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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*i   

ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

26585

*-i₁ imperative suffix

3033

PAN     *-i₁ imperative suffix

Formosan
Atayal -isuffix forming first passive negatable indicative and imperative from the reduced stem
WMP
Bikol -ialternant command suffix for verbs taking -an in the infinitive: taʔw-an mo siya or taʔw-i siya 'give him some'
Hiligaynon -iimperative benefactive-locative focus suffix
Lauje -iundergoer-oriented imperative: ugas-i 'do the dishes!'

Note:   Egerod (1965) describes three "passives" for Atayal: (1) a "relational passive", (2) an "indefinite passive", and (3) a "definite passive". The definite passive can occur in any of five aspects, of which the "neutral definite passive" is marked by -an, while the "negatable neutral definite passive" and the "imperative definite passive" are marked by -i. The paradigmatic alternation of -an and -i thus appears to be common to at least Atayal and Bikol. The present affix evidently is identical to what Wolff (1973:73) called the "local passive dependent" construction. It seems to have marked imperatives of a certain type, but may have been used with a wider range of construction types than I have indicated here.

26581

*i₁ exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc.

3029

PAN     *i₁ exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc.

Formosan
Paiwan iinterjection of wonder or amazement
WMP
Cebuano iexpression uttered upon making an error or inadvertently breaking something; exclamation expressing surprise; particle expressing disgust
Toba Batak iexclamation of wonder
Javanese iexclamation of pain or fear
CMP
Manggarai iexclamation of longing, surprise, dismay (much used by women)
Ngadha iinterjection of fear, etc.
Kambera ishriek of pain
OC
Gedaged iexclamation: whew! ugh!
Arosi iexclamation of disgust
Gilbertese iexclamation of pleasure, pain, or disgust
Mota iexclamation of excitement or refusal

Note:   Also Bunun ia ‘exclamation’, Lakalai hi ‘exclamation of excitement’ points to POc *qi, but is contradicted by the lack of an initial consonant in Paiwan i. The creation and shaping of the above forms clearly has been subject to the operation of universal human tendencies, but this by itself is no reason to assume that the forms compared have been independently invented in all daughter languages.

26582

*i₂ generic marker of location in space or time

3030

PAN     *i₂ generic marker of location in space or time

Formosan
Amis igrammatical particle indicating place
Paiwan ibe at, be in
WMP
Aklanon iclassic noun prefix used to show locations
Cebuano iprefix added to roots referring to a place or direction to form nouns meaning "place of (so-and-so)"
Malagasy iprefix used to make a noun into a preposition (e.g. maso 'eye', i-maso 'before the eyes', voho 'the back', i-voho 'at the back of')
Karo Batak igeneric prefix of location
Old Javanese iparticle with a prepositional function before nouns: in, on, by, through, with
Banggai igeneric prefix of location
Bare'e iparticle used before names of places and times
OC
Molima iprefix to locatives
Bugotu ilocative preposition; at, from
Nggela ia prefix or article with nouns of place and time
Lau ilocative preposition, at (used before names of place, position, time)
'Āre'āre ilocative preposition: in, to, at, on; always used before names of places, and with words denoting time and direction
Proto-Micronesian *iprefix of time or place
Tongan i, ʔipreposition: at, on, in, than, etc.
Niue ipreposition: in, at, from
Samoan iparticle denoting position in space or time
Rennellese ilocative and temporal preposition: in, at, on, from, when, while
Maori iused with local nouns to form complex prepositions
Hawaiian iparticle and clitic preceding substantives and marking direct and indirect objects, with additional meanings: to, at, in, on, by, because of, due to, by means of ... while, at the time that, when

Note:   I take the glottal stop in Tongan ʔi to be secondary, as it disagrees with the cognate forms both in Rennellese and in Paiwan (for further discussion of the introduction of historically secondary glottal stop in Tongan grammatical formatives cf. Clark 1976 and Harrison 1991:135, fn. 5). PAn *i evidently was a generic marker of location which has become fossilized in most reflexes of *i-ni ‘this, here’, *i-tu ‘that, there (2p.)’, and *i-na ‘that, there (3p.)’, and in many reflexes of *i babaw ‘above’ and *i babaq ‘below’, but which continues to be used productively in many languages before other nouns. For further details cf. Blust (1989).

26586

*-i₂ local transitive suffix

3034

PMP     *-i₂ local transitive suffix

WMP
Malay -iverbal suffix used together with the prefix meŋ-. This affix has various functions, including iterative and allative (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:90ff). Ex: petani itu me-nanam-kan padi di ladaŋ-ña 'the farmer planted rice in his field' vs. petani itu me-nanam-i ladaŋ-ña deŋan padi 'the farmer planted his field with rice'
Toba Batak -iverbal suffix used together with the prefix maŋ-. "This is a variant of the preposition di ... but as a suffix, it has broader meaning: it stands for the prepositions from, along, about, over, before, with, on, and to, and in this way relates the object to the verb" (van der Tuuk 1971:98)
Wolio -iverbal suffix. "Stems with suffix -i are all transitive. The suffix denotes a relation to the object. This relation is best described as local" (Anceaux 1952:21)
OC
Loniu -itransitive suffix
Nali -itransitive suffix
Motu -itransitive suffix
Nggela -itransitive suffix
Lau -itransitive suffix
Sa'a -itransitive suffix
Proto-Micronesian *-itransitive suffix
Fijian -itransitive suffix

Note:   Pawley (1973) initiated the discussion of this affix, which he called a ‘close transitive’ suffix, by drawing attention to similar functions which it performs both in Oceanic and in non-Oceanic languages. Starosta, Pawley, and Reid (1982:155) suggest that it derives from the generic locative marker *i which under certain conditions lost its prepositional function and was incorporated into the preceding verb in the separate histories of many Austronesian languages. I concur with this interpretation, but note that it remains unexplained why the incorporation of such a preposition would not occur with intransitive as well as with transitive verbs.

Judging from its widespread use as a verbal affix in Oceanic languages, it appears that the preposition *i had already become a suffix in POc (though at the same time it continued to function as a generic locative marker). Because reflexes of *-i appear to be less common in non-Oceanic languages, and because they sometimes co-occur with an active verb prefix (as in Malay and Toba Batak), it seems likely the verbal functions of *-i in Wolio developed independently from those in Malay and Toba Batak -- in other words, that a suffix *-i ‘local transitive’, as distinct from the preposition *i, did not exist in PAn or PMP. Moreover, in Oceanic languages the local transitive suffix *-i so commonly co-occurs with the incorporated 3sg. object pronoun *-a that the entire sequence *-ia (q.v.) must be posited as a functional unit for POc. Starosta, Pawley, and Reid appear to conflate *-i ‘local transitive’ and PAn *-i ‘imperative suffix’, which I treat as separate.

26583

*i₃ personal article

3031

PAN     *i₃ personal article     [doublet: *si]

Formosan
Atayal iprefix for persons
Paiwan iappositional particle for personal names and pronouns
WMP
Isneg ithe nominative and accusative of the personal article
Itawis ipersonal singular nominative and genitive particle
Malagasy ipersonal article, generally joined to words making a proper noun
Balinese ia particle which makes nouns refer to definite persons
Sangir ipersonal article, marking personal names and kinship terms
Balantak ipersonal article
Banggai ipersonal article
CMP
Kambera ipersonal article, used with proper names or words that function as proper names
OC
Bugotu ipersonal article, seen in prefix to personal pronouns
Mota ipersonal article, making a noun into a proper name

Note:   Further documentation of *i ‘personal article’ is found in Blust (1977), where it is argued that *i and *si were in complementary distribution, at least when attached to pronouns (*si marking 3p., *i marking non-3p.). In many attested languages the distinction between this morpheme and *qi ‘genitive marker’ is obscure.

26584

*i₄ numeral prefix

3032

PCEMP     *i₄ numeral prefix     [doublet: *e]

CMP
Fordata iprefix to numerals in counting (used with 1-9)
OC
Lakalai iprefix to numbers in counting
Merlav inumeral prefix (used only with 2-4)
V'ënen Taut inumeral prefix (used only with 2-9)
Namakir inumeral prefix (used only with 2-5)

Note:   Also Bauro (Tryon and Hackman 1983) irua ‘two’ (the only Bauro numeral recorded with i-).

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ia

ia₁

ia₂

iag

iak

ian₁

ian₂

ian₃

iap

iaqi

ias₁

ias₂

26420

*-ia transitive and imperative suffix

2784

POC     *-ia transitive and imperative suffix

OC
Wuvulu -iaimperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!'
Aua -iaimperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!'
Gitua -iaverb suffix, apparently related to definiteness of subject
Motu -a, -iatransitive suffix
Roviana -i, -iaforms of the objective suffix
Samoan -iatransitive suffix
Rennellese -iapassive or transitive suffix
Maori -iapassive imperative (Biggs 1973:60ff)

Note:   Pawley (1973:120ff) has suggested that this form contains two morphemes: 1. *-i ‘close transitive’ and *-a ‘3sg. object’. As partial justification for this analysis he points out that reflexes of *-a are suffixed directly to the verb in Bauan Fijian and, under certain conditions, in other Oceanic languages such as Motu and Roviana. While this analysis may be correct, the combined form *-ia is so widely reflected in such similar functions that it can be reconstructed independently of *-i or *-a.

Two facts associated with this etymon appear especially noteworthy:

(1) Apart from the well-known problems associated with the "thematic" consonant that surfaces before reflexes of *-ia in many languages, Motu and Roviana agree in showing surface -ia only after stems that end in a; following stems that end in e, i, o, or u, the semantically similar surface form is -a (Motu: ita-ia ‘to look at’, but lare-a ‘to shoot an arrow’, isi-a ‘to husk a coconut’, hao-a ‘to awaken, arouse’, utu-a ‘to draw water’; Roviana: asa-ia ‘to grind, as an axe’, lage-a ‘to fix a parrot to a perch’, gili-a ‘to tickle gently’, tapo-a ‘to grope or feel for, as in the dark’, vatua- ‘to give’). I know of nothing which would produce such an agreement through convergence, and therefore assume that in POc there was an alternation between *-ia, following stem-final *a, and *-a, following other stem-final vowels. One or the other variant appears to have been generalized in various languages; for convenience the two will be referred to as *-ia.

(2) Reflexes of *-ia function both as transitive suffixes and as imperative markers in several widely separated Oceanic languages. In Eastern Polynesian languages reflexes of *-ia typically mark passive constructions, and also appear in certain types of imperatives (those that imply a goal or object). This association of passive and imperative appears to closely parallel the association of passive and ‘polite’ imperative associated with reflexes of *-en ‘goal focus, direct passive focus’ in many WMP languages. While no one has yet argued that POc had a passive construction marked by *-ia, it apparently had an imperative construction marked in this manner. The fact that the dual function of passive and imperative is associated with reflexes of PAn *-en in some WMP languages and with reflexes of POc *-ia in some OC languages raises the question whether the passive function of *-ia might be far older than PEP.

26421

*ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it

2785

PAN     *ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it

WMP
Itbayaten ia3sg.
Hiligaynon ía3sg. pre-position source pronoun
Kenyah ia3sg. subject and object
Malagasy izy3sg. and pl.
Iban ia3sg.
Malay ia3sg.
Simalur ia3sg.
Karo Batak ia3sg. and pl.
Lampung ia3sg.
Balinese ia3sg. and pl.
Sasak ia3sg.
Tae' ia3sg.
Makasarese ia3sg. and pl.
Palauan ŋíi3sg. (emphatic)
Chamorro guiya3sg. (emphatic)
CMP
Selaru ia3sg.
Yamdena ie3sg.
Fordata ia3sg.
Kei i3sg.
Kamarian i3sg.
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai i3sg.
Buli i3sg.
Numfor i3sg.
Ansus i3sg., he, she
OC
Mussau ia3sg.
Tolai i3sg.
Gedaged i3sg. and pl.
Motu ia3sg.
Sudest iyehe
Bugotu i-iashe
Arosi ia3sg.
Marshallese e3sg.
Pohnpeian ih3sg.
Puluwat yiiy3sg.
Mota ia3sg.
Rotuman ia3sg.
Tongan ia3sg. and pl.
Samoan ia3sg.
Rennellese ia3sg.
Maori ia3sg.
Hawaiian ia3sg.

2786

PAN     *si ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it

Formosan
Atayal hia3sg.
Bunun siathe, those; he, it
Saaroa isa <M3sg.
WMP
Yami sia3sg.
Itbayaten sia3sg.
Kankanaey siá3sg.
Ifugaw hiá3sg.
Tagalog siá3sg.
Tausug siah3sg.
Kayan ihaʔ <M3sg.
Bintulu isa <M3sg.
Tunjung isa <M3sg.
Sangir sie3sg.
Proto-Minahasan *sia3sg.
Mongondow sia3sg.
CMP
Bimanese sia3sg.

Note:   Also Malay dia ‘3sg.’, Uma hiʔa ‘3sg.’, Bare'e siʔa ‘3sg. and pl.’. For arguments supporting *si ia (rather than *s-ia), cf. Blust (1977). Although no reflexes of *ia are known in Formosan languages, reflexes of *si ia in Atayal, Saaroa, and Bunun clearly imply that *ia was present in PAn, and it is posited here on this basis.

26422

*ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there

2787

PMP     *ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there

WMP
Aklanon here (near the speaker)
Kiput iəhthat
Malay (Sarawak) iathat
Makasarese iademonstrative (postnominal), that
CMP
Sika ia-naover there
Lamaholot iahere
Rotinese iathis
Yamdena iethis
Kei ithis, these
OC
Tolai iathere
Bugotu ia ani, ia enidemonstrative pronoun: this, here; follows a noun
Sa'a iedemonstrative pronoun: this, these (follows a noun)
Marshallese edemonstrative: this
Puluwat yiiydemonstrative: this
Lonwolwol iathus, in this or that way
Nakanamanga wa-iathis
Tongan iademonstrative pronoun: that, those
Niue iademonstrative: that, those (referring to something already mentioned)
Samoan iademonstrative pronoun (post-basic): these, those
Rennellese iademonstrative: this, that, there, another, different
Maori iademonstrative pronoun: that, the said
Hawaiian ia, kē-iathis

2788

PAN     *si ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there

Formosan
Bunun siathe, those
WMP
Cebuano siáthis, that thing
Malay (Sarawak) s-iathere
Mentawai siathere

Note:   Also Sasak iaʔ ‘this’, Rembong iaʔ ‘over there’, Sika iʔa ‘this’, Rennellese ʔia ‘here! here it is! take it! now!’. Like *ia ‘exclamation’, this item almost certainly is identical with the 3sg. personal pronoun. Historically pronouns often develop from demonstratives, but in the present case there can be little doubt that the primary sense of *ia was ‘3sg. personal pronoun’, and that both the exclamatory and the demonstrative meanings are semantic extensions (cf. the last three items above, where the demonstrative meaning is found in a word containing the fossilized personal article *si).

26411

*iag cry out, shout

2772

PMP     *iag cry out, shout     [disjunct: *iak]

WMP
Ifugaw íagshout some words to call people; a loud cry to give vent to one's excitement or contentment
Ifugaw (Batad) īagto shout yəhə əy in a long drawn out fashion by many people at a dance
[Malay iakto whine]
CMP
[Manggarai iakcry of children playing hide-and-seek]

Note:   Also Proto-Chamic *hia ‘to cry’.

26412

*iak cry out, shout

2773

PMP     *iak cry out, shout     [disjunct: *iag]

WMP
Tagalog iákcry (with tears), sob
Bikol íakcry out or shout
Cebuano íakchirp, cheep
  íak-íakkind of bird, the barred graybird: Coracina striata
[Malay iakto whine]
CMP
[Manggarai iakcry of children playing hide-and-seek]

Note:   Also Bontok iék ‘to laugh, be laughing’.

26413

*ian₁ dehortative: don't!

