‘upriver, toward the interior’ was conceived more as a location than a direction (cf. Mills 1975:678, where he notes fossilized *di in several languages not cited here). Along with PAn *lahud ‘downriver, toward the sea’ this is one of the fundamental directional terms of PAn, marking a distinction that was preserved in many languages even after the original form which represented this meaning was lost, as with Hawaiian mauka ‘toward the interior’ (cp. makai ‘toward the sea’). For reasons that are unclear, reflexes of *daya appear to be preserved much more faithfully in Taiwan, the Philippines and western Indonesia than in areas further to the east.

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

de

debak

debdeb

debek

dedap

degaq

de(ŋ)guk

deguʔ

dekak

dekdek

dekeC

dekep

deket

dekiŋ

de(ŋ)kit

dekuk

delek

delep

deles

demdem₁

demdem₂

denet

deŋan

deŋdeŋ

deŋen

deŋeR

deŋut

depa

de(m)paD

depdep

depen

depuk

de(m)pul

depuŋ

deruŋ

deRaŋ

deRdeR

deReŋ

deRep

deRes

deRiŋ

deRu

deRuŋ₁

deRuŋ₂

desdes₁

desdes₂

desuR

detdet

25985

*debak pound, thud

2215

PWMP     *debak pound, thud     [doublet: *depak 'clip-clop, as of horse's hooves']

WMP
Cebuano lubákto pound, beat heavily with something (as
Maranao debakbeat a drum, knock
Malay debakwhack, smack

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.

25986

*debdeb chest

2216

PAN     *debdeb chest

Formosan
Papora ddapchest
Pazeh zebezebchest
WMP
Tagalog dibdíbchest, breast
Hanunóo dubdúbchest, breast
Kalamian Tagbanwa dɨbdɨbchest
Palawan Batak dəbdə́́́́́bchest
Mamanwa dɨbdɨbchest
Lolak dodobchest

Note:   Based on Tagalog dibdíb ‘chest’, Malagasy tritri ‘suck milk’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *dibdib ‘suck at the breast’, but he was forced to recognize an irregular change in Malagasy. Moreover, Richardson (1885) gives mi-tritry ‘to suck, suck through a tube, suck milk from the udder’. On both formal and semantic grounds, then, the Tagalog and Malagasy forms are best regarded as unrelated. Zorc (1982) posits Psph *debdeb ‘breast, chest, abdomen’.

25987

*debek smack against

2217

PMP     *debek smack against     [disjunct: *sebek]

WMP
Malay debakwhack, smack
CMP
Manggarai sebekdull sound, as of fruit falling to the ground

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.

25988

*dedap a tree: Erythrina spp.

2218

PMP     *dedap a tree: Erythrina spp.     [doublet: *dapdap₁]

WMP
Malay dedaptree name, generic for Erythrina spp.
Sangir dedaʔ kaheŋaŋ(true dadap, with leaves that are used as vegetables)
  dedaʔ u wawidadap ('dedaʔ of the pigs')
  dedaʔa tree, Erythrina indica
  dedaʔ u tiaŋ(‘dedaʔ of the belly’) have heavy, painful diarrhoea; cholera
CMP
Rotinese delathe dedap, Erythrina spp.
SHWNG
Buli o-lolafa tree: Erythrina indica

Note:   Also Rembong zezat ‘a tree, Erythrina spp.

25989

*degaq clatter of a stick poking around in something

2219

PWMP     *degaq clatter of a stick poking around in something

WMP
Cebuano lugaʔlúgaʔmove something in a hole back and forth (as a stick to unplug a stopped-up tube)
Malay degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks

26014

*de(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound

2244

PMP     *de(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound     [disjunct: *re(ŋ)guk]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) reŋɣukto snore
Malay degoksound of liquid being gulped down; gulping down
CMP
Manggarai deguksound of the feet or the breathing of an animal

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

25990

*deguʔ sound of swishing water

2220

PWMP     *deguʔ sound of swishing water

WMP
Cebuano lúguʔshake a vessel with liquid in it to slosh the liquid around
Malay degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks

25991

*dekak shriek, as of laughter

2221

PWMP     *dekak shriek, as of laughter     [doublet: *tekak 'cackle']

WMP
Kankanaey dekáksqueak, scream, shriek, screech
Malay dekakloud guffaw, loud chuckling laughter

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.

29856

*dekdek pulverize, crush by pounding

6504

PMP     *dekdek pulverize, crush by pounding

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat dəkdəkpestle (tool used to pound up the pulp of the caryota palm); to mash the pulp of the caryota palm (a process in the making of caryota starch)
Tagalog dikdíkpulverized (from pounding)
Bikol dukdókpound or crush, usually with a pestle
Hiligaynon dúkdukpound, grind
Cebuano dúkdukpound something repeatedly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dekdekpound with an object such as a hammer, stone, fist, etc.; the instrument with which one hammers
Melanau (Matu) dedekpounded rice (fine, like flour)
Iban dedakdust, powder
  dedak beraurice bran
Malay dedakpowdered rice husk; chaff; bran (used as chicken food)
Sundanese dedekrice bran
Old Javanese ḍeḍekrice chaff
Balinese ḍekḍek(of rice), grind very fine
Mongondow mo-dodokto pound rice
Bare'e mon-dodobeat, as bark in making barkcloth; rice stalk
Tae' dedekbeat, pound on rhythmically, as a drum
CMP
Tetun dedekgive successive or repeated knocks (as on a door)

Note:   Also Hanunóo dadák ‘rice bran’. Toba Batak dodak ‘rice bran’, Javanese ḍeḍak ‘rice chaff’ are assumed to be borrowings of Malay dedak.

30621

*dekeC paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)

8087

PAN     *dekeC paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)

Formosan
Paiwan djeketsovercooked rice, used as paste
  se-djeketsto adhere to, stick
  ma-pa-dja-djeketsto press two things together (as one’s hands)

8088

PMP     *deket₁ paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)

WMP
Itbayaten reketidea of eye-closing
  mi-reketto close one’s eyes; closed eyes
Ilokano dekkétpaste; adhesive; glue
  ag-dekkétto stick; stick to each other
Isneg dakkátto adhere, to cleave, to stick
Bontok dəkətto be scorched or burned where water has boiled away, of food cooked in water
Kankanaey dekétcrust of rice which forms at the bottom of the pot
  ipa-dkétto attach; to fix; to stick; to paste
Ifugaw dokótwhat clings, adheres, sticks to something; paste, glue
Ibaloy sheketto cause something to adhere (as adhesive tape); to stick --- especially of food that sticks to cooking pots; hard, thin mass of rice that sticks to the pot after cooking; (fig.) very sharp blade (as bolo) that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off
  may-sheketto stick to something
Tagalog dikítpaste; glue
  mag-dikítto gum or stick things together with gum
  manikítto adhere
  mapa-dikítto contact or touch accidentally
  pan-dikítpaste; glue
  dikít-anhand-to-hand, close together
Bikol dukótto glue, paste, or stick something
  maka-dukótto get stuck to, glued to, pasted to; to adhere to, cohere to
Hanunóo dúkuta dark, adherent substance, especially on the teeth, as fine blackening or betel stains
Masbatenyo dukótburned rice on the bottom of a pot
  mag- dukótto stick, adhere; this meaning is derived from the fact that cooked rice is sticky and is sometimes used to seal envelopes or informal letters
Aklanon dúkotto stick together
  pa-dúkotto dance close together
  dukóthard cooked rice at the bottom of the pot; to stick to, cling to; to get pregnant
Waray-Waray dukótthe act of pasting with paste
Hiligaynon mag-dukútto stick to, to paste on
Cebuano (SE Bohol) dukútget stuck in or so something; not move from a place, stick to a job; for starchy foods to form a crust at the pot; adhere to each other; be close to one another; for fire to catch to something
Maranao deketstick, cling
  reketpaste; attach; bear fruit
Binukid mig-deketto adhere, stick to something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deketto stick to; to adhere
Mansaka dukutcrusted rice; to stick to (as a paper sticking to a table)
Tiruray deketa paste or glue; to paste or glue
Yakan deketscorched rice (that sticks to the bottom of the pot)
Tboli dketa sticky substance; glue; tape; to stick or tack something together; to pin down
Tausug dukutburnt rice (at the bottom of the rice pot)
  mag-dukutto stick to and get burnt
Kadazan Dusun dokotattach, stick to, bind together
  to-dokot(what can be) stuck on
Lun Dayeh dəkətstick on; a suckerfish which feeds on moss at waterfalls
  nəkətto stick or paste something on (like a wall)
Kelabit dəkətsticky; fish that moves from boulder to boulder in the river (probably from its habit of ‘sticking’ to the rocks)
  nəkətto stick something onto something else
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəkətsmall tadpole-like fish that clings by oral suction to stones in the river
Malay dekatproximity; near
  men-dekat-kanto bring up closer
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dekettogether; and; with
Toba Batak dohotwith; and
Sundanese dɨkɨtnear, in the neighborhood
Javanese ḍeketclose, nearby
Balinese deketunite, stick to, be close to; close (a wound)
  deket-aŋbe brought together, be united
Sangir mən-dəkaʔto paste or glue something to a surface
  d<ar>əkaʔplaster
CMP
Kambera rokututo stick, adhere to something; to paste or glue to something

8089

PPh     *i-deket to stick, adhere

WMP
Ilokano i-dkét ~ i-dekkétto paste; glue
Tagalog i-dikítto attach, stick or affix something specific; to seal, to close by sticking; to mount, to fix in proper setting, backing, or support
Bikol i-dukótto glue, paste or stick something; to put up (as posters)

8090

PPh     *ma-deket (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ibaloy ma-dketsharp, as a blade that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off
Tagalog ma-dikítto contact or touch accidentally
Agutaynen ma-deketto be crowded or squeezed together
Tausug ma-rukuthaving or producing a heavy mark, dark shade (as of pencil, ballpen, color)

8091

PAN     *pa-dekeC to stick or paste on

Formosan
Paiwan pa-djeketsto paste

8092

PMP     *pa-deket to stick or paste on

WMP
Kadazan Dusun po-dokot-oncause or allow to attach, stick to
Lun Dayeh fe-deketstick together; stick or paste on
Kelabit pə-dəkəthem, stitch, line of sewing on clothes

8093

PWMP     *d<um>eket to stick to something, adhere

WMP
Ilokano d<um>ketto stick to, adhere; fit nicely
Isneg d<um>kátto adhere, to cleave, to stick
Ifugaw d<um>kótto stick to something
Tagalog d<um>ikítto adhere; to stick to (intransitive)
Tboli d<em>ketto pin down
Tausug d<um>ukutto stick to and get burnt; (for ink, pencil lead) to adhere to a surface
Kadazan Dusun d<um><in>okotstuck
Sangir d<um>əkaʔto stick, adhere to something

8094

PWMP     *deket-en be stuck to by something

WMP
Lun Dayeh deket-enwill be pasted or stuck on
Sundanese ŋɨ-dɨkɨt-ɨnbring something near
Balinese deket-inbe stuck to by something

8095

PWMP     *deket deket (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog dikít-dikítadhered or joined to each other in series or layers
Waray-Waray dukót-dukótsticky, contagious
Maranao deke-deketstick or cling strongly together
Sundanese dɨkɨt-dɨkɨtvery near

Note:   Also Sasak deket ‘near, close by’, bə-deket ‘be next to one another (standing or sitting)’. With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.

25992

*dekep embrace

2222

PWMP     *dekep embrace     [doublet: *dakep]

WMP
Kankanaey deképLatin: habere copulam
Malay dekapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing
Javanese dekep, ḍekepgrasp firmly; trap, as an insect -- esp. with the downturned palm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) derives Malay dekap from *dakep by metathesis; the variant proposed here renders this unnecessary.

30622

*deket ignite, set aflame

8096

PWMP     *deket₂ ignite, set aflame

WMP
Tagalog dikítact of kindling; a setting on fire
  mag-pa-rikítto set alight; to start a fire; to kindle
Masbatenyo mag-dukótsmoulder
Palawan Batak dɨkɨtto burn (Reid 1971)
Binukid deketfor fire to catch to (something); to catch on fire
Tausug dukut(for a flammable substance) to ignite or be ignited
Sama (Central) dokotto burn
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) deketlit, aflame
Malagasy a-réhitrato be made to burn, as a match, etc.
  mi-réhitrato set on fire, to burn
  tafa-réhitraset on fire, kindled
  voa-réhitraset on fire, made to blaze
  rehét-anato be lighted, as a fire by something already burning, i.e. a match, etc.

Note:   Also Miri an-jukat ‘to burn, as rubbish, or fields before planting’.

25993

*dekiŋ to bark, of a deer

2223

PAN     *dekiŋ to bark, of a deer

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) d-em-a-dekiŋ(of deer) to cry "eking, eking"
WMP
Malay deŋkiŋsharp, high-pitched bark (of dog or barking-deer); yelp

Note:   With root *-kiŋ ‘ringing sound’.

