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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*h   

ha    he    hi    hu    

ha

ha

ha-

habed

habél

habuk

hacuk

hadas

hadawiq

hadiq

hagetik

hagetuk

haguk

hakep

hakhak

hakut hakut

halaw

halem

halin

haluh

hamak

hambej

hambeŋ

hambin

hambúg

hametak

hampak

hampaŋ

hampil

hampir

hampul

hamuk

handem

hantaD

hantatadu

hanunaŋ

haŋak

haŋga

haŋin

haŋit

haŋus₁

haŋus₂

haŋut

haŋút

hapejes

hapejis

hapen

hapin

haplít

haprus

hapRus

hapun

haq(e)muq

haRemaŋ

haRezan

hasaŋ

haseg

hasek₁

hasek₂

hasuk

hataq

hatay

hawan

hayep

hayun

hayup

26311

*ha marker of a tag question

2613

PMP     *ha₁ marker of a tag question

WMP
Bontok ʔatag question, typically with a rising intonation
Tagalog hainterrogative particle meaning: what is it? or what do you mean?; interrogative particle meaning: do you understand?; exclamatory interrogative particle with the element of surprise or reproach: is that so?
CMP
Manggarai -apostposed question marker
Leti aemphatic particle used to indicate a question

26310

*ha- adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure

2611

PMP     *ha-₁ adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure

WMP
Ifugaw a-kind of prepositional prefix which makes certain word-bases adjectival and descriptive, as if they were preceded by the preposition 'with'; in the Kiangan area an- is preferred to simple a- for some word-bases: a-tike/an-tike/ 'short (with shortness)'
Bikol ha-adjectival affix prefixed to adjectives denoting height, length, and depth
Cebuano ha-adjective forming affix added to adjective referring to degree. It has no meaning other than to give a formal flavor to the style: ha-taás 'tall', ha-láyuʔ 'far', ha-lapad 'broad'
Kadazan Dusun a-adjectival prefix
Buludupi a-adjectival prefix
Malagasy a-a verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb. Thus from fafy, sowing, we get a-fafy, used of the seed sown, in correlation to the passive verb fafazana from the same root, used of the ground sown
Mentawai a-prefix indicating the completion of an event e.g. bala 'come out', a-bala 'it is out'
Javanese a-prefix, adjective and verb formative; having, characterized by: doh, a-doh 'far-off, distant'
Makasarese a-prefix used before adjectives (mostly in 17th and 18th century texts)

2612

POC     *a- adjectival prefix

OC
Arosi a-an adjectival prefix, showing condition, often a shortened form of the prefix ta or ma

Note:   Possibly also Fijian ca- ‘passive prefix’. The distributional distinction between *ma- and *ha- is unclear, although both occur in different attested languages as active or fossilized affixes on stems such as *zauq ‘far’. Semantically, the former appears to have been exclusively stative/adjectival, whereas the latter may have had a passive/adjectival sense. I am indebted to David Zorc for comments that led to improvements in this entry.

26402

*hábas tumor in the mouth of an animal

2759

PPh     *hábas tumor in the mouth of an animal

WMP
Ilokano ábaskind of tumor or swelling that grows in the mouths of animals
Tagalog hábascallosity in the mouth (of horses, etc.)
Cebuano hábasgrowth which develops in horses' mouths which causes hardship in eating
Maranao abaschicken pox

Note:   Also Tiruray abas ‘the measles’; abas-en ‘sick with the measles’. Possibly a Greater Central Philippines loan in Ilokano.

26258

*habed hindrance, obstacle

2540

PWMP     *habed hindrance, obstacle

WMP
Ilokano abbédobstacle, hindrance (mostly used for material obstruction)
Tagalog habídentangling obstacle
Bahasa Indonesia hambathold back, impede
Toba Batak abothindrance, impediment, obstacle
Old Javanese (h)awerrestrain, suppress, check, stop, prevent

Note:   Also Malay embat ‘to obstruct’.

26260

*habél weave cloth

2542

PWMP     *habél weave cloth

WMP
Ilokano abéltextile, (woven) cloth, web, texture, tissue, woven fabric
Bontok ʔabə́lweave cloth
Ifugaw abólweaving; whatever pertains to weaving
Pangasinan abélcloth
Tagalog hábitexture of fabric, woven pattern on fabric
Bikol habólthe weave of cloth
Hanunóo hábulweaving of cloth
Aklanon háboeblanket, use a blanket
  habóeto weave
Palawan Batak ʔabélclothing, garments
Cebuano habúlweave with a hand loom
Mamanwa habɨlblanket
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) havelweave cloth
Tiruray ʔawelweave cloth
Kadazan Dusun avospinning, weaving
Murut (Timugon) awolweave; woven material
Mongondow aboḷto weave
Gorontalo wawoloto weave

2543

PWMP     *maŋ-habel weave cloth

WMP
Ilokano maŋŋ-abélweaver
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-avoto spin, to weave

2544

PPh     *maR-habel to weave, be weaving

WMP
Ilokano ag-abélto weave
Bikol mag-habólweave cloth
Mongondow mog-aboḷto weave

2545

PPh     *habel-an loom for weaving cloth

WMP
Ilokano pag-abl-ánloom
Tagalog habih-ánloom
Bikol haból-anloom
Hanunóo h-ar-abl-ánbackstrap loom for weaving cotton garments and blankets
Tiruray ʔawel-onloom

2546

PWMP     *habel-en be woven

WMP
Bontok ʔabl-ənwhat is woven
Tagalog habih-ínthings to be woven, orders for weaving
Bikol habl-ónbe woven; woven cloth
Cebuano habl-únblanket, sheet, or anything used as covering for sleeping; hand loom; cloth woven in a hand loom
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hevel-enwoven cloth on the loom which is not yet complete
Kadazan Dusun ovoh-onwhat is spun or woven

Note:   Malay hambal ‘rug, carpet’ appears to be distinct (cp. Malay (Jakarta) ambal ‘rug, carpet’, with last-syllable /a/, not /e/).

26259

*habuk powdery substance, dust

2541

PMP     *habuk powdery substance, dust     [disjunct: *qabuk, etc.]

WMP
Cebuano hábukfertilize plants with compost
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) havuk-havukthe white powdery scale which forms on exposed parts of the body when a person does not often bathe; the powdery film on a mature squash or any white scale or powdery substance on something; to become covered with white scale or with a powdery film
Malay (h)abokpowdery stuff; dust; chaff
Sasak awuk-awukash
OC
Arosi sahudust, sawdust

Note:   With root *-buk₁ ‘decay, crumble; powder’.

26261

*hacuk enter, penetrate

2547

PWMP     *hacuk enter, penetrate     [disjunct: *hasuk]

WMP
Cebuano hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath
Kayan asukpush in, push along, push away
Iban acokthrust, pierce, poke

26262

*hadas anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare

2548

PWMP     *hadas anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare

WMP
Tagalog hárasFoeniculum vulgare: local name for anís (Eng. 'fennel'), the seeds of which are used for flavoring
Malay adasfennel. Also (specifically) adas pedas or 'peppery adas' in contrast to adas manis ... 'sweet adas' or aniseed
Lampung adasplant whose seed is used to produce an oil: Foeniculum vulgare
Old Javanese hadasanise (Foeniculum vulgare)
Javanese adasfennel
  leŋa adasaromatic oil taken for stomach ache
Balinese adasmint, a sort of herb used in medicine and cooking
  adas manisaniseed

Note:   Also Toba Batak adas ‘anise, fennel’ (from Malay), Madurese addas ‘kind of plant’.

32692

*hadawiq far, distant

11102

PPh     *hadawiq far, distant

WMP
Yami araifar
  arai-into feel it is too far
Itbayaten harawiʔfar, distant; distance
  micha-harawito be far from each other
  h<om>arawito keep away from, to go far away
Ivatan ma-raiʔfar
Bontok ʔadáwwifar, distant
Kankanaey adawífar, far off, at a distance, remote
Ifugaw adáwi ~ adawífar

Note:   Also Bontok dáwi ‘far, distant’. The semantic distinction beween this form and PPh *adayuq remains unclear.

26263

*hadiq no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives)

2549

PWMP     *hadiq no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives)     [doublet: *hediq]

WMP
Atta arino, not
Ifugaw adino, not
Binukid hádiʔno, not
Bisaya (Bukit) andino, not
Gondang adéʔno, not

Note:   Also Itbayaten alih ‘not, none’, Kapampangan alíʔ ‘not’, pay-alíʔ ‘deny’.

26264

*hagetik sound of ticking

2550

PWMP     *hagetik sound of ticking

WMP
Cebuano hagtíksharp clicking sound
Javanese di-geṭiktap or flick finger against

Note:   With root *-tik₂ ‘ticking sound’.

26265

*hagetuk sound of knocking

2551

PWMP     *hagetuk sound of knocking

WMP
Cebuano hagtúkloud knocking sound
Javanese de-geṭokrapped on the knee or head

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.

26266

*haguk deep throaty sound

2552

PWMP     *haguk deep throaty sound

WMP
Cebuano háguksnore
Balinese agukshout

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep, throaty sound’.

26267

*hakep grasp, embrace

2553

PWMP     *hakep grasp, embrace

WMP
Hiligaynon hákuphandful, fistful
Cebuano hakúpscoop up with one hand; clasp something with one hand; embrace, seize or hold something by encircling it with the arms
Old Javanese aŋkepembrace tightly
Javanese akepput, hold between the lips

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, embrace’.

26268

*hakhak laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter

2554

PWMP     *hakhak laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter     [doublet: *hikhik]

WMP
Tagalog h-al-akhákloud laughter
Balinese akaklaugh loudly

26269

*hakut hakut kind of mason bee or wasp

2555

PWMP     *hakut hakut kind of mason bee or wasp

WMP
Ilokano akut-ákutkind of hymenopterous insect resembling a bumblebee but more slender, and very thin at the junction of the abdomen and the thorax
Pangasinan ákotwasp
Bikol hakót-hakótspecies of wasp nesting in wood
Hanunóo ʔakut-ʔákutwasp
Aklanon hákot-hákotbee-like insect building nests of mud
Malay akut-aŋkutmason bee, ichneumon fly: Chalicodoma spp., or Eumenes gracilis
Rejang akut-akutstinging wasp-like insect

Note:   Also Bikol akót-akót ‘species of wasp nesting in wood’, Minangkabau aŋkup-aŋkup ‘mason bee’. Probably the same morpheme as *SakuC, from this insect's habit of frequently flying to and fro to transport materials to its nest.

26270

*halaw drive away (as animals)

2556

PWMP     *halaw drive away (as animals)

WMP
Bikol haláwdrive away (as annoying animals, people)
Malay (h)alaudriving before one; "chivvying". Of beaters driving elephants into a trap, herdsmen driving cattle, etc. Also (in modern Malaya) to drive away
Lampung (h)alawhunt (game)

26271

*halem night, dark

2557

PMP     *halem night, dark

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) halem-halemof someone or something far away or in the darkness, to be silhouetted; to be only an indistinct shadow
Kelabit alemnight
Berawan (Long Terawan) lem-alemevening
Ngaju Dayak alemnight
  alem malemlast night, the previous night
Malagasy álinanight, darkness; pertaining to the night
  fi-alèm-anathe last meal at night; night time
Banjarese halambefore, last night, yesterday
CMP
Manggarai alemquiet, still (as a pitch-black night)

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’. It is unclear whether *malem ‘night’ is an affixed form of *halem (*ma-halem), or simply another morpheme which shares the root *-lem and coincidentally contains an initial syllable that matches the stative/attributive prefix *ma-.

26272

*halin move, transfer

2558

PMP     *halin move, transfer

WMP
Hanunóo hálinleaving, taking off, going
Aklanon hálintransfer, move to another place
Hiligaynon hálintransfer to another place
Cebuano halínmove away from a place permanently
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) halintransfer, move from one place to another; to change, as one's appearance
Proto-Sangiric *alinto move, transfer
CMP
Manggarai aliŋto move (a horse), transfer to another place; change; go out from inside

Note:   Zorc (1985) posits "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *SaliN ‘move away, transfer’, but the cognation of the non-Philippine members of his comparison (Paiwan s-m-alilʸ ‘to isolate, put something off by itself’, ki-salilʸ ‘to isolate oneself’, Malay alin ‘to massage by magic art so as to extract a toxic foreign body from the human frame’) is questionable.

26273

*haluh large lizard sp.

2559

PWMP     *haluh large lizard sp.

WMP
Aklanon haeó(h)large lizard which eats chickens
Cebuano halúmonitor lizard
Balinese aluiguana

Note:   Also Hanunóo halúʔ ‘monitor (Varanus salvator Laurenti), a large lizard’. Since PWMP *bayawak almost certainly meant ‘monitor lizard’, PWMP *halu probably referred to smaller lizards of similar body form. Tentatively I suggest ‘iguana’ as the most plausible gloss.

26274

*hamak mat

2560

PWMP     *hamak mat     [doublet: *lamak]    [disjunct: *amak]

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) amakmat
Bikol hamákmat
  hamak-ánspread a mat on
Ngaju Dayak (h)amakmat (of rattan, reeds, etc.)
  m-amakfurnish with mats (a house)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak a-r-makmat that is not rolled up
Toba Batak amakmat woven of (Binsen)
  amah-amakstraw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain
  amak podom-ansleeping mat

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat makmak ‘leaves which are spread out on the ground to sit on or sleep on; spread out leaves on the ground to sit or sleep on’, Singhi Land Dayak omuk ‘mat’, Sundanese samak ‘mat; sitting mat of woven pandanus leaves’, Sundanese pandan samak ‘the type of pandanus used in making such sitting mats’.

26275

*hambej wrap around; band around something

2561

PWMP     *hambej wrap around; band around something

WMP
Bikol (h)ambódto wrap, to band; bandage
Malay (h)ambatnoose at the deck-end of a boat's stays
Balinese ambedstrap, girth (horse)

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.

26276

*hambeŋ obstruct, block the way

2562

PWMP     *hambeŋ obstruct, block the way     [doublet: *ambaŋ, *ampeŋ]    [disjunct: *qambeŋ]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) haveŋblock an opening or a path so that nothing can pass, as to block other possible avenues on each side of a pig trap; a constructed barrier
Old Javanese (h)ambeŋhalted, restrained, prevented
Madurese abeŋobstruct, block
Balinese ambeŋkeep watch to prevent people from passing; close a road
Mongondow amboŋdam, dyke, kind of obstacle or roping off
  mog-amboŋto dam up, put an obstacle in the way

Note:   Also Old Javanese ambeg ‘stop flowing (of river that is dammed)’, Manggarai ambaŋ ‘obstruct, impede’.

26277

*hambin carry in the folds of the clothing

2563

PWMP     *hambin carry in the folds of the clothing

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat abinfold (of the part of the g-string which is wrapped around the waist, and which men use to carry money, betel chew, etc.)
Cebuano hambincarry something by folding up the front part of one's skirt or shirt and putting it in the folds
Ngaju Dayak ambinwhat is carried on the back
Iban ambinlarge wide basket with strap(s) for carrying padi
Malay ambinstrap-support; carrying in a loop of rope or band of cloth (of a child in the fold of a sarong slung from the mother's shoulder); straps or ropes passed round a load (ambinan) swung on a coolie's back, etc.
Rejang ambinshawl for carrying infant on back or at waist
Sangir maŋ-ambiŋconceal something in the folds of the clothing

Note:   Evidently distinct from *qabin ‘hold or carry under the arm’.

26278

*hambúg proud, boastful

2564

PPh     *hambúg proud, boastful     [doublet: *ambuŋ]

WMP
Ilokano ambúgproud, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious, arrogant, insolent
Tagalog hambógboastful, proud, vain
Bikol hambógboastful, conceited
Aklanon hámbogproud, swell-headed, boastful
Cebuano hambúgbig talk, most often not quite true; engage in big talk
Maranao ambogarrogant, proud, boastful, showy
Manobo (Dibabawon) hambugboasting, bluffing, pretending to be someone
Mansaka ambogboast; proud

26279

*hametak kind of legume

2565

PWMP     *hametak kind of legume

WMP
Ilokano amtáka variety of cowpeas with very large seeds
Isneg antáʔthe cowpea: Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl.
Bontok ʔantákkind of cowpea, commonly cultivated: Vigna sesquipedalis L.; to gather this pea
Ifugaw amtáka yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn., universally known as mongos
Bikol hamtáklong bean species
Aklanon hámtaklong bean: Vigna sesquipedalis
Old Javanese (h)ataka certain legume

Note:   Also Ifugaw antak ‘a yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn.’, Bikol anták ‘long bean species’. The similarity of Old Javanese (h)atak to the other forms cited here may be a product of chance.

26280

*hampak slap, smack

2566

PPh     *hampak slap, smack

WMP
Ilokano ampákslap, cuff, buffet; spank
Bikol hampákto lash, whip, flagellate
Hanunóo hampákhit, strike; beating, whipping
Aklanon hámpakto beat, belt, spank, slap
Hiligaynon hámpakbeat, whip, whack
Cebuano hampákstrike, slam with force making a noisy impact

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

26281

*hampaŋ easy, promiscuous (of women)

2567

PWMP     *hampaŋ easy, promiscuous (of women)

WMP
Ilokano ampáŋsilly, foolish, wanton, loose (said of women)
Aklanon hámpaŋto play (a game)
Hiligaynon hámpaŋplay, clown around, gamble
  hampáŋ-antoy
Cebuano hampáŋhave intercourse (euphemism)
  hampáŋplay
Ngaju Dayak anak ampaŋillegitimate child
Iban anak ampaŋbastard, child with no known or recognized father; valueless, 'black sheep'
Malay ampaŋeasy, light
Rejang apaŋillegitimate sexual union
  anoʔ apaŋbastard, child born out of wedlock
Sundanese hampaŋlight, not heavy; easy
Javanese ampaŋlight, without body
Balinese ampaŋlight, easy, not heavy

Note:   Also Malay gampaŋ ‘of little account; easy; light’, anak gampaŋ ‘child of doubtful paternity’, Malay jampaŋ ‘of little account (Selangor dialect)’, Sasak ampah ‘easy’, Sasak ampah-aŋ ‘understand something easily’. Reid (1982:207ff) maintains that medial prenasalization in Ilokano is indicative of borrowing from Malay, either directly, or indirectly through Tagalog or Sama-Bajaw. While this may be true in particular cases it is difficult to justify in the present instance, since Tagalog appears to lack a corresponding form, and although Malay has a cognate, its meaning is substantially different from that of Ilokano ampáŋ.

26282

*hampil go together

2568

PMP     *hampil go together     [doublet: *hampir]

WMP
Bontok ʔapílbe a twin
Kankanaey apílswing together, be two on the swing
Ifugaw apíltwins
Kapampangan man-ampílto stack dishes
Cebuano hampílattach something to something solid, as a patch or sign; spread something on top of something else or between two objects as a protection; pile flat, flexible things one on top of the other
Maranao ampil-aʔally
  ampil-ampilside lightly with someone; sympathy for someone
Tiruray ʔamfilcome to the defense of someone or something
Old Javanese um-ampilunite, join with
Mongondow mog-ampilhave constantly near one, care for or look after something (so that one doesn't lose it)
Banggai maŋ-ampil-konbring close to oneself
CMP
Manggarai ampilstay together

Note:   Also Malay hampir ‘proximity; nearly; close by’, hampir-i ‘to draw near; to approach’. Tagalog hampil ‘near’, cited by Dempwolff (1938) but not in modern dictionaries, is assumed to be a Malay loanword.