2774

PWMP     *ian₁ dehortative: don't!     [doublet: *dian]

WMP
Kelabit iandehortative: don't
Makasarese iaŋmay not

Note:   Cense (1979) gives Makasarese ia ‘may not’, but notes that this item occurs only as a bound form in constructions with a suffixed pronoun, such as iaŋku, iannu, and ianna/. His sole justification for positing a morpheme boundary before, rather than after the first nasal, appears to be that some vowel-final stems unpredictably show an "accretive nasal" before the pronominal suffix (Mills 1975:1:78, 221). However, such vowel-final stems and stems that end in ŋ appear to exhibit identical suffixed forms. Phonemically, then, Cense's /ia/ could as well be /iang/.

26414

*ian₂ dwell, reside, live in a place

2775

PWMP     *ian₂ dwell, reside, live in a place

Formosan
Taokas ianto sit
  pig-ianto sit
WMP
Ilokano yanplace, location, situation, locality, spot, position
  ag-yánstay, dwell, abide, occupy a certain relative place or position
Isneg iānplace, location
Bontok ʔiyánto stay overnight
  ʔi-ʔiyán-ana place where one can stay overnight
Ifugaw íanto stay overnight, or for a short time, at one of the houses of a given village, when traveling
Casiguran Dumagat iánstay, live, reside
Maranao iansource
Tboli yónto sit down on something; to ride on; to take office; to be seated as an elected official; to rule as a leader
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ianreside, dwell
Toba Batak ianlive, dwell, reside, stay
Sangir iaŋto sit down
Bare'e iaplace of residence

2776

PWMP     *ian-an place of residence

WMP
Bontok ʔiyan-ánstay overnight
Kadazan Dusun izan-andomicile, living place, place of residence

2777

PWMP     *paR-ian-an location, place where one stays

WMP
Ilokano pag-yán-anlocation, situation, position
Toba Batak par-m-ian-anplace where one stays or resides

2778

PWMP     *um-ian to stay, dwell, reside

WMP
Ilokano um-yánpass the night, lodge
Bontok ʔ<um>iyánstay overnight
Toba Batak m-ianreside, stay

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun izon ‘to live in a place’, izon-on ‘domicile, living place, place of residence’, Lamaholot iaʔ ‘live, reside, dwell’.

26415

*ian₃ that, there (probably 2p.)

2779

PWMP     *ian₃ that, there (probably 2p.)

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) yanthis
Isneg iānthat; there (near the person addressed)
Gaddang yanthat (2p.)
Tagalog iánthat (near the person addressed)
  d-ianthere
Bikol iánthat, those (nearer than itó)
Palawan Batak ʔiánthere (2p.)
Subanon d-ionthere (2p.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) d-ianthere (2p. or 3p.)
Malay k-ianthis; thus; this much; this way; hither
Malay (Deli) yenthat (Lang. dial. ian 'that')

Note:   Also PC *hiã ‘there’. Dempwolff (1934-38) attributed Tagalog ián ‘that’, Malagasy izani ‘this’, Sa'a ie ‘this, these’ to *ian ‘that (one), demonstrative pronoun’. Although he did not note it, the Malagasy form is irregular, and can better be compared with Atayal iani ‘this; here; now’, Mansaka y-ani ‘this’, Nggela iani ‘here’, probably reflecting *ia-ni ‘this; here’. The inclusion of Sa'a ie in Dempwolff's comparison is equally problematic. Many OC languages which have lost original final consonants (e.g. Tolai, Bugotu, Mota, Tongan, Niue, Samoan, Anuta, and Maori) have a demonstrative pronoun reflecting earlier *ia. While some of these forms can plausibly be compared with reflexes of *ian, they can equally well be compared with e.g. Aklanon ‘here’ or Rotinese ia ‘this; here’, which cannot reflect a consonant-final etymon. As suggested by some grammarians and lexicographers (e.g. Churchward 1959) these demonstrative uses, like the widespread exclamatory and confirmatory forms of similar shape, probably represent semantic extensions of the 3sg personal pronoun *ia.

26416

*iap kind of brown fish

2780

PSHWNG     *iap kind of brown fish

SHWNG
Buli iafbrown fish
Waropen iabrown fish

26417

*iaqi demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning

2781

PMP     *iaqi demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning

WMP
Proto-Minahasan *iaʔithis
SHWNG
Waropen iaithat (of things)
OC
Gilbertese iaithere, here

Note:   Also Rotuman ia ʔi ‘this person here’ (cp. ia ʔo ‘that person there’). Ross (1988:208ff) reconstructs POc *iai as a "locative proform", widely reflected in the Papuan Tip languages of southeastern New Guinea.

26418

*ias₁ particle of doubt or interrogation

2782

PMP     *ias₁ particle of doubt or interrogation

WMP
Kankanaey íastrue? yes? indeed? sure? An interjection used when doubting
Kayan iahinterrogative particle, sentence final
OC
Lakalai iainterrogative used at the end of phrase or sentence to indicate question similar to French "N'est-ce pas?"

Note:   Possibly a product of convergence.

26419

*ias₂ maggot, fly egg

2783

PWMP     *ias₂ maggot, fly egg

WMP
Kayan iahmaggot
Iban iasmaggot
Sasak iaseggs of flies

Note:   It is unclear how the meaning of this term differed from that of *qulej. It is possible that *ias referred to the eggs of flies prior to hatching, whereas *qulej clearly referred to maggots, caterpillars, and other insect larvae that metamorphose into adults that fly.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ib

iba

iba iba

iba₁

iba₂

ibak

ibaS

ibe

ibeR

ibit

ibo

ibu₃

ibuk

ibun

ibus

ibut₁

ibut₂

31088

*iba another, other; different, distinct

9055

PPh     *iba another, other; different, distinct

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat íbaanother, other, different, distinct, new; to be different
Bikol ibádifferent, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different, be distinct from
Hanunóo ʔibáanother, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate
Aklanon ibá(h)different, other, another
  ka-ibáto be different, differ

Note:   Possibly identical to PAn *ibaS ‘companion; close relative; another one’.

26423

*iba iba remainder, surplus

2789

PMP     *iba iba₁ remainder, surplus

WMP
Karo Batak ibaremainder
  iba-ibawhat is left over, surplus, remainder

2790

POC     *iba iba₂ remainder, surplus

OC
Tolai iba-ibaresidue, excess, remainder, over and above

Note:   Also Bontok ibʔá ‘remainder, rest’. Possibly connected with PAn *ibaS ‘companion’.

26426

*iba₁ self

2796

PWMP     *iba₁ self

WMP
Toba Batak ibageneral pronoun; person, one, self, in the sense of "I"
Balinese ibabody, self
  iba-ibaalone

26427

*iba₂ bad, evil

2797

PPh     *iba₂ bad, evil

WMP
Kankanaey íbaominous, portentous, forboding evil; bad, ill
Bikol ibábewitched
Hanunóo ʔibábad! terrible! disagreeable, partly by being something other than that which is considered standard or acceptable
Tboli ibamistake, blunder

Note:   Possibly also Iban antu iba ‘demon, spirit (of the forest?)’. If the latter is included in this comparison the etymon might include an additional gloss ‘bewitched’.

26424

*ibak break or split off

2791

PMP     *ibak break or split off     [doublet: *ipak₂]

WMP
Malagasy ivakabe disjointed, as boards or planks in a flooring; be apart
Tae' iʔbakopen forcefully, as the clenched teeth (< *i-r-bak)
Proto-South Sulawesi *i-r-bakcut, make an incision
CMP
Manggarai ibak, iwakpart, half of something split (as a coconut)
Rembong ibakpiece of a beehive; piece cut or split off

Note:   With root *-bak₃ ‘split off, separate from’.

26425

*ibaS companion, close relative, other one

2792

PAN     *ibaS companion, close relative, other one

Formosan
Puyuma (Rikavong) ivaelder sibling, elder sibling's spouse, spouse's elder sibling

2793

PMP     *ibah companion, close relative, other one

WMP
Ifugaw ibábrother, sister, cousin, companion, friend
Casiguran Dumagat íbaanother, other, different, distinct, new
Pangasinan íbacompanion; accompany; help
Tagalog ibáother, another; different, distinct
Bikol ibádifferent, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different; include, incorporate, enclose; join, belong to; associate with; accompany, go or come along with
  pag-ir-ibácompany, companions, society
Hanunóo íbacompanionship; accompanying, going along with someone
  ʔibáanother, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate
Aklanon íba(h)go together, be companions
  ibá(h)accompany, go along with; different, other, another
Cebuano ibá(given as a dialect form of ubán) the other ones, additional ones; include in a group
Mongondow iba-niaanother, other; some

2794

PMP     *ibah-an companion, close relative, other one

WMP
Itbayaten ivanidea of being a companion
Ivatan ka-yvanfriend
Hiligaynon ibánother, some other
Murut (Timugon) iwanfather-in-law, mother-in-law
Kelabit ibanparent-in-law, child-in-law
Murik ame ibanfather-in-law
  ine ibanmother-in-law
  anak ibanchild-in-law
Bintulu ivanparent-in-law
  anak ivanchild-in-law
Ngaju Dayak iwanhusband's sister, brother's wife
Ma'anyan iwanwife's sister, brother's wife (m.s.)
Iban ibanperson
Singhi Land Dayak ibanson-in-law, daughter-in-law
Toba Batak par-ibanMBD (the preferred spouse of a man); two sisters ... are each other's pariban, they are marpariban, and call each other haha and aŋgi and not iboto. Each sister is also marpariban to the husband of the other and both their husbands are marpariban to each other also. Sisters are always very attached to each other, and, as a rule, the same is true of their husbands. (Vergouwen 1964:47)
Nias iwatribe, clan; (in southern Nias) brother, sister
CMP
Bimanese iwafriend; close relative
Manusela iba, ifanpatrilineal clan (van Wouden 1968 [1935]:21 )

2795

PWMP     *ka-ibah-an companion, close relative, other one

WMP
Itbayaten ka-yvancompanion, escort, associate, chaperone
  ka-ka-yvanfriend (because of frequent going together)
Ivatan ka-yvanfriend
Hanunóo ka-ʔibáh-ancompanion, fellow traveler
Aklanon ka-ibah-ancompanion
Penan k-ivanparent-in-law, child-in-law

Note:   Also Bontok ibʔá ‘other; companions’, ibʔa-an ‘join with, put together with’, Kankanaey ibʔá ‘companion, fellow, associate’, Tiruray iboʔ ‘sister-in-law (m.s.), brother-in-law (w.s.)’. Based on the comparison Tagalog ibá ‘other, another, different’, Toba Batak iba ‘person, self’, leban (< *la-iba-an) ‘other; excess, remainder, stranger’, Javanese ébah ‘to move’, éwah ‘to change’, Ngaju Dayak iwa-n ‘(the other =) sister-in-law (w.s.)’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *ibaq ‘different; to change’. The present comparison includes the Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak members of Dempwolff's comparison, but not the Toba Batak and Javanese members.

Although I believe that it is an improvement on Dempwolff, the cognate set proposed here is difficult for two reasons: (1) in most reflexes the proposed suffix *-an is fossilized (whereas the prefix *ka- in *ka-ibah-an is fossilized only in Penan k-ivan); (2) the meaning of reflexes ranges over ‘companion, friend’, same generation consanguines, same and adjacent generation affines, ‘clan’, and (at least in Philippine languages) ‘other, different’. I assume that all of these senses are related through the notion ‘companion: the "other" in a personal dyad which includes the self’. Dempwolff presumably would also have included forms that I assign to *iba iba ‘remainder, surplus’. It is possible, but by no means certain,

26484

*ibe mat

2876

POC     *ibe mat

OC
Nggela imbemat
'Āre'āre ipemat, bed
Fijian ibemat

26428

*ibeR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for

2798

PMP     *ibeR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for

WMP
Pangasinan ibégcovet, desire, fall in love with (loanword)
Tagalog ibígwish, want, desire; objective; whim; darling, beloved; dream, ideal
Hanunóo íbugliking, desire, wish, love
Aklanon íbogattracted to, desire, like
Hiligaynon íbughave a passion for, crave for
Cebuano íbugattracted
Tiruray ʔibegappetite; saliva (loanword)
Kayan ivahvenom of snake, saliva of human
Ngaju Dayak iwæhsaliva (in the mouth; saliva that has been spat out is luja)
Malagasy ivysaliva, drivel, slabber
Mongondow ibogwish, desire; saliva
Palauan ŋíbəsdrooling saliva
  ŋ-u-íbəshave desires for, lust after
  olə-ŋíbəstempt, tease, seduce

2799

POC     *ipoR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for

OC
Tongan ifotasty, lit. or fig. (interesting, etc.)
Niue ifofoam at the mouth; spittle

2800

PWMP     *ibeR ibeR drool profusely (?)

WMP
Cebuano íbug-íbugtempt
Ngaju Dayak iwæh-iwæhdrool profusely (as a dog after running in the hunt)

2801

PWMP     *ibeR-en drooling

WMP
Tagalog ibíg-inlove or desire someone or something
Mongondow ibog-onuncontrollably watering at the mouth
Palauan ŋəbok-ldrooling

2802

PWMP     *ka-ibeR having desire for

WMP
Cebuano ka-íbugattraction to something
Ngaju Dayak ka-iwehthe flowing of saliva

2803

PWMP     *ka-ibeR ibeR constant longing

WMP
Tagalog ka-íbig-íbigdesirable, lovable
Ngaju Dayak ka-iweh-iwehflow continuously, of the saliva

2804

PWMP     *ma-ibeR desiring, craving

WMP
Tagalog ma-íbigbecome loved or desired; what is to be, or is being desired
Hiligaynon ma-íbughave a passion for, crave
Kayan m-ivahsalivate
Ngaju Dayak m-iwæhused after mipen 'desire' to add emphasis

Note:   Also Kapampangan ibug ‘have a taste for, be eager to’. PMP *ibeR evidently referred both to saliva in the mouth and to strong desire associated with "watering at the mouth". The meanings of most of the affixed forms are uncertain.

26429

*ibit touch, grasp

2805

PMP     *ibit touch, grasp

WMP
Kayan ivittouch; grasp by the hand, hold
CMP
Wetan iwtitouch; hold fast, clench, pinch (esp. between thumb and finger)

Note:   With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.

26485

*ibo edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp.

2877

POC     *ibo edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp.

OC
Roviana ibosmall sea-worm, much used for bait in Koqa fishing
Gilbertese iboan edible worm found in sand on beach (called sea asparagus) -- resembles long piece of thick macaroni: Sipunculus indicus Peters
Fijian ibolarge edible sea-worm
Samoan ipoedible sea-worm: Sipunculus spp.
Tuvaluan iposp. of worm found on the beach

Note:   Gilbertese ibo may be a Polynesian loan, but the comparison can stand even if this form is eliminated. This item appears to be distinct from PMP *ibaw ‘edible shellfish’.

26489

*ibu₃ container for liquids

2883

POC     *ibu container for liquids

OC
Ulawa ipua hollow in a tree holding water
Tongan ipucup
Niue ipucup
Samoan ipu(coconut shell) cup; bowl; dish
Rarotongan ipugeneric for articles that serve as a basin, cup, etc., made in ancient days from coconut shells or a calabash
Hawaiian iputhe bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, also called L. vulgaris); general name for vessel or container, as dish, mug, calabash, pot, cup, pipe

Note:   Gilbertese ibu ‘calabash, gourd, toddy shell made of coconut shell’ is assumed to be a Polynesian loan.

26430

*ibuk dull, muffled sound

2806

PMP     *ibuk dull, muffled sound

WMP
Iban imbokRed cuckoo-dove, Little cuckoo-dove, Spotted-necked dove
Karo Batak ibuksmall owl sp. (onom.)
CMP
Ngadha ibustrike, beat, hit, knock; sound of a blow

Note:   The Iban and Karo Batak forms permit a PWMP *ibuk ‘bird with deep coo or hoot’. Apparently with root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’.

26431

*ibun bird sp.

2807

PPh     *ibun bird sp.