26015

*de(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length

2245

PMP     *de(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length     [doublet: *diŋkit, *ziŋkit]

WMP
Maranao deŋkitclose together, overcrowded contact
Tiruray dekitside-by-side
Javanese ḍeŋkétadhere to, be right next to
CMP
Manggarai dekitclose together (of growing plants, etc.); frequent

Note:   Also Aklanon bíŋkit ‘join, unite, tie together’, Cebuano iŋkit ‘fingers which are joined congenitally together’, siŋkit ‘tie two coconuts together by their husks partly stripped off’, Maranao bikit ‘tie up, bind’, biŋkit ‘tie up’. Together with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *Ra(ŋ)kit ‘raft, bind logs into a raft’, these forms appear to contain a monosyllabic root *-kit₂.

25994

*dekuk bow, bend downward

2224

PMP     *dekuk bow, bend downward

WMP
Malay dekokhollow; dip; concavity
Balinese dekuklower a horse's head
CMP
Manggarai rekukbowing, bending over (as rice stalks)
OC
Maori rokubend, be weighed down

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.

30619

*delek thunder

8082

PWMP     *delek thunder     [disjunct: *dalak]

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) dələkthunder
Maloh dalakthunder
Chamorro huluthunder

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance, as many words for ‘thunder’ are onomatopoetic, and have similar shapes without being cognate.

25995

*delep submerge, sink

2225

PMP     *delep submerge, sink

WMP
Old Javanese delepimmerse
Mongondow dolopimmerse
Bare'e dolosubmerge, sink
CMP
Manggarai delepsink

25996

*deles bowstring

2226

PAN     *deles bowstring

Formosan
Saaroa e-seleebowstring, fishing line
Rukai (Maga) Drésebowstring
Paiwan zeletbowstring
WMP
Isneg dallátbowstring
Ayta Abellan deehbowstring
Tagalog dilíscord for guitar or bow
Bikol dulósguitar string
Old Javanese delesbowstring
OC
'Āre'āre i-rorobowstring
Sa'a i-lolobowstring
Arosi roro-ʔito string a bow

Note:   Tsuchida (1976:128-129) gives "PHes" *D₂eles ‘bowstring’, but cites cognates only from Formosa and the Philippines .

25997

*demdem₁ brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still

2227

PAN     *demdem₁ brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still

Formosan
Amis demdemendure, referring to illness or personal feelings
Rukai (Budai) ki-ɖəməɖəməthink/mind
WMP
Ilokano demdémrancor, grudge, ill will
  demdem-en‘to repess anger, harbor a grudge
Isneg damdámthought, idea, mind, purpose, opinion
  damdamm-ánto think about, to remember
  ipa-damdámto remind
  ma-damdámto remember
  pa-namdamm-ānremembrance, keepsake, souvenir
Itawis dandámsentiment
  mad-dándamto grieve
  ma-dandámto remember
  dandámm-anmemory
Ibaloy i-shemshemto keep something a secret --- especially of wrong-doing
Kapampangan damdam-anhear, listen
  ma-damdamsensitive
  pa-namdamfeelings
Tagalog limlímbody warmth; heat or temperature of a brooding hen; incubation
  pá-limlim-anbrooder
Bikol sa gi-rumdómin memoriam, in memory of
  gi-rumdum-ónto reminisce about, to call to mind
Hanunóo dumdúmremembrance, as of people
  mag-dumdúmto remember someone
Masbatenyo dumdum-ónbe remembered, be reminded
  mag-dumdómremember well, think deeply
  pa-dumdómreminder
Aklanon dúmdumto remember, keep in mind
  pa-dúmdumto remind (of)
  pa-númdumto ponder, think, concentrate
Waray-Waray dumdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory
  pa-numdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory
Hiligaynon mag-dúmdumto think, to recollect, to remember, to bear in mind, to recall
Cebuano dumdúmremember to do something; think something would happen
  pan-dumdúm-anmind
  lumlumsit on eggs; sit on papers which need processing or attention; stay inside something; for feelings to be in the breast (as envy, loneliness)
Subanen/Subanun d-al-omdommemory
Mansaka dumdumthink about, desire
Tombonuwo ko-ondomto remember
Ngaju Dayak ba-rendemto long, yearn for
Iban dendamgrudge, feud; be spiteful
Malay dendamyearning; longing; feeling of love or spite
Gayō demdemhold a grudge
Javanese ḍemḍem(an)babble about schemes against oneself (Pigeaud 1938)
Uma rodoto keep still

8068

POC     *rondom₂ to brood, keep still

OC
Tolai roroto cover, as a hen her chicks
Arosi dodoto think; to be silent

Note:   Also Yakan tentem ‘to remember something (and do it), to take something to heart’. This word apparently referred to a variety of emotions connected with remembering, and to some extent thinking, although this always appears to involve some emotional quality. On the positive side these emotions included sentiments connected with the memory of persons who have passed away, and grief (for the same); on the negative side they included holding grudges and the like. PMP *demdem ‘to brood, of hens’ may also be connected through the same cognitive linkage that makes English ‘to brood’ serve both purposes, but the meanings of forms that can most plausibly be assigned to this set sometimes diverge so widely from those connected with human emotions that I have chosen to keep it separate. With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood; remember’.

30427

*demdem₂ gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy

7567

PAN     *demdem₂ gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy

Formosan
Bunun dumdumdark, overcast, gloomy (as the sky on a cloudy day)
WMP
Itbayaten remdemcloud
  mir-remdento become cloudy
  ka-remdem-anregion of clouds, atmosphere, sky
Ifugaw (Batad) domdoma large flying fox, black with grey flecks
Ibaloy demdemkind of bird: a black dove
  nan-demdemcloudy, overcast
Tagalog limlímimpending darkness (in late afternoon)
  l<um>imlímto get dark; to darken (said of late afternoon)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) demdemblack beads
Tombonuwo romdommoonless night; pitch dark
Lun Dayeh decemdark; night
Kelabit dedhemdark; darkness
  ŋe-dedhemto wait for nightfall
Balinese demdemjet black, shining (black hair)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *romdom-aNdarkness
Muna rondodark, be night
  ro-rondovery dark
  ro-rondo matapoor (of eyesight), nearsighted
  ka-rondo-aovertaken by nightfall
Palauan kə-rəmerəmperiod when moon is waning
  mi-rəmerəmdark (at night)
Chamorro homhomdark, dim, obscure, dusky, gloomy, not light-colored; bleak
CMP
Kambera runduŋudark; night
SHWNG
Buli doramnight; dark; evening

7568

POC     *rondom₁ dark, cloudy

OC
Nauna cocdark
Pak hohdark
Loniu opitch black, of a cloudy or moonless night
Wuvulu xoxodark
Mussau sau-roromdark
Vitu rododark
Lakalai la logonight; after dark; day, as a time unit
Eddystone/Mandegusu rodomodarkness; to be dark
Bugotu rodo ponopitch dark
  rodo punidarkness
Nggela rondoblind
  ro-rondoblind; blind man’s buff; to darken
Kwaio logodarkness, night; a night, as contrasted to a day
Lau rodonight
  rodo-adark; blind
  fā-rodoto darken
  fā-rodo māto blindfold
Toqabaqita rodonight, night-time, evening (when it is dark)
'Āre'āre rotocloudy; black cloud, squall; to be dark, night; blind
Sa'a rodonight
  rodo-sibe benighted
Arosi rododark, black; night
  rodo-burupitch black
Proto-Micronesian *rocobe dark
Pohnpeian rotdark
  rohtdarkness
Mokilese rosdarkness
Woleaian roshnight, darkness; be dark, black, obscure

7569

PAN     *ma-demdem dark, overcast, gloomy

Formosan
Amis (Utrecht ms.) ma-simdimdark
Bunun ma-dumdumdark, overcast, gloomy
WMP
Itbayaten ma-remdemcloudy, overcast
Lun Dayeh me-decemdark, gloomy; night

Note:   Also Nggela londo ‘dark (in phrases only)’. With root *-dem₁ ‘dark, overcast’. Given the meaning of Manobo (Western Bukidnon) demdem it is possible that Aklanon dúmdum ‘very small bead’ is also connected on account of its dark color, although Zorc (1969) gives no information related to this.

32720

*denet to touch, come in contact with

11150

PPh     *denet to touch, come in contact with

WMP
Yami adnetto touch
Itbayaten adnetidea of touching against something, idea of contact
  m-adnettouching closely, clinging closely
  pa-dnet-anto make (it) touch
Ibatan adnettouch lightly onto the surface of something
Ilokano i-dennétto steep; dip; dunk; put in contact with
  ma-i-dennétto come in contact with
Casiguran Dumagat dənətto press, to make an impression on, to push against (with the finger or hand); to sign a paper by making a thumb print; to brand a carabao

30151

*deŋan with, in conjunction with; companion

6895

PMP     *deŋan with, in conjunction with; companion     [doublet: *deŋen, *diŋan]

WMP
Bikol duŋánconcurrent, coinciding, simultaneous, together
  mag-duŋánto do something simultaneously
  maki-duŋánto do something at the same time as someone else
Hanunóo duŋánconcerted action, togetherness
Cebuano dúŋandone or happening at the same time; do something together or at the same time
Lun Dayeh deŋanwith; company; friend
Malay deŋanan auxiliary word that gives an adjectival or adverbial meaning to what follows. Usually translated by some preposition, especially by ‘with’
Toba Batak doŋancompanion, partner, comrade, friend
  doŋan sabaŋsomember of the same tribe or ethnic group
  doŋan saripespouse
  mar-doŋan iŋkaurice with vegetables
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *roŋaNtogether, with; companion; spouse
Mori Bawah me-roŋado together
Moronene roŋado together
Proto-South Sulawesi *dɨŋŋanaccompany

6896

POC     *doŋan with, in conjunction with; companion

OC
Kwaio doŋato follow
  doŋa-ajoin with in an enterprise; mingle with, join strands together
Lau doŋaa pair; to follow; together
  doŋa-ato join
Sa'a doŋaa pair, a couple
Arosi doŋaa pair (as of coconuts)

6897

PWMP     *man-deŋan go with, accompany someone

WMP
Ngaju Dayak man-deŋankeep company with, accompany
Toba Batak man-doŋan-iaccompany someone
Mandar man-daŋŋaŋto add to something

6898

PWMP     *maR-deŋan do something simultaneously

WMP
Bikol mag-duŋándo something simultaneously
Toba Batak mar-doŋanhave a companion or partner

32686

*deŋdeŋ to cook vegetables

11092

PPh     *deŋdeŋ to cook vegetables

WMP
Yami deŋdeŋto cook (as fish)
Ibatan deŋdeŋto overcook food, esp. vegetables
Ilokano ag-deŋdéŋto boil vegetables
  d<in>eŋdéŋa boiled vegetable dish
Bontok dəŋdəŋto cook a side dish for rice, such as vegetables or fish
Kankanaey deŋdeŋ-énto cook vegetables
Ifugaw doŋdóŋcooking of vegetables

30152

*deŋen with, in conjunction with; companion

6899

PWMP     *deŋen with, in conjunction with; companion     [doublet: *deŋan, *diŋan]

WMP
Ngaju Dayak deŋenand, with, next to; for; sign of the dative
Sundanese dɨŋɨnwhat is eaten with the rice
Buginese reŋŋeŋfriend, associate

30692

*deŋeR to hear; sound

8248

PAN     *deŋeR to hear; sound

Formosan
Puyuma ɖəŋərname; sound (ritual term)
  pu-ɖəŋərgive a name
  tu-ɖəŋərsong, as of a bird
Paiwan la-deŋa ~ la-ŋedato hear