26283

*hampir near, close by

2569

PWMP     *hampir near, close by     [doublet: *hampil]

WMP
Ilokano um-ampírstay, come, etc. close to something
  y-ampírplace, etc. close to something
Tagalog hampilapproach, put near; place beside or against (Laktaw 1914)
Maranao ampirshoreward, near, go side-by-side
  ampir-aʔwharf, landing platform, quay
Ngaju Dayak ampiralmost, nearly
Iban ampirencroach, come foraging; approach threateningly or suspiciously
Malay hampirproximity; nearly; close by
  hampir-hampiralmost

Note:   Also Iban ampih ‘near, close’, Sundanese ampeuy ‘near by, in the vicinity’, Tae' ampiŋ ‘close by, near by, in rapid succession’, Bimanese ambi ‘ready; almost’. The evidence for PWMP *hampir is problematic. In addition to the Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak and Malay forms cited here, Dempwolff (1934-38) included proposed cognates in Malagasy, Javanese, Sa'a, Fijian, Tongan and Futunan, but these appear to be non-cognate. Moreover, it is possible that the Ilokano, Tagalog and Maranao forms are loanwords from Malay, although the semantic divergence of at least the last of these makes a hypothesis of borrowing unlikely.

26284

*hampul heave upward

2570

PWMP     *hampul heave upward

WMP
Tagalog hampólapex of the path of anything thrown upward; highest tip of a wave
Sundanese ŋ-ampulheave upward (of a swell at sea)
  ampul-ampul-anheave, dance (of swells at sea)

26285

*hamuk attack, run amuck

2571

PMP     *hamuk attack, run amuck

WMP
Tagalog hámokhand-to-hand fight
Cebuano hámuksuperhuman beings that harass people by frightening them. They usually assume the form of oversized animals if they show themselves, or may just indicate their presence without showing themselves. They may be found in any lonely place
Ngaju Dayak amokfurious, murderous attack
Banjarese hamukfurious attack, charge
Iban amokattack, run amuck; passion, enthusiasm, do with keenness, slave away at
Malay amokfurious attack; charge; amuck. Of desperate onslaughts in old romances
Sundanese ŋ-amukfuriously attack and fight, fight like a madman
Javanese amukfury, violence
  ŋ-amuk-(amuk)go on a rampage
  amuk-amuk-anattack each other violently
Balinese amukrave, be furious; attack in fury
  amuk-amuktumult, great noise; furious, mad rage
Sasak amukattack without warning, murder
CMP
Soboyo hamoʔrob

Note:   Also Old Javanese wūk ‘furious attack’, amūk ‘attack furiously’. These morphologically related forms in Old Javanese suggest that this comparison may have resulted from the borrowing of the affixed form amūk. Despite its initial appeal, this hypothesis fails to explain the initial /h/ in Tagalog, Banjarese or Soboyo.

24959

*handem think, understand

411

PMP     *handem think, understand

WMP
Hiligaynon hándumwish, desire, ambition
Javanese aremto sit brooding
Sasak aremthink, understand

8041

POC     *adom think, understand

OC
Nggela andothink, understand
Sa'a aroto brood (cited only in the English index)

Note:   With root *-dem ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.

26286

*hantaD visible, in full view

2572

PWMP     *hantaD visible, in full view

WMP
Tagalog hantádexposed, in full view
Toba Batak antarclearly recognizable, easy to see
Javanese antarclearly audible
Tontemboan ataropen and spacious terrain

Note:   Also Aklanon ántad ‘gap, distance, space’, Cebuano aŋtád ‘be in line of sight’.

26287

*hantatadu large stinging green caterpillar

2573

PWMP     *hantatadu large stinging green caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]    [disjunct: *antatadu]

WMP
Cebuano hantatalúkind of green caterpillar, esp. fond of caladium and taro plants, and also found on citrus, turning into a butterfly
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar
Melanau (Mukah) tetadewcaterpillar
Toba Batak antatadukind of large green caterpillar
Angkola-Mandailing Batak antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves

26288

*hanunaŋ a tree: Cordia dichotoma

2574

PMP     *hanunaŋ a tree: Cordia dichotoma     [disjunct: *qaNuNaŋ]

WMP
Itbayaten hanonaŋFicus tree, found in woodlands, and on slopes in grassland
Isneg anúnaŋa tree whose leaves are prepared for the reception of good spirits, at the time of a solemn sacrifice
Maranao nonaŋa tree: Cordia dichotoma
Minangkabau nunaŋtree with fruit producing a sticky sap used as gum
Mongondow onunaŋkind of tree which produces glue
CMP
Manggarai nunaŋa tree: Cordia dichotoma

26312

*haŋak exhausted

2614

PWMP     *haŋak exhausted

WMP
Cebuano háŋakpant, be out of breath from exertion
Banjarese aŋak aŋak(person) in a state of complete exhaustion

26313

*haŋga until, as far as

2615

PWMP     *haŋga until, as far as     [doublet: *hiŋa]

WMP
Tagalog haŋá-nfarthest limit or boundary
Hanunóo haŋga-neven, even to, even including
Tae' aŋgaup to the end, as far as
Makasarese aŋgaboundary, limit placed on something which one must observe

Note:   Also Makasarese saŋga ‘go as far as one can’. I assume that the Tagalog and Hanunóo words contain a fosilized suffix *-an.

26314

*haŋin wind

2616

PMP     *haŋin wind

WMP
Itbayaten hañintyphoon, storm, hurricane
Ilokano áŋinwind, draft, current of air
Itawis áŋinwind
Tagalog háŋinair, wind, breeze
Aklanon háŋinair, wind
Hiligaynon háŋinwind
Cebuano háŋinair; wind; breath or air as necessary for the body, stamina; mere talk, idle words; force, agency that carries something along or influences something; become windy; be blown by the wind; get puffed up, conceited
Maranao aŋinwind
Murut (Timugon) aŋinwind
Ngaju Dayak aŋinwind (Malay loan)
Malagasy áninabreeze, wind
Iban aŋinwind, breeze; report, rumor, lie
Maloh so-aŋinwind
Jarai aŋinwind
Rhade aŋinair, wind
Moken aŋinwind
Malay aŋincurrent of air; wind; (fig.) windy, of talk
  ber-aŋinbreezy, airy
  meŋ-aŋinto winnow
  makan aŋintake the air
Acehnese aŋènwind, draft; also substitute term for taʔeun 'epidemic'
  aŋèn-aŋèncharm consisting of a bit of paper with something written on it which is waved over the fire to compel a thief to return something stolen
Karo Batak aŋinwind
  ŋ-aŋinwinnow rice by pouring it slowly from a height so that the chaff is blown away by the wind
  r-aŋin-aŋinkind of water beetle
Dairi-Pakpak Batak aŋinwind, breeze
  i-aŋinwinnow rice by exposing it to the wind so that the chaff is carried away
  kendaŋ peŋ-aŋin-enwinnowing basket used to winnow rice by exposing it to the wind
Toba Batak aŋinwind
  hata aŋinrumor
  maŋ-aŋin-aŋin baritadiscontinue rumors
Nias aŋiwind, air; rumor; epidemic, pestilence
  mo-ʔaŋiwindy
Mentawai aŋinwind (Schefold, p.c.)
Rejang aŋinwind, breeze, air
Lampung aŋinwind
Sundanese aŋinwind, breeze; air to blow, of wind
  ŋ-aŋin-ancarry away with the wind
Old Javanese (h)aŋinwind
  in-aŋin-aŋinfluttering in the wind
Javanese aŋinwind; breeze, draft; air
  ŋ-aŋinget some fresh air
  ŋ-aŋin-(aŋin)-akédry something in the wind
  aŋin ḍuḍukdrop dead; have a heart attack (folk usage)
Madurese aŋenwind
Balinese aŋinwind
Sasak aŋinwind
  aŋin pusutwhirlwind
Proto-Sangiric *aŋinwind
Sangir aŋiŋwind
  pueŋ u aŋiŋpoint of the compass
  mahu-aŋiŋwindy
Tae' aŋinwind; air; climate
  di-aŋin-ibe dried in the wind
Buginese aŋiŋwind
  mar-aŋiŋget a breath of fresh air
Makasarese aŋiŋwind
  amm-aŋiŋhang in the wind to dry
  pamm-aŋiŋ-aŋsomething used to dry things in the wind, clothesline
CMP
Bimanese aŋiwind
Li'o aŋiwind
Sika aniŋ <Mwind
Lamaholot aŋinwind
Kédang aŋinwind
Atoni aninwind
Tetun aninwind
Erai ani(n)wind; year (beginning with the rainy season)_
Kisar annewind
Damar (West) oñowind
Ujir aninwind
  aninwind
Dobel saŋinwind
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) enenwind
Watubela aŋinwind
Elat aninwind
Masiwang yakinwind
Paulohi aninewind
Hitu aninwind
Larike aninuwind
Buruese aŋinwind
Kayeli aninwind

2617

POC     *aŋin wind

OC
Wedau laginawind
Mailu aniwind
Motu laibreeze; wind
Kilivila yagilawind
Gilbertese wind, breeze, air, gas; breath; climate; atmosphere; direction
Kosraean wind; fart
  eŋ-ibreak wind to, fart on (or at)
Marshallese wind, breeze
Pohnpeian ahŋair, wind
Mokilese air, breeze, wind
  eŋ-lavery light in weight
Chuukese eni-(in compounds only) wind, blow
Puluwat yááŋwind, air
Woleaian yaŋ(i)wind, blast, air in motion
Fijian caŋiwind, air, atmosphere
  caŋi-nabe blown about by the wind
Tongan aŋi(of the wind) to blow
  aŋi-nabe blown about by the wind
Niue aŋiblow gently (of the wind); a gentle breeze
Samoan aŋiblow (of the wind)
  aŋi-aŋi-aflutter, wave gently
  aŋi-nabe unfurled by the wind, as a flag
Tuvaluan aŋiblow, of wind
Kapingamarangi aŋi-nablown away; blown in one direction (by wind)
Nukuoro aŋiblow gently (of wind); a disturbance (of the water)
  aŋi-ablow away, cause to move (in the water)
Rennellese aŋito blow, of wind; be breeze-swept, windy
  aŋi-nablow, as wind; be breeze-swept, windy, blown upon; be blown away
Rarotongan aŋiblow, waft, as the wind: to produce, as a current of air; movement, oscillation
Maori aŋi-nablown about by the wind
Hawaiian anibeckon, wave; blow softly, as a breeze

2618

PPh     *ma-haŋin windy

WMP
Itbayaten ma-hañinhaving a typhoon
Tagalog ma-háŋinwindy
Aklanon ma-háŋinwindy, stormy

2619

PMP     *pa(ka)-haŋin expose to the wind

WMP
Aklanon pa-háŋinlet fresh air blow over something
Cebuano pa-háŋinexpose oneself to the wind, draft
Makasarese p(a)-aŋiŋhang up in the wind to dry, as laundry

2620

POC     *paka-aŋin cause the wind to blow

OC
Gilbertese ka-aŋ-await for the wind; let the wind blow (fig. = fervor, ardor, zeal)
Niue faka-aŋicause to blow (as wind)
Rarotongan aka-aŋicause to blow air upon or into
Hawaiian hoʔ-ānibeckon, wave, signal; let wind

2621

PMP     *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin go out for some fresh air

WMP
Aklanon pa-háŋin-háŋingo out for some fresh air

2622

POC     *paka-aŋin-aŋin refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air

OC
Fijian vaka-caŋi-caŋigo somewhere for health's sake; take a holiday
Niue faka-ma-aŋi-aŋirefresh oneself in the open air

2623

PWMP     *ka-haŋin-an struck by the wind

WMP
Cebuano ka-háŋin-anatmosphere, air space
Minangkabau ka-aŋin-anto have suffered from the wind, be under the influence of the wind
Sundanese ka-aŋin-ancarried away by the wind, caught by the wind
Old Javanese k-āŋin-anmoved (driven) by the wind; in the wind
Javanese k-aŋin-anexposed to or affected by wind

2624

PWMP     *haŋin-an filled with air, bloated

WMP
Cebuano haŋin-ánkind of sea cucumber that shrinks greatly when taken out of the water
Javanese aŋin-anpaid political official
Balinese aŋin-anbe bloated with wind

2625

PWMP     *haŋin-en suffer illness

WMP
Ilokano aŋín-ensuffer a stroke, e.g. when the heart is affected
Aklanon haŋín-onpretentious, boastful; crazy, foolish
Cebuano háŋin-uncrackpot, characterized by silly and impractical ideas
Javanese aŋin-enflatulent
  [aŋin-aŋin-anbehave erratically]
[Balinese aŋin-aŋin-anempty-headed]
Tae' aŋin-aŋin-anbe troubled with wind in the bowels; sickness of chickens in which the skin is said to be swollen as a result of air accumulating between the flesh and the skin

2626

PMP     *haŋin-haŋin gust, draft, current of air; rumor

WMP
Maranao aŋin-aŋinaim, purpose, preoccupation
Malay aŋin-aŋintoy windmill
Dairi-Pakpak Batak aŋin-aŋinrumor
Rejang aŋin-aŋina rumor
Old Javanese (h)aŋin-aŋina gust, draught, waft, current of wind caused by a swift movement, wing-beat, breathing, etc.)
Javanese aŋin-aŋin(-an)be/get in a draft; expose oneself to too much air
Balinese aŋin-aŋinfan
Makasarese aŋiŋ-aŋiŋwild rumor
CMP
Erai ani-ani(n)rumor

2627

POC     *aŋin-aŋin gust, draft, current of air

OC
Gilbertese aŋ-aŋit is windy, the wind is blowing
Tongan aŋi-aŋi(of the wind) begin to spring up, or to blow continuously
Samoan aŋi-aŋiblow (of the wind)
Kapingamarangi aŋi-aŋiwindy
Nukuoro aŋi-aŋiblow with increasing force (wind); blow continuously (wind); fan
Rennellese aŋi-aŋito blow, of wind; to stir; breezy or windy spot
Rarotongan aŋi-aŋiblow or waft mildly, in a continuous manner, blow in a gentle manner, as the wind; pulsation, the act of throbbing or oscillating
Maori aŋi-aŋilight, gentle breeze

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat haŋín ‘winnow rice (by pouring it onto the ground from a height of about 6 feet, allowing the breeze to blow through it to blow away the chaff’ (Tagalog loan), Banjarese aŋin ‘wind’; Simalur aŋén ‘wind’, mal-aŋén ‘winnow by using the wind to separate chaff from grain’, Molima yagila ‘wind’ (apparently a Kilivila loan), Niue faka-aŋi-aŋi ‘up in the air’, ma-aŋi ‘open, well-lit; to relieve, a relief’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed doublets *aŋin and *haŋin, but Old Javanese (h)aŋin, and all diagnostic Philippine reflexes support *haŋin.

As noted by Dyen (1953:31ff) Malay orthography and speech commonly exhibit variants which differ only in the presence or absence of initial /h/-, and in some cases the expected variant with /h/- is absent. Somewhat more surprising is the absence of an initial /h/- in Banjarese and Sundanese, and this fact might be used to justify a disjunct *aŋin. Finally, the distribution of this form shows some striking discontinuities. While its absence from Taiwan follows from the hypothesis that *haŋin is a PMP innovation, reflexes of *haŋin are widely distributed through the Philippines, Sumatra, Java-Bali-Lombok, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sundas, the Moluccas, Micronesia , and Polynesia , but are extremely rare both in Borneo and in Melanesia .

26315

*haŋit anger

2628

PMP     *haŋit anger

WMP
Bontok ʔáŋitscold, shout at
Kankanaey áŋitprovoke; be provoking; to challenge; defy; bid defiance to one
Ifugaw áŋitto challenge, summon somebody to a fight
Ifugaw (Batad) āŋitcall another to come and fight as in play, or when in earnest as of a drunk person; one who is extremely angry
  aŋīt-onthe one called to come and fight
Hanunóo háŋitanguish, regret, torment; anger
Aklanon háŋitirritated, provoked, angry
  ma-haŋít-onirritable
Cebuano haŋítget irked or irritated to the point of anger
Subanun (Sindangan) gaŋitanger
Melanau (Mukah) aŋitanger
  m-aŋitprovoke, make angry

2629

POC     *aŋit anger

OC
Pohnpeian eŋieŋangry (honorific)
  aŋiaŋi-hbe angry at, scold

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.

26316

*haŋus₁ gasp for breath

2630

PWMP     *haŋus₁ gasp for breath

WMP
Kapampangan áŋuseat by sucking (sugarcane)
Tagalog háŋosout of breath due to hurry or excitement
Bikol háŋosinhale or exhale; breathe, sigh
  haŋós-haŋóspant, be out of breath, be winded
Aklanon háŋospant (from loss of breath); breathless
Hiligaynon háŋusgasp for breath, pant, breathe fast and with difficulty
Cebuano háŋusbreathe heavily or with difficulty; heavy breathing
Mansaka aŋusexhale forcefully
Toba Batak aŋuscold, catarrh

2631

PWMP     *haŋus-en sniffle

WMP
Bikol haŋús-ontake in a breath of air
Toba Batak aŋus-onhave a cold

Note:   Also Fijian ceŋu ‘the breath; to breathe, rest, spell, leave off work’. Despite their perfect correspondence, the resemblance between Toba Batak aŋus ‘cold, catarrh’, and Hawaiian anu ‘cool, cold; coolness, temperature; cold, influenze, have a cold’ appears to be a product of chance (cp. Maori anu, anuanu ‘cold’.

26317

*haŋus₂ odor of burnt food

2632

PMP     *haŋus₂ odor of burnt food     [doublet: *haŋut]

WMP
Malay haŋusdestruction by fire. In contrast to being on fire or being cooked or baked
Old Javanese haŋuscovered with soot, fire-blackened
Javanese aŋussoot
Balinese aŋussmell like burnt rice
Sasak aŋusburned (in cooking)
CMP
Manggarai aŋosburnt to a crisp (of burnt corn)

26318

*haŋut smell, odor

2633

PWMP     *haŋut smell, odor     [doublet: *haŋus₂]

WMP
Yami aŋotstinky
Itbayaten haŋotsmell, odor
Ilokano áŋotodor, smell
  na-áŋotstinking, ill-smelling
Bikol háŋotthe smell of green wood; the smell of certain unidentifiable odors in the air; the taste of certain vegetables like celery, carrots
Tae' aŋoʔpungent odor of putrid things, or of something that is burned, as cat feces, odor of urine that has dried in clothing

2634

PPh     *haŋut-en to smell

WMP
Itbayaten haŋot-ento smell
Ilokano aŋót-ento smell

Note:   Also Tagalog aŋót ‘stench peculiar to stagnant liquids’, Mamanwa haŋod ‘to smell.