WMP
Ilokano íbon(Obs.) large bird
Tagalog íbonbird; íbun-an aviary

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano, but the more specific gloss in the latter language, and the indication that it is obsolescent argue against this interpretation.

26432

*ibus the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga

2808

PWMP     *ibus the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga

WMP
Malay ibusa palm, Corypha gebanga, used in mat-making
Acehnese iboihthe gebang palm: Corypha gebanga Bl.
Balinese ibus, ibus-anleaf of the palm tree
Sasak ibusa tree from which the wood for making drums is obtained. The tree dies as soon as it bears fruit: Corypha gebanga

26433

*ibut₁ pull out, uproot

2809

PMP     *ibut₁ pull out, uproot

WMP
Cebuano ibútpull out something rooted, stuck into something; for copulating things to get apart; draw a weapon on one
OC
Tolai ivut, iwutto pluck, as the feather of a fowl, etc.
Nggela ivu, ta-ivuuprooted, roots and all, by wind
Kwaio ifufall down by itself, of a tree
Lau ifuto uproot or be uprooted by wind

Note:   With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

26434

*ibut₂ breeze, draft of wind

2810

PWMP     *ibut₂ breeze

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ibutdraught, breeze, air
  ibut topuodstorm, gale
Rejang ibutwind, breeze, air

Note:   Possibly a convergent resemblance. In Kadazan Dusun *-b- normally became v; alternatively, Kadazan Dusun ibut may be a reduced form of earlier *imbut.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ic

icak

icir

icud

26435

*icak step, tread on

2811

PWMP     *icak step, tread on

WMP
Javanese icakget stepped on; step on
Mongondow itakstep on something; tread on

Note:   Also Balinese iŋsak ‘trample on, rub the feet on the ground’, Sasak icaʔ ‘step on’. Dunnebier (1951) cross-references Mongondow itak to yitak and ritak. Since r and y vary freely in many Mongondow words, and the sequence yi- sometimes varies with i-, itak may simply be a phonologically advanced form of ritak, thus invalidating this comparison.

26436

*icir creep, crawl

2812

PWMP     *icir creep, crawl     [disjunct: *iŋsiD]

WMP
[Toba Batak insircreep, crawl, slide, slip]
  [maŋ-insir-islink, creep]
Old Javanese icircrawl about? (of catfish and crayfish in the mud)

26437

*icud budge, shift, move aside

2813

PMP     *icud budge, shift, move aside     [disjunct: *isu₁, *isud]

WMP
[Tagalog ísodact of moving up or away in position]
[Kadazan Dusun insud-onthe place to which one moves]
Malay incutawry; out of position, as a strained limb; sidelong movement
CMP
[Ngadha isupress on, push away, press down]
OC
['Āre'āre isumove, remove, of persons and things]

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

id

ida

idap

idas₁

idas₂

idi

idus

26441

*ida they, them

2816

PMP     *ida they, them (cf *da)

WMP
Ilokano idáthey, them
Itawis iráthey, them
Kapampangan ilathey, them
Hiligaynon ílatheir, theirs
Cebuano ílatheir, by them; thing that's theirs
Maranao ira-ntheir
Kelabit idehthey, them
Kenyah (Long Anap) idathey, them
Maloh irathey, them
Old Javanese iraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you)
Balinese idahe, she, they; this is the pronoun for ksatriyas and brahmanas
  ida-nof him, of her
Sasak idahe
Mori irathey, them
CMP
Lamboya yidathey, them
Leti irathey, them
Wetan irathey, them
Fordata irathey, them
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) era3pl., they, them
Watubela ilathey, them
Bonfia ile <Athey, them
Alune ile3pl., they, them
SHWNG
Irarutu ire <Athey, them
  irthey
OC
Mussau ilathey, them
Bugotu i-irathey, used of women only
Arosi irathey, them
Proto-Micronesian *irathey, them
Mota ira3rd pl. suffixed to verb and preposition; never subject; the people, companions of
Central Maewo irathey, them
Sye irthey
Fijian iracardinal pronoun, 3rd pl. objective: them. It is used after verbs and prepositions; as subject only in sa i ira 'it is they'. The normal subject is ko ira after the verb, and era before it

2817

PWMP     *ni ida of them, by them

WMP
Itbayaten nirafor them
Tagalog nilátheir, theirs
Cebuano niláof them, by them
Old Javanese niraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you)

2818

PMP     *si ida they

WMP
Itbayaten sirathey, them
Tagalog siláthey
Cebuano siláthey
Berawan (Long Terawan) silohthey, them
Toba Batak na-sidathey, them
Old Javanese sirathey, them
Bare'e sira3rd person singular and plural pronoun, used for genealogically elder families, by slaves of their masters, by children-in-law of their parents-in-law, etc.
Palauan tir3rd person plural emphatic: they, them
Chamorro sihathey -- intransitive subject pronoun, transitive object pronoun, emphatic pronoun
CMP
Rotinese silathey, them
Atoni sinthey, them
Erai hirathey, their, them
Selaru sirathey, them
Yamdena sir(e)they, them
Kei hirthey, them
Ujir sirathey, them
Paulohi silethey, them
Buruese sirathey, them
Sekar sinathey, them
SHWNG
Buli sil(e)they, them
As sirethey, them
OC
Sudest thiyethey

Note:   A number of languages in the Solomons and Vanuatu exhibit reflexes of earlier *kira. It is assumed that these derive from *ida (> *ira), with contamination from the other plural pronouns (*kita ‘1pl. incl.’, *kami ‘1pl. excl.’, *kamu ‘2pl.’). Tasiriki nira, Wailapa i-nira ‘they’ and similar forms in other languages of Vanuatu can be compared directly with *ni ida, but are assumed to be the result of an independent development.

30044

*idap hold a grudge

6743

PWMP     *idap hold a grudge

WMP
Tagalog írapglare, sullen glance
Maranao irapblame, suspect
Iban idaphold something against someone, bear a grudge
Mongondow idapto eye, spy on

26439

*idas₁ affine of Ego's generation

2814

PAN     *idas₁ affine of Ego's generation

Formosan
Atayal irahsister-in-law; wife's elder sister, husband's elder sister, elder brother's wife (man or woman speaking
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat idásspouse of sibling-in-law; spouse's sibling-in-law
Bikol idásterm for spouses when two brother have married two sisters
Mamanwa ilasspouse's sibling-in-law
Maranao idasbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
  pag-idasbrother-in-law when two men marry two sisters
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) izasspouse's sibling-in-law
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) idosspouse's sibling-in-law
Tiruray ʔidoshusband of one's sister-in-law, wife of one's brother-in-law
Murut (Timugon) ilashusband's brother's wife (but not wife's sister's husband)
Mentawai irabrother-in-law, sister-in-law (woman speaking)

Note:   The meaning of this term is problematic. In PPh it apparently meant ‘spouse of sibling-in-law = sibling-in-law of spouse’, as this meaning is reflected both in Casiguran Dumagat of the northern Philippines, and in many of the MANO languages and Tiruray of the southern Philippines. Both Murut (Timugon) of northern Borneo and Mentawai, spoken west of central Sumatra, reflect a usage that is restricted to female speakers. If this restriction is part of the original specification of the term, *idas may have meant ‘husband's brother's wife’, but the confirming evidence remains tantalizingly elusive.

26440

*idas₂ a strand, as of rope

2815

PWMP     *idas₂ a strand, as of rope

WMP
Kayan iraha strand of any cord or rope; a hair of the head
Malagasy iraa hank of cotton or silk prepared for weaving
Karo Batak idasa "single strand" of yarn; dua idas-na two strands

Note:   Also Iban iraʔ ‘fibre, strand’.

26442

*idi then, at that time

2819

PMP     *idi then, at that time

WMP
Ilokano idían adverb: formerly, in time past, at that time, then; a conjunction: when, at the time that, while
Kenyah idithen, not till then
SHWNG
Waropen irithen, next; however, but

Note:   Probably identical to *i-di ‘that, there’.

26443

*idus nasal mucus, snot

2820

PMP     *idus nasal mucus, snot

WMP
Sasak idussnot
Palauan ŋirtmucus (from nose only)
CMP
Komodo irusnasal mucus, snot
Manggarai irusnasal mucus, snot

Note:   Also Malay (h)iŋus ‘snot; mucus from the nose’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ie

ieq

26444

*ieq this

2821

PMP     *ieq this

WMP
Bintulu iəʔthis
Sasak iaʔthis
CMP
Rembong iaʔover there

2822

PWMP     *di-ieq here

WMP
Ivatan diaʔhere
Manobo (Dibabawon) diaʔthere (2p, 3p)
Bintulu d-iəʔhere

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ig

ígat

i(ŋ)git

28830

*ígat eel

6061

PPh     *ígat eel

WMP
Ilokano ígateel
Isneg íxāteel
Itawis ígateel
Pangasinan igáteel
Aklanon ígateel

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat iget ‘fresh water eel’.

26604

*i(ŋ)git anger, resentment

3062

PWMP     *i(ŋ)git anger, resentment

WMP
Tagalog iŋgítenvy, spite, grudge
Javanese igitexasperated with; exasperation, resentment

Note:   With root *-git ‘anger, resentment’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ih

ihap

ihi

26445

*ihap count, calculate

2823

PMP     *ihap count, calculate

WMP
Balangao iápcount; read
Bontok ʔiyápcount
Cebuano ihápcount
Maranao iapaccount for; count; figure out
Melanau (Mukah) iapcount
Singhi Land Dayak n-iapcount
Proto-Chamic *iāpcalculate
Proto-Minahasan *iapcount
Mongondow iapcount, calculate
Tae' iaʔcount, calculate
CMP
Onin iafcount
Sekar iafcount

2824

PPh     *ihap-en be counted, be calculated

WMP
Bontok ʔiyap-ə́nbe counted
Mongondow iap-onbe counted

Note:   Also Ifugaw uyáp ‘act of counting, reckoning, computing’, Mongondow iab ‘count, calculate’. The semantic distinction between this item and *bilaŋ ‘count’ remains somewhat vague. What few indications we have suggest that *bilaŋ meant ‘count’ (viz. ‘recite numerals in sequence’), whereas *ihap meant ‘calculate’ (viz. ‘manipulate numerals to determine an amount’). Both of these clearly distinguishable senses are commonly conflated as ‘to count’ in English despite the availability of lexical resources for distinguishing them (‘count’ vs. ‘calculate’).

26446

*ihi exclamation of surprise, etc.

2825

PMP     *ihi exclamation of surprise, etc.     [disjunct: *iqi]

WMP
Kapampangan iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity
Cebuano ihíexpression of surprise or warning
Uma iiexclamation, ouch!
CMP
Ngadha iicry, whine
OC
Rarotongan iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ii

iit

26447

*iit scraped or filed down

2826

PPh     *iit scraped or filed down

WMP
Kankanaey iitto file
Gorontalo iitoscraped down

Note:   Also Mongondow iid ‘scour, scrub’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ij

ijan

ijuŋ

26448

*ijan when?

2827

PAN     *ijan when?

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *ko-igan-əwhen?
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-ydanwhen?
WMP
Pangasinan kap-igánwhen?
Kapampangan kap-ilánwhen?
Tagalog ka-ilánwhen?
Tiruray ked-ironwhen?
Tboli k-ilónwhen?
Murut (Timugon) saŋg-ilanwhen?
Ida'an Begak nu k-idanwhen? (future)
Kelabit idanwhen?
Kayan iran, h-iranwhen? at what time?
Karo Batak nd-iganwhen? (future)
  nd-igan naiwhen? (past)
OC
Lakalai ala-isa ~ al-isawhen? (in the past)
Mono-Alu ro-isawhen?
Fijian na-icatime when

2828

POC     *ana<ŋa>ican when? (past)

OC
Duke of York na-ŋa-ianwhen? (past)
  u na-ŋa-ianwhen? (future)
Mota ŋa-isatime when
  ana-ŋa-isawhen? (past)

2829

PMP     *ŋa-ijan when?

WMP
Chamorro ŋa-iʔanwhen?
OC
Bali (Uneapa) ŋizaŋawhen?
Lakalai ga-isawhen? (in the future)
Nggela ŋ-ihahow many? how much? when?
Lau a-ŋ-itawhen? (past or future, and not always interrogative)
Mota ŋa-isatime when
Tangoa ŋ-isawhen?

2830

PMP     *p-ijan when?

WMP
Kallahan (Kayapa) p-iganwhen?
Balinese p-idanwhen? what time? whenever
Bare'e piawhen?
Tae' piranwhen (future)

2831

PCMP     *pijan when?

CMP
Riung pizanwhen?
Anakalangu piraŋuwhen?
Kambera piranwhen?
Rotinese fai hidawhen (future)

Note:   Also Paiwan ŋida ‘when?’, Hanunóo kapirá ‘when? when’, Maranao igira ‘when, while, during; whenever’, Sika rema pira ‘when?’, Tetun wen hira ‘when?’, Masiwang bot fila ‘when?’, Buruese beton pila ‘when?’, Buli ma-fis ‘when? (future)’, op-fis ‘when? (past)’, Dobuan ma-isa ‘when?’. Tagalog ka-ilán, Tboli k-ilon, Santa Catalina ka-ita ‘when?’ may point to an additional affixed form *ka-ijan. In any event, it is clear that the initial consonant of Tboli kilon is a fossilized affix rather than evidence for *qijan, since both Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-ydan and Chamorro ŋa-iʔan contradict initial *q.

The reconstruction of *p-ijan is problematic. In many languages reflexes of *ijan are confused with reflexes of *pija ‘how much? how many?’ (see above), and it is possible that *p-ijan is a monomorphemic product of contamination. Whatever the case, *p- does not appear to be separable in any CMP language. Similarly, the great majority of OC languages (like Chamorro) reflect a form with prefixed *ŋa-, suggesting that POc *ŋaijan was monomorphemic. Contrary to this interpretation, a few languages in the Solomons (Mono-Alu, Santa Catalina) reflect *ijan without *ŋa-. Finally, both in Karo Batak and in Chamorro a reflex of *ijan is commonly used together with a morpheme nai. Attention to the glosses (Karo Batak nai ‘marker of past time’, Chamorro nai ‘where (relative), when (relative)’, however, suggests that this agreement is convergent, as apparently is that of Buli ma-fis ‘when (future)’, Dobuan ma-isa ‘when?’.

26449

*ijuŋ nose

2832

PMP     *ijuŋ nose     [doublet: *ejuŋ, *ŋijuŋ, *ujuŋ]

WMP
Ibanag igúŋnose
Isneg ixóŋnose
Yogad iguŋnose
Tagalog ilóŋnose
Hanunóo ʔirúŋnose
Cebuano ilúŋnose
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) izuŋnose
Tiruray ʔiruŋnose
Tboli iluŋnose
Iban idoŋnose
Jarai aduŋnose
Moken yoŋnose
Acehnese idoŋnose
Karo Batak iguŋnose
Toba Batak iguŋnose
Nias ichunose; snout, trunk, proboscis
Lampung ixuŋnose
Sundanese iruŋnose
Javanese iruŋnose
Balinese iruŋnose
Sasak iduŋnose
Chamorro guiʔeŋnose
CMP
Manggarai isuŋnose; snot
Li'o ijunose
Sika ʔirunose
Lamaholot irunnose
Rotinese idunose
Tetun inur <Mnose, trunk, snout
Kisar irunnose
Damar (West) sunonose
Leti irnunose
Yamdena iri <Anose
Proto-Ambon *ilunose
OC
Tigak isu-nose
Bali (Uneapa) izunose
Kairiru isu-nose
Gitua izunose; point of land
Suau isu-nose
Roro isu-nose
Teop ihu-nose
Nduke isu-nose
Nggela ihu-nose; beak; cape of land
Lau isuprow and stern erections of a canoe
Arosi isu-isunose ornament, made of clam shell
Rotuman isu-nose; projection, cape of land; point, tip, head of match
Tongan ihu-nose, (of an elephant) trunk
Samoan isu-nose
Rennellese isu-nose, beak, swelling on top of beak of doves; axe handle top, beneath the butt end of the blade
Maori ihu-nose; bow of a canoe, etc.
Hawaiian ihunose, snout, beak, bill, trunk of an elephant, toe of a shoe; a kiss, prow or bow of a canoe or ship; thick end of pearl-shell shank

2833

PCEMP     *ijuŋ mata face

CMP
Wetan irna mataface
OC
Roviana isuface

2834

PWMP     *ijuŋ-an fish sp.