8249

PMP     *deŋeR to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight

WMP
Yami reŋeyhear
Itbayaten a-dŋeyidea of hearing
Ilokano deŋŋégto hear, to listen, respond to; react to
Isneg d<in>aŋ-daŋágheeded, listened to
Bontok dəŋəlto listen; to hear
  pa-dŋəlto tell; to make known; to relate
Ifugaw doŋólto hear, listen
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-noŋolfor a person, a living thing with ears, to hear or listen to someone or something, as the call of a bird, a cry, music, noise, talking; to hear about someone or something; for someone to obey someone
Casiguran Dumagat diŋehto put something up to your ear to listen (as a watch to see if it is ticking)
Pangasinan deŋélto hear
  na-ŋel-ánwas heard
Tagalog diŋígaudible; can be heard
Bikol daŋógreputation
  daŋóg-dáŋogclearly audible
  daŋóg-daŋóghearsay, innuendo
Hanunóo duŋúghearing, listening; perceiving; the more commonly used form is dunúg
Aklanon dúŋoglisten to, hear, give ear to
  duŋógfame, honor, reputation
Kalamian Tagbanwa dɨŋɨlto hear
Hiligaynon duŋúghonor, fame, reputation
Cebuano duŋúgto hear; to listen; heed one’s requests; reputation, honor; be bruited about, widely known; hear one another
  magka-dúŋughear one another
  mu-duŋúgto heed
  pa-duŋug-dúŋugsay something in someone’s earshot to embarrass him or give him a hint
Binukid deŋegreputation, honor
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deŋega person’s reputation or good name
Mansaka duŋugto hear
Tausug duŋugto listen, hear, pay attention to or take heed (by listening)
Rungus Dusun o-roŋowto hear
Bisaya (Limbang) nu-ruŋawto hear
Bisaya (Bukit) ŋa-rəŋəwto hear
Kayan deŋahnews, report
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəŋahnews
Melanau (Mukah) dəŋahnews
Paku ka-reŋeyto hear
Malagasy reniheard; perceived, as a scent
Malay deŋarlistening to; to hear
Nias roŋoto hear
Enggano dohõ-ito hear
Old Javanese rəŋə-rəŋəremaining in the ear, continuously audible
Mongondow do-doŋogear, what one hears with (priestly language)
Tialo loŋohear, listen to
Lauje loŋohear, listen to
Balantak roŋorto hear
Banggai mo-loŋol-i-konlisten to something
  mon-doŋol-ilisten to
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *roŋoRto hear
Wolio raŋoto hear
  po-raŋoable to hear (opposite of being deaf); hearing
  raŋo-niobey
Palauan or-reŋəshear; listen to; obey
Chamorro huŋokhear; heed; be informed; perceive by the ear; gain knowledge
CMP
Bimanese riŋato hear
  ka-riŋato inform, give news of
Sika renato hear something (as a rumor); to feel, have a feeling, as in feeling feverish; feeling, sentiment
Lamaholot dəŋəʔto hear
Kédang dəŋərto hear
Anakalangu raŋuhear
Hawu rəŋi ~ rəŋeto hear, understand
Rotinese nene-neneto listen
  ma-neneto hear
Tetun ronato hear, to listen, to pay attention to
Waima'a deneto hear
Kisar derneto hear
Yamdena n-deŋarto hear, be obedient
  na-deŋarto have good hearing, able to hear well
Fordata n-renarto hear
Alune leneto hear
SHWNG
Buli loŋato hear
Irarutu noŋgərto hear

8250

POC     *roŋoR to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight

OC
Tigak loŋokobey, listen
Tanga to hear
Label loŋorto hear
Tolai loŋor-oito hear, obey, listen, heed
Bali (Uneapa) loŋor-ito hear, listen
Vitu loŋor-iato hear
  loŋor-ia poleaobey, agree, follow the advice
Amara -loŋoto hear
Manam loŋoto hear
  loŋor-ito obey, to listen
  loŋo-loŋoto hear
Gedaged loŋto know, to have knowledge of, to be acquainted with, be aware of, be sensible of, to hear, learn, learn by heart, be able, be careful of, to make possible, to perceive, comprehend, understand, apprehend, be cognizant of, to fathom, make out, discern; have a premonition, to notice, feel, sense, observe, be conscious of
Mbula -leŋhear, listen
Sudest loŋw-eto hear
Nehan loŋorhear, listen, obey
  loŋoro namanatehear with understanding, find out by listening
Bugotu roo-roŋoto hear, receive a report; news, tidings
  roŋo-ragafame, glory; to be famous
  roŋo-vito hear
Nggela roŋoto hear or be heard
  roŋo-hito hear or be heard
  roŋo-vito hear or be heard; to listen; to feel; to obey; to enquire about
  roŋo-roŋonews; fame; custom; rank or position
  roŋo-roŋo lavi-laviidle rumor, gossip
Kwaio loŋolisten
  abu-loŋounable to hear; fail to realize
  fufu-loŋo-siapay attention to a person who is talking
  loŋo-ato hear
Lau fufu-roŋoto listen; to hear; disciple
  roŋo-ato hear, listen to; to perceive, to smell
  roŋo-lahearing, perceiving
Toqabaqita roŋohear, listen
  roŋo-ato hear, listen to
  roŋo-laathe way in which something or someone sounds to someone
'Āre'āre noro-a <Mhear, hear tidings of, understand
  noro-a kenito inquire about a girl as a prospective bride for a man
Sa'a roŋo-roŋoto hear, to listen, to hear tidings of; to understand; to ask in marriage
  roŋo-ŋahearing
  roŋo saaito understand
Arosi roŋoto hear, listen, obey; to feel, endure; correct, as the use of a word; disciple
  roŋo-taʔaa discord, ugly sound; incorrectly used, of a word
Gilbertese oŋohear, obey
  ka-oŋo-ainform
Kosraean lɔŋhear, listen to (someone)
Marshallese reŋʷhear, listen
Pohnpeian roŋhear
  rooŋnews
Mokilese roŋhear, listen
Chuukese roŋhear, obey, listen
Mortlockese roŋoroŋhear, listen
Puluwat roŋhear, listen, obey
Woleaian roŋoroŋhear, listen
Satawal roŋhear, listen
Carolinian roŋhear, listen
Mota roŋoto feel, hear, smell, taste, apprehend by senses; be patient of, be in a passive state
  roŋo maulto endure with patience, suffer long
  roŋo ruato have two tastes (as half fresh, half salt)
  roŋo-taghear, taste, smell, feel something
  roŋo-vagto feel, suffer
  roŋo-roŋolisten to, hear
Araki doŋoto hear someone or something; feel physically; feel one way or another, feel well or ill; feel that, realize that something is going on; feel like, fancy (doing)
Lonwolwol lɔŋ-nεto hear, to feel (not only hearing, but general personal feeling, and sense of smell, are expressed by lɔŋ-nε)
Paamese loŋehear; listen to; feel; pay attention to
  loŋ selūsienobey
  loŋ-loŋaware; wise
  loŋ-loŋ-iennews
  loŋ-loŋo-niget to hear about, become aware of
Rotuman roŋoto be reported, heard of, generally known; to be notorious or famous; report, news, repute, reputation, fame
Wayan roŋobe heard, perceived with the ears; be understood; (of news, rumors, etc.) be heard abroad, i.e. reported, talked about; (of a person) be known, famous, have a reputation; (of an engine, machine, etc.) resound, be audible, make a noise, work
  i-roŋonoise, sound; news
  i-roŋo-roŋonews, report; hearing, sense of hearing; stethoscope, hearing aid
  roŋo-cihear something, hear the sound of something
  roŋo-ruaignore or shun advice, take no heed of what one is told
  roŋo-roŋolisten, hear; sound, make a sound
  roŋo-roŋo-ipay attention to something, listen attentively to something
Fijian roŋoto hear; to make a noise (of an engine), to spread, to be heard (of a report), to be famous (of a person or place)
Tongan oŋoto sound, be heard or to be heard about; to appeal, carry weight, impress; to be felt or perceived or realized or appreciated; to hear, to have the sense of hearing; to be sentient, able to feel; sound; report, story; fame, reputation; hearing, sense of hearing; feeling, emotion; report or story that is ‘floating about’ but is unauthenticated, rumor
  oŋo-ʔito hear; to perceive, feel --- pain, pleasure, taste, smell, etc.; to be aware or conscious of, to realize, to appreciate; to feel for, sympathize with
  oŋo-oŋonews, report or reputation
  oŋo-oŋo-afamous, renowned
Niue oŋoa report, message
  ta-oŋoto echo
  tu-oŋofame; to be widely known
  tuku-oŋoto publish, pass on (as news)
Futunan loŋoto hear, be heard (from a distance)
  loŋo-āto be noisy
  loŋo-fiato understand, know
  loŋo-nabe known, celebrated, famous; to be announced, proclaimed
  loŋo-ʔito feel
  loŋo-loŋoto hear faintly; rumor, hearsay; to inform; to summon
Samoan loŋoperceive by hearing or some other sense, other than sight; large wooden gong (used for calling people to church); sound
  lau-loŋoresound, echo
  loŋo-loŋoto tell, inform
Tuvaluan loŋohear; sense; feel pain or emotion; tell news; a bell; news; a canoe bringing news
  faka-loŋoto obey; act of hearing
  laŋo-nahear; feel; think
Kapingamarangi loŋonews; to hear
  loŋo-aato be annoyed or disturbed by noise
  loŋo-noto perceive, to feel, to hear
Nukuoro loŋohear, feel; news
  loŋo-dulideaf
  loŋo ihobe aware of, experience, perceive, feel (in one’s mind or body)
  loŋo-loŋoacuity of hearing
  loŋo-loŋo i leaalarumor
Rennellese goŋonews, report, message, account, story, fame, reputation, invitation, messenger; to hear, listen, feel, taste, to go in order to hear, as news
  haka-goŋoto hear, listen, obey, feel, taste
  goŋo-aʔato be irritated by noise; to be nervous, nerve-racking (of noise)
Anuta roŋoto hear
  (ŋa)-roŋonews
  roŋo-roŋoto hear about
Rarotongan roŋoto apprehend by the senses, except sight; to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste; news, tidings, a report or a rumor, fame, a flying report, a current story, notoriety
  roŋo-nuigreatness, great fame, celebrated; renown, a great name or reputation; famed, renowned, illustrious
  roŋo-roŋohearing
  roŋo-roŋo-ānotorious, of ill report, infamous
Maori roŋoapprehended by the senses, except sight; hear; obey; tidings, report, fame; peace after war
  roŋo-ruaconflicting news; having two reputations
Hawaiian lononews, report, remembrance, rumor

8251

PWMP     *ma-deŋeR audible

WMP
Ifugaw ma-dŋólaudible
Bikol ma-daŋógaudible
Banggai mo-loŋolto hear

8252

PPh     *maka-deŋeR to be able to hear

WMP
Ilokano maka-ŋégto be able to hear
Bikol maka-daŋógto hear, overhear
Mongondow moko-doŋogto hear, be able to hear
Gorontalo moʔo-duŋohuable to hear

8253

PPh     *maki-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten machi-dŋeyto consult
Mongondow moki-doŋogto listen, try to hear

8254

PWMP     *man-deŋeR to hear

WMP
Itbayaten man-ʔa-dŋeyto hear, to listen
Malagasy man-drenito hear; to perceive a scent
Bahasa Indonesia men-deŋarto hear
Gorontalo mo-duŋohuto hear

8255

PWMP     *maR-deŋeR listen to, heed

WMP
Bikol mag-daŋógto listen to
Bahasa Indonesia ber-deŋarlistened to, followed, obeyed

8256

PWMP     *pa-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Bontok pa-dŋəlto tell; to make known; to relate
Aklanon pa-duŋógto honor, celebrate, give honor to
Nias fa-roŋoto hear from all sides

8257

POC     *pa-roŋoR (gloss uncertain)

OC
Bugotu va-roŋoto hear, listen to, obey

8258

PWMP     *paka-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Cebuano paka-duŋúghear many things; cause someone to hear

8259

POC     *paka-roŋoR (gloss uncertain)

OC
Arosi haʔa-roŋoto tell, give news, inform
Wayan vaka-roŋolisten; obey, take heed of what one is told
Fijian vaka-ro-roŋoto hear, listen, obey
Samoan faʔa-loŋoto hear; listen; pay attention; obey; feel
  faʔa-loŋo-ŋafeeling
Rarotongan aka-roŋoto hear, to listen, to obey, to yield to, to pay attention to, to heed; obedience; obedient
Maori whaka-roŋocause to hear, inform; listen; attend to, obey
Hawaiian hoʔo-lonoto listen, hear, obey; obedient

8260

PWMP     *ka-deŋeR-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-dŋey-anhow heard, where heard
Aklanon ka-duŋg-án-anhonor, fame, repute
Cebuano ka-duŋg-án-anhonor
Bahasa Indonesia ke-deŋar-anable to be heard; to be heard

8261

PWMP     *d<um>eŋeR to hear

WMP
Ilokano d<um>ŋégto hear
Bontok du-d<um>ŋəlone gifted in hearing the omens of birds
Ifugaw d<um>ŋólcan hear, able to hear
Ifugaw (Batad) d<um>oŋolfor the ear to hear, and thus to function properly
Tausug d<um>uŋugto listen, hear, pay attention to or take heed (by listening)
Old Javanese r<um>əŋöto hear
  r<um>əŋö-rəŋöto listen in an effort to hear everything that is said

8262

PPh     *deŋeR-en to listen to

WMP
Itbayaten a-dŋey-ento listen, to heed, to hear advice
Ilokano deŋg-ento hear, listen to
Bontok dəŋl-ənto listen; to hear
Bikol daŋog-ónto listen to
Tausug duŋug-unto listen
Gorontalo duŋoh-elobe heard, listened to

Note:   Also Kankanaey deŋén ‘to hear’, ma-dŋé ‘to be heard’, dŋé ‘to listen; to give hearing; to pay attention’, Tagalog diníg ‘audible; can be heard’, Agutaynen deŋeg ‘dignity, honor’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dineg, Berawan (Batu Belah) ŋə-liŋah, Lawangan diŋaʔ, Proto-Sangiric *diŋiR ‘to hear’, Sangir diŋihəʔ ‘be heard; audible’, Makasarese al-laŋŋereʔ ‘to hear’, ka-laŋŋer-aŋ ‘audible’, Manggarai deŋé ‘to hear; to feel, have a feeling’, Ngadha déŋé ‘to hear, believe; follow, conform with; pay attention to’, Tawala nonola ‘hear; smell’, Niue loŋo ‘bell; drum hollowed out of wood’; loŋo-na ‘to hear, sense, understand, smell’; faka-loŋo-loŋo ‘to silence; to be calmed’. With root *-ŋeR ‘hear; noise’.