26319

*haŋút chew on, gnaw on

2635

PPh     *haŋút chew on, gnaw on

WMP
Bontok ʔaŋútchew on; gnaw on, as a bone or corn
Bikol haŋóteat something tough by pulling at it with the teeth
Cebuano haŋútbite at, chew something rubbery or sinewy
Mansaka aŋutcut with the teeth

30643

*hápaR chase, pursue

8154

PPh     *hápaR chase, pursue

WMP
Bontok ʔ<um>ápalto chase away (as a dog chasing a cat)
Ifugaw (Batad) um-āpalfor someone to chase someone, something with the intention of catching or driving him or it away; to chase a thief, a pig
Bikol mag-hápagto pursue, chase

8155

PPh     *hapáR-en be chased, pursued

WMP
Bontok ʔapál-ənbe chased, pursued
Bikol hapág-onbe chased, pursued

26289

*hapejes smarting, stinging pain

2575

PMP     *hapejes smarting, stinging pain     [doublet: *hapejis, *Sapejiq]

WMP
Ilokano apgésto smart; cause a sharp, acute, smart, pungent pain (said of irritants, etc.)
Kankanaey pegésacute, sharp, violent
  pegs-énto make an effort, to exert one’s self, to strain, to strive; (to work, etc.) hard
Casiguran Dumagat apdəssting, smart (as of alcohol when put on a cut)
Pangasinan ápgessmarting pain
Kapampangan paráshot, spicy, sharp-tasting
Bikol hapdóspain
Hanunóo ʔapdúsblister, especially one caused by friction
Aklanon hápdoshurt a little, be painful
Cebuano hapdússtinging, burning pain in a wound, pangs of hunger; for words to be stinging
Maranao pedespain, smart (feeling)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pezessour; descriptive of any liquid which stings an open wound
Mansaka apduspainful, smarting (as a wound)
Kadazan Dusun opodossmarting (of pain); pungent; poisonous (of snakes, etc.)
Murik perahsick; painful
Kayan perahill, sick; painful, sore; have pain
Bintulu pəDəssick, seriously ill
Ngaju Dayak peressickness
Iban pedaspungent, hot (to taste); hot (not cold)
Malay pedaspeppery; hot to the taste
  se-pedasginger
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pegespoor, miserable
Toba Batak pogospoor
Minangkabau si-padasgambier
Rejang pedeusginger
Sundanese pɨrɨspain, such as one feels when a hair is pulled
Old Javanese peDeshot (of taste), biting (of words)
Javanese peDeshot, peppery; to sting, feel a stinging sensation
Sasak pedesexperience bad luck; feel pain (at the extraction of a hair, the last of a whip, etc.)
Balantak ma-polospainful
CMP
Hawu peDasick; sickness, pain

Note:   Also Kapampangan maplás ‘sting (e.g. a wound when medicine is applied)’, Sundanese pedes ‘the ordinary pepper (whether white or black); also, strongly seasoned with pepper, peppery, hot to the tongue’, Bimanese pili ‘sick’.

26290

*hapejis smarting, stinging pain

2576

PMP     *hapejis smarting, stinging pain     [doublet: *hapejes, *Sapejiq]

WMP
Kalinga na-ʔapgissting pain (McFarland 1977)
Gaddang ma-ʔaːgetstinging pain
Iban pedispainful, aching, hurt, sore, be in pain
Maloh padissick
Sasak pedissour
Proto-Sangiric *pədissting, smart
Sangir pədisəʔhot sunshine
Bare'e podisour, acid; tamarind
Tae' paʔdiʔpain, painful
Proto-South Sulawesi *pɨ(dz)isburning sensation; sick
Buginese pɨsseʔsharp or sour taste; ginger
Makasarese paʔrisiʔpainful, smarting, laborious, difficult; pain
CMP
Rotinese hedi(s)pain, sickness; painful

26291

*hapen fishing line

2577

PMP     *hapen fishing line

WMP
Hanunóo hapúnfishline, frequently of two-ply home-grown cotton thread
Cebuano hapúnfishing line
Manobo (Dibabawon) haponfishline
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hapenfishline
Kadazan Dusun t-aponfishing-angle, fishhook
Paitan aponrod-and-line
Karo Batak ŋ-ampentie something with a slipknot, as a fishhook to the fishline
  peŋ-ampenthe separate string with which the fishhook is tied to the fishline
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ampenfishline

2578

PEMP     *apen fishing line

SHWNG
Buli yafanline used in harpooning sea turtles
Numfor yàfenharpoon for spearing fish and turtles

2579

POC     *apon fishing line

OC
Gilbertese aofibre of coconut husk, fishline, twine
Kosraean ahstring, fishing line, rope, thread, cord
Marshallese eoline, fishline
Mokilese ofishing line
Chuukese óófishline
Woleaian yoafishing line, string used for carrying baskets; band (as of a watch)
Sonsorol-Tobi jaofishing line (cited only in the English index sub line)
Fijian cavoto fish with a rod
Tongan afocord; fishing line
Niue afofishing line
Samoan afofishing line
Tuvaluan afofishing rod cord
Nukuoro ahofishing line of the sort used for adu fishing
Rennellese ahocord, line, thong, string; be on a line or string, as fish; to troll or fish with line on the reef
Rarotongan aʔofishing line, cord, string
Maori ahostring, line
Hawaiian aholine, cord, lashing, fishing line, kite string

26292

*hapin liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat

2580

PMP     *hapin liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat

WMP
Itbayaten hapinwoven mat, sleeping mat
Ivatan apinmat
Ibatan apina sleeping mat (woven of pandanus)
Ilokano ápinany kind of leaf (usually a piece of banana leaf) spread over the bottom of an earthen pot, at the inside, before the rice that has to be cooked is poured into it
Isneg ápinlayer which is placed inside the báŋa (cooking jar) before the rice is poured in: usually a section of the banana leaf
Itawis appíndiaper
Bontok ʔápinsleeping mat; banana leaf or other such object upon which food may be placed when eating out of doors
Kankanaey ápinpad, as a leaf spread inside the pot in which rice is boiled, straw spread in openwork basket used for nests, etc.
Ifugaw ápinleaf, or part of a big leaf which is spread over the bottom of containers, such as jars or baskets
Ifugaw (Batad) āpintemporary garbage container woven from the inner stripping of bamboo
Bikol hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; (fig.) eat or drink something to line the stomach before drinking liquor
Aklanon hápinput something underneath (to protect the bottom surface from heat, dirt or the like)
  hapíncover, covering, placemat
Hiligaynon hapíndiaper, lining, cover
Cebuano hapínsomething that is laid over or under something; food taken along with drinks as a digestive buffer; lay something over something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hapinpad something to avoid injury
Mansaka apínprotective pad between two things; use as a protective covering
Kadazan Dusun t-apinswaddling clothes
Murut (Tagol) apinfloor mat
Iban ampinbaby's napkin, nappy
Malay ampinswaddling-band for infant
Simalungun Batak ampinswaddling cloth
CMP
Yamdena afincover with a towel, mat, etc. to make a place to sit or to set something down
Kayeli ápinemat

8881

PPh     *hapin-an to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for

WMP
Ilokano apin-anto place the ápin [lining] at the bottom of a pot
Bikol hapín-anto line (as shelves, boxes); to pad, insulate

2581

PPh     *hapin-en be lined by

WMP
Itbayaten hapin-enweave mats and the like; to weave
Cebuano hapin-únbe lined by

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat lampen ‘diaper (or any clothing an infant is wrapped in)’, Tagalog sapín ‘pad, padding, cushion’, i-sapín ‘use something as an underlayer (especially for protection)’, Bikol sapín ‘lining, insulation, padding’, Tiruray amfen ‘pad of any sort used as a saddle on a riding animal; place an amfen on an animal’, Kelabit epin ‘sleeping mat’, Malay lampin ‘swathing band; wrapper wound round a very young child to prevent it injuring itself by rolling about’. Although *hapin evidently referred to any flat pad or lining used to separate surfaces that one did not wish to come into contact, its full range of referents remains somewhat unclear. The meaning ‘diaper, swaddling cloth’ is reflected only in Hiligaynon, Kadazan Dusun and a group of languages in western Indonesia which are either closely related (Malay, Iban) or in a known borrowing relationship (MALY< /lg>, SIMB). It is possible that this meaning is secondary, but I follow the rules of distribution in primary subgroups to reconstruct it here.). It is possible that this meaning is secondary, but I follow the rules of distribution in primary subgroups to reconstruct it here.

26293

*haplít to whip

2582

PPh     *haplít to whip

WMP
Ilokano aplítto whip (a top); to flap (as the horse does with its tail); to whip, to lash
Tagalog haplítstroke with a lash or whip
Aklanon háplitto whip, lash
Hiligaynon háplitto blow, to strike, to hit

26295

*haprus rub, massage

2584

PPh     *haprus rub, massage     [disjunct: *hapRus]

WMP
Ilokano aprúsrub softly, gently
Bontok ʔaplústo massage, as a tired back, using a salve such as coconut oil
Ifugaw aplú(h)act of rubbing something (e.g. a broken bone), massage
Hiligaynon háplusrub with ointment, smear
Maranao perosslide the palm on, rub off

Note:   Also Itbayaten hapxot ‘idea of rubbing on’.

26294

*hapRus rub, massage

2583

PPh     *hapRus rub, massage     [disjunct: *haprus]

WMP
Ilokano aprúsrub softly, gently
Bontok ʔaplústo massage, as a tired back, using a salve such as coconut oil
Tagalog hagpós <Mgentle rubbing with the hand
Bikol hapgósrub something off

26296

*hapun dew

2585

PMP     *hapun₁ dew     [doublet: *ambun]

WMP
Itbayaten hapondew
Makasarese apuŋdew that has not yet condensed, but which still appears as a mist
CMP
Bimanese apucloud, fog, obscuring mist
Ngadha apudew
Li'o ae apufog, mist, dew
Sika apuŋdew, land wind that blows in the evening
Lamaholot apunfog, mist, dew
Tetun rai ahufog

26297

*hápun to roost, of chickens; time of roosting

2586

PPh     *hápun to roost, of chickens; time of roosting

WMP
Itbayaten om-aponto alight, to perch, to roost
Ibatan aponto roost at sunset (birds, chickens)
Ilokano áponstable, pen, enclosure, coop
Isneg áponcause to roost
Casiguran Dumagat aponlate afternoon, evening
Kapampangan ápunyesterday
Tagalog háponafternoon; roosting of fowls
Bikol háponafternoon
Aklanon háponafternoon; to roost, go to roost, settle down (birds)
Palawan Batak ʔapónyesterday
Cebuano hápunafternoon, early evening
Maranao aponperch, stay
Mansaka aponperch, alight, roost
Manobo (Sarangani) aponafternoon, evening

9507

PPh     *hapun-an perch, roosting place for chickens

WMP
Itbayaten apon-anplace where chickens sleep at night (usually on a tree); place on which to step
Ibatan apon-anthe place where a bird normally
Casiguran Dumagat apon-anroosting place for chickens; to land (of a bird, bug or fly)
Tagalog hapun-ansupper, dinner
Aklanon hapón-anperching rod or twig, roost

Note:   Also Itbayaten apon ‘place where chickens sleep at night (usually on a tree)’. The change *u > /o/ in the Itbayaten and Cordilleran reflexes of this form is puzzling, and may indicate borrowing from Greater Central Philippines languages.

32721

*haq(e)muq tame, docile, mild-mannered

11151

PPh     *haq(e)muq tame, docile, mild-mannered

WMP
Yami amoashamed, embarrassed
Itbayaten haʔmofear, fright
  ka-haʔmostate of being afraid; fear
  ha-haʔmo-anto frighten
Ibatan amoafraid
Ilokano amocivilized people
  na-ámotame; gentle; domesticated
  y-amoto reconcile people
  pa-amu-ento tame; domesticate; temper; subdue
  pag-amu-ento make enemies friends as before, make people reconcile
Isneg na-ámotame, domesticated, gentle
  tagi-ámolove charms which boys place in their pouch when they go to court the girls
Bontok na-ámuto be tame, of a domesticated animal
  pa-ámua working water buffalo; a water buffalo which has been broken in
Kankanaey na-ámotame, domesticated; quiet, calm, still; docile; submissive; gentle
Ifugaw ámoconcept of tameness
  na-ámotame, as a dog
Casiguran Dumagat ámotame, domesticated, docile, submissive (referring to animals)
  pa-amo-énto tame, to domesticate, to break (a horse)
  ámo-ámoto speak softly and gently to someone with a reluctant attitude in order to win him over to your side; to act apologetically to someone with whom you have had a misunderstanding; to persuade, to induce, to win over to one’s side
Ibaloy emo-ento tame, break, train an animal (as carabao for plowing)
  amo-anto make someone or something obey
Sambal (Tina) pa-amo-onto tame
Tagalog ámoʔtameness; coaxing, supplication
  ka-amu-anmeekness, mildness, gentleness; tameness; tame nature, as of an animal or bird

11152

PPh     *ma-hamuq tame, docile

WMP
Pangasinan ma-ámotame (refers only to animals)
Tagalog ma-ámoʔtame; domestic; docile; obedient; meek; benign; mild; gentle

11153

PPh     *h<um>amuq to become tame or gentle

WMP
Isneg um-ámoto become tame, etc.
Tagalog um-ámoʔto become tame

24871

*haRemaŋ kind of marine eel

295

PMP     *haRemaŋ kind of marine eel

WMP
Itbayaten haymaŋsea eel which stays in holes under the sea; big eel (black, spotted): Anguilla japonica Temminck, etc. (includes painted morays)
Ilokano ar(a)máŋkind of small, edible, marine shrimp
Casiguran Dumagat ágmaŋtype of ocean fish (Headland and Headland (1974)), kind of marine eel (Reid (1971:186))
Cebuano agmáŋkind of eel
Sasak amaŋmarine eel
Sangir hemmaŋmarine eel
CMP
Buruese hemamarine eel

26298

*haRezan notched log ladder

2587

PMP     *haRezan notched log ladder

WMP
Ilokano agdánladder; stairs, staircase; flight of stairs, steps
Ibanag addanstairway, ladder
Isneg agdānladder
Itawis áddanstairs, ladder
Itneg aldanstairway, ladder
Bontok ʔagdánwooden steps leading to the door of a house with raised floor
Casiguran Dumagat agdénladder; make a makeshift ladder so you can climb a tree
Sambal (Botolan) ayranstairway, ladder
Ayta Abellan aydanstairs
Tagalog hagdánstairs, ladder
Bikol hagdánstair, step
Hanunóo ʔagdánany single, inclined means of entering a typical Hanuno'o pile dwelling from the ground, especially a log or bamboo pole used in this manner. Note: Runged ladders, common elsewhere in the Philippines, are not used by the Hanuno'o
Aklanon hágdanstair(s), step(s)
Hiligaynon hágdanstairs, ladder
Cebuano hagdánstairs, ladder; ladder made of a bamboo pole with projections left at the nodes used as the footholds; something by which one climbs or improves; climb a ladder; make into, put a stair or ladder somewhere
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heɣezanladder; stairway
Mansaka agdanladder; stair
Buludupi godtannotched log ladder
Supan gədtannotched log ladder
Ngaju Dayak hejannotched log ladder
Katingan honjanladder
Jarai rəñansteps, ladder
Acehnese reuñeunsteps, ladder
Simalur aeranladder
Karo Batak redansteps, ladder (usually a notched log or pole)
Nias oraladder, stairs
Mentawai oratladder, stairs
Balinese ejanladder
Proto-Minahasan *ahdanladder, stairs
Tondano (Kakas) aharanladder, stairs
Uma odarung of a ladder
Bare'e ejasteps, ladder, generally made of a notched log
Wolio odaladder, stairway
CMP
Manggarai redaŋladder
Rotinese edasomething used to climb up something else (Jonker 1908); ladder of house (Fox 1993)
  eda-ksteps, ladder; clamps on a tree to make it easier to climb
Leti retnasteps, ladder
Wetan retnaclimbing-pole, ladder, stairs
Selaru aresa-resteps, ladder
Dobel lolaladder
Kamarian elanladder
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai roranladder, stairs

2588

PEMP     *aRezan notched log ladder

SHWNG
Buli olanladder

2589

PMP     *haRezan na batu stone stairs

WMP
Tagalog hagdáŋ batóstone steps, stone stairs
Tae' eran batustone stairs; also a place name
  eran bala batustairs made of stones stacked upon one another
CMP
Wetan retan watistairs of stone

Note:   Also Bikol hagyán ‘stair, step’, Tiruray gedan ‘ladder or stairs’, Kelabit ədʰan ‘notched log ladder’, Kenyah (Long Anap) can ‘notched log ladder’, Kiput asiːn ‘notched log ladder’, Bintulu kejan ‘notched log ladder’, Cham lañan, Rhade eñan ‘ladder’, Tae' eran ‘steps, ladder’, Kisar rokon ‘steps, ladder’, Erai esa ‘ladder, post with steps cut in it’, Dobel lola ‘ladder’, Paulohi ilane ‘ladder’. Hendon (1964) posited *haReZan, a form which is identical in all essential respects to that reconstructed here (since I do not recognize the *z, Z distinction as a feature of PAn, PMP or PWMP).

26299

*hasaŋ gills

2590

PMP     *hasaŋ gills

WMP
Ilokano ásaŋgill, branchia; glands at the inside of the throat; the pin of a lock that fits in the socket of a key
Isneg ásaŋthe gills of fishes
Itawis ásaŋgill
Gaddang átaŋgills (McFarland 1977)
Pangasinan asáŋgills
  nan-asáŋgilled, having gills
Sambal (Botolan) áhaŋgills
Kapampangan ásaŋgills
Tagalog hásaŋgills
Abaknon asaŋgills
Aklanon hásaŋgill (of fish)
Cebuano hásaŋgills
  hásaŋ-hásaŋan outlet on the side of a ship's hull to let the bilge water out
Maranao asaŋgill
Mansaka asaŋgill
Kenyah (Long Wat) asaŋgills
Bintulu asaŋgills
Melanau (Mukah) asaŋgills
Iban ansaŋgills of fish
Malay asaŋgills of fish (Brunei, Sarawak)
Simalur asaŋcheek
Sundanese asaŋgills
Javanese aŋsaŋgill (fish's breathing apparatus); grate for holding coals in a brazier
Balinese aŋsaŋgills of fish
Sasak aŋsaŋgills
Proto-Sangiric *asaŋgills
Sangir asaŋgill; membrane around the seed of a mango
Proto-Minahasan *asaŋgills
Tondano ansaŋgills
Tontemboan asaŋgills of a fish
  asaŋ-enseized by the gills
Makasarese assaŋgills
Wolio ancagill (of fish)
  ancaŋ-iremove gills from (fish)
Chamorro guasaŋgill (of fish)
CMP
Kisar ahanneuvula
Roma ahannagills
Leti asnagills of a fish
Kamarian asagills
Asilulu asagills
Buruese asa-ngills

2591

PEMP     *asaŋ₂ gills

SHWNG
Numfor asengills
OC
Pak asa-ninner gills
Papitalai asa-ninner gills (red substance)
Seimat axa-ngills
Wuvulu axagills
Aua ara-nagills
Gitua asa-ngills
  iga asa-nfish gills
Motu ladagills
Roviana asaŋa-nagills of a fish
Eddystone/Mandegusu asaŋagills of a fish
Rennellese asafish gills

2592

PWMP     *hasaŋ-an have gills

WMP
Cebuano hasáŋ-anhaving gills
Kadazan Dusun asaŋ-anthe fish from which the gill is being taken out
Sundanese asaŋ-anhave gills
Balinese aŋsaŋ-angills of fish

2593

PEMP     *asaŋ-i gills of

CMP
Paulohi asa-iits gills
OC
Mussau asaŋ-einner gills (< pre-Mussau *asaŋa-i 'gills of')
Pohnpeian edegills

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat aháŋ ‘gills (of fish)’, Bikol ásaŋ ‘gills’, Hiligaynon ásaŋ ‘fish gill’, Tiruray asaŋ ‘gills of a fish’, Tontemboan aʔsaŋ ‘gills of a fish’, Mongondow asaŋ ‘gills of a fish’; in-asaŋ-an ‘furnish with gills’, Kambera ŋaha, ŋanja ‘gills’, Wetan aana ‘gills’, Bipi ase-n ‘inner gills (red substance)’, Sori ase-n ‘inner gills’, Ahus ase-n ‘inner gills’, Rennellese asaa ‘fish gills’.