WMP
Aklanon ilóŋ-anfish sp.
Iban duŋanfreshwater fish sp.

Note:   Also Kelabit idʰuŋ ‘nose’, Malay hidoŋ (expected **idoŋ) ‘organ of smell. Esp. of human noses, not animal snouts (monchoŋ)’, Old Javanese (h)iruŋ ‘nose’, Madurese eloŋ ‘nose’, Sasak eduŋ, eroŋ ‘nose’, Proto-Sangiric *idun ‘nose’, Tae' illoŋ ‘nose’, Palauan íis ‘nose’, isŋ-el ‘his or her nose’. Bimanese ilu ‘nose’, Wetan irna ‘nose’, Kamarian hiru ‘nose’, Lakalai ma-isu ‘nose’, Roviana isu (expected **isuŋu) ‘nose’, Central Maewo lisu- ‘nose’.

PWMP *ijuŋ-an probably had meanings other than that reconstructed here, as is suggested by Tagalog ilóŋ-an ‘big nosed’, Cebuano ilúŋ-an ‘having a nicely-shaped nose’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) izuŋ-an ‘grow hard (rice grains)’, Javanese iruŋ-an ‘pipe linking blacksmith's bellows to a fire-box; nose-shaped latch on a folding door’. It is also possible that a verbal form *maŋ-ijuŋ was found in PWMP, as is suggested by Toba Batak maŋ-iguŋ-iguŋ ‘sniff at (of a dog)’, Sundanese ŋ-iruŋ ‘talk through the nose’. The reduplication in the foregoing Toba Batak form and in Samoan isu-isu ‘be inquisitive, put one's nose into other people's affairs’, on the other hand, probably is convergent. Finally, in POc, *ijuŋ apparently was extended metaphorically to capes of land (Nggela, Rotuman), and to prows of canoes (Lau, Maori, Hawaiian).

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ik

ikamen

ikej

ikel

i(ŋ)kes

i(ŋ)kit

ikuD

ikud

ikuŋ

ikuR

ikut

26450

*ikamen mat

2835

PPh     *ikamen mat

WMP
Ilokano ikaménmat. A coarse fabric made by weaving strips of the leaves of the screw pine, strips of the petioles of the silag or buri palm, or similar material, and universally used to sleep on
Palawan Batak ʔikamɨnmat
Aborlan Tagbanwa ikamɨnwoven mat, used for sleeping

Note:   Also Iban (Lemanak) kamɨn ‘mat’, Kalagan kamɨn ‘mat’, Mansaka kamɨn ‘mat’. Possibly a suffixed form of *Sikam ‘mat’.

26452

*ikej cough

2837

PWMP     *ikej cough

WMP
Ibanag ikegcough
Isneg íkāgcough; the root of a tree that relieves cough, when chewed for five consecutive days
  max-íkāgto cough
Itawis íkagcough
Bontok ʔíkəgtuberculosis
Casiguran Dumagat ikehcough
Aborlan Tagbanwa ikɨdcough
Kadazan Dusun ikod-onto cough
Kayan ikena cough
  n-ikedto cough
Kayan (Uma Juman) ikera cough
  n-ikerto cough
Bintulu ikəda cough
  p-ikədto cough

26453

*ikel curly, wavy (as the hair)

2838

PWMP     *ikel curly, wavy (as the hair)

WMP
Kapampangan ikalcurly, crisp, of the hair (like a Negro)
Ngaju Dayak ikal-ikalcurly (of the hair)
Malay ikalcurly (of hair)
Rejang ika, ikeacurled, curly
Old Javanese ikelcurled, wavy (as hair)
Sasak ikelcurly (of the hair)

Note:   Also Balinese iŋgel ‘curl, be curly; twisted; coil’. With root *-kel ‘bend, curl’.

26605

*i(ŋ)kes bound firmly

3063

PMP     *i(ŋ)kes bound firmly

WMP
Sasak iŋkesfirm, well-bound, well-packed (of things)
CMP
Manggarai ikestethered, tied to
Paulohi ikewind a thread on a spool

Note:   Also Isneg irkát ‘to tie, to bind’. With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

26606

*i(ŋ)kit bite

3064

PWMP     *i(ŋ)kit bite

WMP
Cebuano iŋkitbite off a small piece with the front teeth
Dusun Deyah ŋ-ikitbite
Ma'anyan ŋ-ikitbite

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kiʔit ‘bite off something with the front teeth’. With probable root *-kit₁ ‘bite’.

26454

*ikuD to follow

2839

PAN     *ikuD to follow     [doublet: *ikut]

Formosan
Amis ikorafter, behind
WMP
Cebuano ikúdfollow immediately behind someone
Tiruray ʔigorkeeping one's eyes on someone, even though one's head is turning away
Iban ikurfollow

Note:   Iban ikur ‘follow’ may reflect *ikuR ‘tail’ (cf. Aklanon íkog ‘tail (of any creature); to follow, trail behind, "tail"). If so, the Amis, Cebuano and Tiruray forms can be taken to reflect *ikud.

32369

*ikud to sit

10690

PAN     *ikud to sit

Formosan
Favorlang/Babuza m-ikodto sit

10691

PMP     *iŋkud to sit

WMP
Manobo (Dibabawon) iŋkudto sit
Subanun (Sindangan) mɨg-iŋkudto sit
Mansaka iŋkodto sit
Kalagan iŋkudto sit

Note:   Also Hoanya m-ikun ‘to sit’.

26457

*ikuŋ tail

2847

PMP     *ikuŋ tail     [doublet: *ikuR]

WMP
Tboli ikoŋtail
Malay (Brunei) ékoŋtail
Makasarese iŋkoŋtail
CMP
Manggarai ikoŋextremity, tip
  ikoŋ tanacape, promontory

Note:   Also Maloh iŋko ‘tail’. The mid-vowel reflex in all of these forms is unexplained, and may point to a rare PMP phoneme *o.

26455

*ikuR tail

2840

PAN     *ikuR tail     [doublet: *ikuŋ, *kikuR]

Formosan
Bunun ikultail (of a mammal)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ikuRtail
Paiwan ikutail (of animal, bird)
WMP
Bontok ʔíkultail of an animal
Pangasinan ikóltail
Bikol íkogtail
Hanunóo íkugtail, as of an animal
Abaknon iŋkotail
Aklanon íkogtail (of any creature)
Palawan Batak ʔikógtail
Cebuano íkugtail, or analogous structure
Maranao ikogtail
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ikugtail
Tiruray ʔigortail
Kelabit iurtail of an animal
Kayan ikohtail of an animal
Bintulu ikuytail
Ngaju Dayak ikohtail
Iban ikoʔtail
Malay ékortail; tail-like extremity
Karo Batak ikurtail, esp. of mammals
Toba Batak ihurtail
Nias iʔotail
Rejang ikoatail
Old Javanese ikū, ikuhtail
  aŋ-ikūto follow
Balinese ikuhtail
Uma ikutail
Bare'e ikutail
Tae' ikkoʔtail
CMP
Rembong ikoʔtail, rear; extremity
Lamaholot iku-ntail
Rotinese ikotail (of mammal, fish, etc.)
Tetun ikuthe last, the latest
  iku-ntail, buttocks; final
  iku-slast, final, behind
Erai ikutail
Leti ikrutail (in combination forms: in-ikru 'fish tail', etc.)
Wetan ikratail
Yamdena ikurtail
Proto-Ambon *iku-tail
Buruese iku-ntail
Soboyo ikutail
OC
Wogeo ikutail
Gitua igutail
Motu iutail (of animals)
Nggela igutail
Longgu iku-ikutail
Lau kiu <Mtail of animal, fish (not bird)
Proto-Micronesian *ikutail
Pohnpeian ikitail, end, extreme
Chuukese wuuktail, rear end
Tongan ikutail (esp. of a quadruped); to end, terminate, culminate; issue, result; finish up
Samoan iʔube finished, ended; tail (as of a fish); tail of a shark (as a portion) when it is divided according to custom; result, effect

2841

PMP     *ikuR ni mata outer corner of the eye

WMP
Malay ékor mataouter corner of the eye
CMP
Rotinese mata iko-kouter corner of the eye

2842

PMP     *ikuR ikuR trailing behind

WMP
Hanunóo ʔikug-ʔíkugalways going together, as of close friends
Kelabit iur-iuralways behind in one's work
OC
Nggela igu-iguthe last in a dance

2843

PMP     *ikuR ikuR ni asu a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses

WMP
Karo Batak ikur-ikura creeping plant with clover-like flowers, used as medicine for cattle
Toba Batak si mar-ihur-ihur ni asu(lit. 'the one with a dog's tail') a small plant the leaves of which are applied to abscesses
Bare'e iku asu('dog's tail') an herb the scrapings of which are applied to abscesses to draw out the pus
Tae' ikkoʔ-ikkoʔa plant with white flowers the shape of a dog's tail, and leaves used in treating skin diseases
CMP
Kambera kikuahu('dog's tail') kind of vegetation

2844

PWMP     *maŋ-ikuR be at the rear

WMP
Cebuano maŋ-íkugto put or be at the rear
Malay meŋ-ékorto hang (like a tail); to follow

2845

PWMP     *maR-ikuR have a tail

WMP
Bikol mag-íkogput a tail on something
Malay ber-ékorhave a tail
Bare'e mo-ikuhave a tail

Note:   Also Kankanaey íko ‘tail’, Malagasy uhi, uhu ‘tail’, Kambera kaiku, Dobuan iu-iu-na ‘tail’, Eddystone/Mandegusu ikutu ‘tail’, PPn *siku ‘tail’. Paiwan iku-iku ‘coccyx (of person)’ may belong to the cognate set here assigned to *ikuR ikuR, but this is by no means clear. Cebuano ikug-ikug sa iriŋ (lit. ‘cat's tail’) ‘kind of ornamental aerial plant consisting of long branches with fine leaves resembling a cat's tail’ or Cebuano ikug-íkug sa iriŋ ‘kind of ornamental bush bearing small flowers in dense purple, hanging spikes’ or both may be related to Malay ékor kuchiŋ (lit. ‘cat's tail’) ‘generic for plants with close spikes of flowers’, though a reconstruction is presently unattainable.

26456

*ikut to follow, join with

2846

PMP     *ikut to follow, join with     [doublet: *ikuD]

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ikutbe subjugated
Iban ikutfollow, go after, accompany; agree, join in opinion with
Malay ikutcoming after (in space, not time); according to
  ikut jalantaking a certain route
Karo Batak ikutincluded, counted among
  ŋ-ikutto follow, accompany, connect oneself with a person or party
Toba Batak ihutto follow
Old Javanese ikutto follow; be attached to
CMP
Rembong ikutto follow
Buruese iku-htake, as a path, etc.
  iku-kfollow, take

Note:   Also Manggarai ikot ‘follow’, Buruese iko-h ‘follow, go by way of’. Some of the above items may be loans from Malay, but the comparison appears to stand nonetheless. The meaning of this form appears to have been ‘follow’, not in the sense of ‘pursue’ or ‘trail someone’, but rather in the sense of ‘join with’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

il

ila

ilah

ilap₁

ilap₂

ilap₃

ilaw

ilek

ileŋ

ileR

ilet

ili

iliŋ₁

iliŋ₂

iliŋ₃

íliw

iliʔ

ilo

ilu

iluR₁

iluR₂

26458

*ila see (abstract things), foresee, know

2848

PWMP     *ila₂ see (abstract things), foresee, know

WMP
Bontok ʔílato see; to divine the cause of a sickness
Kankanaey ílalook at, look on, behold, see, observe, view, inspect; know well, foresee (applied to any knowledge of hidden things or facts); curious, inquisitive
Ifugaw ílaknowing, seeking, finding. Exceptionally, ila may convey the meaning of "seeing, looking"
Cebuano ílaidentify, distinguish which is which; recognize who a person is; know a person; acknowledge, consider someone as something; experience, taste
  ilh-ánanidentifying mark or sign
Lun Dayeh ilehknowledge
Kelabit ilehcleverness, intelligence, wisdom
  m-ilehclever, intelligent
Simalur ilaknow, be acquainted with, understand; cunning, craft
Nias ilasee, know, be able; foresee
Sundanese ila-ilaa sign, premonition (as of the fall of a prominent person)

Note:   The meaning of this term differed from that of *kita, which referred to physical seeing (the perception of concrete objects), *kilala, which referred to personal recognition or acquaintance and *taqu, which evidently referred to acquired knowledge. The nearest English equivalent is perhaps ‘to grasp, have insight into’, although *ilah apparently carried the additional notion of insight into the future.

26459

*ilah wild, timorous, shy

2849

PMP     *ilah wild, timorous, shy     [doublet: *gila]

WMP
Hanunóo ʔilástate of being wild, untamed, undomesticated, with reference to animals
Aklanon ilá(h)wild, untamed, undomesticated (fowl)
Hiligaynon iláelusive, untamed, undomesticated
Cebuano iláshy, afraid to approach someone unfamiliar
Maranao ilawildness
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ilaof people, but esp. of animals that are skilful in escaping from and avoiding humans, to be wary
Sasak ilaʔbashful, shy
  ilaʔ-ilaʔ-anshy by nature
Bare'e ilawild; shy
Tae' ilaafraid and regretful on hearing a rebuke, fed up with admonitions

7003

POC     *ila₁ wild, timorous, shy

OC
Araki ilawild, from the bush (of animals)

2850

PWMP     *ilah-an shy, ashamed

WMP
Cebuano ilah-ánshy
Sasak ilaʔ-anfeel ashamed

2851

PWMP     *ma-ilah₁ wild, shy, skittish

WMP
Hanunóo ma-ʔiláwild, untamed
Aklanon ma-ilá(h)wild, untamed
Cebuano ma-iláshy (as chickens)
Bare'e ma-ilawild, skittish (as a horse)

Note:   Also Makasarese ilaʔ-ilaʔ ‘wild (as in playing); headlong, hot-headed (as in riding a horse)’. PAn *ma-Seyaq ‘shy, embarrassed, ashamed’ referred to shyness in humans; *ma-ilah appears to have applied primarily to animals.

26460

*ilap₁ flicker, of flames

2852

PMP     *ilap₁ flicker, of flames

WMP
Cebuano iláp, ílapfor flames to lick at something; touch lightly
Sasak élapflame, light
OC
Mono-Alu ila-ilafalightning

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat ilep ‘to reflect (of something shiny which is reflecting in the sunlight)’. With root *-lap ‘flash, sparkle’.

26461

*ilap₂ silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something

2853

PMP     *ilap₂ silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something

WMP
Karo Batak ilapapparition, shadow, silhouette (of something one perceives only momentarily)
CMP
Manggarai ilapvague outline, silhouette, shadow

32597

*ilap₃ slice, cut (as meat)

10980

PPh     *ilap₃ slice, cut (as meat)

WMP
Yami ilapcut pieces, cut chunks
  n-ilapcut pieces
  ka-ilap-anthickness of the slabs of meat
Ibatan idapa slice
Ilokano ílapa slice

10981

PPh     *maŋ-ilap to cut or slice meat

WMP
Yami maŋ-ilapto cut meat
Itbayaten mañ-ilapto cut finger or toenails, to cut one’s nails off
Ibatan maŋ-idapto slice meat, cut into slices
Pangasinan man-ilápto cut finely

10982

PPh     *ilap-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Yami ilap-anreason for cutting into pieces
Ilokano iláp-anto cut a slice from something

10983

PPh     *ilap-en to cut, slice (as meat)

WMP
Yami ilap-ento cut
Ibatan idap-ento slice meat, cut into slices
Ilokano iláp-ento slice

26462

*ilaw look at (a reflection, etc.)