The basic sense of this word in both PAn and PMP was clearly ‘to hear’ both in the sense of receiving an auditory impression and in the sense of receiving information, or news (hence: ‘to hear about’). As in many traditional cultures where knowledge was transmitted orally, the sense of ‘to hear’ or ‘to listen’ also incorporates connotations of ‘to understand’. Other meanings that derive from the primary notion of hearing are ‘to obey, heed’, and ‘fame, reputation; famous’ (= ‘heard about, bruited about’). The most puzzling semantic feature of this base is its extension in a number of Oceanic languages to any sense other than that of sight. Although this is rarely mentioned in glosses of reflexes outside the Oceanic subgroup, there are indications of a similar notion in Malagasy reni ‘heard; perceived, as a scent’, and Sika rena ‘to feel, have a feeling, as in feeling feverish; feeling, sentiment’. I am indebted to Nick Thieberger, Malcolm Ross, Ross Clark and Hans-Werner Hatting who responded in December, 2011 to an inquiry in arcling@anu.edu.au regarding this matter and provided useful discussion and data.

26013

*deŋut restless, impatient, annoyed

2243

PWMP     *deŋut restless, impatient, annoyed     [disjunct: *reŋeC, ReŋeC 'angry, annoyed']

WMP
Cebuano luŋút-luŋútrestless, moving about and talking in anger, exasperation, impatience to do something
Iban deŋutmurmur, grunt, whine, squeal (as young pigs), any protesting sound
Malay deŋutgive out a long low murmuring note, esp. of a quail

Note:   With root *-ŋut ‘mumble, murmur, mutter’.

30517

*depa fathom

7748

PMP     *depa fathom

WMP
Itbayaten hadpa (<adpah) <Midea of stretched-arms length, or of fathom
Ilokano deppáarmspan
  saŋa-dpameasurement of the arms extended, about six feet
Isneg dappáfathom, a measure of length containing six feet; the space to which a man can extend his arms
Bontok dəpathe measurement between the fingers of one’s outstretched arms
Kankanaey sin-depáone fathom, about six feet
Ifugaw dopáfathom, measure of length recognized among the Ifugaw
  hin-dopáone fathom length
Ifugaw (Batad) dopaa unit measure of an arm span, i.e., a distance measured between the fingertips of two outstretched arms
Casiguran Dumagat dəppafathom (a length measurement, about five feet; the length from one fingertip to the fingertip of the other outstretched arm)
  sa-dpaone fathom, one span; to take a measurement by fathoms
Tagalog dipáthe length of both arms stretched out; a fathom
Bikol dupáan arm’s length
Hanunóo dupáfathom; a unit of linear measurement, equal to the distance between the tips of one’s extended arms; arm span
Masbatenyo dupáfathom, two arms length
Abaknon dappato measure with armspan; fathom
Aklanon dupáarmsbreadth, armspan [unit of measure]; to stretch out one’s arms, hold one’s arms out sideways
Waray-Waray dupáa unit of measure of full arms length; to stretch out someone’s arms widely
Agutaynen depaa unit of measure the distance of outstretched arms
Cebuano dupáto extend the arms out sideways (as in Christ on the cross); bar the way with outstretched arms; measure something by fathoms
Maranao repafathom --- a measure
  sa-repaone fathom
Binukid depameasurement, the length from the fingertips of one hand to the fingertips of the other measured with the arms outstretched; to measure (something) in this way
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) repaone fathom; the length of one’s outstretched arms; to measure by fathom or by outstretched arms
Mansaka dupaarmspan, fathom
Mapun dappaan armspan (a measure of length or depth)
  nappato measure something by armspans
  pa-dappato measure something by armspans; to extend one’s arms out on both sides
Yakan deppearm span (measurement of length; both arms are stretched out, and one measures from fingertip to fingertip)
Tausug dupaan armspan (a measure of length or depth)
Tombonuwo ropoarmspan
  duwo no ropotwo armspans
  r<in>opa-anmeasured with armspans
Lun Dayeh defeha measurement indicated by the span of both arms outstretched between the tips of the middle fingers; a fathom, six feet
Kelabit dəpəhfathom, distance between two outstretched arms
Kenyah depameasurement (two yards)
  ŋa-depato measure in fathoms
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəpaʔfathom
Kiput dəpihfathom
Bintulu rəpafathom
Ngaju Dayak depæfathom
Malagasy refia fathom, two yards, the measure from tip to tip of the fingers across the chest when the arms are spread out
Iban depaʔspan of the arms outstretched (between tips of middle fingers), fathom; lengths of cane, rope, etc., and generally where English measure is in yards
Rhade əpafathom, span of outstretched arms
Moken depa ~ adepafathom
Malay depameasure of length represented by the span of the outstretched arms; to measure in this way
Acehnese deupafathom
Gayō depafathom
  se-depaone fathom
Simalur rəpafathom
Karo Batak depafathom
  si-depaone fathom
Toba Batak dopaunit of measurement: both arms outstretched across the chest; fathom
Nias dõfafathom
Sundanese deupafathom
  ŋa-deupato measure in fathoms
  sa-deupaone fathom
Old Javanese ḍəpafathom (the outstretched arms as a measure of length)
Javanese ḍəpafathom (measure of length, i.e. the distance between the fingertips of the outstretched arms)
  nəpato measure in fathoms
Balinese depafathom (measure = distance from fingertip to fingertip of both outstretched arms)
  ha-depaone fathom
Sasak depafathom
Sangir dəpafathom
Tontemboan rəpafathom
Mongondow yopafathom, unit of measurement between the outstretched arms
Uma dopofathom
  ha-nopoone fathom
Tae' daʔpafathom
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ropafathom
Buginese rəppafathom
Makasarese rappafathom, distance between the tips of the middle fingers of the outstretched arms
Muna rofafathom, double arms length; measure in arms’s lengths (with outstretched arms)
CMP
Manggarai depafathom
Rembong depafathom
Ngadha depameasure with outstretched arms, as in divination
Lamaholot dəpãto measure in fathoms
Kambera ràpafathom
  man-dàpaa fathom long, said of the horns of buffalos
Leti reafathom
Wetan rewaa unit of measure (fathom, about six feet)
Selaru refathom
Yamdena defefathom
  n-defto fathom, measure by fathoms
Fordata refafathom
  n-refato fathom, measure by fathoms
Kei refa fathom
  en-refa-kto measure in fathoms
Dobel respan, fathom
Kamarian reafathom
Buruese repafathom
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai refarmspan, fathom
Buli loffathom
  lof-saone fathom
Numfor roffathom

7749

POC     *ropa fathom

OC
Lakalai la-lova-laa fathom
  la-lova-la i-saaone fathom
Motu rohafathom; length
  roha-iato measure; to fathom
Dobuan roafathom
Mota rovato stretch out the arm, stretch out at arms’s length; to measure with the stretch of the arms; a fathom
Tongan ofafathom, six feet; (in gardening) the distance between two consecutive rows of yams, etc.
Niue ofaa fathom; to measure in fathoms (i.e. with outstretched arms)
Futunan lofafathom, distance from tip to tip between outstretched arms
Nukuoro lohafathom (the span of one’s outstretched arms)
  loha-lohato measure off in fathoms
Rennellese gohafathoms of line or distances; to be such

7750

PPh     *i-depa extend the arms sideways

WMP
Ilokano i-deppáto extend the arms; hang on a cross
Tagalog i-dipáto open the arms wide; to stretch out the arms
Masbatenyo i-dupáextend the arms

7751

PPh     *man-depa to measure in fathoms

WMP
Pangasinan man-depáto spread with outstretched arms
Bikol man-dupáto measure with the arm
Sangir mən-dəpato fathom, measure in fathoms

7752

PPh     *maR-depa extend both arms sideways

WMP
Ilokano ag-deppáto extend the arms
Isneg mag-dappáto extend both arms
Agutaynen mag-depato measure with outstretched arms
Tausug mag-dupato extend one’s arms to the side

7753

PWMP     *d<um>epa to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms

WMP
Tagalog d<um>ipáto open the arms wide; to stretch out the arms
Old Javanese ḍ<um>əpato span, enclose
Tontemboan r<um>əpato measure in fathoms

7754

PWMP     *depa-en to measure by fathoms

WMP
Itbayaten ha-dpa-dpa-ento measure by fathoms
Ilokano deppa-ento measure with the arms extended
Bontok dəpa-ʔənto measure by arm lengths
Tagalog dipah-ínto measure something by stretching out the arms
Bikol dupa-onto measure with the arm
Masbatenyo dupa-hónbe measured by outstretched arms
Agutaynen depa-ento measure with outstretched arms
Balinese depa-hinto be measured with the outstretched arms

7755

PWMP     *depa-i to measure by fathoms

WMP
Karo Batak n-depa-imeasure something in fathoms
Nias dõfa-ito measure in fathoms
Tae' daʔpa-ito measure by fathoms

Note:   Also Itawis appá ‘fathom, span of two outstretched arms’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) depa ‘a fathom’, Tiruray rifo ‘the span of one’s arms’, Tboli difu ‘a fathom, a measure of length; armspan, the space to which a person extends his arms’, Mongondow ropo ‘fathom’, Kapingamarangi loho ‘unit of measure: fathom (span of the outstretched arms); to measure by fathoms’. This term clearly referred to a common unit of measurement corresponding to the English notion of ‘fathom’, although the latter is normally confined to the measurement of water depth, while this does not appear to have been the case with *depa. Agreements between Lun Dayeh and Makasarese suggest that the exact measure was determined by the tips of the middle fingers of the outstretched arms.

26011

*de(m)paD flat and wide

2241

PWMP     *de(m)paD flat and wide     [disjunct: *da(m)paD]

WMP
Tagalog lapádflat and wide
Iban demparflat (of forehead or back of hand)

Note:   With root *-paD ‘flat, level’.

30981

*depdep tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica

8882

PMP     *depdep tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica     [doublet: *dapdap]

WMP
Malay dədaptree name, generic for Erythrina spp., used as shade trees for coffee and to make props for sirih vines
CMP
Rotinese dela-sshade tree, Erythrina spp.

25998

*depen mat

2228

PMP     *depen mat

WMP
Atta dapanmat
CMP
Bimanese dipimat

25999

*depuk snap, crack

2229

PMP     *depuk snap, crack

WMP
Karo Batak depuksnapping, cracking (of the explosion of roasting corn, rice, etc.)
CMP
Manggarai ndepuksound of wood breaking, cracking

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.

26012

*de(m)pul dull, blunt

2242

PMP     *de(m)pul dull, blunt     [doublet: *dumpul, *tumpel, *tumpul]

WMP
Maranao depoldull, as in tool
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dumpel <Mto dull the cutting edge of a cutting tool
CMP
Manggarai dempuldull, blunt

26000

*depuŋ venomous snake

2230

PAN     *depuŋ venomous snake

Formosan
Paiwan zepuŋcobra: Naja naja
WMP
Hanunóo dupúŋsnake sp. (probable genus Trimeresurus, species Wagleri Boie [?])
Cebuano dupúŋkind of short-bodied and very venomous snake
Lun Dayeh defuŋa short python
  defuŋ refuka very poisonous snake with a color that resembles a rotten log
Kayan depuŋa stubby greenish snake about two feet long, with short tail; very poisonous and aggressive

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun hopuŋ ‘big fat snake, python’.

26007

*deruŋ deep booming sound

2237

PAN     *deruŋ deep booming sound     [doublet: *deReŋ 'sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc.']

Formosan
Paiwan deruŋthunder
WMP
Malay deroŋdeep booming sound such as the clanging of a bell

Note:   Also Tagalog lagoŋ ‘bass or low-pitched sound of voice’, Maranao dagoʔoŋ, Miri geruŋ ‘thunder’, Malay degam, degum ‘boom, sound of a shot’.

