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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*g   

ga    ge    gi    go    gu    

ga

gaCel

gaduŋ

gae

gagar

gagu

gakgak

gala

galiŋ

galiŋgaŋ

galu

galugaʔ

galuŋ

gama

gamak

gamat

gamaʔ

gambaŋ

gamet

gamut

ganas

gaŋgaŋ

gapgap

ga(m)puŋ

garaŋ₁

garaŋ₂

garáw

gariŋ

garis

garit

garu

garuC

garus

gaRami

gaRaŋ

gaRaw

gasgas

gasiŋ

gatak

gateq

ga(n)tuk

gaut

gawaŋ

gaway

gawed

gayam

gayaŋ

30267

*gaCel itch, feel itchy

7150

PAN     *gaCel itch, feel itchy

Formosan
Puyuma gaTeɭitch
Paiwan gatselto itch, be itchy
  me-gatselbegin to itch

7151

PMP     *gatel itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated

WMP
Itbayaten katexitchiness, itch
Ilokano gatélitch; (fig.) sexual desire
  na-gatélitchy; sexually stimulated
  gatél a lakay‘dirty old man’
Agta (Eastern) katálto scratch
Itawis katálitch
  mak-katálto itch; to be in sexual heat (of animals)
Bontok gátəlimpetigo
Casiguran Dumagat gitəlitchy
Ibaloy katelan itch
  man-ketelto itch (as skin rash does)
Pangasinan gatélitching, scratchy; become itchy
Kapampangan gatálitch
Bikol gatólan itch
Hanunóo gatúlitch
Masbatenyo katólskin infection, itch, ringworm
Aklanon katóeitchy; disease – having an itchy head
  kátl-anoversexed, sex-crazy (female)
Waray-Waray katólitch
Palawan Batak katélto itch
Maranao gatelitch
Mansaka katulkind of skin disease
Yakan katelsores; infected places (generic); for something to itch, be itchy
  mag-katelto develop a sore, become a sore
  katel-anto feel itchy
Tboli ketelto itch (as scabies)
Tausug katulitchiness (as of skin disease, lice, or prickly heat)
  mag-katulto scratch (esp. with fingers)
  ka-katul-anto be or become itchy
Ida'an Begak katolitch
Ngaju Dayak gatelthe itch; what causes itching; indecency, lack of chastity
  maŋ-gatelcause an itch
Malagasy hátinathe itch, scabies
Iban gatalitchy; (of women) sensual, amorously inclined; longing for
Jarai kətalitch
Malay gatalitchiness; (fig.) lewdness
  semut gatalan ant, Monomorium pharaonis
Acehnese gatayitch, itchy; also restless, inconstant, desirous, lascivious
Gayō gatalitchy
Karo Batak gatelitch, itchy
  me-gatelto itch, produce itchiness
  me-gatel atéhave a strong urge to do something (lit. ‘itchy liver’)
Proto-Lampungic *gatəlitch
Old Javanese gatelitching (n. and adj.)
  a-gatelitchy
Javanese gatelan itch; to itch
  ŋatelto cause itching
Madurese gatelto itch
Balinese gatelhave an itch; also used of sexual desire
Proto-Sangiric *katilitch; itchy
Bare'e kataitch, itching place or wound; scabies
  ma-kataAlocasia celebica, itching taro
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *katoto itch, be itchy
Makasarese katalaʔitch, itchy; lascivious
  baine katalaʔa lascivious woman
  tau katalaʔa lascivious person
CMP
Manggarai katelitchy; smarting feeling on tongue, as when eating acid fruit
Sika gatarto itch
Damar (West) katloitch
Leti katlaitch
Wetan katlalascivious
Selaru matalitchy

7152

PMP     *ma-gatel itchy

WMP
Itbayaten ma-katexitchy, to be itchy
Agta (Dupaningan) ma-katálitchy
Kapampangan ma-gatálitchy
Bikol ma-gatólitchy
Hanunóo ma-gatúlitchy
Masbatenyo ma-katólitchy
Binukid ma-katelitchy; to scratch an itch on one’s body
Mansaka ma-katulitchy
Banggai ma-katolscabies, mange
Uma mo-katato itch, be itchy
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mo-katoto itch, be itchy
CMP
Wetan m-katlalascivious, to be lascivious
SHWNG
Numfor makerto itch

7153

PWMP     *maka-gatel become itchy

WMP
Bikol maka-gatólbecome itchy (as a mosquito bite)
Mongondow moko-katolitching, producing an itch
Bare'e maka-kataitchy, prickling

7154

PWMP     *g<um>atel to itch, begin to itch

WMP
Itbayaten k<um>atexto itch
Tausug k<um>atulto scratch (esp. with fingers)
Javanese g<um>atel(of morning sunshine) to cause a pleasantly warming sensation

7155

PWMP     *gatel-en be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders

WMP
Masbatenyo katul-ónbe infected with scabies, mange or ringworm
Malagasy haten-inaaffected with the itch, having the itch
Gayō gatal-enpromiscuous, of girls
Karo Batak gatel-ensuffer from itchiness; also, nymphomania
Javanese gatel-ento itch from a pathological cause; to have a guilty conscience
Banggai ma-katol-onsuffer from scabies

Note:   Also Kankanaey gáte ‘to have itch, scab mange’, gaté, me-ŋaté ‘itching’, Tagalog katí ‘itch, itchiness; urge or lust for something’, katí, ma-ŋatí ‘to itch, feel itchy, suffer from itchiness’, ma-katí ‘itchy’, Mapun kato ‘an open sore; itchy’, ka-katoh-an ‘be overcome with great itchiness’, Toba Batak gatal ‘itchy’ (< Malay), Sangir katiʔ ‘itch’, ma-katiʔ ‘itchy’, Tae' katiʔ ‘itch’, ma-katiʔ ‘itchy, restless, constantly moving from thing to thing’, Lamaholot gatək ‘itch, feel itchy’.

This comparison illustrates the inherent voicing instability in velar stops, especially the voiced velar stop (Blust 1996a). The weight of the evidence favors *g- in both PAn and PMP, but — as noted by Mills (1975:728) — this was replaced by k- in a number of daughter languages. Although the primary sense of this term, and the only sense that can be attributed to PAn on present evidence, is ‘itch, feel itchy’, it is clear from a number of reflexes in the Philippines and Indonesia that the word also functioned as a double-entendre for sexual lust. Moreover, the reflexes in Aklanon, Iban, Gayō, Karo Batak and perhaps Makasarese suggest that *gatel in the sense of ‘sexually itchy, oversexed’ applied particularly to women, and hence referred to nymphomania in addition to itchiness of the skin.

26178

*gaduŋ kind of tuber: Dioscorea spp.

2461

PWMP     *gaduŋ kind of tuber: Dioscorea spp.

WMP
Tiruray gaduŋ belatuŋa mongo bean
Karo Batak gaduŋ kayuthe cassava: Manihot utillisima
  gaduŋ garaŋyam, sweet potato
Rejang gaduŋa variety of cassava, poisonous if not soaked before cooking
Old Javanese gaḍuŋa climbing plant of the family Dioscorea. It has fragrant flowers and yields a tuber with narcotic properties
Balinese gaḍuŋthorn apple (a kind of tuber); the root intoxicates when eaten
Sasak gaduŋa tuber: Dioscorea hirsuta; the root is a narcotic
Makasarese gaduŋkind of tuber used as medicine: Dioscorea hispida

Note:   Included in Dempwolff (1934-38), but with a more restricted distribution.

30501

*gae to hook, gaff

7730

PCMP     *gae to hook, gaff

CMP
Manggarai gaéto hook; a hook
Buruese gae-hto hook
  gae-gaegaff hook

26179

*gagar brave, plucky

2462

PMP     *gagar brave, plucky

WMP
Minangkabau gagarbrave, plucky, gallant
CMP
Manggarai gagarto like, have an appetite for (fighting, talk, sex), brave, bold, lusty, desirous

30042

*gagu dumb, mute

6741

PWMP     *gagu dumb, mute

WMP
Kapampangan gágustupid
Cebuano gágustupid, lacking in sound judgment
  ka-gagúh-anstupidity
Bahasa Indonesia gagumute, dumb
Javanese gaguspeech defect: substitution of l for r

30884

*gakgak caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people

8713

PWMP     *gakgak caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people

WMP
Ilokano gakgákkind of large duck
  ag-gakgákto croak (frogs); change voice at puberty
  ag-g<an>akgákthe sound of broken bells; quacking of ducks
Kankanaey men-gakgákto croak
Tagalog gakgákidle talk or babbling; babbler, idle talker
Bintulu gagaka bird, the crow
Malay gagakcrow, onomatopoetic from its caw
  gagak humathe large jungle crow, Corvus macrorhyncus
Old Javanese gagakcrow
Balinese gagakcrow (bird)

Note:   Also Old Javanese gāgak ‘crow’.

32595

*gala the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.)

10978

PPh     *gala the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.)

WMP
Ilokano galathe almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.)
Tagalog gala-galathe almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.) (Madulid 2001)

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

32206

*galiŋ to grind, crush by grinding

10480

PWMP     *galiŋ to grind, crush by grinding     [doublet: *giliŋ]

WMP
Hanunóo gáliŋgrinding, milling
  galíŋ-unbe ground, be milled
Aklanon gáliŋto grind, mill
  galiŋ-ángrinder, mill
Maranao galiŋto grind, mill
Binukid galiŋto mill, grind something (as corn) in a mill
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) galiŋto grind, as grain
Mansaka gariŋto grind, as corn or rice
  galiŋ-ana mill, grinder
Ngaju Dayak galiŋturn over, revolve
Toba Batak haliŋturn around, of a blade

Note:   Also Mansaka galiŋ ‘to grind, as corn or rice’. Toba Batak haliŋ is assumed to reflect *galiŋ with sporadic interchange of *g and *k (Blust 1996a). This variant is far less securely attested than *giliŋ, and the resemblance of the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms to those in the Philippines may be a product of chance.

26180

*galiŋgaŋ a tree: Cassia alata

2463

PWMP     *galiŋgaŋ a tree: Cassia alata

WMP
Malay geliŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn.
Karo Batak galiŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn.
Sasak geliŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn.
Bare'e galiŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn.

26182

*galu stir, mix

2465

PMP     *galu stir, mix     [doublet: *garu, *kalu]

WMP
Mentawai galumix, mixed, mixture
CMP
Proto-Sub-Ambon *galustir
OC
Nggela kalustir up

Note:   Also Sundanese galo ‘mixed’, Wolio geru ‘stir (e.g. with a spoon)’. Mills (1975:700), Mills (1981:73) attributes Proto-South Sulawesi *garu together with various forms in western Indonesia meaning ‘harrow’, and Fijian kadru ‘scratch, i kadru ‘harrow’ to PAn ?*/ga(n)[dD]u[hØ])/ ‘stir, scrape’.

26181

*galugaʔ a plant: Bixa orellana

2464

PWMP     *galugaʔ a plant: Bixa orellana

WMP
Maranao galogaʔbush with seed used as dye or food coloring: Bixa orellana L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) geluɣaʔachuete or annatto tree, the seeds of which are used for coloring food materials red: Bixa orellana
Malay gelugalac; red-dye, red-lead; dye from the arnotto
  kayu gelugathe arnotto: Bixa orellana
Old Javanese galugakind of red dye made from the stones of the kusumba kliŋ; red

26183

*galuŋ curve

2466

PWMP     *galuŋ curve

WMP
Maranao galoŋnose ring
Kadazan Dusun gahuŋembrace
Iban galoŋcurling, rolling, billowing

Note:   With root *-luŋ₁ ‘bend, curve’.

30093

*gama morning star?

6812

POC     *gama morning star?

OC
Bugotu gamamorning star
Nggela gamamorning star
Gilbertese kamaa constellation: the Southern Cross

30108

*gamak feel, hold in the hand

6837

PWMP     *gamak feel, hold in the hand

WMP
Maranao gamakgrip; palm, fist
Manobo (Dibabawon) gámakhold small object in hand
Binukid gamaktake, grasp, squeeze (something) in one’s fist; to crumble (something) in one’s hands
Tiruray gamakhold, grip
Malay gamakto finger, as the hilt of a dagger
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-gamak-gamakgrip or handle something, as to determine its weight

26184

*gamat plant from which a dyestuff is obtained

2467

PWMP     *gamat plant from which a dyestuff is obtained

WMP
Isneg xamáta black dye obtained by mixing ŋilá (deposits of water) with the crushed thick bark (which becomes black after pounding) of the kadíg tree. It is used for dyeing the teeth. The same name is given to a creeping herb (xamát) that is leafless, but whose fresh stems when crushed against the teeth, dyes them black
Iban gamata plant: Cyanotis cristata Roehm. et Schultes. The leaves are edible, and may be used for poulticing
Toba Batak gamatplant used for dyeing

26185

*gamaʔ catch fish or shrimp with the hands

2468

PWMP     *gamaʔ catch fish or shrimp with the hands     [doublet: *gamak 'feel, hold in the hand']

WMP
Kankanaey gamáone handful
Casiguran Dumagat gamáto catch shrimp with the hands (feeling for them in the grass and leaves in shallow water)
Iban gamaʔfeel or touch with the hands, palpate, examine by feel; grope (in the dark); catch fish with the hands
Mongondow gamaʔfetch, get; also the ceremonial fetching of a bride

26186

*gambaŋ valued metal

2469

PWMP     *gambaŋ valued metal

WMP
Ilokano gambáŋcopper
Malay gambaŋpendant of gold or silver

26187

*gamet edible sea animal or plant

2470

PWMP     *gamet edible sea animal or plant

WMP
Yami gametlaver, seaweed
Ivatan gametedible brown seaweed
Ibatan gametkind of brown seaweed with leaflets on both sides of the stem
Ilokano gamétgreenish-brown edible seaweed
Malay gamatspecies of holothurian or bêche-de-mer
Old Javanese gametkind of fish or other aquatic animal

Note:   Also Itbayaten gamed ‘an edible, brown, slippery seaweed: Porphyra crispata (Kjellman)’.