2854

PMP     *ilaw look at (a reflection, etc.)     [doublet: *qiro]

WMP
Old Javanese ilolook at oneself (in the mirror, etc.); see, watch
Javanese ilolook at oneself in the mirror; devote one's attention to
OC
Gedaged illook at, behold, discern, perceive; sight, view
Mota ilosee; know
Fijian ilolook at, as a reflection in water or in a mirror
Rennellese igo-igolook, esp. at a reflection

32568

*ilek armpit

10933

PWMP     *ilek armpit

WMP
Lun Dayeh ilekarmpit
  ŋ-ilekcarry something by means of putting it under the arm
Kelabit iləkarmpit
Lolak iyokarmpit

26465

*ileŋ turn, rotate

2857

PMP     *ileŋ turn, rotate     [doublet: *iliŋ₃]

WMP
Tiruray ʔileŋto twirl, rotate
Kenyah (Long Anap) ileŋturn the head
Kayan ileŋshaking the head in refusal

26463

*ileR having defective eyes

2855

PWMP     *ileR having defective eyes

WMP
Maranao ilegcross-eyed, wall-eyed
Kayan ilahsquint (of eyes); eyes turned up in severe illness

Note:   With probable root *-leR ‘blind’.

26464

*ilet tight

2856

PWMP     *ilet tight     [doublet: *silet]

WMP
Ilokano ilétnarrow, strait, constricted, tight, giving little room (openings, garments, etc.); difficult, labored (breath)
Kayan ilettight-fitting -- of a small hole or clothing; crowded; tightly packed, of goods

Note:   Also Kayan hilet ‘tight fitting; crowded’. Bontok ilet ‘bind, tighten, make taut’ probably belongs with *hiRet ‘tighten; constriction, belt’.

26466

*ili thwarts of a canoe

2858

POC     *ili thwarts of a canoe

OC
Lakalai ilithwarts of a canoe
Molima iliplain uncarved thwart; rod connecting to boom
Sa'a ilithe second plank of a canoe

Note:   Also 'Āre'āre ire ‘the second plank of a canoe’.

26468

*iliŋ₁ pour

2860

PMP     *iliŋ₁ pour

WMP
Malagasy idinăpoured out, let down, taken out
Javanese iliŋto pour something
OC
Arosi iri, iriŋ-ito pour

Note:   Also Lau igi, Arosi iris-i ‘to pour’.

26469

*iliŋ₂ see, examine, look at closely

2861

PWMP     *iliŋ₂ see, examine, look at closely     [disjunct: *hiliŋ]

WMP
Bikol hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) iliŋ-ʔiliŋexamine or investigate an object carefully
[Tiruray ʔiliŋ-ʔiliŋlook around, scan]
[Old Javanese iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love)]
[Balinese iliŋsee, look]

26470

*iliŋ₃ shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side

2862

PWMP     *iliŋ₃ shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side     [doublet: *ileŋ]

WMP
Tagalog ilíŋshaking of the head in denial or disapproval
Kenyah (Long Anap) iliŋturn the body
Malay éléŋheel over, list to the side
Toba Batak iliŋbend to the side
Tae' iliŋshake the head as a sign of refusal
Mandar iliŋshake the head in negation
Makasarese iliŋturn the head sideways, bend the head to left or right

Note:   With root *-liŋ₃ ‘turn, revolve’.

28844

*íliw homesick; long for something that is missed

6075

PPh     *íliw homesick; long for something that is missed

WMP
Ilokano íliwremember (an absent friend, relative, etc.) with affection; long to see; be homesick, nostalgic
  íliwhomesickness, nostalgia
  ma-íliwbe homesick, long for something
  um-íliwto visit a person who is missed
  iliw-ento enjoy being with a long absent person
Bontok ʔíliwhomesick; lonely for someone
Pangasinan íliwhomesickness; be homesick
Cebuano íliwlong for something, miss something that one loves

26467

*iliʔ flow, current

2859

PWMP     *iliʔ flow, current     [doublet: *iliR]

WMP
Ilokano ilimenstrual flow
Iban iliʔdownstream
Javanese iliflow, current
Mongondow iliʔflow, current

26471

*ilo inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories

2863

POC     *ilo inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories

OC
Lakalai ilothe inside, the interior; interior of the body, interpreted as the seat of emotions
Manam ilothe interior, inner life; remember, think of somebody
Gedaged ilo-ninterior, midst, inside, core, inlet, pith; the seat of thought, will and emotions; heart, mind, self, soul, contents of memory

26474

*ilu orphan; orphaned

2866

PWMP     *ilu orphan; orphaned

WMP
Bikol ílobe orphaned
  ílo-ŋ lubósan orphan
Hanunóo íluorphan
Aklanon ílo(h)orphan; to be left an orphan
Hiligaynon íluorphan
  ma-ilubecome an orphan, be orphaned
Cebuano íluone who has lost a parent
Maranao iloorphan
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) iluorphan
Tboli iluorphan
Uma iluorphaned
  ana iluorphan
Bare'e iluorphaned
  anaʔ iluorphan

Note:   Also Hanunóo íluʔ ‘orphan’, Kenyah ilu-n ‘mother dead’, Iban iru ‘adopted’, ŋ-iru ‘to adopt’, anak iru ‘adopted child, step child’.

26472

*iluR₁ spittle, saliva

2864

PMP     *iluR₁ spittle, saliva

WMP
Malay liur <Msaliva
Simalur ilulspittle, slaver
Nias ilospittle, slaver
Lampung iluysaliva, spittle
Old Javanese ilūsaliva
Bare'e iludesire, arouse a desire for something
Tae' iloʔ, iludesire something
Makasarese iloroʔmoisture in the mouth
CMP
Komodo iluto spit (at)
Manggarai ilursaliva
Sika ʔilursaliva
Lamaholot ilusaliva
Hawu ilusaliva, spittle

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) iler ‘saliva’. Possibly with root *-luR ‘flow’.

26473

*iluR₂ river channel

2865

PAN     *iluR₂ river channel

Formosan
Kavalan iRuRsmall stream, creek
WMP
Ilokano ílogcreek (of salt water); river
Pangasinan ílogriver
Kapampangan ílugriver
Tagalog ílogriver
  ilug-ilug-anrivulet
Bikol mag-ílogto travel via the main channel or deepest part of a river
  ka-ílog-anthe main channel or deepest part of a river
Aklanon ilógto flow
Palawan Batak ʔilógriver
Melanau (Mukah) iluhchannel between the roots of trees in a mangrove swamp

Note:   With root *-luR ‘flow’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Tagalog ílog with Javanese ilu, Malay liur ‘spittle’, Malagasy ilo ‘the purest portion of oil or grease’.

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im

ima

ima₁

ima₂

imbaŋ

imbu

imbuk

imbuq

imbuR

imit

impes

impu₁

impu₂

imput

imún

ímut

29944

*ima who?

6624

PAN     *ima who?

Formosan
Atayal imawho; anyone
Seediq (Truku) imawho? (for persons, the most common interrogative)
Pazeh imawho?
  iʔ-imawho? (plural)
Paiwan imawho? (restricted use)
  ti vuvu i imawhich grandparent? (‘grandparent who?’)

8840

PAN     *ni-ima whose?

Formosan
Pazeh n-imawhose?
Paiwan n-ima ~ ni-imawhose?

8841

PAN     *si-ima who?

Formosan
Amis c-imawho?
  c-ima c-imawhoever
  c-ima c-ima-anto whomever
Thao t-imawho?, which one?
Bunun s-imawho?
Siraya t-ima-ŋwho?
Paiwan t-imawho? (from ti-ima)
  t-ima-imawho? (several persons)
WMP
Subanon simawho?

Note:   As with the personal pronouns this base took both *si ‘nominative case marker for singular personal names’, and *ni ‘genitive case marker for singular pesonal names’. Siocon (Western) Subanen sima is the only known non-Formosan reflex of this form, and it implies that PMP had both *i-sai and *si-ima, presumably with some still undetermined distinction of meaning or function. Why the form of the nominative case marker was changed from *si to *i, both of which are widespread as the nominative of singular personal nouns, remains unclear.

26475

*ima₁ five

2867

PMP     *ima₁ five     [doublet: *lima]

WMP
Ilokano ímahand sleeve (cp. limá 'five')
Isneg ímahand; arm; foreleg of quadrupeds (cp. limmá 'five')
Itawis ímaarm, hand (cp. limá 'five')
Kankanaey ímahand, arm (cp. limá 'five')
Sasak imahand (cp. lima 'five')
CMP
Ngadha ima, limahand, arm; five

Note:   In both PAn and PMP the meanings ‘hand, arm’ and ‘five’ were represented by the same morpheme, *lima. To distinguish the two a rare body-part prefix *qa- (found also in *qabaRa ‘shoulder’ and perhaps *qaqaqi ‘foot, leg’) was sometimes added to the word for ‘hand, arm’. Palauan chim ‘hand, arm, front paws (of animals)’ appears to reflect *qa-lima. Since the languages cited above, which fall into three widely divergent groups, all exhibit doublets with and without l-, it is possible that the ima variants are irregularly altered forms of *qa-lima rather than of *lima.

However, neither the reconstruction of *lima, nor of *qa-lima makes it possible to explain the above data through regular sound change, and it appears necessary either to recognize widespread convergence of a seemingly unmotivated type, or to reconstruct a vowel-initial doublet. Superficially similar forms in Taiwan (Saisiyat, Pazeh, Bunun ima ‘hand’) and in Melanesia (Motu ima ‘arm, hand; five’ and the Central Papuan loan in Mailu ima ‘hand; five’), unlike the forms cited here, can regularly reflect *lima.

26476

*ima₂ kind of pandanus with leaves useful for

2868

PCEMP     *ima₂ kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting

CMP
Fordata imatree sp.
Paulohi imapandanus sp.
SHWNG
Buli imtree with leaves used to make mats
OC
Tanga imtall shrub with many stalks, the leaves of which provide wrapping material for a corpse prior to burial
Gedaged imkind of screw pine (pandanus); has aerial roots, and its leaves are used to make rain capes

26477

*imbaŋ weigh, balance, compare

2869

PMP     *imbaŋ weigh, balance, compare

WMP
Banjarese imbaŋweigh, balance; compare
Bahasa Indonesia imbaŋweigh, balance; compare
Karo Batak imbaŋalter-ego, competitor, foe
Dairi-Pakpak Batak imbaŋfriend; compared with
Toba Batak imbaŋco-wife (only the first wife uses this expression)
Javanese imbaŋweight
  imbaŋ-anequal; in balance with each other
Balinese imbaŋcompare
CMP
Manggarai imbabalance; compare
  imbaŋto weigh, balance

Note:   Manggarai imba, imbaŋ may be a loan from Bahasa Indonesia.

26481

*imbu stench, strong unpleasant odor

2873

PMP     *imbu stench, strong unpleasant odor

WMP
Malagasy imboa strong and offensive odor, but less strong than hantsina
CMP
Ngadha ibustink terribly

26478

*imbuk nature spirit

2870

PMP     *imbuk nature spirit

WMP
Iban antu imbokfemale demon
Bare'e imbuwater spirit which appears in many forms
CMP
Ngadha ibuevil spirit that preys especially on pregnant women

26479

*imbuq increase, addition

2871

PWMP     *imbuq increase, addition

WMP
Rejang imbuaʔincrement, increase, addition
Old Javanese imbuhincrease, addition
Javanese imbuhsomething in addition; supplement; a second helping
Balinese imbuhadd, increase, be heaped up
Sasak imbuʔincrease

Note:   Also Sundanese emboh ‘include, add’, Sasak imbuh ‘increase’.

26480

*imbuR scatter, strew

2872

PWMP     *imbuR scatter, strew

WMP
Iban imburscatter or splash with the hands
Mandar émburscatter, sow, strew

Note:   With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.

26482

*imit use sparingly

2874

PWMP     *imit use sparingly     [doublet: *ímut]

WMP
Kankanaey immiteat, take, etc. by little bits
Javanese ŋ-imitconserve, consume sparingly
  sa-imitbit by bit, a little at a time

26483

*impes deflate, subside (of a swelling)

2875

PWMP     *impes deflate, subside (of a swelling)     [doublet: *kempis]

WMP
Tagalog impísshrunken, deflated
Javanese di-impes-akébe reduced (of a swelling)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat epes ‘retract, shrink (as a balloon when the air is let out; a boil when it begins to heal; a woman's stomach after she has given birth)’, Ilokano eppés ‘reduce, subside, unswell (abscess, etc.)’.

26487

*impu₁ collect, heap up

2879

PMP     *impu₁ collect, heap up

WMP
Toba Batak impucollect, gather
CMP
Manggarai impuheap; to heap up

Note:   Apparently distinct from *qipun, *qimpun.

26488

*impu₂ grandparent

2880

PMP     *impu₂ grandparent     [doublet: *ampu, *empu, *umpu]

WMP
Tagalog impógrandmother
Melanau (Matu) ipewgrandparent
CMP
Rembong ipo-ʔgrandparent

2881

PMP     *t-impu grandparent

WMP
Melanau (Mukah) t-ipewgrandparent

2882

POC     *tibu₂ ancestor, grandparent

OC
Tanga tibu-grandparent (listed only in the English index)
Gedaged tibu-nancestor, grandparent, grandchild
Gilbertese tibugrandfather, grandmother, grandchild, grandparents and their ancestors, grandchildren and their descendants, adopted child, adopter, god-father, godmother, god-child
Maori tipu-naancestor; grandparent

Note:   Also Selaru ébu ‘grandparent, grandchild’. For the history and function of the prefix *t- and the suffix *-q in Austronesian kinship terms, cf. Blust (1979). From the discussion in that article it will be apparent that the PMP status of *t-impu implies a PMP form *impu, even if direct attestation of the unaffixed form in both WMP and CEMP languages is lacking.

26486

*imput tail-bone of animals

2878

PWMP     *imput tail-bone of animals

WMP
Karo Batak imputtail end, esp. of a chicken
Sasak imput-imputtail-bone (of animals)
  iputthe thick part of the tail (by the back)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak keput ‘tail of a turtle’. This word may have referred to the thick, basal portion of an animal's tail rather than to the coccyx proper.

26490

*imún jealous, envious

2884

PPh     *imún jealous, envious

WMP
Bontok ʔímunjealous over a person of the opposite sex
Casiguran Dumagat imónsuspicious, jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful
Bikol imónenvious, covetous, jealous
  mag-imónbe jealous of, covet, envy, begrudge
Aklanon ímonbe possessive (of), hold on to
  ka-ìmonpossessiveness, jealousy
  ma-ímonpossessive, overly protective, selfish
Hiligaynon ka-ímunjealousy, envy
  ma-ímunfeel jealous

28845

*ímut stingy, selfish

6076

PPh     *ímut stingy, selfish     [doublet: *imit]

WMP
Ilokano ímutavaricious, stingy, tight-fisted, niggardly, miserly
Bontok ʔímutselfish
Kapampangan imútstingy
Bikol ímotselfish, stingy, miserly, niggardly; a tightwad
Aklanon imótmiserly, thrifty, penny-pinching
Cebuano imut-imútbe financially hard-up on a long-term basis

Note:   Also Rejang imeut ‘thrifty, careful, meticulous’, Javanese imet ‘a tiny bit, very few’.