26001

*deRaŋ red

2231

PWMP     *deRaŋ red

WMP
Isneg deggaŋred
Itawis deggaŋred
Bisaya (Limbang) ragaŋred
Bulungan deraŋred
Bekatan raraŋ (reduplication of **raŋ < *deRaŋ)red

Note:   Vanoverbergh (1972) gives Isneg daggāŋ, but McFarland (1977) writes the first vowel as e. If cognate, Malay jeraŋ ‘slow heating or toasting at an open fire’ points to *zeRaŋ.

26002

*deRdeR thunder

2232

PAN     *deRdeR thunder

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *DərəDərthunder
WMP
Cebuano d-al-ugdugthunder
Maranao d-al-endeg (secondary prenasalization)thunder

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *duRduR ‘thunder’.

26005

*deReŋ sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc.

2235

PMP     *deReŋ sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc.     [doublet: *deruŋ 'deep booming sound']

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deɣeŋgroan in pain
Kayan deheŋgruff voice
Malay deraŋclanging sound, of the sound of a gong, etc.
OC
Tolai roroto roar, of the sea on the reef or the surf; to boom
Mota roro-ithe sound, report of something
  o roro lamathe sound of the sea

Note:   Also Proto-South Formosan (Tsuchida 1976:275) *D₂aRiŋ ‘moan, shout’, Iban deram-deram ‘groaning’, Sangir dehiŋ ‘buzzing, droning in the ear’, Manggarai jereŋ ‘interjection of disappointment’.

26003

*deRep communal help

2233

PWMP     *deRep communal help

WMP
Murut (Timugon) dogopcommunal help (in harvesting, planting, house-building, etc.)
Sundanese derepoffer one's services at the rice-harvest
Javanese derepoffer one's services at the rice-harvest
Balinese derephelp with the rice-harvest in return for a share of the crop

Note:   The Sundanese, Javanese and Balinese reflexes of *R are unexpected, but not unparalleled. Part of this comparison was first brought to my attention by D.J. Prentice (p.c.).

26004

*deRes swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain

2234

PMP     *deRes swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain

WMP
Ilokano deggésgush out, issue copiously, flow spoutingly
Isneg daggátrain heavily
Maranao regeswater current
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) reɣesof rain, heavy
Tiruray reges(of water) flowing swiftly with a strong current
Ngaju Dayak dehesstrong flow
Malay derasrapidity of movement (as of tidal flow)
Javanese dereshard, forceful (of an outpouring)
  udan dereshard rain
OC
Fijian drō-drōa current, chiefly of the sea; to flow

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *deRas ‘hasten’, and marked Ngaju Dayak dehes as an irregular reflex. His reconstruction, however, depends crucially on forms that exhibit considerable semantic divergence (Tagalog dagás ‘hurried emergency call’, Samoan loa ‘at once; immediately; as soon as’) or that may be loans from Malay (Toba Batak doras ‘swift, hurry’). Mills (1975:679) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *dɨrr(ɨi)s ‘fast-flowing (water)’.

26006

*deRiŋ to ring, buzz, etc.

2236

PWMP     *deRiŋ to ring, buzz, etc.     [doublet: *deRuŋ 'distant rolling thunder']

WMP
Maranao regiŋto parrot, make a noise or to parrot
Malay deriŋ(onom.) ring out; jingle, as a sword, anklets or the metal hangings on a standard of the jogan type
Sangir dehiŋbuzzing, droning in the ear

Note:   Also Toba Batak diriŋ ‘ring clearly’. Tsuchida (1976:275) reconstructs Proto-South Formosan *D₂aRiŋ ‘moan’.

30518

*deRu roll of thunder

7756

PWMP     *deRu roll of thunder     [doublet: *delu, *deRuŋ₁]

WMP
Maranao degogrunt
  regogroan
Iban deruʔ gunturroll of thunder (Scott 1956)
Malay men-deruto roar, as a crowd, or the rush of a cataract; of roaring wind, of a storm’s roar; of poultry cackling their greetings to a new arrival

Note:   Also Tiruray degu ‘the rumbling of distant thunder, of trucks on a mountain road; to make the sound of degu’ (borrowed from a Danaw language), Sangir dəlluʔ ‘thunder’, dəlluhəʔ ‘speak with a loud voice’, Chamorro hulu ‘thunder’.

26008

*deRuŋ₁ distant rolling thunder

2238

PAN     *deRuŋ₁ distant rolling thunder     [doublet: *deRiŋ, *deRu]

Formosan
Puyuma (Chihpen) deruŋthunder (Ferrell 1969)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) zeRuŋthunder (Tsuchida 1982)
Paiwan zuŋdistant rolling thunder
WMP
Malay deroŋdeep booming sound such as the clanging of a bell

Note:   Also Maranao dagoʔoŋ, Miri geruŋ ‘thunder’. This comparison replaces no. 101 in Blust (1980), where Puyuma (Tamalakaw) deruŋ was inadvertently attributed to Paiwan.

26009

*deRuŋ₂ a tree: Trema orientalis

2239

PMP     *deRuŋ₂ a tree: Trema orientalis

WMP
Cebuano hana-gdúŋ, hina-gdúŋsmall tree of thickets. A fluid which is blown out of the wood is used as a poultice for swellings. The leaves are mixed with water for bathing babies
CMP
Manggarai redoŋ <Ma tree: Trema orientalis
Rembong deroŋa tree: Trema orientalis

Note:   First proposed in Verheijen (1984). Verheijen cites a number of proposed cognates in Indonesia and the Philippines, but the correspondences do not always work, and some forms (e.g. "Bisayan" hanadguŋ) appear to be cited in error. For the regular metathesis in derived Cebuano coronal-noncoronal stop clusters cf. Blust (1979a).

30343

*desdes₁ push down, trample down, as vegetation

7327

PPh     *desdes₁ push down, trample down, as vegetation

WMP
Ilokano desdéstrail, path
  desdes-anto cut a path into the forest, make a path
Kankanaey desdesto trample on; to tread upon; to trample underfoot, as rice straw when harvesting, or the body of a fallen enemy
Ifugaw dohdó(h)to push down with one’s hands, or stamp down, e.g. long grass, rice plants, straw of rice plants that still remain standing in a rice field
Ibaloy man-desdesto roll up one’s sleeves, trouser legs; to push something out of the way (as pushing back the cuticle around a fingernail, cut grass at the edge of a field
Aklanon dúsdusto push, shove
Hiligaynon mag-dúsdusto push, to shove; to mix
Cebuano dusdússhove, push something close towards or against something (as pushing two beds together, or shoving a torch against a beehive); push one’s way (as through a crowd)

30344

*desdes₂ to rub, rub together

7328

PPh     *desdes₂ to rub, rub together

WMP
Itbayaten resdesidea of rubbing
  resdes-enroll a bundle together (as when making a cigar)
Ibatan desdesto roll or rub together something between the palms of the hands
Hanunóo dusdúsrubbing of the stomach with herb medicines, always with a downward motion

26010

*desuR onom. for dull sound

2240

PWMP     *desuR onom. for dull sound

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat désogthud (of something hitting the ground when it fell)
Malay desurdull sizzling sound

Note:   Also Malay desir ‘the hiss of water turning into steam’.

30345

*detdet packed tightly together

7329

PWMP     *detdet packed tightly together

WMP
Kankanaey na-detdétthick; close-woven; compact; tight
Aklanon dútdutto tighten, squeeze together (usually by pushing)
Cebuano mu-dutdútmove close in through obstacles; crown close to someone; put, be crowded together; stuff something into an opening; crowded close together
Iban dedatpacked, crammed in (as things in a box)
Sundanese dedetfull, brim-full; crowded tightly
  pa-dedet-dedetcrowd against one another’
Old Javanese ḍeḍetcompact, dense, thick, packed (both: filling completely, and: filled
Javanese n-ḍeḍetthick, full and dark (clouds); to tighten when jerked (as a fishline); to
Sasak dedetclose together

Note:   Also Paiwan zetzet ‘to tighten weave (by using wooden tamper), ma-zetzet ‘be tightly woven (cloth or basketry)’, Cebuano lutlút ‘squeeze something extra into an area which has little room; be squeezed in.’

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

di

di

dian

didis

dikeC

dikit

dilap₁

dilap₂

dilaq₁

dilaq₂

dilat

dilep

diŋa

diŋan

diŋdiŋ

diŋeR

diŋkit

diqaq

diqdiq

diq(e)pit

diRi

diRus

disdis

ditaq₁

ditaq₂

diteq

30938

*di locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du)

8796

PAN     *di locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du)

Formosan
Pazeh dilocative or directional case marker (Li 1978:573
WMP
Itbayaten diproximal locative (do = distal locative; (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987:22)
Ivatan dilocative case marker for singular personal names (living people’)
Lotud dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Tatana dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Kadazan (Papar) dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Murut (Nabaay) dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Murut (Timugon) dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Minokok dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Murut (Kolod) dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Tidung Bengawong dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Bulusu dioblique case marker for singular personal names
Iban di(of relative position) at, in, on
Malay diin, at; an inseparable locative prefix, e.g. di-antara (between, among), di-atas (atop, above), di-bawah (at the bottom of, below)
Acehnese dipreposition of location: in, to, by, on, at, out, from
Simalur dilocative preposition indicating the place of rest (only in borrowed expressions)
Toba Batak dipreposition: in, for, at, by, from, along, inside; can be used with pronouns, as in: di ho (di + 2sg) ‘to you, for you’, or mar-anak ho di ibana (have-child 2sg di 3sg) ‘do you have children from him?’
Lampung diat
Sundanese diin, at, on, to, under (dina = same meaning, but not used before names)
Old Javanese riparticle with prepositional function (also expressed as i, ); occurs before nouns, and as a preposition with the meaning ‘in, on, by, through, with’ (Zoetmulder 1982) which function as grammatical subject (esp. before place-names), as grammatical object
Balinese dipreposition: in, on, at
Bare'e rilocative preposition: at, in, on, to; can be used with pronouns, as in ku-keni ri siko (1sg-bring ri 2sg) ‘I bring it to you’
Tae' diin, to, from, toward
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rilocative preposition of very broad scope (Mead 1998)
Proto-South Sulawesi *dilocative marker (Mills 1975)
Mandar diat, on; to; from
Buginese riin, at, on; toward; from
Makasarese riin, at, on; toward; from


Note:   ¹Li (1978) vacillates between using the terms ‘case marker’ and ‘construction marker’.

26027

*-di 3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?)

2259

PMP     *-di 3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?)

WMP
Bontok dithat (3p)
Berawan (Long Jegan) raythere
CMP
Ngadha dithis, that

2260

PMP     *a-di that, there

WMP
Kalinga si-adithat (3p)
Balangao y-adithat (3p)
Tagalog y-aríthis
Mansaka y-adithis (very near)
Berawan (Long Jegan) araythere
Malagasy arýthere, yonder, signifying a distant place not seen
Samihim arithat
CMP
Buruese h-adithat
OC
Bauro i-arithis

2261

PMP     *i-di that, there

WMP
Isneg iddíthis, here
  iddí-nnow, today
Kalinga s-idithere (3p)
Ifugaw h-idíthere yonder, that yonder (3p)
Sambal (Botolan) ba-yríhere
Tagalog iríthis
Kelabit (i)dihthis; it; thing just mentioned
Kayan (Uma Bawang) irihthat (2p)
Bintulu irəythat (2p)
  d-irəythere (location)
  t-rəythere (direction)
Malagasy irýthat, there, yonder, at some distance but seen
Dairi-Pakpak Batak idithat one, there, over there
Toba Batak indithat, there
Chamorro guihithere (3p)

2262

POC     *iri that, there

OC
Nggela iridemonstrative: those
Larevat irithat
Lonwolwol iryonder, over there

Note:   Also Isneg iddé ‘this, here’, Maloh indiʔ ‘this, these’, Acehnese hideh ‘yonder, over there’, Old Javanese iri ‘particle with prepositional function = í, Tae' inde ‘this, here’. This item, ultimately analyzable into *i ‘generic marker of location’ + *di, apparently was a third person demonstrative, in contrast to *itu. Under this interpretation, however, reflexes meaning ‘this; here’ in Isneg, Tagalog, and Moken remain puzzling.

26016

*dian no, not

2246

PMP     *dian no, not

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat diyandon't
Kayan (Busang) jianno, not
Kayan (Uma Juman) janno, not
CMP
Kambera ndianot

Note:   Mills (1975:681) proposes Proto-South Sulawesi *dian ‘there is; to be’. Reflexes such as Mandar dian, diaŋ ‘there is not’ suggest a possible identity of the two reconstructions.