Although widely distributed, this form is common only in the Philippines and western Indonesia. It appears to be entirely absent from Sumatra in the meaning ‘gills’, and is rare in Sulawesi and eastern Indonesia. In the Pacific it has been attested to date only in western Melanesia and in a single Polynesian language, Rennellese (although Tuvaluan kalauaha ‘gills’ may contain a reflex). In several widely separated languages *hasaŋ has been replaced by a reflex of PAn *Caliŋa ‘ear’. Some of the languages of the Proto-Admiralty, and Mussau of the St. Matthias Archipelago terminologically distinguish the external gills (gill slits) from the internal gills (red fleshy material), and it is possible that such a distinction was innovated in POc.

26300

*haseg stuff or press in, be squeezed in

2594

PWMP     *haseg stuff or press in, be squeezed in     [doublet: *hasek₂]

WMP
Cebuano hasúgpush something into a container and tamp it down to fill it tight (as in filling a sack with copra)
Sundanese aŋsegapproach, press in on something; also: pant, gasp for breath; oppress, stifle (as a person who is surrounded by other people, a city surrounded by an army, etc.)
Javanese aŋsegfeeling stuffed from overeating
  ŋ-aŋsegpress forward

26301

*hasek₁ dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick

2595

PMP     *hasek₁ dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick

WMP
Tagalog hasíksowing
Bikol hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole; referring only to upland field cultivation carried out at present primarily by minority groups
Cebuano hasúkmake a hole to sow seeds in; insert something into a hole or sheath; drive in stakes or pegs; dibble stick; hole dibbled in the ground to sow seeds in; action of making a hole; peg, stake
Tiruray ʔohokto plant in general, specifically to dibble; dibble stick
Mapun um-asokto enter; go inside (a place); to allow or have someone enter
  asok-unto insert something into something else; to put something inside a place (as a machete in its sheath)
Taboyan asekdibble stick
Dusun Deyah asokdibble stick
Banjarese asakhole made with a dibble stick for planting rice
Malay asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices)
Sundanese asɨkdibble stick
Sumbawanese asakdibble stick
Proto-Sangiric *asikto dibble; plant rice
Sangir asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground
  la-asiʔthe thick, pointed dibble stick of heavy wood used to make holes for planting
Mongondow atokplant rice seed by dibbling
Gorontalo wantoʔoinsert, put in (as money into a fold of the clothing)
CMP
Manggarai acekfence post, stake; drive in a stake or post
Selaru asahole made in dibbling
Yamdena yasakpress into the ground

2597

POC     *asok plant in holes in the ground

OC
Sa'a ato, ato-atothrow, cast
  ato tahathrow the first yam set into the hole, of priest
Ulawa ato-atoup and down dividing sticks in a yam garden
  ato-ni waʔathrow the yams into the holes
Arosi ato, ato-atodistribute food at feasts, yams in holes for planting

2596

PWMP     *maŋ-hasek₁ to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick

WMP
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-asokmake holes for seeds in the nursery
Taboyan ŋ-asekto dibble
Dusun Deyah ŋ-asokto dibble
Sundanese ŋ-asɨkmake a hole or holes in the ground for planting; to plant
Sangir maŋ-asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground
  maŋa-ŋ-asiʔthe people who make the dibble holes for planting (they walk together while singing verses connected with the planting of the rice, followed by the women, who plant the seeds
Mongondow moŋ-atokplant rice seed by dibbling

Note:   Also Itbayaten asek ‘put something in a hole’, asek-en ‘drip through holes or slits’, Casiguran Dumagat hasík ‘term for the several varieties of mountain rice; plant mountain rice with a dibble stick (in a swidden)’, Ma'anyan ehek ‘dibble stick’. With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

This word is of some value for inferences about food-production in PMP society. Dibbling is a form of planting used only for seed crops, and only for dry, as opposed to wet rice. PMP *hasek thus forms one piece of evidence for slash-and-burn dry rice agriculture among Austronesian speakers, circa 3,000 B.C. In the Pacific, where grain crops were lost, this term has only a few questionable, and if valid, semantically altered reflexes (e.g. Sa'a, Arosi ato, ato-ato). POc *pasok ‘to plant (in general)’ does not appear to be an affixed form of *hasek, but probably contains the same root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

26302

*hasek₂ press in, cram, crowd

2598

PMP     *hasek₂ press in, cram, crowd     [doublet: *haseg]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat asəkput something inside of something else
Cebuano hasúkpack inside tight by compacting or tamping it down (as copra in a sack); compressed and well-packed inside a container
Maranao asekpress (as in pressing down the contents of a sack)
  asek-asekpress hard, confine strongly and in an overcrowded condition
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hasekpress down on something
Bintulu anəw n-asəkclothing (lit. ‘thing that is squeezed into’)
Iban ansakpress back, drive back (as enemy in battle)
Malay (h)asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices
  peŋ-asakramrod
  ber-asak-asakcrushed together (of people in a crowd
  penoh ber-asakchockfull
Karo Batak asekasthma?
  asek-enoppressive feeling in the chest, shortness of breath
Madurese aŋsekbe crowded out of place by another person; nudge, jostle
Balinese aŋsekthrong, be close together, push on each other
  aŋsek-aŋbe pushed close together
Makasarese assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force
CMP
Bimanese asipress, squeeze
  asi anapress, squeeze, as in giving birth

2599

PWMP     *maŋ-hasek₂ press, cram in with force

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-asakcram something in so that it is compact or full
Makasarese aŋŋ-assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force

2600

PWMP     *hasek-i press, cram in with force

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-asak-ipush or press against
Makasarese assakk-ipress against something
Wolio asak-ipress, suppress (desires)

Note:   Also Tiruray asek ‘press down, compact the contents of a container or hole’, asek-asek ‘tamp, shake down slightly’. With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.

The gloss of Casiguran Dumagat asek, and Tiruray asek (a loan word, probably from a Danaw source) could be taken as evidence that *hasek₁ and *hasek₂ are a single morpheme. Given the fairly distinct semantic reflexes of each etymon in a number of languages, however, and the likelihood that each contains a distinct root (Blust 1988:150ff) this interpretation is rejected.

26303

*hasuk enter, penetrate

2601

PWMP     *hasuk enter, penetrate, insert     [disjunct: *hasek₂]

WMP
Cebuano hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath
Kayan asukpush in, push along, push away
Karo Batak asukunderstand; enter
Javanese aŋsukenter (as a house)
Balinese asukgo in, enter
  hasuk-inbe made to go in, be put in

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’.

26304

*hataq raw, uncooked

2602

PWMP     *hataq raw, uncooked     [doublet: *qetaq]

WMP
Itbayaten hatauncooked, raw (of cereal), green, immature (of fruits), food subject to cooking, unripe
  na-hataraw (of viand)
Kankanaey átagreen; raw; not mature; not dry
Ifugaw átagreen, applied to grass, leaves, unripe fruit, natural color of vegetation in general
Casiguran Dumagat átaunripe, green; uncooked
Tiruray ʔataʔthe small trees on a swidden, cut first in order to serve as kindling beneath the larger trees when the swidden in burned; raw; immature, not yet ripe, used only of fruits
Kayan ataunripe, raw
Kayan (Uma Juman) ataraw, unripe
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atauncooked, unripe
Karo Batak atahfresh, green, raw, unripe
Sundanese atahraw, unripe, not cooked; untanned
Balinese atahyoung, unripe (fruit); green (leaves); not fully cooked

2603

PMP     *ma-hataq raw, uncooked

WMP
Itbayaten ma-hatauncooked, raw (of cereal), green, immature (of fruits)
Ivatan maːtaʔunripe, raw (McFarland 1977)
Ifugaw ma-átait will be green
Gaddang ma-ʔaːtaunripe, raw (McFarland 1977)
Kelabit mataʔraw, unripe, uncooked
Kenyah mataʔraw, unripe
Kenyah (Long Wat) m-ataʔraw
Karo Batak m-atahraw, green, unripe
Mentawai mataraw, uncooked, unripe
Balinese m-atahunripe, raw, uncooked; be green, young (leaves, fruit)
Sasak mataʔraw, unripe, uncooked
Proto-Minahasan *mataʔgreen; unripe; raw
Tontemboan mataʔgreen (also the color of the cloudless sky); unripe, raw, uncooked; small thin green snake
Uma mataʔraw
Bare'e mataraw, unripe, still green, uncooked, living
Tae' ma-mataunripe (of fruits), raw, fresh, still green, unripe, living
Makasarese mataraw, unripe, uncooked
Chamorro mataʔraw, uncooked
CMP
Bimanese madaraw, not cooked
Komodo mataʔraw (of fruit, rice); underdone, unripe
Kambera mataraw, unripe (rice, maize, etc.)
Atoni mategreen
Tetun mata-kgreen, still growing, immature; raw (not cooked), new, fresh (not stale); inexperienced
Kisar maka-makaraw, not cooked
Leti mat-mataraw, not cooked
Selaru matraw, uncooked, unripe
Yamdena mateunripe, uncooked; not yet completely dry, of wood
Fordata mataraw, uncooked, unripe
OC
Rotuman mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried
Tongan mata(of fruit), green, unripe, or raw; (of copra) undried); (of timber) unseasoned, or not thoroughly seasoned (hence a newly made canoe is sometimes said to be kei mata 'still unseasoned')
Samoan mataraw, unripe
Anuta mataraw; green

7930

POC     *mataq raw, unripe’

OC
Lou pa-matuncooked
Lenkau pa-pa-matraw, unripe
Pak pa-maruncooked, raw
Nali mam-matraw
Wuvulu a-maʔaraw, unripe
Anejom matraw
Rotuman mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried
Tongan mata(of fruit) green, unripe or raw; (of timber) unseasoned, or not thoroughly seasoned (hence a newly made canoe is sometimes said to be kei mata, still unseasoned)
Niue mataunripe; raw, uncooked; new, fresh
Futunan mataraw, uncooked (meat or fish); immature, as a young coconut not ready to be used
Samoan mataraw, uncooked, as taro
  faʔa-mata-matabe half-cooked, not cooked properly; be simple, naive (people)
Tuvaluan mataraw, half-cooked
Kapingamarangi madaraw, not cooked; ripe (of coconuts)
Nukuoro madauncooked, raw
Rennellese haa-mata ~ baa-matato be partially cooked; raw
Anuta mataraw
Maori mataraw, uncooked; unripe, of fruit; fresh, green, of foliage not dried or withered; fresh, as water
Hawaiian makaraw, as fish; uncooked; green, unripe, as fruit; fersh as distinct from salted provisions
  kā-maka-makafresh, alive, as of leaves or fresh fish; to lay green leaves on an oven
  hoʔo-kā-maka-makato ask forgiveness, to seek restoration of friendship

2604

PWMP     *maŋ-hataq use while still ripe

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋ-ataʔpick fruit before it is ripe
Ngaju Dayak maŋ-antapluck while unripe
Karo Batak ŋ-ataheat raw flesh
Toba Batak maŋ-ataeat raw flesh, or flesh that has been only lightly cooked

Note:   Also Iban mantaʔ, mataʔ ‘raw, uncooked, unripe, green’, Sangir tamataʔ ‘raw, unripe’, Lau maʔa ‘bright green; raw, unripe’, Kwaio maʔaa ‘raw, of food’. Malagasy manta ‘unripe, raw, crude, green’ probably is an early loan from Banjarese.

26305

*hatay expression of warning: watch out!

2605

PWMP     *hatay expression of warning: watch out!

WMP
Bontok ʔatáyexpression of pleased surprise
Cebuano hatáyexpression preceding a phrase warning someone against doing something foolish: watch out
Malay (h)ati-(h)atibe careful; look out; be watchful
Bahasa Indonesia hati-hatiwatch out! take care!
Sundanese ati-atipay attention, watch out
Old Javanese ati-atigive one's full (undivided) attention

Note:   The forms in western Indonesia may reflect *qaCay ‘liver’. Some of these, as Ambai ati-ati ‘be careful’ and Simalungun Batak ati-ati ‘watch out!’ seem clearly to be borrowed from Malay, but this cannot be the case with Cebuano hatáy.

32703

*hátuŋ fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire

11120

PPh     *hátuŋ fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire

WMP
Yami atoŋblow (on) to help ignite
  ipi-ato-atoŋtools for starting fires, such as paper or dried reeds
Itbayaten man-hatoŋto build a fire
Ibatan atoŋblow on a piece of burning wood to make it flame
Ilokano átoŋfirebrand (for burning)
  atoŋ-anto leave a firebrand burning; arouse, incite
Bontok ʔatuŋto have a burn (as a burned hand)
Ibaloy ʔatuŋburned, scalded skin, eyes, or other body part (as by fire, boiling water)

Note:   Also Tagalog gátoŋ ‘fuel (as firewood or coal fuel)’, i-gátoŋ ‘to feed a fire; to add wood or fuel to a fire; (fig.) to stimulate, to excite more activity’.

26306

*hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky

2606

PWMP     *hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat áwanclear (of underbrush, e.g. a cleared trail)
Tagalog háwanclearing (in a forest), or produced by the removal of a crowd; or, in the sky, by disappearance of clouds
  hawáncleared
Aklanon háwanclear up, clean up, make open
  ma-háwanclear, having no obstructions, expansive
Hiligaynon háwanto clear, clean from obstruction, clear a crowded area
Cebuano háwanclear an area; for an area to become clear
  hawan-ánliving room; floorspace or anything enclosed
Maranao awanclean graves
Manobo (Dibabawon) (h)awan-ancleared area
  aw-awan-anair, atmosphere between ground and sky
Mansaka awanweed rice for first time
  awan-ansky
Kadazan Dusun t-avansky, firmament, heavens, expanse
Melanau (Mukah) awancloud
Malagasy avanarainbow
Iban awancloud
Malay awancloud
Acehnese awancloud
Dairi-Pakpak Batak abanatmosphere, the firmament
Lampung awancloud
Balinese awanclouds

2607

PWMP     *hawan hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hawan-hawanspace between heaven and earth
Karo Batak awan-awanatmosphere, space between earth and sky

Note:   Also Itbayaten ka-hawan ‘weather’. Most of the forms brought together under *hawan can be united through the notion ‘clear or unobstructed space’. However, specific applications of this idea to the atmosphere are sufficiently widespread to justify an inference that the etymon meant ‘atmosphere’ (space between earth and sky), or at least included this meaning among its referents. This inference probably is strengthened by the similar semantic range of reflexes of *awaŋ. Apparent reflexes of *hawan meaning ‘cloud’ may be chance resemblances, but are included as possible cognates through their connection with the atmosphere. Some of these, like Manggarai awaŋ ‘cloud’, almost certainly are Malay loans.

26307

*hayep animal

2608

PPh     *hayep animal

WMP
Bolinao ayepanimal
Pangasinan áyepanimal
Tagalog háyopanimal
Bikol háyopanimal; beast, creature
Hanunóo háyupanimal, especially a mammal; also by extension and colloquial usage, any object that moves, animate or inanimate
Aklanon háyopmammals, cattle
Hiligaynon háyupanimal
Palawan Batak ʔáyepinsect; animal
Cebuano háyupdomestic animal; a person with base instincts and desires
Mansaka ayuppet (as a bird); plaything; toy; wife

Note:   Also Kankanaey ayup ‘very tame, quiet, calm’, Kapampangan áyup ‘bird; ayup-ayup-an ‘insect’.

26308

*hayun shake, sway, swing

2609

PWMP     *hayun shake, sway, swing

WMP
Kapampangan ayúnearthquake
Cebuano hayúnswing the arms in walking
Iban ayunswing (as for a child)
Malay (h)ayunswaying; swinging
  ayun-anhammock-cradle; swing
Acehnese ayōncradle (generally an oblong basket of plaited rattan filled with cushions)
Toba Batak aunto swing, rock, sway
Sundanese ayunto swing, sway, rock
Old Javanese (h)ayunmoving to and fro, swinging, dangling
Javanese ayunchildren's swing
  ayun-anto swing (on a swing, hanging tree roots, etc.)
  ŋ-ayunto swing something
Balinese ayunto rock, swing
  ayun-ana swinging cot for a baby; cradle; a swing

Note:   Also Cebuano háyun ‘swing the arms in walking’. Sa'a äsuesu ‘move about, be loose, unstable; to wave, of trees; to shake’, which Dempwolff (1934-38) associated with some of the forms cited here, appears to be unrelated.

26309

*hayup to blow

2610

PWMP     *hayup to blow     [doublet: *Siup]

WMP
Bontok ʔayúpto blow on, as a fire to make it flame
Bikol hayópblow something away
Proto-Chamic *ʔayupto blow

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    

he

hebás

he(m)bek

hebun

hedaw

hediq

hekas

helek

heluŋ

hemel

hemis

henaq

hendek

heñat

heŋak

hepak

heqe

heqeguk

heReŋ

heRuŋ

hesek

26321

*hebás evaporate, dry up

2637

PPh     *hebás evaporate, dry up

WMP
Ilokano ebbéssubside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)
Isneg abbātboil salt water, in the manufacture of salt
Casiguran Dumagat ebEsfor water to go down again after a flood
Tagalog hibásreduced in intensity (said of fever or storm), low tide
Hanunóo hubásevaporation, drying up, as of mountain streams in the dry season
Aklanon hubáslow tide
Hiligaynon hubásevaporate, dry up
Cebuano hubásdry up or drain liquids out

2638

PPh     *maR-hebás to evaporate, cause to dry up

WMP
Isneg max-abbātboil salt water, in the manufacture of salt
Hiligaynon mag-hubásevaporate, dry up

2639

PPh     *h<um>ebás to subside, dry up

WMP
Ilokano um-bássubside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)
Hanunóo h-um-ubásdry up

Note:   Also Ilokano ebbás ‘subside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)’, Bikol hubás, ubás ‘low water level, low tide’.

26340

*he(m)bek sob, mumbled complaint

2668

PWMP     *he(m)bek sob, mumbled complaint

WMP
Kankanaey ebékcry and gibber; weep and jabber; weep and grumble
Tagalog hibíkpleading, supplication; sob
Maranao mbekgive a whacking or thudding sound
Bintulu əmbəkhit, as a dog with a stick
Old Javanese aŋ-embek-embekstifle one's sobs

Note:   With root *-bek₁ ‘dull muffled sound’.

26320

*hebun group, pile

2636

PMP     *hebun group, pile

WMP
Hiligaynon hubúngroup
OC
Nggela ovucrowd, heap, pile
Lau ofupile up, amass; bunch, group of people

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.