31719

*gamut poison

9885

PPh     *gamut poison

WMP
Ilokano gamútpoison (vegetable); drugs
Bontok gamutpoison
  gamut-anto poison something
Maranao gamotpoison
Mansaka gamotto poison

9886

PPh     *gamut-en to poison

WMP
Ilokano gamut-énto poison
Tagalog gamut-ínto doctor

Note:   Probably identical with PMP *Ramut ‘root’ (some reflexes of which mean ‘medicine’), but the distinctly different sense of these terms and their cross-linguistic agreement calls for a separate entry.

26188

*ganas raw energy, animal appetite

2471

PMP     *ganas raw energy, animal appetite

WMP
Pangasinan gánasappetite
Maranao ganascapability for carrying weights; capacity or strength
Iban ganasrestless, active
Malay ganaspredatory; unusually daring -- of man-eating tigers, crocodiles that attack men in boats, etc.
Old Javanese ganasswift, wild, impetuous, furious, savage
CMP
Buruese kanastrong, plenty

Note:   Also Kapampangan gána ‘appetite’, Aklanon gána ‘appetite, taste for, desire’, Cebuano gána ‘appetite for eating’. K.A. Adelaar has pointed out to me that Kapampangan, Aklanon, and Cebuano forms almost certainly are borrowings of Spanish gana(s) ‘desire, want, appetite’. However, such an explanation is untenable for Old Javanese ganas. It is possible that Pangasinan gánas ‘appetite’ is a blend of an inherited form and an imported meaning that bore a general resemblance to the meaning it replaced.

29857

*gaŋgaŋ heat or dry something near a fire

6505

PWMP     *gaŋgaŋ heat or dry something near a fire     [doublet: *daŋdaŋ₁]

WMP
Cebuano gáŋgaŋput something over the coals to dry it or heat it
Maranao gaŋgaŋheat in fire
Malay gaŋgaŋtoasting, slow roasting near a fire; sun-drying; hot dry-poulticing
Karo Batak gaŋgaŋkind of bamboo tube used to cook by a process of smoking
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-gaŋgaŋ-iheat up
Sundanese gaŋgaŋhot
  ŋa-gaŋgaŋroast or toast briefly over a fire (somewhat further from the fire than paŋgaŋ)

Note:   With root *-gaŋ ‘dry near a fire’.

26189

*gapgap stammer

2472

PMP     *gapgap stammer

WMP
Malay gagapstammer, stutter
Karo Batak gapgapshrill and rapid, of a woman's voice
OC
Fijian kakastammer, stutter
Maori kaka-kakastammer, stutter

26198

*ga(m)puŋ float

2481

PWMP     *ga(m)puŋ float

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gampuŋfloat
Lawangan gampoŋfloat
Ma'anyan g-um-apuŋfloat
Sasak gampuŋhang something up

Note:   Also Iban lepoŋ-lepoŋ ‘floating’, Malay ampoŋ ‘light (in water), cork-like (of wood)’, apoŋ ‘floating on water; driftwood’, ter-kapoŋ-kapoŋ/ ‘bobbing up and down on the surface of water, as driftwood or a floating leaf’.

30961

*garaŋ₁ fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper

8842

PAN     *garaŋ₁ fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper

Formosan
Paiwan garaŋpower, influence
  ma-garaŋbe angry; to scold, upbraid
  pu-garaŋbe vigorous, (back) in good health
WMP
Kadazan Dusun galaŋfierce (as a person’s temperament)
  g<in>alaŋfierceness
Iban garaŋfierce, ferocious, savage (as tigers)
Salako garaŋfierce, strong
Malay garaŋfierce; turbulent; (of color) loud or glaring
  məŋ-garaŋ hatito stimulate courage (as martial music)
Gayō garaŋfierce, strong, indomitable
Toba Batak garaŋeasily inflammable, as tinder
  maŋ-garaŋ rabukto dry tinder; to inflame an argument or quarrel
Minangkabau garaŋ bəkərjaa great worker
  garaŋ makana big eater
Rejang garaŋevil, malicious
Sundanese garaŋhot-tempered, choleric, of a quarrelsome nature
Balinese ŋ-garaŋto attack with many others, scramble
Sasak garaŋto fight (of dogs, crudely of people)
  pə-garaŋto fight one another

Note:   Also Kelabit garəŋ ‘roaring, as an animal’, Old Javanese aŋ-garaŋ-gaŋ ‘to attack furiously in great numbers(?)’. Based on the Toba Batak and Malay forms cited here, Ngaju Dayak ga-garaŋ ‘very bright, of the moon’, and Javanese garaŋ ‘to smoke out, fumigate’ Dempwolff (1939) posited *garaŋ ‘hot; ardent, passionate’. However, Pigeaud (1938) glosses Javanese garaŋ as ‘dry, roasted, warmed up (on a grill over the fire); dried (of tobacco over a fire)’, leaving Dempwolff’s cognate set as a collection of forms with far less semantic coherence than those brought together here.

30962

*garaŋ₂ uneven, of edges, jagged, rough

8843

PMP     *garaŋ₂ uneven, of edges, jagged, rough

WMP
Hanunóo garáŋroughness, coarseness
CMP
Sika garaŋ-gaatuneven, of the surface of a plank or other wood

8844

PMP     *garaŋ-gasaŋ uneven, of edges, jagged, rough

WMP
Bikol garáŋ-gasáŋjagged
CMP
Sika garaŋ-gasaŋuneven, rough (as a rough sack)

Note:   Also Bikol gásaŋ ‘a jagged stone; broken bits of stone or shell chips’. This is an unusual comparison in that it allows the reconstruction of a pattern of variable base reduplication of the sort seen in English words like hocus-pocus, wishy-washy, or willy-nilly. It is conceivable that the agreement of the Bikol and Sika forms in supporting *garaŋ-gasaŋ is a product of convergence, since it is unknown elsewhere, but this seems unlikely in view of the regular sound correspondences, length, and close agreement in meaning.

30819

*garáw restlessness, wild or unruly movement

8578

PPh     *garáw restlessness, wild or unruly movement

WMP
Ilokano garáwwild animal; unruliness; movement; action
  na-garáwlively, restless, active, wild (animals); unruly; lewd; immodest
Tagalog galáwmovement; motion; circulation; stir; activity; handling, touching, moving or disturbing unnecessarily; stealing; thieving; theft; joke, jest
  i-galáwto move; to change the position of
  má-galáwto be moved, stirred or disturbed
  ma-galáwconstantly moving
Hanunóo garáwmovement; mischievousness, playing around; ‘keep your hands to yourself’, etc. (said to small children)

8579

PPh     *garaw-en to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion

WMP
Ilokano garaw-ento move; to touch, molest; (colloquial) to copulate
Tagalog galaw-ínto move, touch, handle or disturb something; to displace something

26192

*gariŋ mill or grind

2475

PWMP     *gariŋ mill or grind     [disjunct: *galiŋ]

WMP
Cebuano galiŋmill or grind something in a mill
Iban gariŋroll

30963

*garis to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line

8845

PMP     *garis to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line

WMP
Itbayaten ma-garisstriped (?)
Ifugaw gali(h)a line or stripe traced over the ground
Tagalog galíssarna, dhobie itch
  galis-ínbecome infected with sarna
  galís-ínprone to suffer from sarna infection
Hanunóo garísa scabby, itchy skin disease; sarna; dhobie itch
Mansaka garisto wipe off (as dirf off one’s cheek)
Iban garisline, mark, boundary line
  ŋaristo mark out land by drawing boundary lines
Malay garisscratch, abrasion, of scratches on the skin, especially from magic or poisoned weapons, where the slightest scratch is (thought to be) fatal; also of striking a match
Karo Batak garisscratch, line, stripe, letter
Dairi-Pakpak Batak garisscratch mark
Toba Batak garistouched superficially
Minangkabau garisto touch or pat, as a hint; to wink
Sundanese garisbrush past something; draw a line; line, stripe, starting line, scratch
  nga-garisbrush or rub against someone or something
  guras-gariskeep brushing against someone or something (as in continually running); brush against one another (as two people passing one another)
Old Javanese ka-garisstriped?, grazed?
Javanese garisline separating one thing from another
CMP
Ngadha gariline; draw a line
Rotinese kalito scratch, dig in the earth (of a dog, chicken); to dig (a hole)
Yamdena n-kariscratch with the nails, scratch over a hard surface; draw a line

8846

POC     *karis₂ to scratch, scrape     [doublet: *karis₁ 'scratch mark']

OC
Tolai karto scratch
Motu ari-ato mark, indent, as bottom of canoe with stones
Bugotu karito scrape, of flesh of coconut, rasp
Nggela karito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut; to scrape out white of coconut; to scale a fish
Wayan karibe scraped, scratched by a scraper
  kari-ato scrape, scratch something
Fijian karito scrape, chiefly of coconut
  i karia scraper, a plane

Note:   Also Cebuano garás ‘to scratch lightly, put a thin wound on the surface’, Mongondow gares ‘line, stripe’ (< Malay), Wolio garisi ‘line, stripe’ (< Malay), Muna garinsi ‘draw lines in, on something’, (< Malay), Kei garis ‘matchbox, box of matches’ (< Malay). Dempwolff (1938) glossed this form as ‘kratzen’ (‘to scratch’), but the glosses of reflexes suggest that it actually referred to light grazing contact, as of two persons running side-by-side and occasionally brushing against one another, or the contact producing fire when a match is struck, hence the meaning ‘line; draw a line’ in some languages, as opposed to heavy scratching or scraping. The loss of *-s in Yamdena is found in some other items, but is sporadic.

26191

*garit striped, having stripes or streaks of different color

2474

PMP     *garit striped, having stripes or streaks of different color

WMP
Ilokano gáritstriped, streaked; color; shade
Isneg xáritmulticolor dogs and cats
Bontok gálitto be striped, as the color of some cats
Kankanaey gálitstriped; streaked
Ifugaw (Batad) galíta black and white speckled cat or dog
Old Javanese aŋ-garitto scratch, graze
Javanese garitscratch, scratched line
Sasak garitstriped (of animals)

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-garis ‘striped?’, Ifugaw gallit ‘combination of colors; hence, speckles’. With root *-rit ‘scratch a line’.

26193

*garu stir, mix

2476

PWMP     *garu stir, mix     [doublet: *galu]

WMP
Gayō garustir, mix
Karo Batak garuthe stirring of indigo dye
Toba Batak garustirred together, mixed
Proto-South Sulawesi *garuto stir

30820

*garuC comb

8580

PAN     *garuC comb

Formosan
Puyuma garuTa comb
Paiwan garutsa comb

8581

PMP     *garut rub against, scrape, scratch

WMP
Itbayaten garotscratch by other object; scratch by pointed object
  garot-enbe scratched by another object
Mansaka karotto scratch (as one’s head)
Tiruray garutitchy
Ngaju Dayak garutkind of oyster used as a scraper (as in scraping coconut meat from the shell); what is scraped or rasped
  maŋ-garutto scrape, scratch, rasp
Malay garutscraping against one another (of two surfaces in contact), e.g., as a cartwheel rubbing against a wall
Gayō garutbe scratched (as by a cat)
Toba Batak garutwhetstone
  maŋ-garutto whet, sharpen; also, to scratch
Old Javanese garut“scratcher”, hook (a kind of tool)

8582

PWMP     *ma-garut to scratch

WMP
Itbayaten ma-garotto be scratched by other objects; to be accidentally scratched
Old Javanese ma-garutto scratch

8583

PAN     *g<um>aruC to comb

Formosan
Puyuma g<əm>aruTto comb
Paiwan g<m>arutsto comb

8584

PMP     *g<um>arut to rub against, scrape, scratch

WMP
Old Javanese g<um>arutto scratch, paw; also of playing the saluki (a certain musical instrument, probably a percussion instrument
Javanese di-garut-iscratched, pried open with the nails

Note:   Also Mansaka karut ‘to scratch (as one’s head)’, Javanese garu ‘harrow; comb’, Totoli kalut ‘to claw, scratch’, Tajio karut ‘to scratch an itch’. Although this comparison is sufficiently well-attested to make the reconstruction likely, Austronesian languages show a statistically significant correlation of *g- or *k- with words meaning ‘scrape, scratch’ and the like, whether they are cognate or not, much like the high-frequency correlation of *ŋ- with words referring to the nose and mouth area, or *-l with words referring to dullness or bluntness. For this reason caution must be observed so as not to confuse genuine cognates with products of chance convergence. It is unclear whether the meaning ‘comb’ in Formosan reflexes of *garuC is original or secondary. Traditional combs were made of bamboo, wood, or bone, and delousing combs had very narrowly-spaced teeth that must have scraped the skin in passing through the hair so as to remove the parasites they were designed to eliminate.

30970

*garus scratch

8864

PMP     *garus scratch

WMP
Tagalog gálosslight scratch on the skin or similar surface; a small cut
  ma-gáloscovered with scratches on the skin surface
  galus-anto be scratched or scraped
Maranao karosto scratch (as a cat)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) karusto scratch someone with the fingernails or claws
Ngaju Dayak garuswhat is scratched; scribble, scrawl, scratch
Minangkabau məŋ-garusto calender (cloth)
OC
Nggela ŋgaruto scratch
  ŋgaru-sito scratch something; to slice, scrape

Note:   Also Itbayaten garas ‘to scratch’, Binukid kahus ‘to scratch (something or someone with one’s nails/claws)’, Malay gərus ‘a shell, Cypraea tigris; giving a gloss to cloth by use of this shell; calendering’.