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in

ina

inap

inaR

inda₁

inda₂

inda₃

indaŋ

indu

inem

insan

inu

inum

inzak

26507

*-in- perfective marker

2934

PAN     *<in> perfective marker

Formosan
Atayal (-)in-infix or prefix forming the passive perfect; infix forming nouns
Bunun -in-past tense infix
Paiwan (-)in-past tense; action has already begun or been done
WMP
Bontok ʔin-completive aspect infix
Kankanaey in-a prefix; the past form of the suffix -en and of the prefix -i-
Tagalog -in-marker of perfective aspect
Melanau (Mukah) -en-, -i-(in ablauting verbs) marker of the preterite passive
Toba Batak -in-marker of the passive and deverbal nouns
Mentawai -in-passive marker
Mongondow -in-infix which forms passives from underived verbs, thereby indicates that something or someone has entirely undergone the action described by the verb; past tense
Wolio -in-marker of deverbal nouns
CMP
Wetan -in-infix, used mainly to form nouns from verb-stems
OC
Tolai -in-infix, inserted after the first letter of a verb to form a noun
Roviana (-)in-a prefix or infix used to form nouns from verbs and adjectives

Note:   Both Wolff (1973) and Dahl (1976) reconstruct PAn *-in- as a past tense marker which co-occurred with the active infix *-um-, the instrumental passive *Si- and the local passive *-an. In the direct passive the relationship of *-in- to the verb is more complex. Whereas the direct passive of non-past verbs was formed with *-en, the direct passive of past verbs was formed with no suffix. As a result the infix *-in- in the past tense of direct passive verbs acquired a kind of portmanteau function, signalling both the past tense and the passive voice inseparably. This portmanteau function of *-in- is widespread in Austronesian languages, and was noted early in the 20th century by the Dutch linguist Hendrik Kern (Kern 1913-28).

In contrast to Wolff and Dahl, Starosta, Pawley, and Reid (1982) argue that *-in-, along with other reconstructed affixes that function both as voice markers and as nominalizers in contemporary languages, were originally markers only of various types of nominalization. To them it follows, then, that the widespread verbal uses of these affixes are historically secondary.

In my view there is merit both in the position taken by Wolff and by Dahl (that the affixes in question were verbal inflections in PAn), and in the position taken by Starosta, Pawley, & Reid (that the same affixes were derivational devices for creating deverbal nouns). If there is a shortcoming that is shared by the two approaches it is perhaps the implicit assumption that the PAn affixes *Si-, *-in-, *-an, and *-en were exclusively verbal or nominal. In fact, straightforward application of the comparative method seems to require the reconstruction both of verbs and of nouns marked with the same set of affixes in PAn. This leaves open the question whether at some still earlier period one of these functions might have developed out of the other.

In PAn and PMP it is clear that at least pronominal agents (if not also nominal agents) and possessors were marked the same: e.g. PAn *k-um-aen aku ‘I am eating’, but *kaen-en (ni) ku ‘is eaten by me, my eating’, *k-in-aen (ni) ku ‘was eaten by me, my eating’, *maCa (ni) ku ‘my eye’. Given this identity of marking it would not be surprising for pattern pressure to favor the reinterpretation of non-AV verbal constructions as possessive nominals. Since no such pressure would favor the reinterpretation of possessive nominal constructions as non-AV verbals, I cannot agree with Starosta, Pawley, & Reid that the focus systems of modern Formosan and Philippine languages probably evolved from earlier systems of nominalization.

26494

*ina mother, mother's sister

2887

PAN     *ina mother, mother's sister

Formosan
Saisiyat inamother
Pazeh inamother
Amis inamother
Tsou inómother
Rukai (Budai) iná-amother (address)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) inamother, MZ, FZ (ref)
Paiwan inamother! (vocative)

2888

PMP     *ina mother, mother's sister; female animal

WMP
Itbayaten inaM (referential or vocative)
Isneg ināmother (sometimes: aunt or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a mother)
Itawis ináM
Bontok ʔínaterm of address for one's female relatives at the first ascending generation level; mother; aunt; mother-in-law
Kankanaey ínamy mother
  inámother, parent
Ifugaw ínamy mother
  ináM
Casiguran Dumagat ínaM (ref)
Pangasinan ináM
Tagalog ináM
Bikol ináM
Aklanon ináM
Cebuano ináold word for 'mother' that is confined to set phrases
Kadazan Dusun inaM (addr)
Seru ina-mother
Iban inaM
Simalur inaM
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ina-inamother animal
Toba Batak inaM, MZ, FBW
Nias inamother, aunt
Mentawai inaM
Balinese inamother (animals)
Sasak inamother animal; brooding hen
Buol inamother
Bare'e ineM, MZ, FZ
Buginese inaM
Makasarese inaM (poetic)
Wolio inaM
CMP
Tugun inamother

2889

PCEMP     *ina mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set

CMP
Bimanese inaM
Komodo inaM
Ngadha inaM
Sika inaM
Lamaholot (dialectal) inaM
  ina-nfemale (of animals)
Adonara inamother
Kédang imomother
Lamboya iña <Amother
Anakalangu inamother
Kambera inaM
Hawu inaM
Rotinese ina(k)woman; mother; mother's sister; wife; female (animal); large
Tetun ina-kfemale (of animals)
  ina-nM, MZ; female (of animals)
Erai ina(n)mother, mother's sister, and the other female members of mother's lineage and generation
  ina-nfemale (of animals)
Leti inaM
Wetan inaM, MZ, FZ, MBW, FBW
Dobel sinamother, mother’s sister
Paulohi inaM
Proto-Ambon *inaM
Asilulu inamother, mother’s sister
Larike inamother
Buruese inaM
Soboyo inamother; most prominent or largest member of a set
SHWNG
Moor inaM
Numfor inaM (obsolescent term)
Ansus ina-mother
Serui-Laut ina-M
OC
Nauna inaM (addr. and ref.)
Titan inaM (addr. and ref.)
Tolai inăM (rare)
Motu inaaddress of a child to its mother; ina used also when speaking to a child of its mother
Sudest tȉna-mother
Pohnpeian ihnmother; any person one's mother or father would call sister
Mokilese ina-hhis mother
Chuukese iinmother, aunt, grandmother, kinswoman of any senior generation, kinswoman of one's father's lineage or clan, any such kinswoman of one's spouse

2890

PMP     *ina ama parents

WMP
Hanunóo ínaʔ-ámaʔ guraŋunparents
Melanau (Mukah) tina tamaparents
CMP
Manggarai iné-améwife's parents
Ngadha iné-emaparents, ancestors
Lamaholot ina-ama-nparents
Kambera ina-amatitle of authority; also: title of wife-givers
Tetun ina-ama-nname by which some important kingdoms are known, mostly those with special privileges
OC
Gedaged tina-tamamother and father; parents
Motu ina-mamaaddress of child to its mother and father

2891

PWMP     *ina ina foster mother, stepmother

WMP
Hanunóo ʔinaʔ-ináthumb or great toe of man or of animals in general
Aklanon ína-ínafoster mother; stepmother
Cebuano ina-ínastepmother; foster mother
Manobo (Dibabawon) inoy-ʔinoystepmother
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kerbo ina-inamother carabao
Toba Batak ina-inamarried women
Tialo ina-inaaunt (addr.)
Wolio ka-ina-inaadopted mother

2892

PMP     *ina ni lima thumb

WMP
[Toba Batak ina ni taŋanthumb]
Balinese ina limathumb
Sangir ina-ŋ u limathumb
CMP
Bimanese ina rimathumb
Komodo ina limathumb
Paulohi rima ina-ithumb

2893

PWMP     *ina-en aunt

WMP
Itbayaten ina-enfemale animal with offspring; foster mother; mother-in-law; one considered as mother
Ifugaw (Amganad) ina-onMZ, FZ
Tagalog inah-ínhen or mother animal
Cebuano ina-úngodmother; act as godmother
Tausug inaʔ-unaunt
Kadazan Dusun ina-onpassive of monoŋ-ina, to say "mother"

2894

PMP     *iná-i mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)

WMP
Tagalog iná-yM (addr.)
Bikol iná-ymom (informal)
Kalamian Tagbanwa ine-yMZ, FZ; stepmother
Binukid ina-yM
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ine-yM (ref.)
Kenyah (Long Dunin) ina-yM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
Murik na-yM (addr.)
Kayan (Long Atip) ina-yM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
Dusun Malang ina-iM
CMP
Komodo ineM (voc.)
Manggarai ineM
Rembong ineM
Ende ineM
Tetun na-iM, MZ, FZ (Lebar 1972)

2895

PMP     *iná-ŋ mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)

WMP
Tagalog iná-ŋappellation for iná, mother
Hanunóo ʔiná-ŋM (voc.)
Siang ina-ŋMZ, FZ
Iban ina-ŋnursing; nurse, rear (animals)
Malay ina-ŋduenna; governess of an unmarried girl of high rank. Etymologically the word suggests "mother" but in a way implying low rank
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ina-ŋM
Toba Batak iná-ŋM (voc.)
Old Javanese ina-ŋmother, elderly woman
Sangir ina-ŋM
Proto-Minahasan *ina-ŋM
Totoli ina-ŋM
Buginese ina-ŋM
CMP
Manggarai ina-ŋFZ, SpM, MBW
Sika ina-ŋM; female of animals

2896

PAN     *iná-q mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)

Formosan
Saaroa inaʔ-aM (ref.)
WMP
Bikol iná-ʔM
Palawan Batak ʔina-ʔM
Maranao ina-ʔM
Manobo (Dibabawon) ina-ʔM (addr.)
Subanen/Subanun gina-ʔM
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ina-ʔM (addr.)
Tiruray ʔina-ʔaunt, female of next ascending generation other than one's mother
Gana ina-ʔM
Kelabit ina-ʔmy daughter (addr.)
Kenyah (Long Wat) ina-ʔM (addr., voc.)
Sasak ina-ʔmother (of commoners)
Sangir ina-ʔM
Proto-Minahasan *ina-ʔM
Mongondow ina-ʔmother (in general)
Uma ina-ʔmother, aunt

2897

PWMP     *kam-ina-en mother's sister, father's sister

WMP
Itbayaten kam-na-naunt
  kamnan-enaunt
Aborlan Tagbanwa m-ina-nMZ, FZ
Rungus Dusun kom-ina-nMZ, FZ
Murut (Timugon) kam-ina-nMZ, FZ
Abai Sembuak kəm-ina-naunt
Berawan (Long Jegan) kem-æna-nMZ, FZ
Kiput kəm-ina-nMZ, FZ
Lampung m-ina-naunt, parents' younger sister


Note:   Also Bintulu kəm-ina ‘aunt; mother’s sister, father’s sister’.

2898

PAN     *maR-ina to be mother and child

Formosan
Amis mal-oinafamily with the mother (< wina 'mother')
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maR-taynamother and son or daughter (< ta-yna 'mother, aunt')
WMP
Isneg max-ināmother and child(ren)
Bikol mag-ináʔmother and child
Aklanon mag-ináto be mother and child (relationship)
Toba Batak mar-inahave a mother

2899

PWMP     *paR-ina-an aunt

WMP
Toba Batak par-ina-anmates (of animals); female, of domesticated animals
Old Javanese pénanaunt
Boano pog-ina-ŋ-anaunt

2900

PMP     *ra-ina mother

WMP
Malagasy renymother
Old Javanese renamother
CMP
Hawu renafemale, of animals; large woman; broad, heavy

2901

PAN     *ta-ina mother (ref.)

Formosan
Kavalan tinaM (ref.)
Bunun tinaM
Rukai (Budai) t-inaM
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ta-ynaM (ref., respectful)
Paiwan tja-inaM (affectionate term, most frequently used in speaking to children)

2902

PMP     *t-ina mother (ref.)

WMP
Kelabit sinaʔM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
  sinehtitle for married women: Mrs.
  te-sinehM (ref.)
Miri tinahM
Kiput tinahM
Bintulu tinaM
Melanau (Mukah) tinaM; female (animals)
Siang tina-iM
Malay be-tinafemale (an insult when used of human beings ... of animals it is always correct)
Banggai tinaM
  pon-tinahen
Bare'e tinafemale, of bird or animal
Palauan ʔə-dilM (addr.)
CMP
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) jenamother
SHWNG
Buli hñeM (ref.)
Numfor snaM (ref.)
OC
Nali tina-M (ref.)
Ahus tine-nhis/her mother
Bipi tina-M
  tina-nbig
Tanga tina-M (ref.)
Tolai tinaM
Amara tnemother
Wogeo tina-M (ref.)
Gitua tina-M, MZ, FBW
Nehan tina-mother
Varisi sina-M
Roviana tina-naM
Nggela tinaM (voc.); a woman of her standing in one's clan; large of its kind
Gilbertese tinamother, adopted mother
Marshallese jine-mother; aunt; older sister; female cousin
Woleaian sila-M
Fijian tina-M, MZ, FBW
Samoan tina-aM
Nukuoro dina-namother, aunt; senior female relative, person in a mothering, or motherly, relationship
Rennellese tina-naclassificatory mother; to have a classificatory mother
Rarotongan tina-naa female parent: used only in respect of animals, birds, etc.; is sometimes used or applied in respect of a woman in a joking manner
Hawaiian kīna-namother hen or bird and her brood; a brooding place

Note:   Also Taroko ina ‘beautiful girl’, Kanakanabu cina, Paiwan kina, Amis wina ‘mother’, Yami kam-ina-ŋ ‘MZ, FZ’, Bintulu kem-ina ‘MZ, FZ’, Mentawai kama-ina-n ‘MB, MZ’, Yamdena ene ‘M, MZ, FBW’. This comparison exibits a number of morphological and semantic complexities. Particularly salient is the richness of morphological devices used to mark the vocative (for discussion see Blust 1979). In addition to meaning ‘M’ and ‘MZ’, reflexes of PAn *ina in various WMP and CEMP languages mean ‘female animal’ or ‘mother animal’, with particular reference to the domestic hen as a prototypical mother animal (probably because of its highly visible flock of trailing chicks).

Moreover, in various CMP and EMP languages reflexes of PAn *ina also mean ‘largest member of a class’ (prototypically examplified in the word ‘thumb’). Other noteworthy observations are as follows:

1. in some languages a reflex of *ina plus the word for ‘old’ means ‘grandmother’ (e.g. Aklanon ina-ŋ-gueaŋ ‘GM’, Bimanese ina-tua ‘GM’, Toba Batak ina-ŋ tua ‘FeBW). This construction appears to be a product of convergence;

2. constructions such as Motu ina wai, Nggela mbeti tina ‘river’ (both lit. ‘mother of waters’) suggest a POc genitive compound *tina ni waiR. However, since similar compounds are known from other language families, and the Austronesian comparisons are not strictly cognate, the similarity of the Motu and Nggela compounds may be due to convergence (for discussion of related issues cf. Blust (1974a));

3. Ngadha ine-veta (< *ina + *betaw ‘Z (m.s.)’) ‘family relations’, Wetan ina-nara (< *ina + *ñaRa ‘B (w.s.)’) ‘female kindred in general’ suggest a compound containing *ina plus either *betaw or *ñaRa (or, perhaps two related compounds) in an immediate ancestor of many of the CMP languages.

Finally, Waropen ina-i probably contains a generic possessive suffix, making it distinct from PMP *ina-i, and, the reduplication in Puluwat yina-yin ‘have a classificatory mother’ appears to be independent of that seen in the reflexes of *ina ina collected here.

26491

*inap sneer, laugh in derision

2885

POC     *inap sneer, laugh in derision

OC
Patep inaplaugh (Hooley 1971)
Tongan inashow the teeth, grin or laugh (esp. in derision or ridicule)
Tuvaluan faka-ina-inamocking action to taunt enemy

26492

*inaR rays of the sun

2886

PWMP     *inaR rays of the sun

WMP
Ilokano ínarscorching heat of the sun
Sangir inahĕʔred glow of evening, with reference both to the color and to the optical effect observed at the setting of the sun

Note:   With root *-NaR ‘ray of light’.

26495

*inda₁ exclamation of wonder, pain, etc.

2903

PMP     *inda₁ exclamation of wonder, pain, etc.

WMP
Nias idáexclamation of wonder, etc.
CMP
Bimanese idaexclamation of pain
Manggarai idaexclamation
Sika ʔidacry of fright or shock
Hawu idacry of fright or shock

Note:   Also Sundanese idɨh ‘exclamation of pain, etc.’, Bimanese ira ‘exclamation of pain’, Manggarai ide ‘exclamation’, Ngadha ide ‘exclamation of wonder’, Leti ide ‘exclamation: ouch!’. The consonant in the above forms is the normal reflex of *-nd-, but may actually reflect *-d-, with irregularities due to the expressive character of the word.