26322

*hedaw stop, cease, of rain

2640

PMP     *hedaw stop, cease, of rain

WMP
Aklanon húeawstop raining, "let up" (rain only)
Cebuano huláwdrought, prolonged period without rain
Sangir edostop, cease, end
OC
Duke of York orofinished, of rain

Note:   Also Cebuano húlaw ‘drought’, Tolai oroi ‘to cease or stop, of rain; abate’.

26323

*hediq no, not

2641

PWMP     *hediq no, not     [doublet: *hadiq]

WMP
Ilokano diadverb of negation
Isneg addínot
  um-addíto refuse, not to like
Tagalog hindíʔno, not
Maranao diʔno, not
Subanun (Sindangan) ndiʔno, not
Penudjaq ndéʔno, not
Mamben ndéʔno, not

Note:   Also Sasak endi(h) ‘isn't it so?’

26324

*hekas release, loosen, untie

2642

PWMP     *hekas release, loosen, untie

WMP
Hanunóo hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal
Kayan kahrelease something, let go from hool, set free; spread out, e.g. a mat
Tontemboan eŋkasunfold, develop; loosen, undo, untie, release

Note:   With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.

26325

*helek sleep

2643

PPh     *helek sleep

WMP
Kankanaey eléksleep with somebody
Ifugaw olóksleep
Tagalog hilíksnore, snoring
Kalamian Tagbanwa eleksleep
Palawan Batak ʔéleksleepy

Note:   Also Kankanaey ek ‘be asleep, fall asleep’.

26326

*heluŋ shade, shelter

2644

PWMP     *heluŋ shade, shelter

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heluŋseek shelter from rain or sun
Sangir elluŋshadow
  maŋ-elluŋseek shelter in the shade
Tae' alluncovered, as the sun with clouds, shadowed, as the sunlight blocked by trees
Mandar alluŋcloud
Buginese elluŋcloud

Note:   With root *-luŋ₂ ‘to shelter, shade’.

26327

*hemel touch, hold

2645

PWMP     *hemel touch, hold

WMP
Tagalog himílidle tapping with the point of the fingers, doodling
Maranao meltouch
Bintulu mənhold
  məŋ-əmənhold, catch
  p-əmənwrestling

26328

*hemis sweet taste

2646

PMP     *hemis sweet taste     [disjunct: *emis₁]

WMP
Bikol hamíssweet
Maranao missweetness
Tiruray ʔeméhsugar; sweet
Tboli mi(h)sweet
Kadazan Dusun omissweet
Kenyah mEsweet
Kayan (Uma Juman) misweet
  mi heñaʔsalty
Lampung missweet
Proto-Sangiric *emissweet
Proto-Minahasan *emissweet
CMP
Palu'e misweet
Li'o misweet
Sika misweet, insipid

2647

PEMP     *emis₂ sweet taste

SHWNG
Buli mis-missweet

2648

PMP     *ma-hemis sweet     [doublet: *amis, *tamis]

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) mamitsweet
Gaddang maːmitsweet
Maranao mamissweet, cake, dessert
Manobo (Ata) moʔomissweet
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) mɨʔɨmɨssweet
Samal mamissweet
Malagasy mamysweet, delicious
Rhade ḿmihsweet
Toba Batak mamissweet
Chamorro mamessweet

2649

PCEMP     *ma-emis sweet; insipid, as fresh water

CMP
Rotinese mamiinsipid, sweetish, tasteless (as water)
Selaru mamianimal fat

2650

POC     *mamis sweet, fresh (of water)

OC
Tolai mamivery sweet yam variety: Dioscorea rubicosa, coconut with a sweet husk which is chewed by sick persons, rather like barley-sugar
Lakalai mamia yam: Dioscorea alata
Mailu mamifresh water
Motu mamiflavor of food
Bugotu mamisweet, agreeable, pleasant to the taste
Nggela mamifresh, not salt
Kwaio meminormal tasting; neither sweet nor sour
  maa-mami-labrackish water
'Āre'āre mami-ʔasweet
Sa'a mamito taste
Arosi mamifresh, good drink, water; mixed with fresh water, as the sea water near a river mouth; sweetened, freshened, as ahuhu (yam sp.) put in fresh water and its salt flavor removed
Gilbertese mamfresh water (as opposed to salt water)
Pohnpeian memsweet
Puluwat memsweet
Woleaian mam(i)sweet, sugary
Rotuman mamisweet (opposite taviri 'sour'); of water, fresh; non-intoxicating
Futunan mamihave a good taste (as sweet fruits); be tasteless, insipid (from lack of salt)
Nukuoro mamithe taste of something
Rennellese mamifat, as fish or fowl

Note:   Also Siraya mahami ‘sweet’, Isneg mit ‘sweet, tasty’, Malay manis ‘sweetness; (of colors) light’, Old Javanese manis ‘sweetness, kindness, gentleness, loveliness’, Simalur mes ‘sweetness’, ma-mes ‘sweet’, Marshallese māmet ‘fresh water; sweet coconut water; sweet, sweetish taste’. The morpheme boundary in PMP *ma-emis had evidently disappeared in POc (*mamis), but given the unaffixed reflexes in some CMP and South Halmahera-West New Guinea languages we must conclude that this was not the case in PCEMP, nor even in Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.

Although only the meaning ‘sweet’ can be attributed to PMP *hemis/emis, in PCEMP this form had evidently acquired the additional sense of ‘insipid, as fresh water in contrast to salt water’. For the association of sweetness with animal fat in a number of Oceanic languages (seen here in Selaru mami ‘animal fat’, Rennellese mami ‘fat, as fish or fowl)’ cf. Blust (1978:18).

26329

*henaq think, consider; thought, idea

2651

PPh     *henaq think, consider; thought, idea

WMP
Aklanon húnaʔ-húnaʔspeculate, think of, consider; speculation, idea, thought
Hiligaynon hunáʔ-hunáʔthoughts, ideas, opinion
  mag-hunáʔ-hunáʔthink, have the idea, consider
Cebuano húnaʔ-húnaʔthink about something; think of doing something; think of something or someone; consider, think something over, ponder
Sangir ennathought
  maŋ-ennathink

Note:   Also Bikol húnaʔ ‘opinion, judgment, view’.

26330

*hendek moan, groan

2652

PPh     *hendek moan, groan

WMP
Ilokano eddékto moan (when evacuating the bowels, giving birth, etc.)
Tagalog hindíkcontinuous and agonizing hard breathing; last agonizing breath of the dying

Note:   Also Ilokano eddét ‘to moan’. With root *-dek₁ ‘hiccough, sob’.

26339

*heñat stretch

2667

PWMP     *heñat stretch

WMP
Sasak ñatstretch, spring up
Mandar enneʔstretch, as rubber, spring, etc.

Note:   Hiligaynon únat ‘ductile, stretchable’ appears to reflect PPh *húñat, and Ifugaw onát ‘to draw, pull out something in order to use it’ evidently is a chance resemblance. With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

26338

*heŋak out of breath

2666

PMP     *heŋak out of breath     [disjunct: *eŋap, etc.]

WMP
Cebuano huŋák-huŋákbreathe deeply and rapidly
OC
Nggela oŋaout of breath

Note:   Probably with root *-ŋak ‘screech, howl’.

26331

*hepak split, break off

2653

PWMP     *hepak split, break off

WMP
Cebuano hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact
Kelabit epakwhat is split
  ŋ-epakto split
Kenyah (Long Wat) paksplit
Kayan pakthe fallen sheath from palm fronds or bamboo; husk of sugarcane
Malagasy èfakaanything branching like a fork
  man-èfakabranching, forked, as trees, etc.
Karo Batak empakwood chips, wood shavings
Dairi-Pakpak Batak empakcut, sever
Toba Batak ompaksplinter
Balinese empakbreak, break off of itself (as a branch)
Sasak empakcracks in the lips (from fever)
  empak-empakchannels or cracks in the ground

Note:   Also Cebuano hupʔák ‘peel, flake off; cause something to do so’. With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.

26333

*heqe yes; expression of agreement

2655

PMP     *heqe yes; expression of agreement

WMP
Bontok ʔə́ʔəyes; an expression of agreement
Aklanon húʔoyes. Used quite differently than the English equivalent -- the Aklanon "yes" can mean "the former" or "yes, your statement (in the negative) is true"
Hiligaynon húʔuyes, affirmative particle
Palawan Batak ʔeʔeyes
Sundanese hɨɨh <Myes, right, correct
Mongondow oʔoexpression of agreement; yes, good, it is good
Gorontalo oːoyes, true
Uma oointerjection
Bare'e oʔosound that one makes to apologize or to show agreement
CMP
Manggarai eʔeyes, good, agreed!
Rembong esound indicating agreement

2656

POC     *oqo yes

OC
Gitua ooyo! (reply)
Mono-Alu oyes

Note:   Also Paiwan eʔe ‘no!’, Tetun heʔe ‘yes, that is so’, Buruese ehe ‘yes, O.K.’, Kilivila o ‘yes’. PMP evidently distinguished "yes" as the affirmation of a statement (*au) from "yes" as an expression of agreement (*heqe). The latter item appears to have been shaped by expressive universals (cp. English uh-huh), which like yes can affirm a statement, but which in contradistinction to yes is the unmarked device for expression of agreement).

26332

*heqeguk deep guttural sound

2654

PMP     *heqeguk deep guttural sound

WMP
Bikol haʔgóktake deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp
Sundanese eŋguk-eŋgukonomatopoetic for the sound of the turtledove
CMP
Manggarai guksound of water going down the throat

Note:   Also Kayan guk ‘to bump one thing against another’. With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

26335

*heReŋ groan, moan, roar, growl

2660

PMP     *heReŋ groan, moan, roar, growl     [doublet: *huRuŋ 'rumble, groan, buzz, hum']

WMP
Tagalog hígiŋtone, cue to start singing; something heard vaguely and not well understood
Aklanon hugóŋ-húgoŋrumors
Cebuano húguŋproduce a steady humming sound
Kelabit ereŋa groan, a growl
Malay (h)eraŋmoan, cry of pain
Karo Batak ereŋto bark
  m-ereŋto bark
Toba Batak oroŋto bark (dogs)
  m-oroŋ-oroŋgrumble, complain about
Sundanese hereŋthe purring of a cat
Old Javanese hreŋdeep persistent sound; rumbling, grumbling, growling, humming
  hreŋ hreŋto rumble
Javanese ereŋkeep roaring, keep moaning with pain
Makasarese k-arraŋcry out, shout
  m-arraŋto cry (deer), to bark (dogs), to moo, bellow (cattle)
Chamorro ugoŋmoan, groan, lament, mourn, utter in lamentation

2661

POC     *oRoŋ roar, shout

OC
Tolai oroto call, shout
Mbula oro-oronoise, commotion
Rotuman ōmake a rumbling, rushing or roaring noise

2662

PWMP     *maŋ-heReŋ to groan, moan, roar

WMP
Kelabit ŋ-ereŋto groan (as a sick person or a ghost), to growl (dogs)
Malay meŋ-eraŋto groan in pain
Toba Batak maŋ-oroŋto bark (dogs)
  paŋ-oroŋa dog

Note:   With root *-Reŋ ‘groan, moan, snore’. The penultimate accent in Tagalog hígiŋ and Cebuano húguŋ is unexpected, and may indicate that these forms belong elsewhere. Since no clear semantic agreement can be found between them, I assume that the reduplicated forms of *heReŋ in several languages are products of parallel evolution.

26336

*heRuŋ roar

2663

PWMP     *heRuŋ roar

WMP
Malagasy éronaa growl, a roar
  man-èronagrowl at, snarl at; murmur, grumble
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨrruŋdrone, roar
Buginese m-erruŋlow droning noise
Makasarese arruŋdull roar (of wind, approaching rain, rushing of river current, etc.)

Note:   With root *-Ruŋ ‘roar, rumble’.

26337

*hesek pierce the ground

2664

PAN     *hesek pierce the ground

Formosan
Amis hcekpost, wooden pillar
  pa-hcekput stakes of wood in the ground, as when staking claims
WMP
Bontok ʔəsə́kseed kept for planting; to plant, of vegetables
Ifugaw ohókput seeds in little pits
Ifugaw (Batad) ohóʔplants seeds such as corn with a dibble stick
Bikol hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole

2665

PPh     *hesek-án field made by dibbling

WMP
Bontok ʔəsk-ánto plant, of vegetables
Bikol hasok-ánhask-ánupland rice or corn fields

Note:   With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    

hi

hibun

hidap

hidem

hideRáq

higpít

hikhik

hikñat

hilah

hilat

hiláw

hilek

hiliŋ

hilít

hilu

hílut

himatún

hintay

hinzam

hiŋus

hipaR

hipaʔ

hipun₁

hipuq

hiqepet

hiras

hírig

hiRét

hisep

hisuq

hitaq

hitu

hituq

hium

hius

hiwal

híwaq

hiwiʔ

hizaw

26341

*hibun cover with earth

2669

PMP     *hibun cover with earth

WMP
Cebuano híbunfor a depression to get filled up or covered
Bare'e iwucover; cover over an opening in the ground; keep secret

2670

POC     *ipun₂ cover with earth

OC
Nggela ivuloosen earth with a stick; make mounds or rows in a garden; plough; a mound

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble’. Nggela ivu could, alternatively, be assigned to *qipun, *qimpun ‘heap, collection; to gather, heap up’.

26342

*hidap suffer, bear hardships

2671

PWMP     *hidap suffer, bear hardships

WMP
Pangasinan íraphardships, torment; be difficult; suffer
  ma-írapdifficult, hard (emotionally)
Tagalog hírapdifficulty, suffering
  hiráptired, weary; up against much difficulty
Iban idap(of illness) be subject or liable to; have a relapse or recurrence of
Malay (h)idapprotraction (of illness, sorrow or fasting).
  meŋ-idap perutto have been long without a meal
  meŋ-idap-kan rayuto nurse one's grief

Note:   Also Bikol hídop ‘eat something necessary to keep one from starving’.

26343

*hidem keep something to oneself; silent, secret

2672

PWMP     *hidem keep something to oneself; silent, secret

WMP
Cebuano hílumsilent, quiet; secret, not overt (as secret love); keep something secret, hush something up
Iban diau <Mstill, silent; stop, sooth
Malay diam <Mquiet, still; be silent
Malay (Java) diem <Mquiet, silent
Sundanese idemkeep secret, give no sign of

Note:   Also Bikol hílom ‘in secret; clandestine, covert, furtive, surreptitious’, Sundanese sidem ‘keep to oneself, keep a secret’. Zorc (1982:125) compares Cebuano hílum with Malay (h)ilam-(h)ilam ‘dimly or intermittently visible, as the flight of a bird in the distance’ (< *hiːləm ‘secret, hidden’).

26344

*hideRáq lie down

2673

PPh     *hideRáq lie down

WMP
Ilokano iddálie down, stretch, be prostrate, stretched out
Isneg iddālie down
Itawis íddaplace to lie down
Tagalog higáʔlying down; fallen flat on the back
Bikol higdáʔ <Mlie down, repose
Cebuano higdáʔ <Mlie down
Maranao igaʔlie down
Manobo (Ata) hidogoʔsleep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hizeɣaʔlie down
Tiruray ʔiroʔlie down

2674

PPh     *maR-hideRáq to lie down

WMP
Isneg max-iddālie down
Bikol mag-higdáʔlie down

26345

*higpít pinch or squeeze between two surfaces

2675

PPh     *higpít pinch or squeeze between two surfaces

WMP
Bontok ʔigpithold something between one's arm and the trunk of one's body, or between one's fingers
Pangasinan igpíttighten something
Tagalog higpíttightness; strictness, severity; restriction, limitation
Bikol higpítstrict, tight (as regulations); drastic, harsh, rigid, stringent
Hanunóo higpíttightness, seriousness, gravity
Aklanon ígpitto clip, catch, hold between two things
Cebuano higpítnarrow, for something to be small such that it restricts motion, causes difficulty

2676

PPh     *higpit-en be pinched or squeezed by

WMP
Bontok ʔigpít-ənbe held between one's arm and the trunk of one's body
Bikol higpít-onbe enforced (as regulations), be tightened (as restrictions)

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

26346

*hikhik snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter

2677

PWMP     *hikhik snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter     [doublet: *hakhak]

WMP
Tagalog h-al-ikhíkoutburst of pent-up laughter (cp. h-al-akhak)
Nias ikilaugh at, ridicule
Javanese ikiktitter, giggle, snigger
Balinese ikiklaugh loudly (not so loudly as akak)

Note:   Also Aklanon ilikʔik ‘to giggle, snicker’, h-il-iʔhiʔ ‘to snicker, cackle’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives Javanese ikik which he must have found in Jansz (1913), but neither Pigeaud (1938) nor Horne (1974) lists the form.

26347

*hikñat stretch

2678

PPh     *hikñat stretch

WMP
Bontok ʔiknátstretch oneself, as when tired
Cebuano hiknátpull slightly with the fingers as if stretching something

Note:   Also Cebuano hiknít ‘pull slightly with the fingers as if stretching something’. With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

26348

*hilah drag, pull

2679

PWMP     *hilah drag, pull

WMP
Tagalog hílapull; drag; tow, towing; the thing pulled; a cartload or carload as a unit of measure; attraction, invitation
Bikol hílaa work song sung when pulling or hauling
  mag-hilato pull or haul while singing
Aklanon híla(h)to pull
Malay héladragging after oneself; hauling or lugging along

Note:   The Philippine forms may be loans from Malay. If so, however, the thematic *-h of Aklanon híla(h) is unexplained.

26349

*hilat wide open, of the eyes

2680

PMP     *hilat wide open, of the eyes

WMP
Tagalog hílatstretching of an opening (as by pulling down the eyelid)
Makasarese illaʔbe wide open, of the eyes
CMP
Bimanese ilaopen the eyes

Note:   With root *-lat₁ ‘open the eyes wide’.

26353

*hiláw raw, unripe

2685

PPh     *hiláw raw, unripe

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat iláweat raw food (e.g. fish, vegetables); eat green fruit
Sambal (Botolan) na-ʔilounripe, raw
Tagalog hilawuncooked; green, unripe; raw
Bikol hiláwraw, half-cooked (meat, vegetables); immature (fruits, vegetables)
Aklanon hiláwraw, uncooked; unripe
Cebuano hiláwuncooked, raw; unripe, green
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hilewunripe, uncooked
Mongondow ilowyoung, green, unripe (plants and fruits), raw (flesh)

Note:   Possibly a Proto-Central Philippines innovation which has been borrowed into Sambal (Botolan) and Casiguran Dumagat.

32587

*hilek a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens

10964

PPh     *hilek a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens

WMP
Yami ilektype of fish: snubnose rudderfish (considered the best type of fish)
Itbayaten hilekblackish or smoke-colored fish: Kyphosus cinerascens, Lutianus erythropterus Forskal
Ilokano ílekkind of large spotted marine fish with tasty meat, rudder fish, Kyphosus sp.