30737

*gaRami rice straw

8377

PWMP     *gaRami rice straw     [doublet: *zaRami]

WMP
Ilokano garámirice stalk, straw, rice hay
  ka-garami-anfield (of hay), where rice has been harvested
Tiruray regameya rice stalk
Lun Dayeh gəramihstubble, hay, straw, rice stalk
Kelabit gəramihrice straw, rice stubble (dbl. dəramih)

Note:   Also Itawis gurámi ‘rice straw’.

26611

*gaRaŋ small edible freshwater crab

3069

PAN     *gaRaŋ small edible freshwater crab

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) kaLaŋcrab
Atayal kkagaŋcrab
Pazeh kaxaŋsmall crab found in streams
Amis kalaŋcrab
Thao kalhansmall freshwater crab found in creeks
Bunun kalaŋcrab
  ka-kalaŋmany crabs
Puyuma garaŋcrab
Paiwan gaŋcrab
  ka-gaŋ-anred crab sp.

8859

PMP     *kaRaŋ small edible freshwater crab

WMP
Itbayaten kayaŋsea crab
Hanunóo kágaŋfreshwater crab
Cebuano kágaŋsmall crab of muddy areas near the shore, with highly prized flesh
Mansaka kagaŋfreshwater crab
Tausug kagaŋcrab (generic)

Note:   Also Favorlang/Babuza aggan ‘crab’, Kavalan waRaŋ ‘crab (generic)’, Maranao ogagaŋ ‘crab’, Tiruray kagaŋ ‘type of edible crab found in swamps’, Mapun kagaŋ ‘generic term for crab’, Yakan kagaŋ ‘crab in sea’. Zorc (1971) posited PPh *kaRaŋ ‘crawler (of crab); crab’.

The Malayo-Polynesian evidence unambiguously supports *k- in this form, which initially appears to agree with most Formosan reflexes. However, Laurent Sagart has correctly pointed out that all Formosan reflexes with k- are in fact ambiguous for *k- or *g, and that both Puyuma garaŋ (which I had earlier overlooked), and Paiwan gaŋ point to *gaRaŋ, leaving the initial consonant of PMP *kaRaŋ as an unexplained irregularity. For other examples of sporadic *g/k crossover cf. Blust (1996a).

26190

*gaRaw hoarse, raspy (of the voice)

2473

PWMP     *gaRaw hoarse, raspy (of the voice)     [doublet: *paRaw]

WMP
Bontok gáləwspeak with a croaky voice
Malay garaudeep (of the voice), harsh

Note:   With root *-Raw ‘hoarse’.

26194

*gasgas rub, abrade

2477

PWMP     *gasgas rub, abrade     [doublet: *kaskas, *gisgis₁, *gusgus]

WMP
Itbayaten gasgasbruise? abrasion?
Ayta Abellan gahgahto clean by scrubbing or rubbing; to scrape
Kapampangan gasgásslash, scratch; a footpath
  ma-gasgásscratched
Tagalog gasgásabrasion; the part where something (esp. skin) has been scraped off; worn-out by friction
  ma-gasgásto be chafed; to be made sore by rubbing
Cebuano gasgasdamage something by scratching it
Malay g-er-agasclawing, pawing; passing the fingers roughly through the hair
Balinese gasgasitch, itching; to scratch (cat, etc.)

30971

*gasiŋ spinning top

8865

PWMP     *gasiŋ spinning top

WMP
Aklanon kásiŋ-kásiŋheart; core
Waray-Waray kasiŋ-kasiŋheart
Cebuano kasíŋtop; make into a top; game of playing with a top
  k<in>asíŋshaped like a top
  kasiŋ-kásiŋheart
Maranao kasiŋto spin, as a top
Binukid kasiŋtoy top
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kasiŋa spinning top
Mansaka kasiŋtop (i.e., toy)
Mapun kasiŋa toy top
  kasiŋ-kasiŋa plumb bob
Lun Dayeh gaiŋ ~ geiŋa windmill made to frighten birds in rice fields
Kelabit gaiŋspinning top (popular in competitive games)
Malagasy a-hásinato be twisted
  voa-hásinatwisted, or spun, as cotton
  ma-násinato twist; to make very round; to turn in a lathe
Iban gasiŋspin, revolve; spinning top; spinning wheel
Malay gasiŋspinning top
Acehnese gaséŋspinning top
  meu-gaséŋto spin tops
Gayō gasiŋspinning top
  be-gasiŋto spin a top
Karo Batak gasiŋspinning top
  er-gasiŋ(gasiŋ)to spin a top
Toba Batak gasiŋspinning top
Rejang gasiŋspinning top
Balinese gaŋsiŋtop (toy)
Sasak gasiŋspinning top
  bə-gasiŋto spin tops
Sangir kasiŋspinning top; kind of top shell
  məʔ-kasiŋto spin tops
Bare'e gancispinning top
  mo-gancito spin tops
Tae' gasiŋspinning top
  maʔ-gasiŋto spin tops
  paʔ-gasiŋ-anplace where tops are spun, top-spinning ground
Mandar gasiŋspinning top
Buginese gasiŋspinning top
Makasarese gasiŋspinning top
  aʔ-gasiŋto spin a top
Wolio gasiwooden top (toy)

8866

PWMP     *gasiŋ-an spinning top

WMP
Romblomanon kasiŋ-anan all-wood playing top, used by children in play (identified as having a wooden spindle at the top around which a string is wrapped for spinning)
Javanese gaŋsiŋ-anspinning top

Note:   This form shows the voicing cross-over seen in many morphemes that contain a velar stop, especially those with *g. There is no discernible difference of meaning between *gasiŋ and *gasiŋ-an.

26195

*gatak cleave, split

2478

PWMP     *gatak cleave, split     [disjunct: *getak]

WMP
Bikol gatáksplit, cracked
Javanese di-gaṭakindented

26196

*gateq sap, resin, sticky secretion

2479

PWMP     *gateq sap, resin, sticky secretion     [doublet: *getaq 'sap']

WMP
Itbayaten gatamilk (especially of coconut)
Tagalog gatáʔcoconut milk extracted from coconut meat
  gataʔ-ánto extract the milk from coconut meat
Hanunóo gatáʔcoconut cream obtained by squeezing and leaching shredded coconut meat
  maŋ-gatáʔmake gatáʔ
Cebuano gátaʔjuice squeezed from coconut meat
  g<in>atʔ-ansomething cooked with coconut juice
Maranao gataʔmilk of coconut
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gataʔcoconut milk
Tiruray gataʔcoconut milk
Tausug gataʔemulsion of coconut (a liquid preparation resembling milk obtained by soaking fresh grated coconut in water and then squeezing out the juice)
Kadazan Dusun gatarubber, rubber tree
Balinese gatahgum (used in medicine)
  gatah kayuresin, gum from trees
Dampelas gatagum, sap

Note:   With root *-teq ‘sap, gummy secretion’.

26199

*ga(n)tuk knock against, of body parts

2482

PMP     *ga(n)tuk knock against, of body parts

WMP
Makasarese gantuʔknock against with any body part except the foot
CMP
Manggarai gatukchatter (of the teeth)

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’

26197

*gaut to scratch

2480

PWMP     *gaut to scratch     [doublet: *kaRus, *garus]

WMP
Malagasy haotrascratching
Rejang gautto scratch

30111

*gawaŋ gate, opening

6840

PWMP     *gawaŋ gate, opening

WMP
Aklanon gawáŋdoor
Cebuano gawáŋdoor; hole in floor or in wall
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gawaŋclear an area in the bush or forest as a place for and an approach to a snare or trap; the cleared area
Mansaka gawaŋspace; crack (as in a floor)
Malay gawaŋgate

Note:   With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.

29846

*gaway tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.

6472

PMP     *gaway tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.     [disjunct: *kaway₂]

WMP
Bikol gáwaypoisonous tentacles of the jellyfish
Cebuano gawáytentacle
Muna gawe-gawefringe, appendage (on clothes, fish)

6473

POC     *kawe₁ tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun

OC
Motu gavefeelers of octopus
Sa'a ka-kawetentacles of octopus; branching of the fingers of the human hand
Marshallese kooctopus tentacles; rays of the sun
Chuukese óótentacle of octopus or squid
Tongan kavetentacle of cuttlefish or octopus
Samoan ʔavetentacle of octopus
Kapingamarangi gawe bilibilitentacle of octopus
Maori kawekawetentacles of a cuttlefish; tendrils of a creeper, fringe on a mat, etc.
Hawaiian ʔawetentacle
  ʔaweʔawetentacles; runners, as on a vine

Note:   Given the reduplication in Muna and several Oceanic languages, PMP *gaway-gaway might also be posited. However, since tentacles are inherently plural the chances of historically independent doubling to mark plurality cannot be discounted (as seen in Sa'a ka-kawe).

32596

*gawed betel pepper

10979

PPh     *gawed betel pepper

WMP
Yami gaodtype of plant: betel, eaten with betel nut
Itbayaten gawedPiper betle L.
Ilokano gawédbetel pepper, used in native medicine to cure wounds, stomach aches and bone dislocations; people combine gawed, apug (powdered lime) and buá (betel nut) to make mama, a concoction for chewing
Isneg xawádthe betel or betel pepper, Piper betle L.
Casiguran Dumagat gawə́da vine, the ikmo, or betel pepper, Piper betle; this leaf is used extensively for chewing with the betel nut; it is also believed to have medicinal value (the leaf is placed over painful areas, such as headaches, stomach aches, boils, etc.)
Ibaloy Kawedbetel pepper, Piper betle; the leaves are used as an ingredient in the mama betel chew, along with areca nut and lime (widely thought to strengthen teeth)

30756

*gayam a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis

8451

PWMP     *gayam a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis

WMP
Tausug kayama tree: Inocarpus fagifera
Malay gayamOtaheite chestnut: Inocarpus edulis
Sundanese taŋkal gayamname of a large tree and of its edible fruit, which resembles a mango
Old Javanese gayama particular kind of tree, Inocarpus
Javanese gayama certain tree that bears edible fruits

Note:   Madulid (1999) also cites ‘MANOkayam ‘a tree: Inocarpus fagifera’, but without specific reference this is of little value. I assume *gayam, but given the tendency to voicing instability in the velar stops the sporadic change in this form could have gone in either direction.

30446

*gayaŋ hunting spear

7611

PAN     *gayaŋ hunting spear

Formosan
Paiwan gayaŋhunting spear with detachable harpoon-like barbed iron point
WMP
Itbayaten gayaŋspear (for catching fish), harpoon
  kapaŋ-gayaŋa fishing method (using spears)
Ilokano gayáŋpointed weapon; spear, lance, arrow
Bontok gayáŋkind of spear, having upward curving projections from the blade
Casiguran Dumagat gayáŋspear, lance; throw a spear (referring esp. to an Ilongot spear; the Dumagats themselves do not use spears)
Cebuano gayáŋkind of bolo about 18” long with a straight blade; the back edge curves slightly upward forming a crest near the tip, with a flat end that slants outward so that the end and the bottom form a point
Maranao gayaŋweapon with a blade; trowel-like flat-bladed tool
Tausug gayaŋa bladed weapon (similar to a bolo, having a long blade)
Kadazan Dusun gazaŋa long parang, about two and one half feet in length
Iban gayaŋpierce, make a hole, stab, as by thrusting a spear or knife into the neck of a pig as a ritual act
Mongondow gayaŋkind of sword
Tae' gaaŋgolden kris
  gayaŋstab with a kris
Buginese gajaŋkris
  pa-gajaŋstab
Makasarese gayaŋkind of weapon, long and pointed and sharp on both sides

TOP      ga    ge    gi    go    gu    

ge

geCel

gedek

gek

gekgek

gelaŋ

gelap₁

gelap₂

gelem

geleŋ

gem

gemel

gemes₁

gemes₂

gemgem

gemi

gempal

geneŋ

genep

geŋ

gepik

gepit

ger

geraq

geret₁

geret₂

gerger₁

gerger₂

geriC

geRuŋ

ges

gesaq

ge(s)ges

getak

geteŋ

geteq

getes

getget₁

getget₂

getik

getil

getuk

getus

31054

*geCel to pinch

9002

PAN     *geCel to pinch     [doublet: *getil, *ketil]

Formosan
Paiwan getselpincers (of crab)
  ki-getselto pinch oneself
  ma-getselto be pinched
  g<em>etselto pinch

9003

PMP     *getel to pinch

26200

*gedek sound of sob

2483

PMP     *gedek sound of sob

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gedekclamor, riotous noise; sound of galloping horse
  g-um-edekboiling (water)
CMP
Manggarai gesekwhine, sob; high-pitched bark of dog

Note:   With root *-dek₁ ‘hiccough, sob’.

26202

*gek sound of a thud

2485

PWMP     *gek sound of a thud

WMP
Maranao gekthud, sound that is hollow
Kayan geka knock, bump, tap
Old Javanese gek(onom.) jolts and jumps

26201

*gekgek animal sound

2484

PMP     *gekgek animal sound     [doublet: *gakgak, *gikgik, *gukguk]

WMP
Gaddang geʔgekfrog
Malay gegaknoise, din, uproar
Sundanese gekgeksuppressed laughter; laugh under one's breath
Javanese gek-gekcluck-cluck (onom. for the sound of drinking)
SHWNG
Buli gokgokcrow
OC
Fijian kokō (length unexplained)to cluck, of a hen; croak, of a frog; squeal, of a tethered pig

26204

*gelaŋ earthworm; intestinal worm

2487

PWMP     *gelaŋ earthworm; intestinal worm

WMP
Bontok kəlaŋworm; earthworm; intestinal worm
Ifugaw koláŋgeneral term for worm
Malay gelaŋ-gelaŋ rayatapeworm; name given to the four great worms believed to inhabit the stomach
Mandar galla-gallaŋintestinal worm
Makasarese gallaŋ-gallaŋworm; earthworm; intestinal worm

26203

*gelap₁ lightning that strikes something

2486

PMP     *gelap₁ lightning that strikes something

WMP
Javanese gelaplightning that strikes something
CMP
Manggarai hili-helapthunderbolt -- i.e., lightning that strikes something

Note:   With root *-lap ‘flash, sparkle’.