26496

*inda₂ mother

2904

PWMP     *inda₂ mother     [doublet: *indu]

WMP
Kapampangan indá-ʔmother
Tiruray ʔida-ymother (in address only)
Ngaju Dayak inda-ŋmother
Iban inda-imother, call mother, term of reference or address for woman of mother's generation
Old Javanese inda-ŋmother

Note:   Also Tiruray ideŋ ‘mother’, Simalur ində ‘mother animal’. Tagalog indáy ‘young girl’, Aklanon indáy "Miss" (common term of address for girls and ladies)’, Hiligaynon índay ‘girls of age one to fifteen; address term for girls chronologically younger than the speaker’, Cebuano indáy ‘title or term of address for a female the same age or younger than the speaker; female, girl’ appear to form a distinct cognate set, restricted to Central Philippine languages. I assume that, like *indu, *inda is often reflected with a vocative suffix (Blust 1979).

26497

*inda₃ no, not

2905

PWMP     *inda₃ no, not

WMP
Toba Batak inda(ŋ), nda(ŋ)no, not (used in tag questions to elicit an affirmative reply)
Wolio inda(a)no, not

Note:   Also Tagalog hindíʔ ‘no, not’, Aklanon índiʔ ‘no, not (used for negative future statements and for negative commands)’, Penudjaq, Mamben ndeʔ ‘no, not’, Sasak edaʔ ‘no, not’, Banggai indai ‘don't’.

26498

*indaŋ inspect, examine

2906

PWMP     *indaŋ inspect, examine

WMP
Ilokano indáŋoverseer, supervisor, superintendent, foreman, inspector; to mind, regard with attention
Acehnese indaŋwooden vessel in which gold is panned
Toba Batak indaŋtest, examine, observe
Old Javanese iṇḍaŋgo round in or among (in order to search, inspect, etc.)

Note:   Also Ilokano indág ‘overseer, supervisor’.

26499

*indu mother animal; leader; large one of a class

2907

PWMP     *indu mother animal; leader; large one of a class     [doublet: *inda₂]

WMP
Kapampangan indúmother
Ngaju Dayak indumother; a ghostly woman who plagues small children so that they cry often; she is then given a fowl in offering
Minangkabau indumother

2908

PWMP     *indu-ŋ mother animal; leader; large one of a class

WMP
Banjarese indu-ŋmother
Moken èno-ŋmother
Malay indo-ŋmother
Karo Batak indu-ŋmother animal; in general, larger one of the same class
Dairi-Pakpak Batak indu-ŋmother animal
Sundanese indu-ŋmother
  garuda induŋmother eagle
  induŋ-induŋsing a child to sleep
Old Javanese indu-ŋmother; familiar or affectionate address to a woman (beloved, daughter): my good woman, my dear girl
Javanese indu-ŋmother

2909

PWMP     *indu-q mother animal; leader; large one of a class

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) indóʔmother
Iban indu-ʔwoman, mother, female, feminine; female of a pair; sacred plants set with the stones as the "centre" of a padi field; principal, chief, main or bigger member of a class
Maloh indu-ʔmother
Salako inu-ʔmother
Malay indo-kmother, dam (of animals), base or home in certain games
  indo-k ayamlaying hen
Simalur ində_-ʔmother animal
  ində_-xmother (as address)
Toba Batak indu-kleader, head (Malay loan)
Rejang indoʔmother, matrix, dam
Bare'e indomother (animal); big
Tae' indo-ʔmother; as a term of address generally shortened to ndoʔ; indoʔ is often an element in teknonyms, e.g. indoʔ Sampe 'mother of Sampe'; in a number of expressions indoʔ occurs in the sense of 'leader, head, predecessor'
Buginese indo-ʔmother, mother animal

Note:   Manggarai indu ‘Miss (title)’ is assumed to be a loan. Wilkinson (1959:425) describes this as "Etym., an ancient Indonesian word for mother." While this assessment may be true for *indu in relation to Malay ibu ‘mother’, it clearly is not true in relation to *ina, which is the only PAn or PMP candidate for ‘mother’. Reflexes of *indu in a number of languages look suspiciously like Malay loanwords, and the entire comparison may be nothing more than a product of borrowing over the past two millennia. I assume that forms in * and *-q reflect vocative suffixes (Blust 1979), although the use of vocatives is difficult to reconcile with the reconstructed gloss.

26500

*inem drink

2910

PWMP     *inem drink     [doublet: *inum]

WMP
Mamanwa inɨmto drink
Mansaka inɨmto drink
Tiruray ʔinemto drink
Kalagan inɨmto drink
Simalur inəmto drink
Karo Batak inemto drink
Balinese inemto drink (High Balinese; = inum in Low Balinese)
Sasak inemto drink

Note:   Also Rejang m-éném ‘drink’.

26502

*insan union, unity

2911

PWMP     *insan union, unity

WMP
Hanunóo ʔinsáncousin, friend (esp. in the vocative)
Maranao insanjoin forces and effort, gather together
Kadazan Dusun insanonce
  insan-iat once, forthwith
Iban insan, isanrelationship between the parents of those who have married

Note:   Probably derived from *isa (cp. Tagalog ísa-han ‘unit of one each time, one by one’).

26504

*inu where?

2930

PAN     *inu where?

Formosan
Saisiyat ha-ynowhere?
Atayal inuwhere? anywhere
Seediq (Truku) inowhere? in what place?
Proto-Rukai *inowhere?
Paiwan inuwhere?
WMP
Kenyah inuwhat?
  inu-inuwhatever, anything
Kenyah (Lepu Tau) inuwhere?
Murik t-inuʔwhere?
Kayan h-inoʔwhere?
Melanau (Mukah) inewwhat?
Malagasy ino-nawhat? how?
Malagasy (Provincial) inowhat? how?

Note:   Also Itbayaten d-inuh ‘where?’, Maranao ino ‘why?’. At some point in its history this item consisted of two morphemes: the generic locative marker *i (reflected also in *ini ‘this; here’, *itu ‘that, there (2p)’, *ina ‘that, there (3p)’ etc.), and a marker of uncertainty, *nu (cp. *anu ‘whatchamacallit, word one is searching for’). Whether *inu and similar forms with a reflex of *i were still bimorphemic in PAn is a moot point, but a number of reflexes have acquired historically secondary generic locative markers following the fossilization of *i.

26503

*inum act of drinking

2912

PMP     *inum act of drinking     [doublet: *inem]

WMP
Itbayaten inomidea of drinking; drink
Ilokano inúmto drink (water)
Isneg inúmto drink
Itawis inúmto drink
Bontok ʔinúmto drink
Kankanaey inúmto drink, to tipple
Ifugaw inúmto drink
Casiguran Dumagat inómtake a drink (of water or liquor)
Pangasinan inómto drink
Kapampangan inúmto drink
Tagalog inómact of drinking
Bikol inómto drink
Hanunóo ʔinúmto drink, drinking
Aklanon inómto drink (up)
Hiligaynon inúmdrink, beverage, liquor
Cebuano inúmdrink, drink liquor
Maranao inomto drink
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) inumto drink
Kadazan Dusun inumto drink non-strong drinks
Toba Batak inumto drink
Nias inuto drink
Lampung inumto drink
Sundanese inumto drink
Old Javanese inumdrinking (subst.)
Javanese inumto drink
Proto-Sangiric *inumto drink
Sangir inuŋto drink
Balantak inumto drink
Banggai inumto drink
Uma inuto drink
Bare'e inuto drink
Proto-South Sulawesi *inumto drink
Buginese inuŋto drink
Makasarese inuŋto drink
CMP
Komodo inuŋto drink
Manggarai inuŋto drink
Ngadha inuto drink
Anakalangu inuto drink
Rotinese inuto drink
Kei indrinking, consumption of liquids
Geser inuto drink
Proto-Ambon *inuto drink
Hitu inuto drink
Buruese inu, inu-hto drink
Soboyo inuŋto drink
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai na-ʔinto drink
Biga inimto drink
Irarutu -into drink
Numfor inĕmto drink
OC
Penchal into drink
Wuvulu inuto drink
Aua inuto drink
Tigak inumdrink
Amara -into drink
Motu inu-ato drink
Nggela inuto drink; drinker
  inu-gambuceremony, drinking blood of slain enemies
Sa'a inuto drink
Motlav into drink
Tangoa inuto drink
Araki inuto drink
Tongan inuto drink; to take (liquid medicine); drinking; drinking water or other beverage
Samoan inudrink
Anuta inuto drink
Maori inudrink
Hawaiian inuto drink; a drink, drinking

2913

PWMP     *inum-a drink it! (imper.)

WMP
Itbayaten inom-adrink (imper.)
Aklanon imn-a <Mdrink (imper.)
Malagasy inóm-ydrink (imper.)

2914

PWMP     *inum-an drink, beverage

WMP
Itbayaten inom-andrink from
Kapampangan inum-anplace to drink; thing to drink
Cebuano inúm-andrinking container; place where one habitually drinks
Malagasy inóm-anato drink (relative form)
Malay minum-andrink, beverage
Sundanese inum-anwhat is drunk: drink, beverage
Old Javanese inum-andrink(s)
Mongondow inum-andrink from, drink some from (not all)
Makasarese inuŋ-aŋdrink something with something else
Palauan ilúm-əldrink, beverage

2915

PWMP     *inum-en be drunk by; what is drunk: drink, beverage

WMP
Itbayaten inom-endrink; to drink
Ilokano inum-énto drink; beverage, drink (wine, beer, gin, tea, coffee, etc.; more especially: water)
Bontok ʔinum-ə́nto drink (object focus)
Tagalog inum-índrinking water; to drink (something)
  ínum-inbeverage
Bikol inom-óna drink, beverage
Hanunóo ʔinum-úndrinking water
Cebuano imn-ún-un <Malcoholic liquor or beverage; any liquid for drinking; folk medicine consisting of boiled herbs and roots taken orally
Kadazan Dusun inum-onto drink (passive)
Malagasy inòm-inato be drunk by
Toba Batak inum-ondrink, beverage
  aek inum-ondrinking water
Sundanese inum-ɨnsomething to drink; drinkable
Mongondow inum-onwhat is drunk, drink, beverage

2916

POC     *inum-ia drink it! (imper.)

OC
Wuvulu inu-miadrink it! (imper.)
Aua inu-miadrink it! (imper.)
Tongan inu-miaconsume by evaporation or by absorption
Samoan inu-miadrunk (passive verb and adjective)
Kapingamarangi inu-miadrink it! (imper.)
Hawaiian inu-miadrink (passive and imperative)

2917

PPh     *in-inum drank (past)

WMP
Itbayaten ni-inomdrank (as to direct object), was drunk
Mongondow in-inumwhat is drunk

2918

PWMP     *ma-inúm (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ma-ynomcan drink
Ifugaw ma-inúmdrinkable
Cebuano ma-inúmsomething to drink, esp. alcoholic
Bare'e ma-inuto drink (trans.)

2920

PMP     *maŋ-inum to drink (trans.)

WMP
Ifugaw maŋ-inumhe (she) actually drinks
Kadazan Dusun moŋ-inumto drink non-strong drinks
Toba Batak maŋ-inumto drink
Sundanese ŋ-inumto drink
Javanese ŋ-inumto drink
Sangir maŋ-inumto drink
Mongondow moŋ-inumto drink
Banggai moŋ-inumto drink
Uma ŋ-inuto drink
Bare'e maŋ-inuto drink (tr. and intr.)
CMP
[Kambera ŋ-unuŋuto drink]
  [maŋ-unuŋudrenched, saturated]
Hawu ŋ-inuto drink
Elat ŋ-inuto drink

2921

PWMP     *maR-inum to drink (habitual)

WMP
Isneg max-inúmto drink
Casiguran Dumagat mag-inómto get drunk, to drink a lot of liquor
Bikol mag-inómto drink
Cebuano mag-inúmto drink
Bare'e ma-inuto drink

2922

PMP     *pa-inum give someone something to drink

WMP
Isneg p-enúmto let drink (water, etc.)
Bontok paʔinumto give to drink
Aklanon pa-inomto give to drink
CMP
[Kambera pa-unuŋuwhat is drunk: a drink, beverage; give someone something to drink]
  [wai pa-unuŋudrinking water]
WMP
Toba Batak pa-inumlet someone drink
Nias fa-ʔinulet someone drink, give drink to, to water (animals)
Makasarese pa-inuŋa drinker -- someone who regularly imbibes alcohol

2923

PWMP     *pa-inum-en give (him, her, it) something to drink (command)

WMP
Itbayaten pa-ynom-engive something to drink
Isneg p-enum-ángive (somebody) to drink
Malagasy f-inom-anadrinking (in Imerina it only means to drink the taŋena ordeal)
Mongondow po-ʔinum-ongive (him) something to drink!
Makasarese pa-inuŋ-aŋgive someone something to drink

2924

PMP     *paŋ-inum (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Mongondow poŋ-inum pahave a drink first, drink a bit more (invitation)
Bare'e paŋ-inua drink, beverage; drinking vessel; time, place or manner of drinking
  to paŋ-inudrinking companion
CMP
[Kambera paŋ-unuŋuto water animals]

2925

PWMP     *paŋ-inum-an drinking vessel

WMP
Toba Batak paŋ-inum-andrinking vessel
Old Javanese paŋ-inum-andrinking-bout
Makasarese paŋŋ-inuŋ-aŋanything used for drinking, as a drinking glass or beaker

2926

PWMP     *paR-inum drunkard

WMP
Tagalog pag-inómact of drinking
Toba Batak par-m-inumdrunkard
Buginese par-inuŋdrunkard

2927

PMP     *um-inum to drink

WMP
Itbayaten om-inomto drink
Ilokano um-inúmto drink (water)
Isneg um-inúmto drink
Itawis m-inúmto drink
Bontok ʔ<um>inúmto drink
Kankanaey um-inúmto drink; to tipple
Ifugaw um-inúmto drink
Yogad um-inumto drink
Casiguran Dumagat um-inómtake a drink (of water or liquor)
Kapampangan m-inúmto drink
Hanunóo ʔum-inúmto drink
Malagasy m-ìnonato drink
Samihim m-inumto drink
Jarai m-eñumto drink
Malay m-inumto drink; (sometimes) to smoke
Toba Batak m-inumto drink
Old Javanese (u)m-inumto drink
CMP
Tugun minuto drink

2928

POC     *inum-inum to drink (repetitive, frequentative, etc.)

OC
Sa'a inu-inuto drink
Tongan inu-inuto drink (repetitive, continuative)
Maori inu-inudrink frequently

2929

PMP     *inum-inum-an various drinks

WMP
Sundanese inum-inum-anall kinds of drinks; drink on and on, debauch
Old Javanese inum-inum-andrinks
Mongondow inu-inum-anvarious drinks
Makasarese inuʔ-inuŋ-andrinks, ususally applied specifically to liquor
CMP
[Paulohi unu-unu-adrink, beverage]

Note:   Also Chamorro gimen ‘drink, imbibe, sip, lap, quaff; beverage, drink’, Lamboya enu, Yamdena énum, Bonfia nimin, Sekar nim, Arguni umun, As nim, Irarutu gin(e), Dobuan, Molima numa, Lou im, Tanga imin, Tolai inim, Vao muni, Bonkovia munia, Makura munum, Pohnpeian nim, Kosraean nihm, Fijian gunu ‘to drink’.