26403

*híli village, town

2760

PMP     *híli village, town

WMP
Yami ilivillage
  i-paŋ-ililiused to visiting other villages
  mi-ilithe village one lives in
  ka-ili-anvillagers
Itbayaten hilitown proper, habitual living place; point of departure
Ilokano ílitown
  um-ilito live, reside in a town; inhabitants, citizens, residents
  maŋ-ílito visit another town
Isneg ílivillage, town, country; birthplace, residence
  eliy-anneighbor, fellow citizen
Itawis ilítown
Bontok ʔílivillage; town
  maŋ-ílistranger, foreigner; someone from another village
Kankanaey ílitown, city, village, hamlet, borough; country, fatherland, any person living outside of one's village
Ifugaw ílivillage not one's own; foreign village
  um-ilito visit, enter a village not one's own
Ibaloy ilitown; sometimes esp. the municipio town center as opposed to the barrios/barangays; (also any geopolitical unit, as province or country, e.g. ili ni hapon ‘the country of the Japanese’)
CMP
Erai ili-(n)village
  ili-hunskirt of the village
  ili-ralanvillage population
  la ili ehain another village
Talur ilivillage
Tugun ilivillage

2761

PPh     *ka-hili-an fellow villager

WMP
Itbayaten ka-hili-antownmate, fellow man
Ilokano ka-ili-ánfellow citizen; of the lower classes
Bontok ka-ʔili-yánsomeone from the same village as oneself; fellow villager

Note:   On semantic grounds it is tempting to include Aklanon ilih-án ‘place, location’ in this set, but if so the zero reflex of *h- cannot be explained. Tentatively Aklanon ilih-án is associated with PMP *qilih ‘mountain, mountain range’, despite the problematic semantics.

26350

*hiliŋ see, examine, look at closely

2681

PWMP     *hiliŋ see, examine, look at closely     [disjunct: *iliŋ]

WMP
Bikol hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire
Hanunóo híliŋlooking at something, usually near by
Cebuano hilíŋexamine something carefully, touching it to see what is there; examine one's health
Tiruray ʔiliŋ-ʔiliŋlook around, scan
Old Javanese iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love)
Balinese iliŋsee, look

Note:   Also Old Javanese mileŋ-mileŋ ‘run about, looking everywhere’, Sika ʔileŋ ‘to look; to resemble; to appear’.

26352

*hilít outskirts, edge of settlement

2684

PPh     *hilít outskirts, edge of settlement

WMP
Bontok ʔilítoutskirts of the village, uninhabited areas outside the village
Kankanaey ilítoutside of the town; fields; out of the group of houses, but still on the grounds of the town
Aklanon hilítcorner, side
Cebuano hilítsecluded, isolated in location (as a place with no near neighbors)

26351

*hilu poison

2682

PWMP     *hilu poison

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ilósorcerer, witch; bewitch, make someone sick through witchcraft; to poison, be poison
Bikol hílopoison
Cebuano hilúpoison ingested; poison something or someone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiluto poison; poison
Lun Dayeh iluha poisoning
  in-iluhsickened due to food poisoning
  m-iluhbe poisoned by something eaten
Kelabit m-iluheat something poisonous so as to become sick and vomit
Iban ilaŋ-ilutree with poisonous fruits
Sangir ilubecome poisonous

2683

PWMP     *ma-hilu poisonous

WMP
Bikol ma-hílobe poisoned
Sangir m-ilupoisonous

Note:   Also Aklanon hilóʔ, Hiligaynon hilúʔ ‘poison’.

26404

*hílut massaging, setting of bones

2762

PPh     *hílut massaging, setting of bones

WMP
Isneg ílotmassagist
Itawis ílutmidwife, masseur, native chiropractor
Bontok ʔílutto massage, as a sprained ankle
Kankanaey ílutto rub, apply massage to any injured part of the body
Pangasinan ilótmassage or rub gently
Kapampangan ílut, híluta curer (specialist in massage, sprains, bone setting)
Tagalog hílotmidwife; massaging
Hanunóo hílutmassage
Aklanon hílotrestore a broken bone; massage
Hiligaynon hílutmidwife; to massage, rub
Cebuano hílutmassage, pull the bones for medicinal purposes
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hilutto massage a part of the body

2763

PPh     *hílut-en to massage, set bones

WMP
Kankanaey ílut-enapply massage
Kapampangan ílut-ancure, massage
Hiligaynon hílut-unto massage, rub

26354

*himatún notice, observe

2686

PPh     *himatún notice, observe

WMP
Ilokano imatóncare for, look after, attend to, heed, mark, observe, notice
Isneg imatónsign; something by which the seasons are announced (for planting, weeding, etc.); a mark, a reminder for remembering a certain place
Kankanaey imátonfind out about; notice; discern; know; recognize; distinguish
Ifugaw imátonsign at which someone is recognized
Pangasinan imatónobserve, see, witness, test with the senses
Tagalog himatóngiving of directions to find the way to a place; information, news, or instructions sent over

Note:   Also Tagalog himatóŋ ‘giving of directions to find the way to a place’, Aklanon ináto(h) ‘notice, recognize; recall, pay attention’.

26405

*hínam crave, desire, intensely

2764

PPh     *hínam crave, desire, intensely

WMP
Ilokano ka-inám-anbecome fond of, start relishing, acquire a taste for
Kankanaey ínampalatable; tasteful; savory
Pangasinan inámcrave for food, drink, clothing, etc.
Cebuano hínameager, intensely desirous (as to eat)
Maranao inamexpectation, prospect, hope for something
Tiruray ʔinama hopeful expectation; to hopefully expect something

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) inam ‘be in suspense; expect anxiously’. Kankanaey inam may contain the root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty’, and hence not be cognate with the other forms cited here.

26355

*hintay wait for, spy on

2687

PWMP     *hintay wait for, spy on

WMP
Tagalog hintáywait!
Iban intaiwait or watch for (opportunity)
Malay hintaiprying; watching secretly
Toba Batak intewait, await, expect
Old Javanese inte, intaykeep constantly in view, keep a watch on, watch narrowly, peer at
Balinese intewatch over, chaperone, spy on
Sasak intespy on, stalk

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Javanese iṭi ‘take scrupulous care of ‘, but this appears to be non-cognate.

26356

*hinzam borrowing, lending

2688

PWMP     *hinzam borrowing, lending     [doublet: *Sezam]

WMP
Kapampangan indámborrow, lend
Tagalog hirámborrowing
Bikol hidámto borrow
Ngaju Dayak injamborrow, lend
Malagasy índranaborrowed
Banjarese injamborrow
Iban injauborrowing, borrow
Karo Batak injamborrow, lend
Toba Batak injamborrow, lend
Sangir iraŋlend, borrow
Bare'e indadebt
  indaŋ-idebt; money that is lent
Tae' indanlend, borrow
Mandar indaŋborrow, lend
Makasarese inraŋdebt, money that has been lent to someone

2689

PWMP     *maŋ-hinzam borrow

WMP
Toba Batak maŋ-injamlend, borrow
[Sundanese ŋ-injɨmborrow]
Tae' maŋ-indanborrow

2690

PWMP     *maR-hinzam lend, borrow (?)

WMP
Bikol mag-pa-hidámto lend
Toba Batak mar-injama model for a sarong; a sarong that one borrows for an offering feast

2691

PAN     *pa-hinzam lend

Formosan
[Paiwan pa-sedjamto lend, loan]
WMP
Tagalog pa-hirámthing lent
  pa-hiram-ínlend something to someone
Bikol i-pa-hidámto lend
[Aklanon pa-hueámlend]
[Cebuano pa-hulámlend]
Malay p-injamborrowing
Makasarese pa-inraŋlend

2692

PWMP     *hinzam-an person or place from which something is borrowed

WMP
Tagalog híram-anperson from whom or place from which one may borrow something
Malagasy indràm-anaused of the person from whom something is borrowed
Malay p-injam-anthing borrowed or lent; debt

2693

PWMP     *hinzam-en thing borrowed

WMP
Tagalog hiram-ínto borrow (a thing)
Malagasy indràm-inaused of the thing which is to be borrowed

2694

PWMP     *hinzam-i borrow from (someone)

WMP
Malay me-minjam-iborrow from
Tae' pa-indan-ilend to

Note:   Also Kayan ujam ‘a loan’, m-ujam ‘to borrow’, Sundanese injɨm ‘borrow, lend’, Ngadha idho ‘lend’. I take Kambera pinjaŋu ‘borrow, lend’ to be a loan from Malay.

26410

*híŋak sound of rushing water or air

2771

PPh     *híŋak sound of rushing water or air

WMP
Ifugaw íŋaknoise made by running water
Cebuano híŋakbreathe deeply and rapidly

Note:   Possibly with root *-ŋak ‘screech, howl’.

30467

*hiŋus sniffle, snuff up; snot

7661

PWMP     *hiŋus₁ sniffle, snuff up; snot

WMP
Masbatenyo mag-híŋossniffle, inhale through the nose, smell, snuffle; refers especially to play as in teasing a baby
Cebuano híŋussniffle, draw the snot up into the nose
Mansaka iŋosto sniffle; to snuff up
Malay iŋussnot; mucus from the nose
  buaŋ iŋusblow the nose
  ñiur iŋus-ancoconut at the stage when the interior is beginning to soften

Note:   Also Yakan mag-eŋŋus ‘to sniff up something (as when having a cold)’.

26357

*hipaR sibling-in-law (probably of the same sex only)

2695

PMP     *hipaR₁ sibling-in-law (probably of the same sex only)

WMP
Ilokano ípagsister-in-law
Isneg ípagBW (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB
Itawis ípagsister-in-law
Pangasinan ípagsister-in-law
Tagalog hípagsister-in-law
Bikol hípag, ípagsister-in-law
Aklanon hípagsister-in-law
Hiligaynon hípagsister-in-law, brother-in-law
Maranao ipagsister-in-law, brother-in-law
Iban iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law, relation by marriage of the same generation
Malay iparbrotherhood or sisterhood by marriage. Loosely, of a brother-in-law or even cousin-in-law, but usually defined more closely by the use of other words with meanings that vary locally
Balinese ipahWB, HB, WZ, HBW
Sasak iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
Proto-Minahasan *ipagbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
Bare'e ipacompanion, comrade
Makasarese iparaʔHB, HZ, WB, WZ
CMP
Manggarai iparBW, HZ, HZH, MBD (ref.)
Rembong iparHZ
Ngadha ipaWZ (and all her female consanguines of the same generation), BW
Ende ipaFZD, MBD (w.s.)
Li'o ipasister-in-law
Sika ʔiparnephew or niece
Yamdena ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.), FBDH (m.s.), FZDH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), MZDH (m.s.), FBSW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.), MBSW (w.s.), MBD (w.s.), MZSW (w.s.)
Fordata ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.)

2696

POC     *ipaR- sibling-in-law of the same sex

OC
Tanga ifaː-kalikWB, ZH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), FZS (m.s)
  ifa-ŋHZ, BW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.)
Lakalai iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Gedaged iwa-nZH (m.s.)
  iwa-n painBW (w.s.), HZ
Mbula iwa-BIL, SIL
Numbami iwacousin-in-law; spouse’s (usually wife’s) cross-sex classificatory siblings
Motu iha-BIL, SIL or cousin's wife
Mono-Alu ifa-BIL, SIL, etc.
Cheke Holo iva-BIL, SIL
Varisi iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Eddystone/Mandegusu iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Bugotu iva-BIL, SIL
Nggela iva-a relative by marriage
Kwaio ifa-ZH (w.s), ZH (m.s.), WB, HB
Sa'a ihe-WZ, WB, HB, HZ
Arosi iha-BW (m.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ipag (expected **hipag) ‘BW (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB’, Old Javanese ipe (expected **ipa) ‘BIL, SIL’, Sangir ipageʔ (expected **ipaheʔ) ‘SIL and her consanguines of the same generation; also nephews and nieces’, Mongondow ipaʔ (expected **ipag) ‘BIL, SIL’, Buli ifo (expected **ifa) ‘BIL, SIL’, Mussau ie (expected **ia), ‘SIL’, Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka giva-na (expected **iva-na ‘BW (m.s.), HZ’, Roviana iva-na (expected **ivara-na) ‘BIL’.

Two semantic features of this kinship term appear to be beyond dispute: 1. it referred to affines, 2. these affines were of Ego's generation. However, the glosses in the more detailed dictionaries and in studies devoted specifically to kinship (as Elkins and Hendrickson 1984) show clearly that in most attested languages reflexes of PMP *hipaR are restricted to a specific subset of same generation affines. The challenge to semantic reconstruction with *hipaR, then, is to define this subset of kin on the basis of well-supported arguments.

Where the reflex of *hipaR is not simply glossed ‘BIL, ZIL’, it typically refers to a subset of same generation affines defined by relative sex. There are three fairly well-attested patterns: (1) in a number of the languages of Mindanao in the southern Philippines, and in Isneg of northern Luzon, reflexes of *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’, that is: BW > (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ and HB; (2) in a number of the languages of Mindanao and in Gaddang of the northern Philippines reflexes of *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law’ of the opposite sex (any speaker) and sibling-in-law of the same sex (w.s.)’, that is: BW (m.s.), BW (w.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB, and HZ; (3) in western Subanen/Subanun of the southern Philippines and in a number of Oceanic languages including Lakalai, Eddystone/Mandegusu, Varisi, and Arosi, simple reflexes of PMP *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, that is: BW (w.s.), ZH (w.s.), WB, and HZ; in Gedaged and Tanga a reflex of PMP *hipaR also means ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, except that further distinctions are made with other qualifying words.

The latter pattern is so predominant in the available data for OC systems that it seems fairly safe to infer that POc *ipaR meant ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, as was done by Milke (1958). Milke's POc reconstruction raises two questions: 1. What was the POc term for ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’?, 2. can the meaning ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’ be attributed to PMP *hipaR? Milke answered the first question by suggesting that ZH (w.s.) and HB were terminologically equated with the husband, and that BW (m.s.) and WZ were terminologically equated with the wife. Whether such a system can be attributed to PMP is unclear. The evidence suggests that relative sex played a crucial role in definition of PMP *hipaR (as it did in the system of PMP sibling terms). The distribution of reflexes over major MP subgroups further suggests that PMP *hipaR probably meant ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’ rather than ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’, but an adequate reconstruction for the latter meaning remains to be found.

26358

*hipaʔ lie in wait for, ambush

2697

PMP     *hipaʔ lie in wait for, ambush

WMP
Bikol hípaʔwait for in hiding; ambush, waylay, spring upon, set upon; to lurk, skulk, slink, sneak
Ngaju Dayak impalie in wait for, ambush
Banjarese impawatch out for, beware
Iban ipaʔlie in wait for, ambush
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ipapay close heed to someone
Toba Batak ipakeep a lookout, watch sharply

Note:   Also Bikol ípaʔ ‘wait for in hiding; ambush’.

26359

*hipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn

2698

PMP     *hipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn

WMP
Ilokano ípona fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns. From August or September to January, about nine days after the new moon, it appears in exceedingly numerous shoals... Its meat is very much esteemed... It rarely exceeds an inch in length, and when it has grown larger, it is known by some other name
Isneg ípona fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns
Ifugaw ípunvery small fishes living in rivers
Pangasinan ipónvery small fish often made into inasin (a relish made from salting fish or shrimp and leaving to age)
Cebuano hípunsmall anchovy which comes seasonally in great abundance, most common eaten preserved in salt
Maranao ipongoby
Iban anak impunsmall fry, small fish that swim in shoals
Javanese (h)impunsmall edible fishes that collect in huge compact masses at sea
Balinese impunsp. of small sea fish
CMP
Manggarai impuŋfingerling of the ikan mua that begins swimming upriver from the sea in February-March
Rembong ipunfingerling of the ikan mua (eel sp.)
Ngadha ipufish spawn
Sika ʔipuŋfishes the size of a match-stick
Tetun ihuna little fish which is crushed to make a type of pickle

2699

PEMP     *ipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn

SHWNG
Buli ifiŋvery small fish that sometimes swims upriver in huge schools

Note:   Also Kambera ipiŋu (Anakalangu ipuŋu) ‘small sea fish which migrates from the sea upriver to spawn’. Tagalog hípon ‘shrimp’, Cebuano hípun ‘small shrimp’ apparently is distinct.

26406

*hípun₂ small shrimp

2765

PPh     *hípun₂ small shrimp

WMP
Yami iponriver shrimp
Itbayaten hiponshrimp (largest)
Ibatan iponlobster, shrimp
Itawis ífunsmall shrimp
Tagalog híponshrimp
  híponshrimp
Aklanon híponsmall shrimp
Cebuano hípuntiny shrimp

Note:   The distribution of this form may be due to borrowing from Tagalog.

26360

*hipuq feel, touch

2700

PPh     *hipuq feel, touch

WMP
Tagalog hípoʔtouch, palpation
Sangir ipofeel, taste, have sexual desire

Note:   Also Maranao ipo ‘caress with the hands, rub’.

26361

*hiqepet tight, tightness

2701

PWMP     *hiqepet tight, tightness

WMP
Kankanaey ipéttight, taut
Ifugaw ipótwhat is too tight (of clothes)
Pangasinan ipéttightness; become tight
Cebuano hipʔút <Mnarrow space or passageway; tight in financial situation, mode of living; for clothes to be tight
Sasak impetlock, shut, close

Note:   With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.

26362

*hiras cut off

2702

PMP     *hiras cut off

WMP
Tagalog hílascutting off of palm leaf-blades from rib, or of banana stem segments from trunk
Ngaju Dayak haris <Mcut, slice
Tae' iraʔmince, cut, chop to pieces
Proto-South Sulawesi *irascut, slice
CMP
Sika iracut, carve
Wetan iratear up, rend, tear off

26407

*hírig lean, incline

2766

PPh     *hírig lean, incline

WMP
Ilokano írigincline, lean, bend (of trees, houses, etc.)
Sambal (Botolan) íliglean on
Tagalog híliginclination, leaning position; propensity, tendency
  hilíginclined
Aklanon híligfond of, inclined to, having a liking for; hobby
Cebuano híligleaning, tilted to one side; develop a tendency, inclination

Note:   Also Mongondow eleg ‘slant, tilt, be askew’.

26408

*hírud scrape or rub off

2767

PPh     *hírud scrape or rub off

WMP
Ilokano írudtrim off rough edges (of a board)
Isneg ilúdto pare, peel (cooked yams, taro rhizomes, etc.)
Bontok ʔíludrub one's body with the palm of the hand when bathing, in order to remove ingrained dirt
Tagalog hílodscrubbing of skin to remove dirt

Note:   Also Bontok ígod ‘scrape or rub, as with a stone when bathing; any object used for scraping the skin when bathing’, lodlod ‘rub one's body with the palm of the hand when bathing, in order to remove ingrained dirt’. With root *-rud ‘scratch, scrape’.

26363

*hiRét tighten; constriction

2703

PPh     *hiRét tighten; constriction

WMP
Isneg ixáttighten
Itawis ígattightness
Bontok ʔilə́tbind, tighten, make taut
Bikol higóttaut, tight; tense
Hanunóo higúttie, tying
Aklanon hígottie up
Hiligaynon higútrope, string
  mag-higutto bind, tie, secure, fasten with a string or a rope
Cebuano higúttie something up; tie something to something

2704

PPh     *hiRet-an tighten

WMP
Isneg igt-ántighten
Bikol higót-antighten a part of something

Note:   Also Tboli hilet, Lun Dayeh giret ‘belt’, Iban sirat ‘man's waist- or loin-cloth’. Maranao igot ‘put on a belt; tighten’, igot-an ‘belt’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiǥut-an ‘a string or cord belt which is sewed into the waist of a pair of trousers’, together with the forms in Bikol, Hanunóo, Aklanon, Hiligaynon and Cebuano point to earlier *higut, probably assignable no higher than PCPH. This item probably contains a root *-ReC ‘tighten; belt’.