30972

*gelap₂ dim, obscure

8867

PWMP     *gelap₂ storm, darkness

WMP
Cebuano kuláp ~ kúlapdim, not affording much light; or for the eyes to be dim; for light or vision to dim; for one’s popularity to fade
  kulap-kúlapblink the eyes
Malay gəlapdarkness that conceals; (fig.) covert, secret
  mata gəlapsleight of hand
  saŋ gəlapthief; night-prowler
  surat gəlapanonymous letter
Balinese gelapdark

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat kələp ‘night, night-time; to be caught out after dark’.

30998

*gelem dark, overcast, cloudy

8901

PWMP     *gelem dark, overcast, cloudy

WMP
Sasak gələmdark; evening, night
Mongondow golomrain clouds, dark clouds

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’. Possibly a convergent innovation.

26205

*geleŋ cut off, sever; ring a tree

2488

PWMP     *geleŋ cut off, sever; ring a tree

WMP
Maranao geleŋcut off, sever
Kadazan Dusun gohoŋbracelet, arm-ring
Malay gelaŋcircuit, circlet; bracelet
Sundanese geleŋsomething cut into small bits; to ring (a tree)
Mongondow goloŋring a tree

Note:   Sundanese keleŋ ‘something cut into small bits; to ring (a tree)’, Bare'e koloŋ ‘hew a tree trunk or beam so as to produce four squared-off sides’ probably reflect the same prototype. Dempwolff's (1934-38) *gelaŋ ‘bracelet’ may ultimately prove to be identical with this reconstruction, the evidence for it being due to widespread borrowing from Malay.

26211

*gem hold in the fist

2494

PMP     *gem hold in the fist

WMP
Maranao gemhold in the mouth
Kayan (Busang) gemhold tightly
OC
Rennellese kom-iclasp firmly

Note:   This is the simple root found reduplicated in Dempwolff's (1934-38) *gemgem ‘make a fist’. Maranao kem ‘hold inside the palm’, Murik kem ‘hold’, probably derive from the same form.

26206

*gemel take in the hand, clasp, grasp

2489

PAN     *gemel take in the hand, clasp, grasp     [disjunct: *kemel, *kemes]

Formosan
Pazeh me-kemerto hold tightly, squeeze in the hand
  kemer-enbe held tightly, be squeezed
WMP
Ilokano gammálgrip, grasp, clasp with the hand or fingers
  sa ŋa gammálone handful
Malay gəmaltaking in the hand or fingers (of carrying a bouquet, fingering a kris, etc.)
Mongondow gomolmassage, pinch, squeeze

9355

POC     *gomol squeeze, hold tight, clutch

OC
Arosi gomosqueeze, hold tight, clutch

26207

*gemes₁ angry, irritated

2490

PWMP     *gemes₁ angry, irritated

WMP
Malay (Jakarta) gemasspiteful, hardhearted, malign; get angry with
Sundanese gemestry hard to anger a man or animal
Javanese gemesirritated, provoked
Sasak gemescruel
Mongondow gomotdispleased; grumble or complain about

26208

*gemes₂ want, desire

2491

PWMP     *gemes₂ want, desire

WMP
Karo Batak gemeswant something badly
Sasak gemes(vulgar) want

30447

*gemgem fist; hold in the fist

7612

PAN     *gemgem fist; hold in the fist

Formosan
Rukai wa-gəmgəmsqueeze in the hand (Ferrell 1969)
Paiwan gəmgəmfist
  g<m>əmgəmgrasp object in hand
  pa-gəmgəmcrush or grasp forcefully in hand
  pa-li-gəmgəmto make a fist
WMP
Ilokano gemgémfist
  ag-gemgémto clench the hand
  gemgem-anto clutch, grasp, clasp; seize
Bontok gəmgəmMimosa, sensitive plant (from its mechanism of closing up like a fist)
Ifugaw (Batad) gomgomfor someone to grasp something tightly in one or both hands to prevent escaping, as an animal, or a piece of meat someone is trying to wrest from someone else
Ibaloy KemKemto hold, grasp something in a closed fist; make one’s hand into a fist
  KemKem-enhold something for oneself, not sharing
Abai Sembuak goŋgomfist
Iban gəŋgamhandful, fist; grasp
Malay gəŋgamgrasp, grip; holding in the closed hand or claw
Karo Batak gəmgəmhave something under one’s control; guide, direct
Toba Batak maŋ-gomgomto govern, rule, dominate
  maŋ-gomgom-ito govern, rule
  gomgom-andominion
Sundanese gəŋgəmgrip; handful
Balinese gəmgəmsqueeze between two things
Makasarese gaŋgaŋhold tightly in the fist

7613

POC     *kokom-i fist; hold in the fist

OC
Tongan kokoto press or squeeze so as to make smaller or alter the shape of
Rennellese komito clasp firmly; to hold, as in the mouth; to close, as sides of a Tridacna; to insert in a small opening

26209

*gemi suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’

2492

PMP     *gemi suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’     [doublet: *kemi]

WMP
Iban gemi-ankind of sea fish
Malay ikan gemisucking fish: Echineis (sic!) naucrates
Makasarese gammisucker fish: Echeneis naucrates
Wolio gomikind of fish; suck, sip
CMP
Sika gemipinch, shut, close (as the mouth)
OC
Tongan komi-komi(of biting) be tenacious, refusing to let go
Maori komibite, close the jaws on; eat

26210

*gempal lump, clod

2493

PWMP     *gempal lump, clod

WMP
Tagalog kimpállump, clod
Maranao gempalcoagulated blood
Javanese gempalbroken off, in pieces (stone, etc.)

Note:   Also Malay gumpal ‘clod, clot, lump’.

26212

*geneŋ dwell, reside

2495

PWMP     *geneŋ dwell, reside

WMP
Subanon mo-gonoŋlive (dwell)
Berawan (Batu Belah) gənəŋdwell

30973

*genep complete; even (of numbers)

8868

PWMP     *genep complete; even (of numbers)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun gonop(to become) perfect; (be) complete
  g<in>onopfullness, perfection
Kelabit kənəpeach, every
Ngaju Dayak genepeach, every; full, complete
  genep andawevery day, daily
  maŋ-genepto complete, fulfill
Malagasy henikafull of, complete, having all
  henih-inato be made satisfied, to be made to have all one wants
Iban gənapevery, each one; enough, complete; give (to all), fultill
Malay gənapcompleting; rounding off; making up a pair; even, of numbers
  sa-gənapevery; every single part needed
Acehnese geunabfull, complete; even (opposite of odd)
  meu-geunabto discuss or deliberate with one another
Karo Batak gənəpeach, every; each in turn
Dairi-Pakpak Batak genepeach, every; every time; even, of numbers
  genep arievery day, daily
Toba Batak gonopeach, every; even, of numbers
  si-gonop arievery day, daily
Rejang geneupfull, complete; enough, sufficient
Sundanese gənəpsix
  gənəp-anthe six, six pieces; six times
Old Javanese gənəpcomplete, full
  paŋ-gənəpthe means to make complete
Balinese genepeven (number), full, complete
  ŋ-genepto complete, fill, finish
Sasak gənəpeven, of numbers; in order, “tallying” (in calculations)
Tae' gannaʔcomplete, full
  si-gannaʔcomplete with
  pa-gannar-anto complete something for (someone)
Mandar gannaʔsufficient
Buginese gənnəʔcomplete
Makasarese gannaʔcomplete, full (of a certain quantity or a certain duration of time; sufficient; to complete with something; even, of numbers; never satisfied, difficult (of a person)
  gannaʔ-mi si-tauŋa full year has passed
  paka-gannaʔto make complete
Tukang Besi ganafour

8869

PWMP     *pa-genep to complete, make full, round out

WMP
Acehnese peu-geunabto complete
Mandar pa-gannaʔto complete, make sufficient
Makasarese pa-gannaʔto complete something; replenish

8870

PWMP     *ka-genep-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ka-ganap-anact of completing; completion (to celebrate completion of son’s first year)
Makasarese ka-gannakk-aŋcompleteness

8871

PWMP     *g<um>enep become complete

WMP
Kadazan Dusun g<um>onop(to become) perfect, complete
Old Javanese g<um>ənəp-ito complete

8877

PWMP     *genep-i to complete

WMP
Malay məŋ-gənap-ito make up (the full number)
Karo Batak ŋ-gənəp-ito complete something
Tae' gannaʔ-ito complete something

Note:   Also Kapampangan ganáp ‘perfect, finished, complete’, maka-ganáp ‘can be finished’, ganap-an ‘finish something, accomplish something’, Pangasinan genáp ‘perfection, complete realization’, a-gnáp ‘real’, ka-gnap-án ‘realization’, ma-genáp ‘ample, sufficient’, Tagalog ganáp ‘complete; perfect; thorough; all-out; total; fulfilled; completed; finished; accomplished; implicit; absolute; full-fledged; of full rank or standing; strict, meaning complete; unqualified; thorough; mature; fully developed’, ma-ganáp ‘to be able to fulfill, carry out, or accomplish something’, pag-ka-ganáp, ka-ganap-án ‘completeness’, ganáp, ganap-ín ‘to accomplish’, Gayō genap ‘enough, sufficient’, all of which appear to be borrowings of Malay gənap, followed in some cases by extensive integration into the native morphological systems. Uma gana ‘enough’, and Bare'e gana ‘enough, complete’, seen in e.g. gana sam-buya ‘a full month’, and mompaka-gana ‘to complete, do sufficiently’, on the other hand, are probably from Makasarese gannaʔ. Toba Batak ganup ‘each, every, every time’ may reflect a doublet.

26229

*geŋ dull resounding sound

2512

PMP     *geŋ dull resounding sound

WMP
Ngaju Dayak geŋgong, the sound of the garantong (copper kettle drum); reverberating
CMP
Manggarai geŋsound of a mosquito; buzz

Note:   With root *-geŋ ‘hum, buzz’.

26213

*gepik sound of light smacking

2496

PMP     *gepik sound of light smacking

WMP
Maranao gepikbreak, usually of a brittle item
CMP
Manggarai ŋgepiksmacking sound, sound of a pig eating

Note:   With root *-pik ‘pat, light slap’.

26214

*gepit pinch, squeeze between

2497

PMP     *gepit pinch, squeeze between

WMP
Sangir gepiʔfolded over; bamboo lath with which the thatching leaves are pressed in making a roof
CMP
Manggarai ŋgepitpincers; to nip, catch between pincers

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

26222

*ger sound of a grunt, etc.

2505

PMP     *ger sound of a grunt, etc.

WMP
Maranao gergrunt, hum
Singhi Land Dayak gurgrowl
Sundanese gerword used for anything that occurs with roaring, rustling or clamor (ger peraŋ outbreak of hostilities', ger hujan 'heavy rain, etc.)
Old Javanese g-um-erthundering, roaring (laughter, shouting)
CMP
Manggarai gergrunt (as a pig)

26215

*geraq misfortune, catastrophe

2498

PWMP     *geraq misfortune, catastrophe

WMP
Maranao geraʔmassacre
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) geraʔto decimate or destroy a group of living things
Tiruray geraʔan affliction, a widespread loss of life because of famine, epidemic, etc.
Malay geroh-gerahmisfortune of all sorts (cf. geroh 'calamity'),
Old Javanese grahweak, powerless (of the limbs)
Balinese gerahfever

26216

*geret₁ notch, groove

2499

PMP     *geret₁ notch, groove

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) geretnotch or cut
Malay geratcorrugation on horn; ridged marking on finger-nail
Sundanese geretnotch, line or scratch on something
  ŋa-geretmake a notch, incision or groove in something
Javanese geretgroove, furrow, trench
OC
Motu koro-abreak off twigs so as to mark the road; to notch, to carve

Note:   Also Isneg gallát ‘the transverse stripes, white and black, on the back of a bee’. Cebuano gulut ‘crease or long indentation in a surface; portion of bread broken off at an indentation in the crust; incision made in meat; piece, slice or part of something; make an incision in something’ suggests that the preceding two comparisons may belong together.

26217

*geret₂ slit an animal's throat

2500

PWMP     *geret₂ slit an animal's throat

WMP
Bontok gələtkill a pig by first slitting the throat and then sticking a knife in to cut the jugular vein
Tagalog gilítincision, cut
Cebuano gulutincision made in meat
Sasak geretincision
Proto-South Sulawesi *gere[tʔ]slaughter, cut an animal's throat

Note:   Puyuma (Tamalakaw) keReT ‘cut or slice meat by holding it with one hand’, Malay kerat ‘cut through, sever’ probably reflect the same etymon, thus indicating PAn *gereC. If connected, Paiwan keretj ‘reap with a small knife’ points instead to *geret.

26218

*gerger₁ shake, shiver, tremble

2501

PAN     *gerger₁ shake, shiver, tremble     [doublet: *gigil]

Formosan
Paiwan i-gergertremble
WMP
Ilokano pi-gergértremble, shake, shiver, shudder, quake
Malay gegarvibration, quivering, shuddering
Sasak gegershiver, tremble
CMP
Manggarai gegershiver with chills; tremble
Buruese gegetremble

Note:   Also Manggarai jejer ‘tremble, shiver’. Tsuchida (1976:227) lists "PHES" *gərgər ‘tremble’, but cites cognates only from Formosa and the northern Philippines.

26219

*gerger₂ to imprint, leave a temporary mark

2502

PWMP     *gerger₂ to imprint, leave a temporary mark

WMP
Ilokano gergérline, groove; any temporary line produced in the skin by wrapping, binding, etc.
Bare'e gogoimprint something, as the meat of a shellfish with the finger

26220

*geriC sound of ripping, gnawing, etc.

2503

PAN     *geriC sound of ripping, gnawing, etc.