26017

*didis kind of civet cat

2247

PWMP     *didis kind of civet cat

WMP
Cebuano dírisstrong offensive odor of a siŋgawuŋ (kind of civet)
Malay (Brunei) dédés ~ didiscivet-cat, Viverra spp.
Malay (Pattani) dédés ~ didiscivet-cat, Viverra spp.
Sundanese dédés *i > é unexplainedcivet cat

26018

*dikeC sticky, adhesive

2248

PAN     *dikeC sticky, adhesive

Formosan
Puyuma ɖikəTstick; adhere
  pa-da-ɖikəTsticky paper
  pa-ɖikəTstick something on a surface
  pa-ka-ɖikəTanchor
  ɖ<əm>ikəTto stick; adhere
  ɖikəT-ansticky rice (generic for types of sticky rice)
WMP
Ilokano díketa generic name for several varieties of rice ... ; the díket is very soft and oily, and is used chiefly to make native sweets
CMP
Buruese dike-kglue, stick

Note:   With root *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.

26019

*dikit little, few, small in amount

2249

PAN     *dikit little, few, small in amount     [doublet: *dikiq]

Formosan
Paiwan đikitjshort
WMP
Bikol dikítlittle, few, a drop, some, scant, meager, etc.
Malay dikitsmall quantity, little

10066

POC     *rikit little, small

OC
Tanga liksmall, little
Marino rikismall
Peterara riŋgismall
Baetora rik-riksmall
Tongan i-ikidual or plural of siɁi (small, little; young, younger) when it means small, and sometimes when it means younger, etc.
Niue iki-ikismall
Samoan liʔibe scattered in small fragments
  li-liʔimade of small units
Kapingamarangi ligismall (used only in compounds and idioms)
Nukuoro ligismall
Rennellese gikito be small
  gi-gikito be small (of plural objects)
Anuta rikismall
Rarotongan rikilittle, small; little or small in quantity, degree or size, not great; unimportant, petty, of little worth; a little, partially
Maori rikismall; few; be broken in pieces
Hawaiian liʔismall, tiny

2250

PWMP     *dikit dikit little by little

WMP
Bikol dikít dikítlittle-by-little, bit-by-bit, gradual(ly)
Malay ber-dikit-dikitin small quantities, a little at a time

26020

*dilap₁ sparkle, shine

2251

PMP     *dilap₁ sparkle, shine

WMP
Ida'an Begak bəkə-dilapto twinkle
Karo Batak dilapshining, sparkling (of black lacquer, etc.)
Makasarese dillaʔglitter, sparkle (metal), glisten (skin), flicker (fire)
CMP
Manggarai ndilaplightning, thunderbolt; to lighten, flash

Note:   Also Tagalog dikláp ‘spark’, pa-dikláp-dikláp ‘sparkling intermittently’. With root *-lap ‘flash, sparkle’.

30623

*dilap₂ to lick

8097

PWMP     *dilap₂ to lick     [doublet: *dilaq₁, *dilat]

WMP
Ilokano dílapto stick out the tongue
Aklanon dílapto lick
Hiligaynon mag-dílapto lick, to lap, to drawl the tongue like a dog
Tboli dilofflame
Balinese dilapto spread, of flames; to lick (of the tongue or of flames)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak jelap ‘stick out the tongue, flicker the tongue (snakes, small children)’, Malagasy voa-lélaka ‘licked, lapped’, leláf-ina ‘to be licked, to be lapped’. Dempwolff (1938) posited *dilap, but cited only the Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy forms as evidence. However, both of these languages are members of the Barito subgroup of southeast Borneo (Hudson 1967), and neither supports *dilap.

30254

*dilaq₁ to lick

7129

PAN     *dilaq₁ to lick     [doublet: *dilap₂, *dilat]

Formosan
Saisiyat riLæto lick
Favorlang/Babuza tsa-tsiratongue
Thao siraqto kiss, lick
  mapa-siraqkiss one another
Siraya da-dilatongue
Rukai (Mantauran) u-dilato lick
Paiwan djilaqto lick
  ma-djilaqbe licked
  ki-djilaqto lick oneself (as a cat)

7130

PMP     *dilaq₁ tongue; tongue of tongue-and-groove joint in carpentry

WMP
Itbayaten rilatongue
Ilokano dílatongue; native language; arrowhead
Agta (Dupaningan) dilátongue
Isneg dílatongue
  díla anítoa low sturdy plant with leaves cleft at the top; when placed next to the entrance of a house it denies access to any kind of evil (lit. ‘spirit’s tongue’)
Itawis zílatongue
Bontok dílatongue
Kankanaey dílatongue
  dila-énto mock, to deride, to ridicule
Ifugaw dílatongue
  mun-díl-dílato continue putting out one’s tongue
  dilá-anto lick
  dīlathe tongue of an animal, bird, chicken, person
Casiguran Dumagat dilátongue; to keep talking, gossip, talk in a bad way
Ibaloy shilatongue
Pangasinan dilátongue
Kapampangan dílaʔtongue; fangs (?) of snake
Tagalog dílaʔtongue; the power of speech
  man-dílaʔto stick out or poke out one’s tongue at someone
  diláʔ-anto stick out or poke out one’s tongue at someone
  díla-ŋ ma-tigása tongue not easily adaptable to pronouncing certain sounds in speech (lit. ‘hard tongue, rigid tongue’)
Bikol dílaʔtongue
  mag-dílaʔto lick
Hanunóo dílaʔtongue
Masbatenyo dílaʔtongue
  diláʔ-onbe licked up
  dila-dilaʔ-ánto tongue something, as a harmonica in order to blow single notes; teach by use of the tongue
Aklanon dílaʔtongue
  diláʔ-ansharp-tongued (referring to a gossiper)
  paŋ-diláʔ-diláʔstick out one’s tongue (in a taunting manner)
Waray-Waray dílaʔtongue
Agutaynen dilaktongue
  ma-boat taŋ dilaktalkative (derogatory; lit. ‘long tongue’)
Hiligaynon dílaʔtongue
Palawan Batak dilaʔtongue
Cebuano dílaʔtongue
Maranao dilaʔtongue
  dila-dilaʔtongue, as on lumber
Binukid dílaʔtongue
  pan-dílaʔto lick up something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dilaʔtongue; to lick; to lap
Mansaka dílaʔtongue
Tiruray dilaʔtongue; lick with the tongue
Tboli dilaktongue
  dilak kukuʔan edible mushroom that grows on dry wood and looks like a cat’s tongue
Tausug dilaʔtongue
  habaʔ dilaʔtalkative (lit. ‘long tongue’)
Kadazan Dusun dihaʔtongue
  monon-dihaʔto stick out the tongue
Tombonuwo dilaʔtongue
Ida'an Begak dílaʔtongue
Bisaya (Limbang) diləʔtongue
Kelabit dilaʔtongue
Narum jiliʔtongue
Seru jilatongue
Iban dilahtongue
  butoh dilahuvula (lit. ‘penis of the tongue’)
  dilah papantongue of tongue-and-groove board
Malay lidah <Mtongue; the power of speech
  lidah anjiŋ(lit. ‘dog’s tongue’) a plant: Veronia cinerea
  lidah apidarting tongue of flame
  lidah badak(lit. ‘rhinoceros tongue’) a climbing aroid: Pothus latifolius or Opuntia monacantha
  lidah kerasstiff-tongued for strange sounds
Acehnese lidah ~ dilahtongue
Simalur dilatongue
Karo Batak dilahtongue
Toba Batak dilatongue
  man-dila-dilato gossip
  pa-dila-dilah-ontreat with contempt
  dila ni apiflame (lit. ‘tongue of fire’)
Mentawai lilatongue
Rejang dileaʔtongue
Balinese dilahflame, blaze
Sasak dilaʔto light up, illuminate
Sangir dilatongue (also in carpentry)
Tontemboan lilaʔtongue
Mongondow dilaʔtongue
  mo-dilaʔto lick, taste (also used metaphorically)
Buol dilatongue
Uma jilaʔtongue
Bare'e jilatongue and anything resembling it
  jila leticlitoris (lit. ‘tongue of the vagina’)
  me-jilato lick
Tae' lilatongue
  lila kilaʔbolt of lightning
Makasarese lilatongue; tongue-shaped object (e.g. the needle of a scale for weighing)
  lila-lilakind of fish
  lila macaŋkind of cactus (lit. ‘tiger tongue’)
  lila-pepeʔtongue of flame that darts upward

7131

PAN     *d<um>ilaq to lick

Formosan
Thao s<m>iraqto kiss, to lick (as a child licking candy)
Saaroa s<um>a-silaəto lick
Paiwan dj<m>ilaqto lick

7132

PMP     *d<um>ilaq to lick (?)

WMP
Kankanaey d<um>ílato tell a story, a fib, a hoax; to speak ill, to backbite
Balinese d<um>ilahto flame, flare up
Tontemboan l<um>ilaʔstick out the tongue

7133

PWMP     *dilaq-dilaq plant sp. (?)

WMP
Cebuano dílaʔ-dílaʔreed of a wind musical instrument
  dílaʔ-dílaʔ sa íruʔtwo hairy herbs with medicinal uses: Elephantopus mollis and E. spicatus
Mansaka dila-dilaʔsmall plant with somewhat tongue-shaped leaves
Karo Batak dilah-dilahkind of cactus with broad stem joints

7134

PWMP     *anak nu dilaq uvula

WMP
Malay anak lidahuvula (lit. ‘child of tongue’)
Makasarese anaʔ-lilauvula (lit. ‘child of the tongue’)

Note:   Also Itawis híla, Gayō dèlah, Nias lela, Sasak dila ‘lamp, including the lamp of the shadow-puppeteer’, Sangir lila, Chamorro hulaʔ ‘tongue; sticking tongue out’, Bimanese lera ‘tongue’.

This cognate set shows a rather clear semantic innovation in PMP, since only the verb ‘to lick’ can be posited for PAn; note that Favorlang/Babuza and Siraya reflexes of this base meaning ‘tongue’ are formed by Ca- reduplication, a process that is known to occur with some other body-parts (Blust 1998:38). Just as Ca-reduplications of *dilaq can mean ‘tongue’ in Formosan languages, affixed forms of *dilaq can mean ‘to lick’ in Malayo-Polynesian languages, but this appears never to be the case for the bare stem.

Two other semantic developments are noteworthy. First, once this base had come to mean ‘tongue’ it was then incorporated into expressions meaning ‘to gossip’, ‘to be talkative’, and the like. Second, in several of the languages of western Indonesia reflexes of *dilaq came to refer to tongues of flame, perhaps beginning in Malay and then spreading through literary use. This notion then evolved further into much more opaque semantic relationships, as with Sasak dilaʔ ‘to light up, illuminate’. Finally, reflexes of PMP *dilaq evidently also figured in the names of certain plants, although the details of these collocations are not recoverable from currently available data. Part of the Formosan evidence for this cognate set was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:154).

26021

*dilaq₂ plant sp. (lit. "crocodile tongue")

2253

PWMP     *dilaq ni buqaya plant sp. (lit. "crocodile tongue")

WMP
Malay lidah buaya(lit. "crocodile tongue") aloe; also the plant Saseviera zeylanica, from which bowstring-hemp is obtained

30624

*dilat to lick

8098

PWMP     *dilat to lick     [doublet: *dilap₂, *dilaq₁]

WMP
Ilokano ag-dílatstick out the tongue
  dilat-anstick out the tongue at someone
Pangasinan dilátstick out the tongue
Kapampangan man-dilatstick the tongue out
  pan-dilat-anstick the tongue out at someone
  dilat-anto lick something
Malay jilatto lick or lick up; of touching with the tongue; of a dog licking up food; of a dancing girl picking up coins with her lips; and of tongues of flame “licking up” anything inflammable
Malay (Jakarta) dilatto lick or lick up
Karo Batak n-dilatto lick, give a lick to
  n-dilat-ilick something off
Toba Batak man-dilatto lick
Rejang jileutto lick
Javanese dilatto lick (as an animal licking its wounds, a flame licking upward)

Note:   Also Aklanon dílot ‘to lick up, lap up’, Tboli dilut ‘to lick with the tongue’. Malay jilat and Rejang jileut are assumed to show sporadic palatalization stimulated in part by the common association of palatal consonants with actions involving movement of the body of the tongue (as in PAn *ñamñam ‘tasty, delicious; to savor food’), although the possibility cannot be ruled out that they derive from a doublet that has not yet been reconstructed.

26022

*dilep flash, sparkle, shine

2254

PMP     *dilep flash, sparkle, shine

WMP
Banggai dilepglitter, sparkle, shine
CMP
Manggarai silepflash, shine, sparkle
OC
Arosi riroto flash; to lighten, of lightning

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat ilep ‘to reflect (of something shiny which is reflecting in the sunlight)’.

26029

*diŋa to hear, listen

2264

PMP     *diŋa to hear, listen     [doublet: *deŋeR, *liŋa]

WMP
Iban diŋahear, listen
Singhi Land Dayak ki-diŋah (-h for expected -ch)hear
CMP
Bimanese riŋahear

Note:   Also Tolai riŋa ‘to sound, of the feet when walking, or any similar noise’, Toqabaqita liŋa ‘voice; sound’ Arosi riŋe ‘voice’. Singhi Land Dayak shows –h for expected –ch.