26364

*hisep suck, inhale

2705

PAN     *hisep suck, inhale     [doublet: *qiseq]

Formosan
Amis hicepto slurp water
WMP
Karo Batak incepto drink (of animals); suck, slurp
Nias isõsmoke a pipe

2706

POC     *isop suck, inhale

OC
Label isopto drink

Note:   With root *-sep ‘sip, suck’.

26365

*hisuq clean oneself by scrubbing

2707

PMP     *hisuq clean oneself by scrubbing

WMP
Ilokano ísowipe, clean by rubbing
Ifugaw íhuwashing of one's face (and hands)
Ifugaw (Batad) íhuwash one or all of the following: the face, the hands and arms, the feet and legs
Tagalog hísoʔcleaning of teeth by rubbing
Bikol hísoʔrub dirt off the body with a stone while bathing
Kadazan Dusun isurub with something, as for instance in washing
Old Javanese isuh-isuhwashing
  um-isuh-ito wash
  in-isuh-anto wash
Javanese isuhwash hands or feet
CMP
Kambera ihubathe

2708

PEMP     *isug clean oneself by scrubbing

SHWNG
Numfor isscour, scrub
OC
Tolai iubathe

Note:   Also Eddystone/Mandegusu iu ‘to wash, esp. the body’. With root *-suq ‘wash, scrub’.

26366

*hitaq upper leg

2709

PPh     *hitaq upper leg

WMP
Tagalog hítaʔthigh
Kalamian Tagbanwa itakgroin

26368

*hitu catfish

2711

PMP     *hitu catfish     [disjunct: *hituq]

WMP
Pangasinan itosmall catfish
Hanunóo hítuedible freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus Linn.) found in swamps, ponds and ditches
Maranao itocatfish
CMP
Komodo itucatfish: Macrones gulio and Plotosus canius (inflicts poisonous wounds with the serrated spines of its dorsal and pectoral fins)

Note:   Also Cebuano ítu ‘general name for catfish’.

26367

*hituq catfish

2710

PMP     *hituq catfish     [disjunct: *hitu]

WMP
Pangasinan ítosmall catfish
Kapampangan ítuʔcatfish or carp
Bikol hítoʔfreshwater catfish sp.
Aklanon hítoʔfish sp.
CMP
Komodo itucatfish: Macrones gulio and Plotosus canius (inflicts poisonous wounds with the serrated spines of its dorsal and pectoral fins)
Kambera itumarine fish with poisonous fins

Note:   Also Bimanese édu ‘fish sp.’, Komodo étu ‘catfish’. Chamorro itoʔ ‘type of fish: Clarias batrachus, freshwater catfish’ (with initial vowel for expected **gui-) appears to be a loan from a Philippine language.

26369

*hium close the lips, smile

2712

PPh     *hium close the lips, smile

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) iumclose the lips
Aklanon hiom-hiomto smile
Cebuano hiumpress the lips tight
  pa-hiumsmile

Note:   Also Gorontalo io-iomo ‘smiling’.

26370

*hius leak out, of air

2713

PWMP     *hius leak out, of air

WMP
Cebuano híusfor air to leak out; be deflated; leaky, letting air or gas out
Balinese iusexhalation

26371

*hiwal shake or move from side to side

2714

PWMP     *hiwal shake or move from side to side

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) īwalmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as the soil), by moving the object back and forth, as for the wind to make a space between the foundation post of a house and the soil around it by shaking the house; to wiggle a tooth to loosen it from the gum
Cebuano hiwal-híwalwrithe, wriggle (as a worm)
Nias iwawaver, vacillate, sway, totter
  maŋ-iwamove, be unsteady, waver

Note:   Also Amis siwar ‘move or change the position of (as a table); move (as the sun)’, Tagalog íwal ‘body movement to remove pressure upon wound on the part of the body that touches the seat or the back of the chair, or the like’.

26409

*híwaq cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)

2768

PPh     *híwaq cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)

WMP
Ilokano saŋka-íwaone cut (of meat or fish)
Isneg íwacut, carve, dissect (meat, fish)
Tagalog híwaʔcut, incision; slice (of fish, meat, cake, etc.); wound (caused by a cutting instrument)
Bikol híwaʔto slice meat
Hiligaynon híwaʔchunk, sliced piece, one slice
Cebuano híwaʔcut something into smaller pieces or slice

2769

PPh     *hiwáq-an cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)

WMP
Ilokano iwá-ancut, carve
Bikol hiwáʔ-anslice meat
Cebuano hiwaʔ-án-ancutting board

2770

PPh     *hiwáq-en be cut, carved, sliced (meat or fish)

WMP
Ilokano iwá-encut open, dissect
Bikol hiwáʔ-onbe sliced, of meat

26372

*hiwiʔ crooked, twisted (of the mouth)

2715

PWMP     *hiwiʔ crooked, twisted (of the mouth)

WMP
Aklanon híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side
Cebuano híwiʔcrooked, winding or twisting, slanting to one side or askew; crooked, dishonest; deformed; become crooked, make something crooked; make a face at someone
Javanese iwi-iwiridicule out of disdain; malicious pleasure, shown by twisting the mouth at an angle (Pigeaud 1938)
  iwigrimace
  ŋ-iwito grimace at (Horne 1974)

Note:   Also Amis ŋiwit ‘crooked (of the mouth)’, Amis siwit ‘to slant, set at an angle’, Bontok iwin ‘bend side-ways’, Tagalog hiwíd ‘awry; out of line’, Tagalog hiwís ‘aslant, as a staircase’, Tagalog ŋiwíʔ ‘crooked-mouthed, wry-mouthed’, Aklanon kiwít ‘crooked, bent, off to one side; pull one's mouth to one side’, paŋ-iwít-kiwít ‘look wryly, show displeasure by pulling one's mouth to one side’.

26373

*hizaw fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background

2716

PWMP     *hizaw fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background

WMP
Tagalog hírawwhite-feathered rooster with green or greenish spots or edgings
Iban ijaudark colors on yellow or white (of fighting cocks)
Malay hijaudark-colored; a name given to greens and blues, as the prevailing color in the jungle and the sea

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak hijau ‘green, unripe’, Malagasy ma-itsu ‘green’, Iban ijau ‘green, (of leaves) healthy deep green’, Acehnese ijo ‘blue’, Karo Batak (h)ijo ‘light blue (as the sky)’, Toba Batak ijo ‘green’, Simalur ijao-ijao ‘green’, Rejang ijo ‘green, blue (of sea, sky)’, Sundanese héjo, ijo ‘green’, Old Javanese hijo, ma-hijo ‘green, blue’, Javanese ijo ‘green’, Balinese ijo ‘green’, Sasak éjo, ijo ‘green’, Sangir ido ‘green’, Buginese ijo ‘green’, Makasarese ijo ‘green’, Manggarai ijo ‘green’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) compared both Tagalog híraw (above) and hiláw ‘uncooked; green, unripe’ with Malay hijau and the related forms in Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, and Javanese, but it is now clear that Tagalog hiláw reflects earlier *hilaw ‘raw, unripe’. However, the comparison of Tagalog híraw with the words for ‘green’ in other languages also presents difficulties (e.g. Old Javanese hijo points to PWMP *q-, whereas Tagalog híraw points to PWMP *h-). Although this comparison probably will continue to provoke debate in the future, it appears most likely to me that *hizaw underwent a semantic change in Malay and was then borrowed widely in the context of trading activities, replacing reflexes of PAn *mataq ‘green, blue’ over much of western Indonesia.

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    

hu

huab

huaR

hubád

hubun hubun

hubun₁

hubun₂

hu(ŋ)kab

hukaq

hukas

hukay

hukuq

hulhul₁

hulhul₂

humbak

huna

huñat

huñaw

huñus

hupak

huqem

hurus

huRaC

huRuŋ

hutek

hutuk

huy

huyaŋ

huyáp

huyug

huyuŋ

huzam

26374

*huab vapor

2717

PWMP     *huab₁ vapor

WMP
Malay (h)uapvapor
Toba Batak uapsteam, vapor; odor
Old Javanese uwabvapor?
Javanese uwabsteam, water vapor
  ŋ-uwabboil off, evaporate

2718

PWMP     *ma-huab₂ evaporate

WMP
Toba Batak m-uapsmell, be fragrant; rising up of vapor or odor
Chamorro ma-gapevaporate (expected **magwap)

26375

*huaR a vine: Flagellaria indica

2719

PMP     *huaR a vine: Flagellaria indica

WMP
Cebuano huwág(huwág)slender vine, the split stems of which are used for tying purposes: Flagellaria indica
Tiruray ʔuwara vine, Flagellaria indica Linn.
Kelabit uarkind of vine
Banjarese uarkind of plant the bark of which is used to tan skins or to steep clothes
  ma-uarredden something with uar
Karo Batak uar-uarplant sp.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak uar-puarkind of plant that is woven into rope
Sasak uarkind of creeper; when it is young it is used to make food hangers, and when it is old it is used to make walking sticks
CMP
Manggarai uarkind of rattan which grows to a length of ten to twenty meters

Note:   Also Sundanese oar ‘kind of slender cane’, Sasak oar ‘kind of creeper’, Manggarai kuar ‘kind of ratten used for tying, weaving chicken coops, etc.: Flagellaria indica’.

26379

*hubád untie, unravel

2724

PPh     *hubád untie, unravel

WMP
Isneg ubāduntie, unbind, let loose
Bontok ʔúbadunbind; undo; untie; undress, that is, to untie and remove one's loincloth or waist belt
Kankanaey úbadunravel, untwist, untwine, disentangle, separate, unfold, open, untie, unfurl, unbind, loosen
Ifugaw úbadloosen, detach, unleash something; open a knot
Tagalog hubádundressed from the waist up
Bikol hubádundo a knot; untie, unfasten; disentangle, untangle
Aklanon húbadunravel, untie, unwind
Cebuano húbadbreak out of a hold in wrestling or in judo; translate into another language
Tausug hubaduntie, unlash

2725

PPh     *maR-hubád untie, unravel

WMP
Isneg max-ubādto untie, to unbind, to let loose
Bikol mag-hubádto undo a knot; to untie, unfasten, disentangle

2726

PPh     *hubád-en be untied, be unravelled

WMP
Isneg ubad-ānuntied
Bontok ʔubád-ənbe unbound
Kankanaey ubád-enbe unravelled
Ifugaw ubád-onbe loosened
Bikol hubád-onbe loosened

Note:   It is tempting to analyze this form as containing the root *-baj ‘unravel, untie’. However, Isneg, Bontok, Kankanaey and Ifugaw all normally reflect *j as /g/ in final position.

26376

*hubun hubun fontanel

2720

PWMP     *hubun hubun fontanel     [doublet: *hubun₁]

WMP
Cebuano hubún-hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone
Maranao ombon-ombon-anfontanel
Malay ubun-ubuncrown of the head, fontanel
Wolio uwu-uwufontanel

26377

*hubun₁ fontanel

2721

PMP     *hubun₁ fontanel     [doublet: *hubun hubun]

WMP
Cebuano hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone
Maranao ombonfontanel
Kayan uvunthe fontanelle in an infant's head
Iban ubun-ajifontanelle, esp. of infant
Makasarese ubuŋfontanel, crown of the head
CMP
Sika uwuŋpart of the head between the crown and the forehead, brain pan, brains

Note:   Also Kayan luvun ‘fontanelle’.

26378

*hubun₂ heap, pile, collection

2722

PMP     *hubun₂ heap, pile, collection

WMP
Bontok ʔubúnto be grouped together, of a crowd of people
Kankanaey ubónassemble, gather together, congregate, meet, collect
Hiligaynon hubúngroup
Sasak ombonheap up earth
CMP
Bimanese umbuheap or pile up
Manggarai umbuŋto heap, pile up (grass, etc.)

2723

POC     *upun₂ heap, pile

OC
Nggela uvua pile of things

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.

26380

*hu(ŋ)kab open, uncover

2727

PWMP     *hu(ŋ)kab open, uncover

WMP
Bontok ʔukábthe cover of the topil or akob baskets
Kankanaey okábskinned; flayed; barked; peeled
Kalamian Tagbanwa ukabbecome detached from
Cebuano hukábopen, remove a cover through forceful or nonhuman action
Maranao okabopen
Tausug ukabto be open or about to open
Kadazan Dusun ukabto open (of boxes), to uncover
Berawan (Long Terawan) ukamegg that is ready to hatch
Banjarese uŋkapto open
Toba Batak uŋkapopen, to open
Simalungun Batak uŋkabto open
Old Javanese uŋkab(the act of) opening
Javanese uŋkabgaping open
Balinese uŋkabto open, lift the lid of a box, untie a bandage
Sangir uŋkabtake everything out (in searching for something)

2728

PWMP     *maŋ-hukab to open

WMP
Kelabit ŋ-ukabto open, as a door
Toba Batak maŋ-uŋkabto open
Javanese ŋ-uŋkabto uncover, open

2729

PWMP     *hukab-en be opened

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ukab-onwas opened by
Balinese uŋkab-inbe opened

Note:   Also Hiligaynon hukʔáb ‘loosen and fall off’. With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.

26381

*hukaq loosen, open

2730

PAN     *hukaq loosen, open

Formosan
Amis hokaʔloosen something that was tight, as a belt
WMP
Tiruray ʔuŋkaʔopen something
Tausug ma-hukaʔloose, not tight
  hukaʔ-anloosen something, as of tie or knots, bracelet, lid, tourniquet, or wound dressing
Tontemboan ukaʔopen, be open
Mongondow uŋkaʔcome loose, as a fingernail or a frond from a palm tree
CMP
Manggarai ukalever up; to open, as an animal trap; search for small acquatic animals by lifting stones

Note:   Also Iban ukaʔ ‘open, loose, untie’, Totoli uŋgaʔ ‘break open’. With root *-kaq₁ ‘open forcibly’.

26382

*hukas loosen, untie, undress; to separate

2731

PWMP     *hukas loosen, untie, undress; to separate

WMP
Ilokano úkasloosen, untie, unbind, unfasten, undo, disentangle, untwine
Isneg úkasloose, loosened, free from taboo (of objects, formerly tabooed, that may be used again by living beings)
Bontok ʔúkasundo and remove rice from the basket in which it has been packed and tied
Ifugaw úka(h)to unloose, to remove what is covering something
Hanunóo hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal
Aklanon húkastake off, unstitch
Kalamian Tagbanwa ukasremove a cover
Cebuano húkastake clothing off of the top part of the body; expose a secret
Maranao okascut, trigger
Tausug hukasundress
Kadazan Dusun ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death
Kayan ukahloosen a knot
Malay oŋkasto slip off (as a sarong)

2732

PWMP     *maR-hukas to separate, untie

WMP
Bikol mag-ukásremove or take off the clothes
Kadazan Dusun mog-ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death

2733

PWMP     *hukas-en be separated, untied

WMP
Ilokano ukás-enbe loosened, untied, unbound
Bikol ukas-onbe removed or taken off, of clothes
Kadazan Dusun ukas-onbe driven away, of the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death

Note:   Bikol ukás ‘remove or take off the clothes’ shows unexplained loss of the initial aspirate. This word probably referred to loosening or untying in both literal and figurative senses. In the latter sense it may have referred to ritual precautions taken to ensure the separation of the living and the dead. With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.

26383

*hukay dig up something buried, disinter

2734

PWMP     *hukay dig up something buried, disinter

WMP
Ilokano ukáyloosening the earth or seedbeds (obsolete)
Tagalog hukáyexcavation; grave in the ground
  hukay-índig or excavate a certain place, dig out (something buried)
Bikol hukáydig something up
Ngaju Dayak ukeiwhat is unpacked, opened
Malagasy óhydug open, used of a re-opened tomb; be scraped
Malay uŋkaito unloose; to take off clothes; to take to pieces
Toba Batak ukedisinter, dig or scrape out of the earth

2735

PWMP     *hukay-an dug up

WMP
Bikol hukáy-andig into
Malagasy ohàz-anabe dug, be scraped

Note:   Also Cebuano ugkáy ‘dig out something buried’.

26384

*hukuq hunched, bent over

2736

PWMP     *hukuq hunched, bent over     [disjunct: *ukuq]

WMP
Cebuano húkuʔ-húkuʔbe doubled over
Balinese uŋkuhwalk in a bent posture

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

30299

*hulhul₁ to bark, of a dog

7237

PAN     *hulhul₁ to bark, of a dog

Formosan
Thao hurhurto bark, of a dog
WMP
Itbayaten holholsound of barking dog
  h<om>olholto bark, of a dog
Cebuano hulhúlto bark; to shout halt; barking; shout to halt

30300

*hulhul₂ to come loose, as a belt

7238

PPh     *hulhul₂ to come loose, as a belt

WMP
Ifugaw ulúlto unbuckle, unfasten, detach (as a belt or girdle)
Binukid hulhulto lower (one’s trousers); for one’s trousers to fall, slip down

26385

*humbak wave, billow, swell at sea

2737

PWMP     *humbak wave, billow, swell at sea

WMP
Tagalog humbákhollow, concave (of cheeks, stomach or the like)
Hanunóo humbákwave(s) at sea, ocean waves
Aklanon húmbakwave, crest
Maranao ombakartesian well; water pump
Iban umbakwave
Malay ombakwave; billow; (in art) wavy pattern. Esp. of broken or foaming waves, in contrast to rollers (gelombaŋ) or ground-swell (alun)
Toba Batak umbakwave
Rejang umboʔwave
Sundanese ombakwave, swell (of sea)
Old Javanese umbakwave
Javanese ombaka wave
Madurese ombaʔwave, swell, billow
Balinese umbakwave, surf
Sasak umbakwave, billow
Wolio umbaswell (of sea)

2738

PWMP     *humbak-humbak rise and fall like the swells at sea

WMP
Maranao ombak-ombakartesian well; water pump
Toba Batak umbah-umbahthe piston which is moved up and down in the bamboo tube of a traditional bellows

2739

PWMP     *ma-humbak full of waves, as a stormy sea

WMP
Aklanon ma-húmbakwavy, stormy, rough (sea)
Old Javanese m-ombakwith waves, undulating, surging
  m-ombak-ombak-anundulating, surging, in waves

Note:   Ngadha oba ‘wave, billow’, Buruese omba ‘waves’ are assumed to be Malay loans.

28313

*huna first, before, anterior in time

5409

PMP     *huna first, before, anterior in time     [disjunct: *(q)uNah]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hunago or be first; be first in relation to someone else
Narum unéhancient times
Kayan unaʔgo ahead, go first; start first; formerly, before

5410

PMP     *h<um>una to do or go first

WMP
Mongondow m-unafirst, ancient
OC
Tolai m-unfirst, firstly, formerly; go first, lead

Note:   Also Bintulu məna ‘old, of things; in the past, ancient’.