Formosan
Paiwan pa-geritsto scream (in fright)
  g-alʸ-eritssound of ripping cloth or paper
WMP
Iban geritgnaw
  gerit geritnoise of gnawing
Malay geritscraping sound; gnawing by a mouse or rat
Sundanese geritthe squeaking of the wheels of a padati (kind of cart for transporting goods), or the creaking of a gate or door on its hinges
Balinese geritscour, scrub
CMP
Manggarai geritscratch, claw; scream
OC
Motu ori-ato grate coconut
Arosi ʔoriscrape

Note:   Also Malay gerat ‘gnawing or rasping sound’, gerut ‘dull scraping sound’. Malay kerit ‘sound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw’, Yamdena kéri ‘scratch with the nails’ probably reflect *geriC.

26221

*geRuŋ rumbling or low murmuring sound

2504

PWMP     *geRuŋ rumbling or low murmuring sound

WMP
Tiruray geruŋa variant of the call of the omen-bird lemugen; to make the geruŋ call
Miri geruŋthunder
Iban geroŋ-geroŋgive a hollow sound
Sundanese geruŋgrowl, grumble, groan, moan

Note:   With root *-Ruŋ ‘roar, rumble’. Also Paiwan geluŋ ‘speak with a deep voice’.

26224

*ges dull sound

2507

PWMP     *ges dull sound

WMP
Maranao gesgrunt
Ngaju Dayak gesplopping sound (as made by someone hitting something with the fist, or something falling)

26223

*gesaq restless

2506

PWMP     *gesaq restless

WMP
Cebuano gusáʔfor a child to be restless, fussy
Malay (Jakarta) gesahrestless, sighing (of a lover)
Toba Batak gosatorment, worry, harass

Note:   Also Malay keloh-kesah ‘restless, sighing’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Toba Batak gosa to *gesa ‘haste’ and Malay -kesah to *kesaq ‘loud breathing’.

26228

*ge(s)ges shiver

2511

PMP     *ge(s)ges shiver     [doublet: *gerger, *keRkeR]

WMP
Old Javanese gegesto shiver
CMP
Manggarai gegesshiver while groaning

31294

*getak cleave, split

9354

PWMP     *getak cleave, split     [disjunct: *gatak]

WMP
Bikol gatáksplit, cracked
Javanese di-geṭakindented

26225

*geteŋ taut

2508

PWMP     *geteŋ taut

WMP
Tagalog ba-gtíŋtaut
Malay getaŋastretch, taut

30672

*geteq sap, gummy secretion

8219

PWMP     *geteq sap, gummy secretion

WMP
Ilokano gettácoconut milk
Iban getahlatex or milky sap of any plant producing latex
Malay getahtree sap, latex; sap used and coagulated for economic purposes; tree sap in general; tree sap used as dart poison; tree sap used for liming birds
Karo Batak getahthick plant sap, milky sap, as that of the rambung (Ficus elastica); also blood when eaten as a dessert
Toba Batak gotasap of a tree or fruit
  tar-gotato ooze sap, of trees that have been slashed
Sundanese geutahsticky sap of some plants, gum, resin
Old Javanese getahsap of tree or plant
Sasak getaʔsap, gum, resin

Note:   With root *-teq ‘sap, gummy secretion’.

31864

*getes to snap, break off, as a twig

10070

PMP     *getes to snap, break off, as a twig     [doublet: *gentas]

WMP
Malay gəntassnapping (a twig); picking a flower that one wishes to wear; severing with the fingernail
Toba Batak gotosto break off; to pause, as in writing

10071

POC     *kotos to snap, break off, as a twig

OC
Mota kototo snap
  koto motto snap suddenly short, like a brittle stick

30885

*getget₁ nibble, gnaw; moth

8714

PMP     *getget₁ nibble, gnaw; moth

WMP
Ibaloy KetKet-ento grind the teeth on something, make repeated bites into something (as lice when picked)
Tagalog gitgítgnashing the teeth
Bintulu gəgətclothes moth
Melanau (Mukah) gəgətgnawing; silverfish; moth
  gugətto gnaw
Malay gegatmoth; silverfish; insect that destroys cloth or paper
Acehnese geugatdecayed through dampness, etc.; moth
Karo Batak ŋ-getget-idamage something slightly by scratching, cutting or chopping it
Sundanese gəgətkind of worm or mite; moth
  ŋa-gəgətto gnaw; cut a bird’s tongue to teach it to imitate speech
Old Javanese gəgətto grit the teeth (with fury?)
Javanese ŋ-geget untugrit the teeth together (in order to endure pain)
Totoli kokotto gnaw (as a mouse)
Bare'e moŋ-kokot-ito gnaw, nibble

30886

*getget₂ line, groove, mark made by cutting

8715

PPh     *getget₂ line, groove, mark made by cutting

WMP
Ilokano getgétline, groove
Casiguran Dumagat getgetmarks on shoulder of a man (caused by the shoulder straps of a heavy pack)
Pangasinan gétgetfold in skin on arms, legs, etc. of young child
Tagalog gitgítwelt or indented mark left on the skin or soft surface by tight binding material, such as string, wire or the like; notch
Bikol mag-gutgótto cut something by drawing a knife back and forth like a saw
Masbatenyo gutgótcut; refers to the piece cut from something else, usually with reference to butchering
Cebuano gutgutcut, mark something with a slicing motion; make a sawing motion on something (as in playing the violin)
Tausug g<um>utgutto fiddle (something, as a violin)
  gu-gutguta bow (of a violin)

31865

*getik spotted, striped

10072

PMP     *getik spotted, striped

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gotikspotted or striped, of animals (as the tiger)
OC
Roviana kotidot, spot, something very small

Note:   With root *-Cik ‘mottled, spotted’; possibly a product of chance.

31055

*getil to pinch

9004

PAN     *getil to pinch     [doublet: *geCel, *ketil]

Formosan
Amis ktilto pinch with fingernails
Puyuma gətiɭpinch with one’s nails (only for meat)
  g<əm>ətiɭpick off a small piece of meat, as to taste it
  gətiɭ-anaybe pinched, as someone’s arm
WMP
Iban getilpinch with the nails, nip
Malay gətilnipping; squeezing between the thumb and forefinger

26226

*getuk knock, pound on

2509

PWMP     *getuk knock, pound on     [doublet: *ketuk]

WMP
Cebuano gutukgutukmake a popping noise such as that emitted by food being boiled when the water is nearly gone
Bahasa Indonesia getak-getuksound of knocking
Sundanese getokknock on, beat on
Javanese geṭokhit oneself in the knee
Sasak getokhit someone on the head

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.

26227

*getus snap, break, as a string

2510

PWMP     *getus snap, break, as a string

WMP
Ngaju Dayak getuswhat is broken or torn (string, strap, rattan)
Chamorro gutosbreak off (rubber band; string, etc.), snap off (neck of chicken, root)

Note:   With root *-tus ‘break under tension’. Also Malay gentis ‘snapping gently’.

TOP      ga    ge    gi    go    gu    

gi

giak

gian

giaw

gidgíd

gidik

gigil

gigir

gigut

gikgik

gila

gilak

gilaŋ

gilap

gilaw

gilek

giliŋ

gimbal

gimpis

ginelaw

gintil

giŋgiŋ

gipit

giqed

giret

girgir

giri

giRiŋ

gisgis₁

gisgis₂

gitgit

gi(n)tik

gitik

giwaŋ

giwaq

30673

*giak to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting

8220

PWMP     *giak to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting

WMP
Bontok giyákto bay, as a hunting dog
Kankanaey gíak ~ me-ŋíakto bark, to bay
Casiguran Dumagat giyákthe barking of a dog on a hunt
  giyak-anto bark at an animal, of a dog on a hunt
Kadazan Dusun gizakscream, shout, shriek
  g<um>izakto cry, shout, scream, shriek
  gizak-anto be shouted at
Old Javanese giyakscreaming

30110

*gian addicted to

6839

PWMP     *gian addicted to

WMP
Cebuano giyáncrave something one is addicted to
Melanau (Mukah) gianaddicted to
Iban gianaddicted to

30674

*giaw shouting; to shout

8221

PPh     *giaw shouting; to shout

WMP
Bontok g<um>iyáwto shout; to cry out, as children playing
Kankanaey g<um>iáwto shout; to clamor; to cry; to squall; to bawl
Sangir gioto cheer; also to shout out, as in trying to stop an escaping thief
Mongondow giownoise, din, racket; shouting; cheering

30675

*gidgíd rub something off

8222

PPh     *gidgíd rub something off

WMP
Bontok na-gidgídan itchy rash; of animals, a bald or mangy patch; mange
Kankanaey ma-gidgídto be mangy, scabby; to have mange, scab
Casiguran Dumagat gidgídto scrub one’s skin with a stone (when bathing)
Tausug gidgidto rub something vigorously against something else, rub something off

26230

*gidik to tickle

2513

PMP     *gidik to tickle     [doublet: *gitik, *kitik]    [disjunct: *giri, *kidi, *kirik]

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gidikto tickle
OC
Arosi kirikiritickle under the armpits
Fijian kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) kilik ‘make (someone) ticklish, as by touching a downy chicken feather to the nostrils’, Banggai ketek, Soboyo liki ‘to tickle’.

30693

*gigil shiver, tremble

8263

PMP     *gigil shiver, tremble

WMP
Tagalog paŋ-gi-gígiltremble or thrill from some irrepressible emotion
Malay deman gigilague
Old Javanese gigilague, a fever (malarial?) with hot and cold stages and fits of shivering
  g<um>igilto shiver, shudder (with cold, fear)
Balinese gilgiltremble with cold
  gilgil-gilgiltremble with old age; tremble over the whole body
CMP
Tetun kikito shiver, to quiver (with cold, fever, or fright)
Asilulu kikito collapse in an epileptic fit; to shudder (of animals)

8264

PWMP     *ma-gigil to tremble or quiver

WMP
Tagalog maŋ-gígilto tremble or thrill because of emotion
Malay meŋ-gigilshaking or quivering of the body (in anger, fear or cold)

Note:   Also Arosi takiki ‘to shiver with cold and wet’.

30681

*gigir apprehensive, fearful

8235

PWMP     *gigir apprehensive, fearful

WMP
Ilokano ag-gígirbe apprehensive, fearful of what is coming; be careful
  i- gígirto shelter, shield; protect, guard, take care of; defend
Malay gigir ~ gégérpanic; trepidation; alarm
Old Javanese gigirfright (and its nervous reaction: shuddering, little screams, etc.)
  aŋ-gigir-gigirto give a fright, startle
  gigir-enin a fright, shuddering

30975

*gigut to bite

8873

PWMP     *gigut to bite     [doublet: *gitgit, *gutgut]

WMP
Kapampangan maŋ-gigutto chew, break seeds open with teeth
Old Javanese gigutto bite

26231

*gikgik titter, giggle

2514

PMP     *gikgik titter, giggle     [doublet: *hikhik]

WMP
Kankanaey g-al-ikgíkto neigh
Kapampangan g-al-ikgiksqueak, creak
Tagalog gikgiksardonic laughter; grunting of young pigs
Karo Batak gèkgèk *i > è unexplainedcackling of a hen before laying an egg
Sundanese gikgiklaugh under one's breath
Javanese ŋ-gigiksnigger, giggle, titter
CMP
Manggarai hihiksound of laughter

29858

*gila wild; skittish; insane

6506

PMP     *gila wild; skittish; insane     [doublet: *ilah₂]

WMP
Maranao gilarestless, unsteady
Mapun gilaa wild jerking movement (as an animal when not wanting to have someone mount it or attach a cart to it); inappropriate behavior or words
  ma-gilato cause an animal to act wildly
  gila-gilah-ancharacterized by roughhousing or jumping around wildly
Tausug gilafrantic with delight, wildly excited, delirious, enthusiastic (usually with sexual connotation)
Iban gilamad, madly, wildly; mad, insane
Malay gilamental aberration; unbalanced or inexplicable behavior
Gayō gileinsane
  mu-ge-gile-nact like a crazy person
Karo Batak gila atefurious; utterance of continuing hatred
Toba Batak gilawild with happiness
Rejang giloinsane, mad
Sundanese gilashy, fearful, shuddering (as when confronted with hot water, an enemy, etc.; wild, savage (out of fear), beside oneself
Old Javanese gilagreat fear and anxiety, shuddering
Balinese gilahorror, revulsion
  gilarevulsion, horror; repelled by something
Sasak gilainsane, specifically obsessed with murderous inpulses
  gilacrazy, insane, specifically afflicted with homicidal delusions
Sangir ma-ghilashy, timorous; skittish
Mongondow gilainsane, crazy
  gilacrazy, foolish
CMP
Paulohi a-ka-kilawild; shy (of domesticated animals)

8998

POC     *kila wild; skittish (as animals)

OC
Wayan kilawild, not tame; remain at a distance, keep away
Fijian kilawild, shy, of animals; savage
  kila-vakiof persons, uncouth, unsociable

8216

PWMP     *ma-gila mentally disturbed

WMP
Tausug ma-gilato become frantic with delight, wildly excited, delirious
Sangir ma-ghilatimorous, skittish
Bare'e ma-gila nawoangry, mentally disturbed

6507

PMP     *gila-gila wild; insane

WMP
Maranao gila-gilauntamed, wild; fast movement
Sundanese waluŋan ka-gila-gilariver that one is terrified of
Old Javanese gila-gilasomething frightening, something giving the shudders (of horror, feeling aghast, etc.)
OC
Wayan kila-kilaremain wild, untamed; keep at a distance

Note:   Also Binukid ma-sagila ‘wild, not tame; wary of being approached’, ag-pa-nagila ‘to avoid someone you don’t want to meet’.

26232

*gilak shine, glitter

2515

PMP     *gilak shine, glitter     [disjunct: *gilap]

WMP
Aklanon gilákglitter, shine
Cebuano gílakglitter, sparkle
CMP
Buruese gilakshine, shine lustrously

Note:   With root *-lak ‘shine’.