26028

*diŋan friend, companion

2263

PWMP     *diŋan friend, companion     [doublet: *deŋan]

WMP
Lun Dayeh diŋanwith
Singhi Land Dayak diŋanfriend
Sangir diŋaŋcompanion

29843

*diŋdiŋ wall of a house; partition off

6467

PMP     *diŋdiŋ wall of a house; partition off

WMP
Itbayaten riñdiñwall (esp. of cogon grass); partition
Isneg diŋdíŋwall, walling (of a building)
Itawis zínziŋwall
Bontok diŋdíŋwooden wall of a house or granary; build a house with wooden walls
Kankanaey diŋdíŋwall of a house
  d<in>iŋdíŋhouse whose walls are made of boards arranged side by side
Ifugaw diŋdíŋwalls of huts (very seldom of houses or granaries), made of twilled bamboo flakes; walls of huts may also be made of biláu (arrow-grass) canes
Casiguran Dumagat diŋdíŋwall of a house; to make a wall
Pangasinan díŋdiŋwall; to wall a house
Kapampangan dindíŋwalls
Tagalog diŋdíŋwall (of room or house), partition between rooms
Aklanon díŋdiŋwall
Hiligaynon díŋdiŋwall of a building
Cebuano díŋdiŋwall; side covers of any box-like thing
Binukid diŋdiŋwall; partition; side covers of any box-like thing
Mansaka diŋdiŋto use to divide space, to curtain
Tombonuwo rindiŋwall
Ida'an Begak rindiŋwall
Berawan (Long Terawan) diciŋpartition between rooms in a longhouse
Kayan lidiŋwall of a house
Kiput diriəhouse wall
Ngaju Dayak dindiŋwall, screen, curtain, cover
  ba-dindiŋcovered; seek protection
Malagasy rindrinawall of a house, side of a house
  mi-rindrinato shut, close
Iban dindiŋwall, partition; protect, defend
Malay dindiŋscreen; partition; inner wall in house (the root meaning is ‘screening off’)
Simalur dindiŋwall
Karo Batak diŋdiŋwall, walling; shelter, protection
  n-diŋdiŋ-iprotect something or someone (fig.)
Toba Batak diŋdiŋside wall of a Batak house
  man-diŋdiŋ-iconstruct the side wall of a house
Balinese diŋdiŋpartition-wall, screen of woven bamboo
  diŋdíŋ-anbe partitioned
Sasak dindiŋwall of woven bamboo
  dindiŋ andoplanks covered with mats placed in a grave so that the earth will not fall on the corpse
Mongondow dindiŋwall; to wall in; to board off
Dampelas dindiŋwall of a house
Bare'e rindiwall
  mo-rindihave a wall, be walled
Tae' rindiŋwall in, surround with walls; wall, partition; side of the ribcage
  rindiŋ-ito wall in
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rindiNwall
Mandar rindiŋwall
Makasarese rinriŋwall (of planks, thatch, woven bamboo
  paʔ-rinriŋpartition off (with curtain, etc.)
  rinriŋ-iwall in, surround with walls
Wolio rindiwall; be like a wall: protect the country against infiltration by foreigners
  rindiŋ-ito wall in

6468

PCMP     *dindiŋ wall; wall in, screen off

CMP
Bimanese ɗindiinner and outer walls of house; dividing curtain
Komodo ridiŋwall
Manggarai rindiŋcurtain, partition, wall; mosquito net; partition off
Kambera dindiŋuwall, walling; screening off
Tetun didinwall of a house, both internal and external

9508

POC     *ridriŋ wall of a house

OC
Kove didiŋ-awall
Mbula didibuild a wall, wall in, enclose
  didi-kaalablock, make a barrier by standing up sticks
  didi-utdivide up the interior of a building by making walls
Arosi didiwall of a house; make a wall or partition

Note:   Also Ilokano didíŋ ‘wall; side of a cart’, Ifugaw (Batad) dedeŋ ‘the wall of a building, constructed of planks, arrow-grass canes, woven bamboo, bark of a tree; for someone to wall a building with these materials’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rendiŋ ‘make a temporary wall, as to hang up a blanket or mat to cut off wind and sun’, Maranao diŋendiŋ ‘wall’, Tiruray didiŋ ‘wall; erect a wall’, Yakan dindiŋ ‘wall’, mag-dindiŋ ‘close something (as by putting up a wall)’, pa-dindiŋ ‘cover, conceal, block off something Buli diriŋ ‘to wall in’, diririŋ ‘wall’.

Whereas the English word ‘wall’ is conceptually more like ‘support for the roof’, the notion of *diŋdiŋ appears to be closer to ‘partition off by some dividing structure; the structure so used’. In some languages (as Malay) it is used only for the interior walls of a house as opposed to the exterior walls (témbok), and it often applies to curtains or other partitioning devices that lack the supporting strength of house walls as these are usually conceived.

26030

*diŋeR hear

2265

PMP     *diŋeR hear     [doublet: *diŋa, liŋa]

WMP
Kelabit diŋerhear
Balinese diŋehhear
CMP
Hawu rəŋihear; understand (trans.)

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dineg ‘to hear’. Zorc (1982) reconstructs PSPH *dineG ‘hear’, but evidence for this variant appears to be confined to Central Philippine languages.

26031

*diŋkit touching or joined along the length

2266

PWMP     *diŋkit touching or joined along the length     [doublet: *de(ŋ)kit]

WMP
Cebuano díkitbe close so as to touch, put something close to touch it
  liŋkitfor two things to be joined along their lengths
Maranao riŋkitstick together
Sundanese déŋkéttouching one another, intertwined (as plants)
Javanese ḍéŋkétadhere to, be right next to
Uma diŋkiʔlayer

Note:   With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.

26023

*diqaq good

2255

PMP     *diqaq good     [doublet: *pia]

WMP
Bintulu dəzaʔgood
Melanau (Mukah) diaʔgood
CMP
Manggarai diʔagood
OC
Lau dia-nagood, beautiful
Sa'a dia-nagood, proper; accurate; beloved

30914

*diqdiq to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water

8757

PMP     *diqdiq to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water

WMP
Maranao didiʔbubble froth, foam; boil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) diʔdiʔof water, to boil; figuratively of the brain, to think hard, to be full of thoughts; a bubble in a boiling substance
Abai Sembuak l<əm>idiʔto boil water
Malay mən-didehto boil up; to effervesce
Balinese didihto froth, foam, bubble; scum, froth, rice water, skin floating on oil
Proto-Minahasan *diʔdiʔto boil
Mongondow mo-didiʔto boil, boiling
  mo-didiʔ iŋ ginaku‘my heart is boiling’ (from passion)
Proto-South Sulawesi *(d)ehdeto boil
Makasarese rere-uriŋfoam that rises to the surface when cooking rice
  aʔ-rereto bubble; to boil (intr.); (fig.) boiling, as someone’s mind, feelings

8758

POC     *ririq to boil, effervesce

OC
Wayan riribe cooked (of food)
Fijian ririto be cooked by boiling; a shed, cooking place, kitchen, temporary house
  vaka-riri-ŋato boil a thing
Tongan lilito boil (of the sea). to be turbulent, violently rough; to be very angry, to boil with rage, to be furious

Note:   Also Bintulu rəɗaʔ ‘to bubble, boil’, mə-rəɗaʔ ‘bubbling, boiling’. Although PMP *diqdiq clearly referred to the boiling of water or other liquids, widespread figurative uses suggest that it also referred to ‘boiling’ anger or other strong emotions. Part of this comparison was first proposed by Mills (1975:682-683).

26032

*diq(e)pit join, fasten together, probably lengthwise

2267

PWMP     *diq(e)pit join, fasten together, probably lengthwise

WMP
Ilokano dippît-enpress, compress
  ag-di-dippîtcrowd, press together, throng, be crushed
  d-um-ippîtlean, cast one's weight on somebody
Cebuano dipʔitput something with some height close to something else so that it is touching or nearly touching
  lipʔitput something in between two flat surfaces
Sundanese démpétpressed together; grown together, of body parts (as of two fingers)
Old Javanese a-ḍimpitclosely joined, fastened together

Note:   With root *-pit 'press, squeeze together; narrow'.

30364

*diRi to stand

7383

PAN     *diRi to stand

Formosan
Saisiyat mi-riLiʔto stand
Thao mi-lhilhito stand (active), stand up, get up, rise, as from sleeping
  mi-lha-lhilhistand, be standing (stative)
  pi-lhilhihelp someone up when they have fallen
  pu-lhilhimake something stand, erect something
Proto-Rukai *ʔi-diʔito stand
WMP
Tombonuwo mun-diito stand up
Bintulu mə-riəyto stand
Iban diristand, uphold, erect, cause to stand
Malay dirian erect attitude
  ber-dirito stand
  men-diri-kanto erect, cause to stand
Gayō dirito stand; upright (as a post)
CMP
Kisar ma-ririto stand
  maa-ririto erect, build
  lau-ririhouse poles, pilings
Leti na-ririhe is standing
Selaru i-n-dirto stand
  sya-diristand something up, place on end
Yamdena na-m-dirto stand
  na-f-dirito stand something up
  di-diristanding up; post
Fordata n-dirito stand
Kei en-dirto stand, stand up
SHWNG
Irarutu m-rirto stand

Note:   Also Kavalan qiRi ‘to stand (up)’, miRi ‘to stand (up)’, pa-qiRi ‘to erect, to raise’. Dempwolff (1938) posited a richly polysemous form *DiRi ‘stand; person, self’, to which he also assigned forms reflecting *SadiRi ‘housepost’. Similar connections were made by earlier writers, as Jonker (1932), who noted that Leti riri ‘stand’ was “originally the same word” as riri ‘housepost. Although there may have been contamination among these meanings during the history of the AN languages, however, the phonological evidence strongly suggests that *SadiRi ‘housepost’ and *diRi ‘to stand’ were distinct morphemes. Apparent reflexes of *diRi ‘self’ may be largely, if not entirely, products of borrowing from Malay, in which the senses of ‘self’ and ‘erect posture’ evidently have become intertwined.

30346

*diRus bathe

7330

PAN     *diRus bathe

Formosan
Puyuma diruswash
  da-dirus-anwashing water, water to wash with; bathroom
  d<əm>irusto wash oneself
WMP
Yami ma-riostake a bath
Itbayaten riosidea of bathing, baptism-making
  ka-pa-riosbath; act of bathing; act of conversion in baptism
  ma-riosto bathe, take a bath
  pa-rios-anbathing place
  rios-entake a bath
Ilokano ag-dígostake a bath, bathe
  digus-ento bathe, apply water to
  pa-digus-ento bathe animals; lead animals to a water hole
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-degustake a bath, bathe; play in water, swim around
Isneg mag-díxutto bathe
Casiguran Dumagat digusbathe, take a bath
Isinay zíhutbath
  maz-zíhutto bathe, wash one’s body
  map-pa-zíhutto bathe (someone, or a pet)
Bikol ma-rígosto bathe, take a bath
  mag-pa-rígosto bathe someone
Manobo (Ata) digusbathe
Manobo (Tigwa) digusbathe
Tiruray fe-diyohto bathe
  fe-diyoh-onbathing place, bathroom
Tboli dyoto take a bath, including washing one’s hair
  d<em>yoto bathe
Manobo (Sarangani) digosbathe
Malay diruswetting, watering, irrigating
  men-dirus ayerto pour water (on plants)
  men-dirus-kanto spray, to water
Mongondow digutto bathe
CMP
Yamdena na-diristo bathe oneself, wash children; baptize

8109

POC     *riRus to bathe

OC
Kove li-liubath

Note:   Also Tagalog lígoʔ ‘bath, bathing, a washing of the body’, Agutaynen man-digo ‘to bathe’, Cebuano díguʔ ‘bathe someone’, Maranao igoʔ ‘bathe’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) diǥuʔ ‘to bathe someone’, Tombonuwo modiyu ‘to bathe’, Kelabit diuʔ ‘bathe oneself’, Malay irus ‘watering’, jirus ‘besprinkling’, jurus ‘splashing water over oneself with a bucket or by standing under a spout’.

26024

*disdis cut, slice

2256

PAN     *disdis cut, slice

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) disdiscut many times, giving slight wounds
WMP
Cebuano disdiscut a slit in something
Malagasy dídya cut
Malay didiscut into thin slices
SHWNG
Buli liliscut meat in strips

26025

*ditaq₁ a tree: Alstonia scholaris

2257

PMP     *ditaq₁ a tree: Alstonia scholaris

WMP
Tagalog ditáʔmilky pine, the bark of which yields an alkaloid used as substitute for quinine: Alstonia scholaris L.
Hanunóo ditáʔa tall tree (Alstonia scholaris [Linn.]) with many medicinal uses; the sap is placed on cotton and applied directly to a decayed, aching tooth to allay the pain
Cebuano ditáʔbig tree with light wood used for making wooden slippers, the bark of which is used against malaria: Alstonia scholaris
Maranao ditaʔtree with white funnel-shaped flower: Alstonia scholaris
CMP
Bimanese ridakind of large shade tree: Alstonia scholaris
Manggarai sitaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Rembong ritaʔa tree: Alstonia scholaris

Note:   Also Bikol díta ‘tree sp. possessing a sap said to aid in the healing of wounds: Alstonia scholaris. Evidently distinct from PWMP *ziteq ‘vine from which poison is obtained’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1990).