26398

*huñat to stretch, straighten out

2755

PPh     *huñat to stretch, straighten out     [disjunct: *uñat]

WMP
Ilokano unnátstretch, strain, make tense, draw tight, extend, straighten out, lay out at full length; draw out, distend
Bontok ʔúnatdraw out, stretch, pull, as cotton from a reel or string from a ball
Pangasinan onátspread out (a mat); stretch
Kapampangan uñatstretch; yawn
Bikol hunátstretch something; straighten something out
Hanunóo húnatstretching of something that will snap back when released, as of a rubber band

Note:   With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

26399

*huñaw wash the hands or face

2756

PWMP     *huñaw wash the hands or face

WMP
Cebuano hunáwwash the hands
Mansaka onawwash off, remove by means of water; wash the hands
Kalagan unawwash the hands
Manobo (Sarangani) onawwash the hands
Murik m-uñowash the hands, arms or face
Proto-Sangiric *unawdip, plunge in water; melt

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.

26400

*huñus to molt, shed the skin

2757

PMP     *huñus to molt, shed the skin

WMP
Tagalog hunósskin peelings, molt, as of reptiles

2758

POC     *uñus to molt, shed the skin

OC
Bugotu uñucast skin of snake
Tongan unuto slough, shed its skin (as snakes do), or its shell (as crabs, etc. do); skin or shell which has been shed, slough
Niue unuto shed (as a shell); to peel, to bark (as a shrub)
Rennellese unuto shed, as snake skin

Note:   Also Amis konoc ‘to pull out hair or feathers’, ma-konoc ‘to moult’, Arosi unusi ‘snake sp. ( = unus-i, from its frequent molting?)’. This item appears to be distinct from *Sunus ‘withdraw, pull out, extract’.

26386

*hupak split, peel off

2740

PWMP     *hupak split, peel off

WMP
Cebuano hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact
Maranao opaksplit, break
Tiruray ʔufaksplit lengthwise by driving a blade along the grain
Malagasy ófakascaling off, peeling off, as blistered skin

Note:   Also Cebuano hupʔák ‘peel, flake off, cause something to do so’. With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.

26387

*huqem to soak

2741

PWMP     *huqem to soak

WMP
Bikol húʔomto soak something
Melanau (Mukah) uʔemto soak

Note:   Also Aklanon húeom ‘to soak (in a liquid); marinate.

26388

*hurus slip or slide down or along

2742

PWMP     *hurus slip or slide down or along

WMP
Bontok ʔúlusslide down a slope
Bikol hurósslip or slide down (of something that has been tied or fastened)
Aklanon hurósslip (off), become loose
Cebuano hulúslower something attached on a string which passes through a pulley
Maranao orosslide up and down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hurusto grip something, as in the hands or fingers, and allowing it to slip through, as letting a rope slip through the hand; slip something off something, as a ring off the finger; of a person, to be forced to slide down a tree trunk
Tausug hurusslipped down, slid down
Kadazan Dusun uhusto glide down
Sasak orostrain (of garments); drag its rear end along the ground (of a dog)
Gorontalo wulutoto launch (a boat)

Note:   Also Karo Batak orus ‘glide off, slide down’. With root *-rus₂ ‘slip or slide off’.

28668

*huRaC artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon

5840

PAN     *huRaC artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon

Formosan
Saisiyat ka-wLasvein
Proto-Atayalic *ʔugacvein, sinew
Seediq ulatmuscle, nerve, vein, artery
Pazeh huhasvein, blood vessel
Amis olattendons; blood vessels
Tsou vrocəblood vessel
Kanakanabu urácəblood vessel
Proto-Rukai *ʔoacsinew, artery
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) uRaTblood vessel, vein
Paiwan uatsvein, blood vessel; sinew

5842

PMP     *uRat artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root

WMP
Itbayaten in-oyatvein, blood vessel
Ilokano urátvein; artery; nerve; sinew; tendon; penis (of quadrupeds); fiber; vein, streak (of wood); nerve, vein (of a leaf, etc.)
Isneg uxātvein, artery, nerve, sinew, tendon
Arta uratvein
Bontok ʔulátvein; artery; tendon
Kankanaey uátvein, artery; nerve, sinew, tendon
Ifugaw ulátartery, vein, sinew
Pangasinan olátvein
Kapampangan úyatveins, blood vessels
Tagalog ugátroot; artery; vein; origin
Bikol ugátartery, vein; nerve
Hanunóo ʔugátstrand, as of thread
Aklanon ugátblood vein; tendon
Kalamian Tagbanwa ulatsmall root; vein
Cebuano ugátvein, blood vessel; for the veins to come out from exertion or anger
  paŋ-ugátbe angry
  ka-ugát-unblood vessels
Maranao ogatblood vessel, lymphatic vessel; nerve
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uɣatvein, of blood
Tiruray ʔuratblood vessel
Tboli ulatvein of body
Tausug ugatvein, nerve, artery, tendon
Kadazan Dusun t-uatsinew
Kelabit uratvein, vessel; tendon
Sa'ban roətvein, tendon
Kenyah uatblood vessel; nerve; sinew; fibre; muscle
Murik uatvein, tendon
Kayan uhatarteries or veins; sinews; nerve fibres; the spine; nylon fishing line
Bintulu uatvein, blood vessel
Melanau (Mukah) uatvein; tendon
Ngaju Dayak uhatroot; vein; sinew; tendon
Malagasy ózatrasinew; vein, artery; muscle
Iban uratsinew; vein; root
Maloh uratroot; vein
Moken olatstring; vein
Malay uratnerve; vein; sinew; gland; strand (of rope); numeral coefficient for rattans and tenuous rope-like objects
  urat ketiŋAchille's tendon
Toba Batak uratroot; blood vein; nerve
Nias uoblood vein, vessel
Balinese uatsinew; muscle; vein
Sasak uratnerve; sinew; tendon; vein, artery; grain (of wood, marble)
Sangir uhaʔblood vein, vessel; muscle
Mongondow ugatmuscle; tendon; sinew
Uma uaʔroot
Bare'e uamuscle; tendon; sinew; vein, vessel
Tae' uraʔmuscle; tendon; sinew; vein; nerve of a leaf, grain of wood
Mandar uraʔvein, vessel; tendon
Makasarese uraʔmuscle; tendon, sinew; lines in the hand; fiber; blood vein
Wolio uavein; tendon; muscle; nerve
Muna ueblood vein, vessel; tendon
Palauan ŋurdvein, artery
Chamorro gugatvein; muscle; tendon; artery; fishing line
CMP
Komodo uraʔvein, artery; sinew
Rembong uratvein, vessel
Ngadha uravein; sinew; tendon; fiber; veins in leaves
Li'o uravein, vessel
Kambera uralines in the palm of the hand; lot, fate, destiny
  uratulines in the palm of the hand; read the palm to foretell one's future
Rotinese uavein; tendon; sinew; muscle; metaphorically also: fate, destiny, lot
Tetun uatvein, artery; nerve; tendon
Erai uraktendon; sinew
Leti urtavein; sinew; muscle; the fibers of a lontar palm
Wetan ortatendon; sinew; fibre; muscle; vein
Selaru urattendon; sinew; muscle; vein
Yamdena uratvein; sinew; muscle
Fordata uratvein; sinew; tendon; muscle
Kei uratvein; tendon; sinew; muscle
Dobel kwuravein, artery; ligaments
Buruese uhatsinew; blood vessel
Soboyo uhavein, vessel; muscle
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai uratvein; tendon
Numfor urekvein, vessel
Ansus ura-ruavein

5843

POC     *uRat artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy

OC
Mussau uetavein, vessel; tendon
Tolai uratcoconut-fibre; gristle; ligament; sinew; tendon; tough, of flesh
Bali (Uneapa) uratavein
Bugotu ulatendon; sinew; vein
Nggela ulavein
  ula-kautendon
Kwaio ulablood vessel, vein
Fijian uavein; muscle
  ua ni niuraised rib on coconut-shell
Rennellese uaartery; pulse
Maori uasinew; vein, artery

5844

PWMP     *uRat-en full of veins or tendons

WMP
Cebuano ugát-unfull of prominent veins
Malagasy ozàt-inamuscular, strong, athletic, tough, hard; stringy (of meat)

5845

PMP     *uRat uRat veins, sinews (collective)

WMP
Hanunóo ʔugat-úgatsmall surface veins
Cebuano ugat-úgatleaves having lots of veins; for leaves to be veined
Old Javanese ot-wat, ot-otmuscle
OC
Mbula ke ura-n ura-nroots
'Āre'āre ura-urabone marrow; vein
Sa'a ule-ulesinew; tendon
Ulawa ula-ulasinew; tendon
Tongan uo-uasinew; tendon; muscle or ligament
Samoan ua-uathews and sinews; vein, artery; pulse
Tuvaluan ua-uaartery, vein; sinew; tendon
Rarotongan ua-uasinews; tendons; muscles; ligaments; rubber
Hawaiian ua-uatough, sinewy, glutinous, viscid; not easily broken, as cord

5846

PWMP     *uRat i daRaq artery, major blood vessel

WMP
Kadazan Dusun t-uat do zaaartery, vein
Malay urat darahartery

5847

PMP     *uRat i lima lines in the palm of the hand

WMP
Sasak uat limalines in the palm of the hand
Boano ugat limalines in the palm of the hand
Dampelas uat limalines in the palm of the hand
[Tae' uraʔ palaʔlines in the palm of the hand]
CMP
Komodo uraʔ limalines in the palm of the hand
Ngadha ura limalines in the palm of the hand
[Rotinese lima ula-klines in the palm of the hand]
Erai lima uraklines in the palm of the hand

Note:   Also Kapampangan úgat ‘veins, arteries’, Kelabit uat ‘large root, taproot’, Sundanese urat ‘vein, vessel; muscle; sinew’, Sangir ihaʔ ‘blood vein, vessel; muscle’, Manggarai urak ‘blood vessel; vein of leaf or hand; fate, destiny’, Buli uit ‘tendon; sinew’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *uRat ‘sinew; tendon; vein’ ( = Sehne, Ader), but the range of meanings assignable to PMP and PWMP *uRat is actually much broader. It is possible that some of these are metaphorical and convergent (e.g. ‘strand’ in Hanunóo and Malay, ‘fishing line’ in Kayan and Chamorro, ‘root’ in Kalamian Tagbanwa and various languages of western Borneo), but it is equally probable that metaphorical extensions of the body-part referents were present from the beginning, and have been retained (or reported) only in some daughter languages.

In either case it is clear that by at least PWMP times *uRat was a key semantic category with numerous applications beyond the human body. In addition, Ilokano urát ‘penis (of quadrupeds)’, Cebuano ugát máyur ‘penis (humorous)’ (lit. ‘major vessel’), Balinese uat kenduŋ ‘blood-vessel of very heavy wood = penis’ suggest that PWMP *uRat also was used to refer to the penis in certain stylistic contexts.

26389

*huRuŋ roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death)

2743

PMP     *huRuŋ roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death)

WMP
Ilokano úŋor <Mmoan with closed mouth (when hurt or dying); sound of swollen streams, rough breakers, etc.
Ifugaw úŋul <Mroaring noise produced by the strong current of a river
Casiguran Dumagat úguŋloud roar, hum, resonance (of an airplane, wind, sea, etc.); to hum, to roar
Pangasinan oŋól <Mroar (of sea, wind, water, a crowd); to roar
Tagalog hugóŋhumming in the ear
Aklanon hugóŋ-hugóŋrumors
Cebuano húguŋproduce a steady humming sound
Tae' urruŋbuzzing of bees, growling of an angry dog

2744

POC     *uRuŋ groan, roar

OC
Tolai uruŋmake a loud noise or a rough sound; to roar; murmur, rumble
Motu urudeep groaning; stertorous breathing, as when near death
Tongan ūmake a big (but soft) bumping noise, to thud
Samoan ūmake a hollow sound, such as is made by waves, hornets, pigeons, engines, etc.
Maori ūinterjection representing an inarticulate sound

Note:   Also Ifugaw úŋug (< M) ‘roaring noise produced by the strong current of a river’, Pangasinan ógoŋ ‘to thunder (of any noise)’, Cheke Holo ulugru ‘growl, make noise (stomach)’, Bugotu uruŋu ‘speak loudly, make a noise’. With root *-Ruŋ ‘roar, rumble’.

26390

*hutek brain; marrow

2745

PMP     *hutek brain; marrow

WMP
Itbayaten hotekbrain
Ilokano útekbrain
Isneg otáʔbrain; marrow
Itawis útakbrain
Arta utabrain
Bontok ʔútəkbrains
Kankanaey útekbrain
Ifugaw útokbrains
Yogad utekbrain
Casiguran Dumagat utékbrain
Pangasinan otékbrain, brains
Kapampangan útakbrains; marrow
Bikol hútokbrain
Hanunóo ʔútukbrain(s)
  butʔúlmarrow
Aklanon útokbrain
Kalamian Tagbanwa utukbrain
Cebuano útukbrain; intelligence, mental ability
Maranao otekbrain; mind
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) utekbrain
Tiruray ʔutekbrain
  ʔutek bukalmarrow
Tboli utekbrain; bone marrow
Tausug utukbrain
Rungus Dusun utoːksmart, intelligent
Kadazan Dusun t-utokmarrow; brain
Abai Sembuak utokbrain
Kelabit utekbrain
Murik utəkbrain
Melanau (Mukah) utekbrain; marrow
Bukat utokhead
Seru utokhead
Ngaju Dayak untekbrain
  untek tulaŋmarrow
  m-untekremove the marrow from bones
Banjarese utakbrain
Iban untakbrain
Moken otakhead
Malay otakbrain (considered anatomically, and not as the seat of intelligence); spinal marrow
Simalur utaʔbrain; bone marrow
Toba Batak utoh-utokbrain; bone marrow
Sundanese utɨkbrain
Old Javanese utekbrains
Javanese utekbrain; brains, intelligence
Balinese utekbrain
Sasak otakhead
Gorontalo wutoʔobrain
Pendau utoʔbrain
Boano utokbrain
Balantak utokbrain
Tae' utakbrain; marrow
CMP
Komodo uteʔbrain
Manggarai utekbrain; marrow
Ngadha otebrain
Li'o otebrain
Sika otekbrains
Yamdena otak, utakmarrow of bones; brains
Proto-Ambon *ute-pith, marrow, brain

Note:   Also Yami uetek ‘brain’, Tagalog útak ‘brains; marrow; intellect, head’, ma-útak ‘brainy’, Sambal (Botolan) ɨtɨk ‘brain’. The initial consonant of this form is problematic. On the one hand Itbayaten and Bikol independently support the reconstruction of PMP *h-. On the other hand, *h- is contradicted by at least Aklanon, Cebuano, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Tausug (Hanunóo reflects PMP *h- sometimes as /h/, and sometimes as zero).

Based on the inclusion of Tongan ʔuto ‘brain’, Dyen (1953) reconstructed *qutek, but the initial consonant of his reconstruction is contradicted not only by Itbayaten, Bikol /h-/, but also by Kalamian Tagbanwa, Tboli, Moken initial zero (rather than **k-), and by Banjarese, Sundanese initial zero (rather than **h-). For these reasons I prefer to associate the Tongan form with POc *quto ‘pith of a tree’, and to assume a semantic innovation which produced a remarkable chance similarity with reflexes of PMP *hutek.

26391

*hutuk bend, flex

2746

PWMP     *hutuk bend, flex

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat hútukbend a limb; be bent over (of a tree limb)
Tagalog hutókbending by force of weight; flexion
  hutuk-ínto flex (a branch or stick)
Balinese uṇṭukmake a deep bow, hang the head

Note:   With root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’.

26395

*huy exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc.

2750

PMP     *huy exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc.

WMP
Ilokano oyan interjection: calling or attracting attention
Bontok ʔuyexpression of surprise; expression used to attract someone's attention
Kankanaey uyho! hoa! whoa! Interjection used for calling
Casiguran Dumagat oyexclamation of surprise, exclamation made when calling to get someone's attention, answering someone's call, disagreeing with a statement made
Pangasinan oyhey! (exclamation to attract attention of distant person)
Tagalog hoyinterjection: an answer to a call; an exclamation of warning or calling attention
Bikol hoyhey; an exclamation of warning or a call for attention; a response when one is called
Aklanon hoecry to stop a carabao
  hoyexpression used to call the attention of another; term used to drive a dog away or stop it from barking or biting another
Cebuano huyexclamation used upon greeting someone with whom one is intimate; exclamation to attract immediate attention; exclamation uttered upon being provoked
Ngaju Dayak hoiexclamation with which one calls someone
Malay hoihey there! An interjection to call attention
Karo Batak hey! hey there!
Tontemboan oianswer to someone who calls one's name
Bare'e uicry commonly given in answer when one is called from a distance
Makasarese cry with which one hails someone else
CMP
Manggarai reply which is less courteous than apa, less refined than oi: yes? what?; answer of a woman (as when called by her husband)
Ngadha answer to a distant call
  grunting of large pigs
  uicall to a friend; to set dogs against, as in hunting wild pigs
Rotinese wé, wiexclamation

2751

POC     *ui exclamation

OC
Nggela uiexclamation of surprise
Tongan uicall, call out, call out to
Niue uicall, invite

Note:   Also Bikol uhoy ‘hey; a term used to call someone in the distance’.

26392

*huyaŋ shake, sway, rock

2747

PWMP     *huyaŋ shake, sway, rock     [doublet: *huyuŋ]

WMP
Hanunóo húyaŋphysical weakness, debility, feebleness, unsteadiness
Aklanon húyaŋshake, rattle
  ma-huyáŋshaky
Hiligaynon húyaŋrickety, shaky
Cebuano húyaŋrickety, shaky; lacking in firmness, resolve, or will power
Old Javanese (h)uyaŋheat, being heated, feeling hot (also of the heart)
  a-huyaŋhot, heated, hot and bothered, restless
  aŋ-huyaŋ-huyaŋ-antoss and turn feverishly
Balinese uyaŋturn from side to side on a bed; be unable to sleep

26396

*huyáp count, enumerate

2752

PPh     *huyáp count, enumerate     [doublet: *ihap]

WMP
Ifugaw uyápact of counting, reckoning, computing
Aklanon huyápto count, enumerate

26393

*huyug shake, sway, stagger

2748

PWMP     *huyug shake, sway, stagger     [disjunct: *uyeg, *uyug, *uyuR]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat huyóg-hugógsway back and forth (as a house during an earthquake, or a drunk person staggering along)
Javanese uyugunsteady (as someone who staggers along)

26394

*huyuŋ shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake

2749

PMP     *huyuŋ shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake     [doublet: *huyaŋ, *huyug]

WMP
Aklanon húyoŋshake, rattle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) huyuŋshake something back and forth, as to shake a tree to make the fruit fall, or as an earthquake shakes a house
Ngaju Dayak huyoŋaslant, tilted, as a house that has been battered by a storm
Malay (h)uyoŋrocking; swaying; crank
Karo Batak m-uyuŋ-uyuŋshake strongly, as the ground in a earthquake
CMP
Sika ojoŋshake, rock, roll
Soboyo huyuto shake, wake someone (by shaking)
  ka-huyumoveable, loose
  mo-huyuearthquake

Note:   Also Mongondow uluŋ ‘shake’.

26397

*huzam borrowing

2753

PWMP     *huzam borrowing     [doublet: *hizam]    [disjunct: *Sezam]

WMP
Hanunóo ʔudámborrowing; lending
Cebuano hulámborrow something; adopt, take over as one's own
Kayan ujamborrow; a loan

2754

PWMP     *h<um>uzam to borrow

WMP
Hanunóo ʔum-udamborrow
Kayan m-ujamborrow

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-h