30676

*gilaŋ radiance

8223

PWMP     *gilaŋ radiance

WMP
Bikol ma-gílaŋresplendent
Hanunóo gílaŋiridescence
Maranao gilaŋcause to reflect
Malay gilaŋlustre, glow, having a shining surface
  gilaŋ g<em>ilaŋmultiple lustre; scintillating; glowing (of feminine beauty)
Sundanese gilaŋglittering, shining, gleaming
  g<um>ilaŋto glitter, shine, gleam
Old Javanese g<um>ila-gilaŋshining, gleaming
Tae' poŋ-gilaŋ-gilaŋglitter, sparkle, shine

30677

*gilap radiance

8224

PMP     *gilap radiance

WMP
Ilokano gílapflash
Ngaju Dayak gilapwhat is polished or whetted
Malay gilapburnished, shining, lustrous, especially of things made lustrous
Sundanese gilapshine, gleam, glisten
Old Javanese gi-gilap-anglittering
Javanese gilapshiny, gleaming
Balinese gilapshine, beam, gleam; a shine, a coat of varnish
CMP
Manggarai hilapradiance (of lightning)

8225

PWMP     *g<um>ilap to flash, sparkle

WMP
Ilokano g<um>ílapto flash
Malay gilap g<em>ilaphighly polished; smooth and shining
Old Javanese g<um>ilapto gleam, glisten, shine, glitter
Javanese g<um>ilapto shine, gleam

Note:   Also Banggai ŋ-gilep ‘shining, sparkling, glittering’. With root *-lap ‘flash, sparkle’.

26233

*gilaw gleaming, luminous

2516

PWMP     *gilaw gleaming, luminous     [doublet: *ilaw, *kilaw]

WMP
Cebuano gílawsteady flow of light from something glowing, gleamimg; glow, gleam
Malay gilauluminosity; brilliancy; sheet-lightning

30679

*gilek ticklish sensation

8227

PWMP     *gilek ticklish sensation

WMP
Cebuano gilúktickling sensation; tickle, feel something tickling
  pa-gilúkto tickle someone
Binukid gilekto get a tickling sensation; to get a creepy feeling, shivers up one’s spine; to cause these sensations
Lun Dayeh gilegtickle, the feeling of being tickled
  me-gilegticklish; squeamish (about bugs, etc.), repelled, disgusted with something (earthworms, snakes, etc.)
Cham (Eastern) kaləkto tickle

Note:   The final stop in the Lun Dayeh form is unexplained.

30680

*giliŋ to grind, as by rolling over

8228

PMP     *giliŋ to grind, as by rolling over

WMP
Ilokano gíliŋto grind
  giliŋ-giliŋ-ento beat to a pulp (an opponent)
Kankanaey gíliŋto grind; to mill
Ifugaw gíliŋwinding, coiling action
Casiguran Dumagat gíliŋto grind (as to grind coffee or corn)
Isinay mag-gilíŋto grind (grain)
  ag-giliŋ-ángrinder
Pangasinan man-gíliŋto grind
Kapampangan gilíŋto grind
Tagalog gíliŋgrinding, milling
  pag-gíliŋgrinding, milling
  taga-gíliŋgrinder; a person who grinds
Bikol mag-gíliŋto grind or mill grains, usually rice
Masbatenyo mag-gíliŋto mill or grind
Waray-Waray giliŋthe act of crushing wet rice so as to extract its juice (done in cooking bibingká [native rice cake])
Maranao giliŋto revolve, spin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) giliŋto spin thread
Mansaka giliŋto grind, as corn
Tiruray giliŋto grind, to mill
Yakan mag-giliŋto mill something; to grind something
Tboli giliŋto wind something onto a spool, as thread; to mill, as rice or corn
Tausug mag-giliŋto crank something, keep something revolving or turning; to grind something, as coffee or corn
Kadazan Dusun giliŋto grind, mill
Ida'an Begak bə-giliŋto grind
Kayan me-giliŋthe rolling or rocking of a boat
Ngaju Dayak giliŋshaking or turning of the head; what is wrapped up or rolled together
Malay giliŋrolling out; flattening with a roller (of preparing a cigarette for smoking, grinding down chilis or curry stuff with a stone roller on a flat stone; also of grinding down simples for a medical prescription)
Gayō giliŋto grind
Simalur kiliŋto grind up, pulverize
Toba Batak mar-giliŋto wallow, as in pain or bad behavior
  giliŋ-giliŋwheel; roller, spool
Sundanese giliŋroll, cylinder
  tukaŋ giliŋmllier
  ŋa-giliŋto grind, to mill; to crush (as sugarcane)
  paŋ-giliŋ-anmill; the building in which a mill is found
Old Javanese giliŋwagon, carriage, cart
  a-giliŋ-anchariot soldiers
  paŋ-giliŋ-anroll, rolled meat?
  giliŋ-giliŋa little roll or ball?
Javanese ŋiliŋto grind, to mill
Sasak giliŋturn something; ride over something
  bə-giliŋturn (oneself) around
  gə-giliŋwheel
Mongondow giliŋto grind, to mill
Bare'e mo-gilito wind, turn, spin, revolve
  po-gilia key
Tae' giliŋto wind, turn, spin, revolve; roll over (figuratively in a pantun, or traditional poem)
  giliŋ-iturn something around
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *gilito turn around
  *giliNto grind
Mandar giliŋto grind (corn, rice, with a grindstone); turn around
  gili-giliŋturning the head from side to side (as to look at things passing)
Makasarese giliŋthe reverse of something
Wolio giliturn, twist, grind, jack up (a house by twisting ropes)
  ka-gilia mill; milled corn
Muna gilito grind, mill (as maize)
  ka-giligrinder; something ground
CMP
Manggarai giliŋto turn, rotate
Rembong giliŋto crush
Ngadha gili lioturn (oneself) around; turn this way and that; go around, encircle, encompass

8229

PWMP     *maŋ-giliŋ to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller

WMP
Mapun ŋiliŋto grind something, as coffee or corn; to turn something (on an axis)
Ngaju Dayak maŋ-giliŋshake the head; turn a winch
Malay meŋ-giliŋto crush
Karo Batak ŋ-giliŋrub something fine, as in a mortar; grind up into a fine powder; pulverize medicinal substances
Toba Batak maŋ-giliŋto roll; figuratively to lay, shift or roll the blame over onto someone; roll a straw bundle in the water to entangle fish
Balinese ŋ-giliŋto turn or roll
Sasak əŋ-giliŋturn (something) around
Tae' meŋ-giliŋto turn (oneself) around
Mandar maŋ-giliŋto crush, to mill; turn something around
Makasarese aŋ-giliŋturn something around; turn words around; wind up, as a large clock; grind fine with a grindstone

8230

PWMP     *paŋ-giliŋ a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding

WMP
Ngaju Dayak paŋ-giliŋa block on which one rolls something
Malay peŋ-giliŋa roller for ricefields; a reefing roller; a capstan
Sundanese paŋ-giliŋsomething used to roll things up
Mandar paŋ-giliŋa person who crushes (foodstuffs, etc.)

8231

PPh     *g<in>iliŋ what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding

WMP
Ilokano g<in>iliŋground meat
Ifugaw g<in>íliŋa coiled copper bracelet or leglet, the former worn by women from the wrist up to a short distance from the elbow; the latter worn by men below the knee down to and resting on the calf
Tagalog g<in>íliŋmeal; ground grain

8232

PWMP     *g<um>iliŋ to turn, roll over; grind up

WMP
Tagalog g<um>íliŋto grind; to crush into powder; to mill or grind rice or corn
Tboli g<(e)m>iliŋto wind something onto a spool, as thread; to mill, as rice or corn
Ida'an Begak g<um>iliŋto grind
Toba Batak g<um>iliŋ-giliŋto turn oneself around
Old Javanese g<um>iliŋto roll onward

8233

PWMP     *giliŋ-an grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them

WMP
Kankanaey gíliŋ-anto grind; to mill
Casiguran Dumagat gilíŋ-ancorn grinder
Ibaloy Kidiŋ-angrinding stone, grinding machine; (in mining) machine used to crush ore
Kapampangan gilíŋ-anwheel (mill, potter’s)
Tagalog giliŋ-angrinder; mill; grindstone; millstone
Bikol gilíŋ-angrinding stone, mill
Masbatenyo gíliŋ-ángrinder
Maranao giliŋ-anrevolver, pistol; spinning wheel
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) giliŋ-ana device for spinning
Tiruray giliŋ-ana rice mill, a grinder
Mapun giliŋ-angrind something for someone; a grinder
Yakan giliŋ-ana mill
Tausug giliŋ-ana grinder
Kadazan Dusun giliŋ-anto grind, mill for someone
Ngaju Dayak giliŋ-anwinch, windlass, reel
Malay giliŋ-anroller in handmills; axle of water-wheel
Old Javanese giliŋ-anwagon, carriage, cart
Javanese giliŋ-anmill; millstone; ground, milled
Mongondow giliŋ-ana mill, especially a corn mill

8234

PWMP     *giliŋ-en to grind, be ground up by someone

WMP
Ilokano giliŋ-ento grind
Ifugaw gilíŋ-onto wind something around spirally
Ibaloy Kidiŋ-ento grind something, reduce something to powder (as corn)
Bikol gilíŋ-onto grind or mill grains
Mapun giliŋ-unto grind something (as coffee or corn); to digest something; to husk rice by grinding; grind it!, husk it!
Tausug giliŋ-unto crank something, keep something revolving or turning; to grind something, as coffee or corn
Karo Batak peŋ-giliŋ-enmortar (instrument in which something is ground up or pulverized)

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) genēlaŋ ‘brass (especially brass wire used for a woman’s arm bracelet)’.

30682

*gimbal drum

8236

PWMP     *gimbal drum

WMP
Ilokano gimbálwar drum; war
Kapampangan gimbaldrum (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol gimbállarge drum native to the Philippines
Palawan Batak gimbálskin-covered drum musical instrument
Maranao gimbalwhack, sound of mosque drum for feast or prayer; stick for mosque drum
Mongondow gimbaldouble-headed drum about a meter long, used in ceremonies to honor the ancestors
Totoli gimbadrum
Lauje gimbalEdrum
Tajio gimbaldrum
Bare'e gimbadrum

30684

*gimpis crush between weights; press out

8238

PPh     *gimpis crush between weights; press out

WMP
Bontok gípisto squeeze out the juice from sugarcane, either by hand or in a mill; the squeezed out pith of sugarcane
Maranao gimpiscrush between heavy weights, press (as sugarcane between the rollers of a mill)
  gimpis-aʔvice, press (for extracting juice)

32742

*ginelaw dazzling light

11178

PWMP     *ginelaw dazzling light     [doublet: *kinelaw]

WMP
Cebuano gínlawshine, glitter
Malay gilawradiance

Note:   With root *-law ‘dazzling light’.

30686

*gintil pimple

8240

PMP     *gintil pimple

WMP
Balinese gintilpimple, lump on the skin
CMP
Manggarai gintilpimple on the eye

30683

*giŋgiŋ cold, shivering

8237

PAN     *giŋgiŋ cold, shivering

Formosan
Puyuma giŋgiŋtremble, shake
WMP
Kapampangan giŋgiŋfeel cold in the winter season (Bergaño 1860)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

30685

*gipit narrow, tight, confined

8239

PMP     *gipit narrow, tight, confined

WMP
Kankanaey gipítgap; breach; hiatus; pass; interstice; chink; crevice; cleft; fissure; crack
Tagalog gipíthard; severe; causing pain, trouble or worry; in difficult or narrow circumstances; wanting or lacking in space, cornered; pressed (for time)
Bikol ma-gipítto be cornered, caught in a tight spot, have no place to run to; to be caught short of time or money
Maranao gimpitto press, crush
CMP
Manggarai gipétnarrow (of eyes because the eyelid is swollen or injured); can’t be opened (of the eyes)

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

30678

*giqed zeal, ardor; industrious, keen

8226

PWMP     *giqed zeal, ardor; industrious, keen

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) giʔedindustrious, to be industrious
Malay giatkeen; zealous; adroit
Bahasa Indonesia giathard-working, industrious; enthusiastic (about activities, etc.)

Note:   Also Sangir gihaʔ-gihaʔ ‘zealously and energetically hurrying through something’, Bare'e gia ‘that which one’s courage, zeal, diligence or miraculous power demonstrates; the sacrificial victim or the outcome of one’s zeal, etc., as a victim of one’s headhunting prowess, the sheaves of rice he has harvested, etc.

30687

*giret encircling article of clothing or adornment

8241

PWMP     *giret encircling article of clothing or adornment

WMP
Ilokano girét ~ g<in>iréta narrow bracelet
Lun Dayeh gireta belt for a man

26234

*girgir shiver, tremble

2517

PWMP     *girgir shiver, tremble     [doublet: *gerger]    [disjunct: *gigil]

WMP
Tagalog gígiltrembling due to suppressed anger or pleasure
Karo Batak girgirshiver, tremble

Note:   Also Arosi takiki ‘to shiver with cold and wet’.

26235

*giri to tickle

2518

PMP     *giri to tickle     [doublet: *gitik, *kitik]    [disjunct: *gidik, *kidi, *kirik]

WMP
Makasarese girito tickle
OC
Arosi kirikiritickle under the armpits
Fijian kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) kilik ‘make (someone) ticklish, as by touching a downy chicken feather to the nostrils’, Banggai ketek, Soboyo liki ‘to tickle’.

26236

*giRiŋ ringing sound

2519

PAN     *giRiŋ ringing sound

Formosan
Paiwan giriŋa growl
WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak giriŋa bell

Note:   With root *-Riŋ ‘to ring’. *R normally disappears in Paiwan, but occasionally appears as r. The present case may be an onomatopoetic retention.