30719

*ditaq₂ snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows

8306

PPh     *ditaq₂ snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows

WMP
Ilokano dítasnake venom; artificial poison
Casiguran Dumagat dítaa tree (Tophopetalum toxicum, Antiaris toxicaria, or both), with sap made into a deadly poison used on arrows for raiding or defense, but never for hunting; to put dita sap on arrows
Pangasinan ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc.
Ayta Maganchi ditapoison, venom
Tagalog dítaʔpoison applied to arrows
Bikol dítaʔplant sp. possessing a milky sap commonly used as a poison placed on tips of arrows

26026

*diteq sticky substance

2258

PAN     *diteq sticky substance

Formosan
Amis ditaʔa lump of clay for making pottery; clay; a type of soil
CMP
Rotinese ditesticky; sap; bird lime

Note:   With root *-teq ‘sap; gummy secretion’.

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

do

dodok

30500

*dodok to pierce, stab

7729

PCMP     *dodok to pierce, stab

CMP
Rembong dodokpierce
Rotinese dodocut the throat of an animal, slaughter, kill
Buruese dodo-hto stab at

Note:   Also Manggarai todok ‘to pierce’.

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

dr

drali

druru

30761

*drali slitgong

8463

POC     *drali slitgong

OC
Ere dralslitgong
Ahus nhalslitgong
Kuruti dralslitgong
Kele dralslitgong
Mondropolon calslitgong
Levei coŋslitgong
Drehet khaŋslitgong
Likum canslitgong
Sori daŋslitgong
Lindrou dranslitgong
Wayan lalislit-gong, a percussion instrument made by hollowing out a large log leaving a narrow slit; each village has a slit-gong for communal purposes; a signal or pattern beat out on a slit-gong
Fijian lalithe native wooden drum, and in modern use, a bell. It is beaten with two sticks called i uaua.
  lali ni waŋgabeat played on a high chief’s canoe when approaching a village
  lali ni matefuneral beat
  lali ni leŋgabeat calling people together in sudden emergencies
  lali vutubeat played at the birth of a chief
  lali-tato accompany a meke [native dance] with a drum
Samoan lalimiddle-sized wooden gong, drum
Tuvaluan laliwooden drum
Maori rarisome instrument used as an alarum or gong

Note:   Also Tongan lali ‘wooden drum, Fijian style’ (< Fijian).

30163

*druru owl

6933

POC     *druru owl

OC
Roviana ru-rurua species of owl
Bugotu duru(onom.) a bird, owl
Nggela nduruowl
Rotuman ruruowl
Tongan luluowl
Niue luluowl; (fig.) spouse; a European woman (from the pale face of the native owl)
Samoan luluwhite barn owl (Tylo sp.)
Rennellese gugubarn owl, Tylo alba
Anuta ruruhawk; owl
Maori ruru ~ ruru-ruruowl: Ninox novaseelandiae

Note:   Clark (2011:331) reconstructs POc *drudru(r,R) ‘owl’, basing the final consonant on Nduke duduru ‘owl (generic)’, Roviana duduru ‘a species of owl’. However, both of these forms could be partial reduplications of *druru, and the final consonant in this form therefore remains in doubt.

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

du

du

dudu

duduq

duku

du(ŋ)kuŋ

dukuq

dukut₁

dukut₂

dulaq

duldúl

dulit

duluR

duma

dumpul

dumul

duniq

duŋduŋ

duŋkuk

duŋun

dura

durus

duRduR

duRi

duRi-an

dusiq

dusuk

duSa

dutdut

duyuŋ₁

duyuŋ₂

30940

*du locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di)

8799

PWMP     *du locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di)

WMP
Yami dolocative marker
Ivatan dolocative for common nouns
Casiguran Dumagat dutopic, attributive and oblique of common nouns that are absent
Murut (Nabaay) duoblique case marker for common nouns

26034

*dudu thunder

2269

PMP     *dudu thunder     [doublet: *duRduR]

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak duduthunder
CMP
Kei dudthunder

26050

*dúdun grasshopper, locust

2285

PPh     *dúdun grasshopper, locust

WMP
Yami zozonlocust, grasshopper
Itbayaten lolongrasshopper, locust
Ivatan lolongrasshopper
Ilokano dódonlocust
Isneg dódonlocust
  man-ódonto catch locusts
Bontok dúdunkind of migratory locust
Kankanaey dúunlocust
Ifugaw dúdunlocust
  man-údunto catch locusts
Casiguran Dumagat dudúngrasshopper
Pangasinan durónwinged stage of locust or grasshopper
Kapampangan durúnlocust
Bikol dúronlocust
  duron-onbe eaten or destroyed by locusts
Cebuano dúlonlocust; be attacked by locusts; swarm somewhat like locusts

Note:   Also Itbayaten lolon ‘grasshopper, locust’.

26033

*duduq breast

2268

PWMP     *duduq breast     [doublet: *nunu, *susu]

WMP
Palawan Batak dudúʔbreast, teat
Subanen/Subanun duduʔbreast
Tausug duruʔbreast
Samal duduʔbreast
Wolio dudufemale breast, udder

26036

*duku bend over, stoop

2271

PMP     *duku bend over, stoop     [disjunct: *ru(ŋ)kuq 'bowed, hunched over, as from age']

WMP
Makasarese dukkubend over, duck down

9349

POC     *ruku bend over, stoop

OC
Nggela ruguto stoop
Proto-Micronesian *rukuenter with the head bowed

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

26048

*du(ŋ)kuŋ bend, curve

2284

PAN     *du(ŋ)kuŋ bend, curve

Formosan
Paiwan dukuŋa bend, crook
WMP
Cebuano lukuŋmake a coil, form a circle from something stiff
Javanese ruŋkuŋwalk with a bent back

31292

*dukuq bend over, stoop

9350

PWMP     *dukuq bend over, stoop

WMP
Bikol dukóʔbend over, stoop

9351

POC     *rukuq bend over, stoop

OC
Nggela ruguto stoop
Proto-Micronesian *rukuenter with the head bowed

Note:   Also Iban gugut ‘pull (out) violently’. Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bazut ‘uproot, pull out’, Malay jonjot shows secondary prenasalization. With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

26035

*dukut₁ lonely

2270

PWMP     *dukut₁ lonely

WMP
Maranao dokotloneliness
  rokotloneliness
Banggai lukutbrood, sit on the nest

30625

*dukut₂ grass

8099

PMP     *dukut₂ grass

WMP
Ida'an Begak dukutweeds; to weed
Malay dukutgrass (used in Java)
Toba Batak duhutgrass, vegetation
  man-duhut-ipull up weeds
  duhut-duhutweeds
Rejang dukueta weed, a grass, an herb
Old Javanese dukut ~ ḍukutgrass
Sangir dukuʔgrass, vegetation
Tontemboan rukutgrass, weeds
  ka-rukut-enbe overgrown with grass and weeds
CMP
Anakalangu rutugrass
Tetun dutgrass

8100

PWMP     *dukut-en be overgrown with grass or weeds

WMP
Toba Batak duhut-onbe overgrown with grass and weeds
Tontemboan ruku-rukut-enbe overgrown with grass and weeds

Note:   Also Hawu ɗyuʔu ‘grass’.

30591

*dulaq saliva; to spit

7992

PMP     *dulaq saliva; to spit     [doublet: *ludaq, *zulaq, *luzaq]

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) man-dolaʔto spit
Subanun (Sindangan) dulaʔ-ento spit
Subanon d<um>ulaʔto spit
Tboli d<m>ulakto spit
Rungus Dusun moŋo-dulato spit
Kadazan Dusun duhaʔsaliva
  momo-duhaʔto spit
  duha-anto spit
Mongondow duyaʔsaliva
  mon-duyaʔto spit
Totoli mo-dulato spit
CMP
Keo ae dulaspittle, saliva

30793

*duldúl to force, achieve by force

8526

PPh     *duldúl to force, achieve by force

WMP
Ilokano duldólto refuse to give up; force feed; insist upon; urge
Bontok duldúlbe carried away by a stream of water
Kankanaey duldúl-anto dun; to beset for payment
Ifugaw duldúlact of driving animals (e.g. pigs) ahead of oneself
Tagalog duldólshoving or thrusting something with some force into something else, e.g. food into the mouth, a pen into an ink bottle, etc.
Masbatenyo duldul-óntouch with the hand, reach with a pole, touch with an instrument
Waray-Waray duldólact of poking or pushing something against another
Mansaka dudulto press down on
Tiruray dudulto drive someone away

Note:   Also Kankanaey deldél ‘to dun; to beset for payment’. Dempwolff compared the Tagalog form given here with Malay jojol ‘sticking out pointedly --- a descriptive name for bundles of cross-pointed stakes used in making barriers across rivers’, Toba Batak juljul ‘jutting out’, Javanese jujul ‘overfull’ under a reconstruction *zulzul ‘to overfill’. However, Javanese jujul with this meaning does not appear in either Pigeaud (1938) or Horne (1974), nor is a similar form reported in Old Javanese or Balinese. The Malay and Toba Batak forms given here appear unrelated to those in the Philippines, and it therefore seems best to drop Dempwolff’s *zulzul and assign Tagalog duldól to the present reconstruction.

26037

*dulit stick, adhere

2272

PWMP     *dulit stick, adhere

WMP
Ilokano dúlitstick, adhere (when touching glue, paste, etc.)
Isneg d-in-úlitthe place of the honey in a beehive
Old Javanese dulitto make lime (for chewing betel)

Note:   With root *-lit₁ ‘caulk; adhesive material’.

26038

*duluR accompany, go together with

2273

PWMP     *duluR accompany, go together with

WMP
Cebuano dulugsleep together with someone
Maranao dologaccompany
Old Javanese dulurcompanion, that which goes together with something

30482

*duma someone; other people; be different

7685

PAN     *duma someone; other people; be different

Formosan
Kavalan zumaother (thing); other people
  mai tu zumanothing else
  pat-zumato have a change, to make it different
  tat-zumadifferent
Saisiyat a-rumaother
Atayal rumaʔsome; sometime; some time ago; sometimes, from time to time
Seediq domasomebody, someone; sometimes; several
  dən-domasometimes; one or the other; a certain one
Amis romaother, another; different; some, some other, sometimes
  roma-satomoreover
Thao sumaother; other people; someone; someone’s; sometimes; elsewhere
  pan-na-sa-sumavarious others
Bunun dumaother, other people
Tsou mo-cmothe others, the rest (Szakos 1993)
  mo-cmo cousomeone else, another person
Kanakanabu cu-cumá-iniother people
Saaroa u-suma-anəother
Puyuma ɖumaother
  ɖuma-ɖumaevery
  pa-ɖuma-ɖumachange for something else
  si-ɖuma-(y)another people, outsiders
WMP
Ilokano ag-dúmato differ
  ag-du-dúmavarious, several, different
  mai-dúmato be different
  i-dum-dumato prefer, to excel
  paka-i-duma-anpreference; difference; uniqueness
Isneg mag-du-dúmato make a selection
  i-pad-pa-dúmato prefer
  dum-dúmaseldom, rarely
  d<um>úmaalone (with)
  dumá-nto take for, to suppose to be
Pangasinan dumádifferent, be different
  man-dumábecome different
  ni-dumáabnormal
  ni-rumá-rumáunique
Agutaynen domaother, other people
Binukid dumacompanion; something that belongs together with something else; to go, be together, to accompany; to be relatives
  ka-duma-ankin, relatives outside of the immediate family; two people belonging to the same large group
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dumacompanion, another; to accompany
Tiruray dumo-na partner, a companion; a kinsman of one’s own generation, a cousin
Tboli dumucompanion, other part of something; relatives; to be a relative or a companion to someone
Ida'an Begak rumo3sg, he/she

26039

*dumpul dull, blunt

2274

PMP     *dumpul dull, blunt     [doublet: *de(m)pul, *tumpel, *tumpul]

WMP
Hanunóo dúmpulblunt, as of arrow points, etc.
Maranao dompoldull (tool)
CMP
Manggarai dumpulblunt, dull

30041

*dumul touch with the lips (?)

6740

PWMP     *dumul touch with the lips (?)

WMP
Cebuano dúmulput something near the face (lips, mouth)
Maranao domoltouch with the lips, as a horse smelling something
Malay (Kedah) domolsnout of an animal

32991