26237

*gisgis₁ rub, scrape against

2520

PAN     *gisgis₁ rub, scrape against     [doublet: *kiSkiS]

Formosan
Puyuma gisgisshave with a razor
WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-gisgisto brush, as teeth
Bikol gisgisrub (as against a wall, tree) to relieve an itch
Tausug gi-gisgisa toothbrush
  maŋ-gisgisto brush (one’s teeth)
Malay (Brunei) gigisscratch, make a mark with a nail or marking gauge
Malagasy híhyscraped, as the flesh from bones, the skin from roots, etc.
  hihìs-anabe scraped
Balinese gisgisscratch with the nails
CMP
Manggarai gigismoan softly
Yamdena kikiscour
Buruese kiki-hwhet, scrape

Note:   Also Chamorro guesgues ‘brush, scrub, rub’. Paiwan s for expected t is assumed to be due to onomatopoetic retention.

26238

*gisgis₂ tear off, break off

2521

PWMP     *gisgis₂ tear off, break off

WMP
Ilokano gisgís-anmake a small rent in, tear off a small part of
Kankanaey gisgístear, rend
Javanese gigisbroken off, crumbled away

30974

*gitgit to nibble, chew at

8872

PWMP     *gitgit to nibble, chew at

WMP
Ilokano kitkítto nibble, gnaw
  kitkit-anto nibble at, gnaw at
  kitkit-ento nibble, gnaw
Ifugaw gitgitfor worms to eat holes in leaves of plants
Ibaloy kitkit-anto scratch, dig at something bit by bit, gradually (as a rat gnaws open a package, digging with a tool in very hard ground)
Kapampangan gigítgnash the teeth
  gi-gigitgnash the teeth
Iban gigitto bite
Malay gigitbiting
  bər-gigit-kan kudato make horses fight with their teeth (in battle)
  məŋ-gigitto bite; also of “biting” pains in the stomach
Old Javanese gigitto bite
Javanese di-gigitbe bitten
  ŋigitto bite (on), bite (down) on
  ŋigit untuclench the teeth
Balinese ŋ-gigiteat the opium that remains stuck to the pipe
Sasak əŋ-gigitto bite
  bə-gigitto chatter, of the teeth

26239

*gi(n)tik tap or beat lightly on

2522

PMP     *gi(n)tik tap or beat lightly on

WMP
Cebuano gitikpluck a musical instrument
Malay gitékbeat, throb
OC
Nggela kindibeat a gong or drum
  kindi-kinditap the fingers

Note:   Also Ilokano gotók ‘palpitate, throb, flutter, pulsate violently’. *gi(n)tik presumably contains the root *tik ‘sound of light tapping’.

30688

*gitik to tickle

8242

PWMP     *gitik to tickle     [doublet: *gidik, *giri]

WMP
Kankanaey gítikto tickle; to titillate
  gitík-ento tickle; to titillate
Iban giti-gitikshivering, quivering (as with cold or rage)
Malay meŋ-g<el>itikto tickle
Toba Batak maŋ-gitikto irritate, anger (people or animals)
  tar-gitikbe irritated

30689

*giwaŋ gap, open space, breach

8243

PPh     *giwaŋ gap, open space, breach

WMP
Ilokano giwáŋgap, breach
  giwaŋ-anto breach, make a hole in
Cebuano giwáŋfissure, narrow crack

Note:   Also Maranao gibaŋ ‘breach’. With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.

30690

*giwaq sway, shake, wiggle

8244

PWMP     *giwaq sway, shake, wiggle

WMP
Bontok giwato move; to shake; to wriggle; to be alive
Kenyah giwaʔto sway, as a tree
Kayan giwaswaying, waving, wagging (as a squirrel’s tail)

TOP      ga    ge    gi    go    gu    

go

gomu

30043

*gomu hold in the mouth

6742

POC     *gomu hold in the mouth

OC
Mussau gomgomeat, swallow
Lau gomuhold in the mouth, eat with the lips
Mota komkeep food in the mouth, in the cheek
  komkomsomething kept in the mouth

TOP      ga    ge    gi    go    gu    

gu

guCguC

gu(n)dem

gumi

gumis

gumul

gunay

guŋguŋ

gu(m)pit

gur

gurat

gurgur₁

gurgur₂

guris

gurit

guru

gurumut

guruq

guRiCa

guRun

guRuŋ

gusgus

gusi(ʔ)

gusut

guSam

gut

gutgut

guyaq

guyeŋ

guyud₁

guyud₂

guyud₃

guyuŋ

26240

*guCguC pluck, pull out

2523

PAN     *guCguC pluck, pull out     [doublet: *butbut, *dutdut]

Formosan
Paiwan gutsgutsto weed a paddy field
WMP
Iban gugutpull out violently

Note:   With root *-guC ‘pull with a jerk’.

26256

*gu(n)dem overcast, darkened

2539

PMP     *gu(n)dem overcast, darkened

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gondemovercast weather, sign of approaching rain
OC
Nggela kurobecome dim, be dimmed, darken; be eclipsed, of sun and moon

Note:   With root *-dem₁ ‘dark, overcast’. PMP *u > Karo Batak o is irregular, but appears also in e.g. *gumis > gomis ‘beard’.

30978

*gúlis line, scratch, furrow

8878

PPh     *gúlis line, scratch, furrow

WMP
Ilokano gúlisline dug by a plow; furrow; mark
  gulis-anto make a hill (for cultivating); make a row for cultivation
Tagalog gúlisclaw marks on the skin; slight scratch on a surface
Cebuano gúlistear along the grain into long strips; make a long, slender scratch mark; long strip, long slender scratch
Tausug gulisthe lines of the palm (of the hand)

30598

*gumi moustache, beard

7999

PWMP     *gumi moustache, beard     [doublet: *gumis, *kumis, *kumiS]

WMP
Ayta Maganchi gomimoustache
Tagalog gumíbeard
Kiput buləw guməymoustache, beard
Bintulu guməymoustache, antennae of shrimp
Ngaju Dayak gumibeard, hair, whiskers of a cat, etc., feelers of insects

30599

*gumis moustache, beard

8000

PWMP     *gumis moustache, beard     [doublet: *gumi, *kumis, *kumiS]

WMP
Iban gumiswhiskers (of animals), long moustaches
Karo Batak gumismoustache, beard

Note:   Also Iban gumih whiskers (of animals), long moustaches.

26242

*gumul wrestle, grapple with

2525

PWMP     *gumul wrestle, grapple with

WMP
Bikol gumólwrestle with one another
Malay gomol, gumullaying violent hands (on a person). Of wrestlers "having a rough and tumble"; clinching and kicking, of a man pulled down and trampled to death by a mob, etc.

32586

*gunay movement; to move

10963

PPh     *gunay movement; to move

WMP
Yami gonaybe moved, roll over
  ma-gona-gonayto wobble (as a loose tooth)
  mi-gona-gonayto move around
Ibatan gonaythe motion, movement of someone or something
  mag-gonayto move oneself
  maŋ-gonayto move something (as a table)
Ilokano gunáymovement; action, activity
  ag-gunáyto move
  maka-gunáyto be able to move
  gunay-énto move someone or something
Bontok ʔi-gunáyto move, of body action; to work; movement; action; work
Ibaloy on-Konayto act, i.e. take action, carry out an action

26254

*guŋguŋ deep resounding sound

2537

PAN     *guŋguŋ deep resounding sound

Formosan
Paiwan guŋguŋhave a banging noise
WMP
Bontok guŋgúŋto bark loudly, of a big dog
  guŋúguŋlarge gong; to reverberate, of the sound of a large gong
Karo Batak guŋguŋgrowling, barking of dog
Old Javanese guŋguŋbooming (sound)
Tae' goŋgoŋdeep, low (of the voice)

Note:   With root *-guŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.

26255

*gu(m)pit pinch together

2538

PWMP     *gu(m)pit pinch together

WMP
Maranao gompitpress; tighten
Sundanese gupitnarrow (road, river, etc.)
Javanese ŋ-gupitnarrow (of a path, alley)
Mongondow gupitpinch, squeeze; jammed between
Bare'e gumpinear together, as the legs of a standing person

26247

*gur purring sound

2530

PMP     *gur purring sound

WMP
Sundanese gurloud rustling sound, as of heavy rain
CMP
Manggarai gurpig's grunt of contentment

31686

*gurat a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia

9851

POC     *gurat a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia

OC
Roviana gurataa tree (Morinda citrifolia); the roots furnish a splendid red stain or dye
'Āre'āre uraa shrub, the roots of which are used to make red dye
Arosi ʔuraa species of tree; the root gives a scarlet dye
Wayan kurasmall citrus tree taxon; generic, includes two rather different trees, but both with large soft fleshy fruit
  kura ni viticommon small shrubby tree of coastal thickets, with large solitary many-seeded fist-like fruit that become soft, yellow, and taste like acidic cheese: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae)
Fijian kuraa shrub, Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae; the leaves are medicinal, the fruit edible, the roots produce a yellow dye for the hair or for staining tapa cloth
Niue kulared; brown
Rennellese kugato be reddish, as breast of the fruit dove
Maori kurared, glowing; redden, paint red; red feathers; red ochre
  kura-teapale red, reddish

Note:   Surprisingly, this item is absent from Ross, Pawley and Osmond (2008).

26243

*gurgur₁ sound of boiling water

2526

PAN     *gurgur₁ sound of boiling water

Formosan
Paiwan g-m-urugur (medial -u- unexplained)to bark (dog's loud, ordinary bark)
WMP
Toba Batak gurgurto boil, of water

26244

*gurgur₂ to shake

2527

PWMP     *gurgur₂ to shake

WMP
Karo Batak m-ugur-ugurshake back and forth, tremble, as a house
  i-ugurshake a tree
Mongondow mo-gugurto shake (as a branch)
Balantak raŋ-gugurto tremble

Note:   The Karo Batak forms are cross-referenced to gurgur, for which no further information is given.

30694

*guris line; scratch a line

8265

PWMP     *guris line; scratch a line

WMP
Cebuano gúlistear along the grain into long strips; make a long, slender scratch mark; long strip; long slender scratch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gurisa line marked on something with a sharp instrument to delineate a boundary or a pattern; to mark something with a line
Malay gorés ~ gorisscratch; mark made by drawing a hard point over a soft surface
  gorés apimatches

Note:   Also Ilokano gúlis ‘line dug by a plow; furrow; mark’, gulis-an ‘to make a hill (for cultivating); make a row for cultivation’.

32671

*gurit scratch a line

11072

PWMP     *gurit scratch a line

WMP
Itbayaten goritscratch
Old Javanese guritto scratch, engrave, paint; to write, write a poem

Note:   With root *-rit ‘scratch a line’.

26246

*guru noise, tumult

2529

PMP     *guru noise, tumult     [disjunct: *guruq]

WMP
Tagalog gulódisorder, confusion, tumult
Iban guruʔrhythmical or repeated noise
OC
Motu gurunoise, clamour

26245

*gurumut swarm around

2528

PWMP     *gurumut swarm around

WMP
Tagalog kulúmotjamming of a crowd upon something or someone
Malay gerumutto swarm, as a moving mass of ants

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan in Tagalog.

31296

*guruq noise, tumult

9358

PMP     *guruq noise, tumult     [disjunct: *guru]

WMP
Malay gurohthunder, thunderous noise

9359

POC     *guru noise, tumult

OC
Motu gurunoise, clamor

30266

*guRiCa octopus

7148

PAN     *guRiCa octopus

Formosan
Kavalan qlitaoctopus
Paiwan (Southern) guritsasquid, octopus

7149

PMP     *kuRita octopus

WMP
Yami koytaoctopus
Itbayaten koytabig octopus
  i-paŋ-ŋoytaanything used for catching octopuses
  ma-ŋoytato catch octopuses
Ilokano kuritáoctopus
  k<imm>uritálike an octopus
Agta (Dupaningan) kugitáoctopus
Casiguran Dumagat kugitáoctopus; to hunt for octopuses
Bikol kugítaoctopus
Hanunóo kugítaoctopus
Masbatenyo kugítaoctopus; leader
  para-paŋugítaoctopus catcher
Aklanon kugítaoctopus
Waray-Waray kugítaoctopus
Cebuano kugítakind of octopus with the body about the size of a baby’s head; eye disease in which there is a growth in the eyeball which spreads out like the tentacles of an octopus
  kugitá-hunlike an octopus
  pa-ŋugítacatch octopuses
Maranao kogitaoctopus
Mansaka kogitaoctopus, cuttlefish
Tausug kugitaoctopus
Malay ikan guritasmall octopus, Onychoteuthis angulata (a large octopus is loyak, doyak)
Totoli kuitasquid
Makasarese kuritaoctopus (people believe that these animals can sink large ships)
Wolio kuritaa large octopus
Muna kuitaoctopus
CMP
Watubela kalitaoctopus
Buruese ekhitaoctopus
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai uritaoctopus
OC
Lou kitoctopus
Penchal kwitoctopus
Nali kuitoctopus
Leipon kitoctopus
Ahus kitoctopus
Bipi kuikoctopus
Seimat witoctopus
Wuvulu uiʔaoctopus
Mussau uitaoctopus
Tanga kwitcuttlefish, small octopus
Tolai uritaoctopus, cuttlefish
Wogeo kuritaoctopus
Manam kuritaoctopus
Gedaged uzitoctopus
Takia uritoctopus
Gitua kuritaoctopus
Numbami kulitaoctopus (traditional monster in legends)
Motu uritacuttlefish, octopus
Kilivila kuitaoctopus
Tawala kulitaoctopus
Tubetube kulitaoctopus, squid
Nggela kulitaa species of fish
Kosraean koetoctopus
Marshallese kweetoctopus
Pohnpeian kihsoctopus
Mokilese kihjoctopus
Chuukese kúúsoctopus
Puluwat kúúh, kúhá-nsquid, octopus
Woleaian gius(a)octopus
Paamese uītoctopus
Fijian kuitacuttlefish, octopus; fig., cords, ropes, vines, whip, rod, scourge (from appearance of the tentacles); intermittent headache

Note:   Also Tagalog pugítaʔ ‘cuttlefish, octopus’, Bikol pugíta, Hanunóo kugítaʔ ‘octopus’, Maranao koritaʔ ‘octopus, cuttlefish, squid’ (< Malay), Tiruray kuritaʔ ‘an octopus; to fish for octopus’, Yakan kuhitaʔ ‘octopus’, Malagasy horita ‘cuttlefish’, Sundanese kurita, Javanese gurita, grita ‘octopus’, Sasak keritaʔ ‘cephalopod’, Mongondow gorita, pugitaʔ ‘polyp, kind of cephalopod’, Wolio kuita ‘a large octopus’, Palauan bokitáŋ, Komodo karita ‘a large octopus: Onychoteuthis angulata, Watubela kalita ‘octopus’, Mbula kuriiti ‘octopus’, kurit-riiti ‘many small octopi’.

Considering that the octopus is virtually universal in the AN-speaking world in areas near the sea, it is surprising that Palauan bokitáŋ seems clearly to be a loan from Tagalog or a closely related language. The final glottal stop in a number of forms is unexplained, but may be indicative of borrowing. Finally, the unexpected appearance of g- in Paiwan and Malay is assumed to be a convergent development driven by the inherent instability of the voicing contrast for velar stops (Blust 1996a).

Following the example of PAn *gaRaŋ ‘small edible freshwater crab’ I assume that Paiwan has retained the PAn *g/k distinction in this form, and that there has been an irregular change of *g to *k in PMP.

31944

*guRun sword grass, Imperata cylindrica

10161

PMP     *guRun sword grass, Imperata cylindrica

WMP
Bontok guluna cogon grass with white, silky inflorescence: Imperata cylindrica
Ifugaw (Batad) gūluna coarse spear grass, Imperata exaltata, commonly called cogon grass; used for roof thatch
Casiguran Dumagat kuguncogon grass, Imperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata (used for roofing houses)
Ibaloy Koloncogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (young shoots can be eaten cooked; the roots, which contain starch and sugars, are easy to chew; the sikpot flowers are eaten by children; used also in certain areas for roofing)
Tagalog kúgona species of tall grass
Bikol gugónspear grass; cogon; a species of erect grass 30-80 cm. high with solid slender stems and long linear leaves used for roofing: Imperata cylindrica
Hanunóo kuguncogon grass: Imperata cylindrica [Linn.] Beauv.
Aklanon kugontall grass: Imperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata
Cebuano kúgunImperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata, a tall, tough grass, with solid, slender stems, somewhat like bamboo; this grass, together with taláhib (Saccharum spontaneum) moves into deforested areas and takes possession after the area is burnt; the leaves are used for thatching and the stems for various handicrafts

11260

POC     *guRun sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

OC
Kilenge na-ɣusword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Motu kuru-kurulong grass used for thatching: Imperata cylindrica

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Ross (2008:252).

30860

*guRuŋ deep rumbling sound; thunder

8680

POC     *guRuŋ deep rumbling sound; thunder

OC
Tolai kuruŋto snort, snarl, snore, growl, grunt, rumble; thunder
Motu gurunoise, clamor
Lau kuruto roar, the sound of thunder or surf
  kuru-laroaring
Arosi guru-guruthunder
Maori to make a low inarticulate sound, coo, etc.
Hawaiian ʔūto grunt, groan, moan, sigh, mourn, grieve, complain; sorrow; an exclamation of delight or assent; to exclaim thus

Note:   Also Dobuan kuru-kuruna ‘to grunt’, Roviana kurumu ‘said of a gruff or deep voice; also growl, as a dog’.

26248

*gusgus scratch, rub

2531

PWMP     *gusgus scratch, rub     [doublet: *gasgas, *gisgis]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat gusgusscratch (an itch)
Karo Batak gusgusrub, scrub something

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *gusgus ‘scrape, pulverize’.

26249

*gusi(ʔ) gums

2532

PAN     *gusi(ʔ) gums

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Husigums
WMP
Iban gusiʔgums
Malay gusigums
Old Javanese gusi-gusigums
Javanese gusigums

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *gusi ‘gums’, but his comparison was restricted to Malay, Javanese, and an irregular form gosi in Toba Batak.

26250

*gusut tangled, confused, complicated

2533

PWMP     *gusut tangled, confused, complicated

WMP
Tagalog gusótcrumpled, entangled, confused
Malay kusuttousled, tangled, rumpled, complicated

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan in Tagalog.

30391

*guSam a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush

7489

PAN     *guSam a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush

Formosan
Puyuma ma-huwamto have thrush (disease caused by a parasitic fungus that causes whitish spots and ulcers on the membranes of the mouth, the cavity at the back of the mouth, etc.)

7490

PMP     *guham a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush

WMP
Tagalog guháma severe form of skin eruptions on the body; a kind of mange or itch
Masbatenyo ugám <Mwhite coating of the tongue
Aklanon ugám <Mcoating or deposit on the tongue when one is sick, resulting in bad-tasting food or drink
Cebuano ugám <Mwhitish substance coating the tongue and upper palate; to get ugám
Tausug ugamsimple stomatitis (characterized by the formation of tiny ulcers on the mucosa of the mouth)
Kadazan Dusun kuamsickness of the tongue of buffalo calf (medical name is “stomatitis or thrush”, in humans the condition is known as sovohok)
Malay guamthrush; a disease of the sprue type attacking children
Toba Batak guamfungal infection of the mouth; foam that rises from boiling rice
Javanese gomscurvy-like disease of the mouth resulting from a vitamin C deficiency
Balinese guwama disease of the mouth in children; quinsy
  sakit guwamto have quinsy
Sasak guamsprue

7491

PWMP     *guam-en have a thrush or stomatitits infection

WMP
Tausug ugam-unto be or beome afflicted with stomatitis
Karo Batak guam-enbe delirious with sickness, etc.
Toba Batak guam-onhave a rash of the mouth
Javanese gom-ento have or get a scurvy-like disease of the mouth

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak goam ‘thrush, an illness of children; the inside of the mouth becomes white and full of eruptions’, Malay ruam ‘rash; mild skin eruption such as nettlerash or prickly heat’; also a rash about the mouth in children’.

26251

*gut scrape

2534

PWMP     *gut scrape

WMP
Maranao gotscale fish
Kenyah (Long Anap) gutgrater, scraper

Note:   Probably the simple root in *gutgut ‘gnaw’, *gut₁ ‘gnaw’

26241

*gutgut front teeth, incisors

2524

PAN     *gutgut₁ front teeth, incisors

Formosan
Puyuma gutgutincisor teeth

7300

PMP     *gutgut₂ front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-gutgutto gnaw, bite into something, tear at something with the teeth
Agta (Eastern) gutgutto bite and tear with the teeth
Lun Dayeh gugutfront teeth
Kelabit gugutlower incisors (cp. uʔit ‘upper incisors’)
Malay g<er>ogotto gnaw (of large animals)
Karo Batak ŋ-gugutto gnaw off, bite off with the front teeth, as ripe, raw rice grains
  peŋ-gugutthe two middle incisors
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gugutinner two incisors (both upper and lower)
Toba Batak gugutincisors
  maŋ-gugutto nibble on something, as salt
Sundanese gugutbiting, gnawing, nibbling
  ŋa-gugut(of an animal or person) to bite
  ŋa-g<ar>ugutgnaw off, nibble off
Old Javanese aŋ-gugutto bite, nip
  gugut-enclenching the teeth
Javanese ŋugutto kill lice by pressing them against the front teeth
  di-gugut(of lice) to be killed by biting with the incisors
Balinese ŋ-gutgutto bite (men and animals); snap, nibble, gnaw

Note:   Also Old Javanese gutgūt-en ‘setting (clenching) the teeth (in fury, etc.), Balinese gugut ‘bite, gnaw, snap’. With root *-gut₁ ‘gnaw’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *gugut ‘gnaw off’. The data presented here suggest an additional nominal referent which probably existed alongside the verbal meaning.

26252

*guyaq shake, sway

2535

PWMP     *guyaq shake, sway

WMP
Bikol guyáʔguyáʔshake something
Malay guyahshaky or swaying (of a person's walk)

26253

*guyeŋ shake, sway

2536

PWMP     *guyeŋ shake, sway     [disjunct: *guyuŋ]

WMP
Bikol mag-gúyoŋto shake something (as a house on poles, a tree to bring the fruits down)
  ma-gúyoŋto get shaken
Iban guyaŋto shake, sway; grind
Malay goyaŋoscillation
  kursi goyaŋrocking chair
  tiaŋ goyaŋpost in stern of Malay boat for use with paddle-rudder

32694

*guyud₁ banana sp.

11104

PPh     *guyud₁ banana sp.

WMP
Itbayaten goyoda species of banana (edible)
Ibatan goyoda kind of green-skinned banana
Isneg xúyudanother name for the laxúyud variety of banana

32695

*guyud₂ rice variety

11105

PPh     *guyud₂ rice variety

WMP
Ilokano gúyoda variety of awned rice
Agutaynen goyoda kind of long-grain white rice that smells good when cooked
Tiruray guyuda nonglutinous rice

30878

*guyud₃ pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled

8703

PWMP     *guyud₃ pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled

WMP
Ilokano gúyodpull, jerk, tug
  maka-gúyodto be capable of pulling; to be sufficient; to be of use; capable of drawing a crowd
  pa-guyúd-enhaul a load with the help of a water buffalo
Bontok gúyudto lift and pull; to draw; to carry, as a bucket; to pick up
Ifugaw gúyudto pull
Ifugaw (Batad) gūyudfor someone to pull something along, as to drag a tree, a sledge; to lead an animal on a leash
Ibaloy Koyodto pull on something (as to dislodge rope caught in tree, plow by carabao)
  Koyor-ento pull something toward oneself in an effort to get (more of) it; to force, convince someone to come along; (of non-rice food) to “pull rice”, i.e. to fail to satisfy hunger and require more rice
  i-Koyodto pull on something (as to dislodge rope caught in tree, plow by carabao)
Pangasinan man-goyórto pull, drag
Kapampangan guyúdkind of rope; craving
Tagalog paŋ-gúyodthick rope or cable used in hauling
  gúyodthick rope or cable used in hauling
Bikol mag-gúyodto drag, to pull (as a sled)
Hanunóo gúyudpulling (along), dragging
Romblomanon gūyudsomeone leads (usually forcibly) someone else, something; someone drags or tows something
Masbatenyo mag-gúyodto pull, drag, tow; refers to pulling something along by a tether
Aklanon gúyodto drag, pull along [the ground]
  gúyodto drag, pull along the ground
Agutaynen mag-goyodto drag something; to tow something
Hiligaynon mag-gúyudto tug along, to drag along, to pull, to trail along the ground (as in pulling a reluctant goat)
Cebuano gúyudto draw, tow; invite a partner to dancing; rope used in trawling or towing; runners of a sled
  ka-gúyudboats which are pulled along by another large boat
  sa-gúyudtrailing behind
Maranao goyodpull, tug as in rope, transport by sled or cart
  goyod-aʔsled, cart
Binukid guyudto pull, drag, draw, tow (something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) guyudto pull or pull something; to drag something
Mansaka goyodto pull; to drag; to haul
Tiruray guyuda sled
Mapun guyudto drag something; when reduplicated this means to drag by force (as a thief being dragged by force into jail)
Yakan guyudto drag or pull something (most often it is used for transporting coconuts on a carabao sled, the sled being dragged)
Tausug mag-guyudto drag, pull (something)
  maŋ-guyudto abduct (someone, often a girl in order to marry her)
Mongondow mo-girudto pull, haul, drag along
Dondo gi-giulto pull (something)
Pendau giurpull (something)
Tae' ruiʔ ~ riuʔto pull, drag

11106

PPh     *guyúd-an sled or board used for dragging materials (?)

WMP
Ilokano guyúd-anrope used to pull a plow
Kankanaey guyúd-andrag; a round board dragged along the ground and used for transporting earth from one place to another
Ifugaw guyúd-ansledge
Agutaynen goyod-anto drag something; to tow something
Cebuano guyúr-ansled consisting of a platform without sides mounted on runners
Mongondow girud-andraw it, pull it there

11107

PPh     *guyúd-en be pulled or dragged along

WMP
Ilokano guyúd-ento pull, draw, haul, drag, tug; trail
Isneg xuyúd-anto pull, to drag, to tug
Kankanaey guyúd-ento draw, to pull along; to drag; to trail; to haul
Ibaloy Koyod-ento pull something toward oneself in an effort to get more of it; (fig.) to force, convince someone to come along
Kapampangan guyur-ánto drag something
Hanunóo guyúd-unbe dragged, be pulled (along)
Central Tagbanwa guyur-onto lead something by the hand
Tausug guyud-unto drag, pull (something); to abduct someone (often a girl, in order to marry her)
Mongondow girud-ondrag it, pull it! it must be dragged

Note:   Also Ibatan mag-gōyod ‘to drag or pull something from behind’ (said to be from Ilokano), Tboli dyol ‘to drag something behind oneself or an animal, as a carabao sled, bamboo’. This comparison was first noted by Zorc (1986:162).

Also Mongondow irud. Mongondow girud and its irregularly shortened form irud show the ‘hypercorrect r’ that appears in several words due to the change *r > y that produced many r/y variants, with subsequent reinterpretation of some [ija] or [iju] pronunciations as ‘incorrect’, leading to the creation of hypercorrect [ira] or [iru] (Blust 1983). For *uyu > -iu- cf. *duyuŋ > diuŋ ‘dugong’.

31297

*guyuŋ shake, sway

9360

PWMP     *guyuŋ shake, sway     [disjunct: *guyeŋ]

WMP
Bikol mag-gúyoŋto shake something (as a house on poles, a tree to bring the fruits down)
Karo Batak guyuŋtotter, shake

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-g