Additional morphologically complex forms of *inum which are suggested, but not strongly supported by the material available to me are:

(1) *inum-i (Lampung inum-i ‘keep on drinking something; drink several things’, Makasarese paŋŋ-inuŋ-i ‘make use of something to drink out of’);
(2) *paki-inum (Itbayaten ipachi-inom (no gloss given), Mongondow poki-ʔinom ‘let him drink it’);
(3) *paka-inum, as a variant of *pa-inum (Ujir pek-dui ‘offer something to drink’, Niue faka-inu ‘give drink to’, Samoan faʔa-inu ‘to water (animals), give someone a drink or a meal’, Maori whaka-inu ‘give drink to’);
(4) *maŋ-inum-an (Sundanese ŋ-inum-an ‘give (someone) something to drink (as a medicine)’, Banggai moŋ-inum-an ‘drinking vessel’);
(5) *ka-inum (Itbayaten ka-ʔinom, ka-yom ‘drinking’, Old Javanese ké-num ‘to drink, hold a drinking-bout’);
(6) *maŋ-inum-ken (Malay me-minum-kan ‘give drink to , as medicine; to water (animals), Sundanese ŋ-inum-kɨn ‘give drink to, to water (animals), give something to someone to drink’, Mongondow moŋ-inum-kon ‘to drink (water), drink from the water’).

Forms such as Palu'e, Rotinese ninu, Lenkau nin, or Sika, Watubela minu, Nasawa min ‘to drink’ can be interpreted as CMP and OC reflexes of *in-inum and *um-inum respectively. The problem with this interpretation is that independent sources of the nasal are available, most notably the proclitic subject markers *m- ‘2sg’ and *n- ‘3sg’ in many CMP languages, and similar markers in some of the languages of western Melanesia (cp. also Alune k-inu ‘to drink’, where k- may reflect the 1sg subject marker *k-). The labiovelar nasal in Bipi mwin, Raga mwinu ‘to drink’ is attributed to convergence.

26505

*inzak step on, tread on, trample

2931

PMP     *inzak step on, tread on, trample

WMP
Tagalog indákjig dance; gambol; skip and dance; tap dancing
Toba Batak injakstep on
Minangkabau injakstep, tread
  injak-injakpedals, stirrups
Javanese idak, ijakget stepped on
Banggai idak, indaktrample down
Bare'e ijastep, tread, trample on
Mandar indaʔstep, tread on
CMP
Ngadha idhastep, tread, walk
Buruese idakto blaze, as a trail

2932

PWMP     *maŋ-inzak to step on

WMP
Minangkabau meŋ-injakto step, tread
Banggai moŋ-idakto trample down

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iñat

26589

*iñat stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope)

3038

PWMP     *iñat stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope)

WMP
Ilokano ínatstretch, stretch oneself (as persons or animals after awakening)
Bontok ʔínatto stretch, as an elastic band or a sweater; to pull tight, as a loose thread
Kankanaey ínatto stretch, lengthen, extend
  in-ínatelastic; rubber, gutta percha
Kallahan (Kayapa) inatpull a rope
Ifugaw ínatto draw out, stretch out, lengthen, extend something by pulling
Cebuano ínatstretch, cause to extend farther in length or time
Kelabit inata pull, tug
  ŋ-inatto pull, tug
  pep-inattug-of-war

3039

PPh     *iñát-en be stretched by

WMP
Kankanaey inát-enbe stretched by
Cebuano inát-unbe stretched by

Note:   With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iŋaR

iŋas

iŋat

iŋel₁

íŋel₂

iŋepis

iŋet

iŋguk

iŋkab

iŋkaŋ

iŋkem

iŋkiŋ

iŋkul

iŋqiiŋ

iŋsiD

iŋsuŋ

iŋus

26587

*iŋaR loud, unpleasant noise

3035

PMP     *iŋaR₁ loud, unpleasant noise     [doublet: *qiŋeR]

WMP
Ifugaw íŋalshouting noise made by children who are playing
Pangasinan iŋálnoise, shouting, altercation; make noise, shout
Kapampangan íŋenoise
Hanunóo íŋaynoise, commotion, disturbance, clamor (loanword)

3036

PCEMP     *iŋaR₂ loud, of the voice; voice

CMP
Manggarai iŋarclear, of the voice
Buruese iŋa-nvoice; words
OC
Tolai iŋavoice; to shout

Note:   Also Yamdena iŋat ‘to fight, make a commotion’.

26588

*iŋas tree with poisonous sap

3037

PWMP     *iŋas tree with poisonous sap

WMP
Bikol iŋástree with leaves that cause itching when they come into contact with the body
Javanese iŋasa certain tree with poisonous sap

26590

*iŋat to note, remember; care, attention, caution

3040

PMP     *iŋat to note, remember; care, attention, caution     [doublet: *iŋet]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat íŋatbe careful, take care
Kapampangan íŋatbeware, watch out for
Tagalog íŋatcarefulness; something taken care of for safekeeping
Bikol íŋatcareful; be careful; to look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something
Maranao iŋatcareful; to treat with respect
Tiruray ʔiŋatwatch out, be careful, be ready
Kadazan Dusun iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware
Ngaju Dayak iŋatthinking, recollection, caution, awareness
Iban iŋatremember, recollect, remind, be mindful of
Malay iŋatgiving attention to; recalling; remembering
Sangir iŋaʔwatch out, be careful
Mongondow iŋatthink about; remember
Banggai iŋatthink about; remember
Bare'e iŋathink about, take care of , watch out for
Tae' iŋaʔremember, think about
Makasarese iŋaʔmindful of; remember; return to consciousness
CMP
Rembong iŋatremember! don't forget!
Fordata iŋatremember
Kei iŋatremember, think about; be absorbed in doing something (so as to give it one's full attention)

3041

PWMP     *iŋat-an what is kept in mind

WMP
Kapampangan iŋat-anthat which one looks after with care (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol iŋat-anbe careful with; take care of
Malay iŋat-anwhat is remembered or recalled; what is reflected in one's thoughts
[Balinese iŋet-anmemory, remembrance; memorial]

3042

PWMP     *ma-iŋat mindful, careful, attentive

WMP
Bikol ma-iŋatcareful
Tae' ma-iŋaʔthink about, pay attention, look after
[Buginese ma-iŋeʔhaving vivid memories]
Makasarese ma-iŋaʔmindful of, remember

3043

PWMP     *maŋ-iŋat remember, think about

WMP
Malay meŋ-iŋatremember, pay attention, think about
Banggai moŋ-iŋatthink about, remember

3044

PWMP     *maR-iŋat take care, be careful

WMP
Bikol mag-iŋatbe careful; look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something
Kadazan Dusun mog-iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware
Malay ber-iŋattake care
Mongondow mog-iŋatthink about something; remember

3045

PWMP     *pa-iŋat to warn, admonish

WMP
[Toba Batak pa-iŋotfor someone to be reminded of something; to warn or admonish]
Makasarese pa-iŋaʔmake mindful, warn

3046

PWMP     *paR-iŋat (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Maranao pag-iŋatbe careful
[Sasak per-iŋetremind; guess]

3047

PWMP     *iŋat-iŋat think about, think over

WMP
Malay iŋat-iŋatbe careful (said in warning)
[Old Javanese iŋet-iŋetthinking over, revolving in one's mind; souvenir, keepsake]
[Balinese iŋet-iŋetunawares]
[Sasak iŋet-iŋetthink of it!]
Bare'e iŋa-iŋathink about

Note:   Also Sangir iŋateʔ ‘think about, remember’, Kambera iŋa ‘think about, pay attention to, be concerned about’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *iŋet ‘notice, remember’, and although this etymon can be justified, a number of languages point instead to *iŋat. Some of the material taken to support the latter variant may be due to borrowing from Malay, but it appears unlikely that all forms assigned to *iŋat are loans.

26591

*iŋel₁ hard of hearing

3048

PWMP     *iŋel₁ hard of hearing

WMP
Maranao iŋelhard of hearing, deaf
Toba Batak iŋolhard of hearing

Note:   With root *-ŋel ‘deaf’.

28872

*íŋel₂ be angry, growl at

6105

PPh     *íŋel₂ be angry, growl at

WMP
Ifugaw íŋolanger; use abusive talking, scold somebody
Casiguran Dumagat iŋélanger, be angry
Tagalog íŋilgrowl, snarl

28277

*iŋepis thin (of material objects)

5341

PAN     *iŋepis thin (of material objects)     [doublet: *nipis]

Formosan
Kavalan impisthin
  iŋpisthin (of materials)
WMP
Ilokano iŋpísthin, tenuous (paper, plates, boards, hair, strings, etc.)
Isneg iŋpítthin, tenuous (paper, plates, strings etc.)
Itawis impítthinness
Ifugaw iŋpí, inpithinness of things, e.g. a piece of wood
Gaddang na-ʔimpitthin
Pangasinan ímpisthin (inanimate objects only)
Kapampangan impísthin
Malay jerok ipisa thin-skinned lime
Sundanese ipisthin, fine (hair)

5342

PWMP     *ma-hiŋepis thin, of material objects

WMP
Ifugaw ma-iŋpíthin
Bikol mag-himpísgrow thin, wear away
Siang m-ipihthin

Note:   Also Bikol hiŋpís ~ himpís ‘thin (things); slim; slender; sheer’. With root *-pis₂ thin, tenuous; fine. Richardson (1885) gives Malagasy ify as a "Provincial" variant of nify, to which he provides a cross-reference. Unfortunately Richardson's cross-reference is ambiguous for nify ‘tooth’ and nify ‘thin’, and the meaning of ify remains unclear.

26592

*iŋet remember

3049

PWMP     *iŋet remember     [doublet: *iŋat]

WMP
Malay (Jakarta) iŋetremember; aware
Karo Batak iŋetremember, bear in mind
Toba Batak iŋotremember, recollect
Rejang iŋeutremember
Sundanese iŋetthink about, be mindful of; remember
Old Javanese iŋetawareness, memory
Javanese iŋetwatch or stare at each other
Balinese iŋetremember, think about, come to one's self, awaken
Sasak iŋetremember
Proto-South Sulawesi *iŋɨtremember

26593

*iŋguk deep throaty sound

3050

PPh     *iŋguk deep throaty sound

WMP
Kankanaey igókto swallow
Hanunóo íŋgukgrunting of pigs

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

26594

*iŋkab to open, uncover

3051

PWMP     *iŋkab to open, uncover

WMP
Kelabit ikabopening in the longhouse roof for the entrance of light and air, and for the exit of smoke from the cooking fire
Old Javanese iŋkabbe blown up, blown open

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.

26595

*iŋkaŋ walk with legs wide apart

3052

PWMP     *iŋkaŋ walk with legs wide apart     [disjunct: *eŋkaŋ]

WMP
Ifugaw ikáŋgreat step
Tagalog íkaŋslight gap formed between joints or junctures
  iŋkáŋunbalanced (in walking)
Ngaju Dayak iŋkaŋstep, pace, stride
Karo Batak iŋkaŋstand up from sitting
Minangkabau éŋkaŋwalking with legs wide astretch
Sasak éŋkaŋsit or stand with legs wide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

26596

*iŋkem to close, shut

3053

PWMP     *iŋkem to close, shut

WMP
Isneg ikkámseize, take hold of; examine a patient
Kankanaey ikémto close; to shut up; to close up
Javanese iŋkemclose one's mouth

3054

PWMP     *maŋ-iŋkem to close, shut

WMP
Isneg maŋ-ikkāmto seize, take hold of
Javanese ŋ-iŋkemto close one's mouth

Note:   With root *-kem₁ ‘enclose, cover; grasp’.

26597

*iŋkiŋ little finger

3055

PWMP     *iŋkiŋ little finger     [doublet: *kiŋkiŋ₃]

WMP
Ifugaw ikíŋ, ik-ikíŋsmall finger (sometimes applied to the small toe)
Aklanon íŋkiŋtrifling, trivial, insignificant
  k-um-a-íŋkiŋlittle finger, "pinky"
Kenyah ikiŋlittle finger

26598

*iŋkul bent into a curve

3056

PWMP     *iŋkul bent into a curve

WMP
Balinese éŋkolrest the hand on the body with bent arm; an arm thus bent; form a corner, an angle
Sangir éŋkoleʔcurved wooden support used in roof construction
Tontemboan éŋkolbent into a curve

Note:   With root *-kul₁ ‘curl, bend’, and unexplained lowering of both vowels in all three languages.

26600

*iŋqiiŋ shrill sound

3058

PPh     *iŋqiiŋ shrill sound

WMP
Kankanaey iŋíiŋroar, rumble, bellow, bawl, hum noisily
Ifugaw iŋíiŋa bamboo flute
Tagalog íŋʔiŋsound of the violin
Cebuano iŋʔiíŋonomatopoetic for the sound of the music to suspenseful portions of movies, used by children to indicate the part that is suspenseful

26601

*iŋsiD move slightly, budge

3059

PWMP     *iŋsiD move slightly, budge     [doublet: *isud]    [disjunct: *icir]

WMP
Iban insitmove, move slightly, budge, shift
[Toba Batak insircreep, crawl, slide, slip]
  [maŋ-insir-islink, creep]

Note:   Also Ilokano ísin ‘move, shift; go, etc. aside, out of the way’, Kadazan Dusun insi ‘move, shift’.

26602

*iŋsuŋ wooden rice mortar

3060

PAN     *iŋsuŋ wooden rice mortar     [doublet: *esuŋ]

Formosan
Kavalan iŋsuŋmortar
WMP
Tae' issoŋwooden rice mortar

26603

*iŋus moan or groan

3061

PMP     *iŋus moan or groan

WMP
Bikol iŋós-iŋósto whimper
Aklanon íŋosmoan in sadness; purr
Cebuano íŋuswhimper (as a puppy)
CMP
Kambera iŋusound of sighing or moaning; to pant or groan from burdens of pain

Note:   Also Maranao iŋes ‘sob’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

io

io

26508

*io spear

2935

POC     *io spear     [doublet: *iu₂]

OC
Manam iospear
Motu iospear
Nakanamanga na-iospear

Note:   Also Gitua izo ‘spear thrown with hand’, Lau īo ‘war arrow, with barbs of human bone; poisoned spear’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ip

ipa-

ipak₁

ipak₂

ipen

i(m)pes

ipi₁

ipi₂

ipil ipil

ipit

ipu-

ípun

ipus

iput

26511

*ipa- verb prefix: third-party causative-command

2938

PPh     *ipa- verb prefix: third-party causative-command

WMP
Ilokano ipa-verbal prefix
Kankanaey ipa-prefix equivalent to pa-: 1. used with verbs to express an order, 2. with adjectives to form the absolute superlative, 3. with numbers to express the worth of something, 4. with the suffix -an to form a kind of substantive indicating location or place
Ifugaw ipa-prefix meaning: 1. let something be done, achieved, etc. by the intermediary of somebody, 2. cause that something be used for another purpose than that for which it is made, 3. that something be put above, under, in, or on that which is implied by the particular word-base
Tagalog ipa-verbal prefix meaning to cause (something) to be done by someone else
Aklanon ipa-causative verb prefix used in giving commands about direct objects
Cebuano pa-derivative verb-forming affix to which inflectional affixes are added without morphophonemic alternation: 1. referring to actions one has caused someone to do (either to something else or to oneself), 2. added to adjectives, have someone make something (adj.); have something become (adj.), 3. added to nouns, cause someone to do the action that verbs derived from the noun refer to, 4. added to doubled adjectives, pretend to be, 5. added to nouns, go to (noun)

Note:   This affix perhaps is best analyzed as containing an unidentified element *i- plus the causative prefix *pa-. Some lexicographers (as Wolff 1972, for Cebuano) list it under a base pa-, but the combination is so commonly given as a unit in the available sources that it is most convenient to treat it as a single morpheme. PPh *ipa- evidently was used with verbs to express a command that the hearer cause some third party to perform the stated action. It might thus be described as a third-party causative-command form. Judging from the Kankanaey and Cebuano glosses *ipa- could also be used with adjectives, although its function in these constructions remains unclear.

26509

*ipak₁ sound of smacking or slapping

2936

PWMP     *ipak₁ sound of smacking or slapping

WMP
Toba Batak ipakthe impact of the shuttle as it is brought down hard on the weft threads in weaving
Old Javanese ipakto lap, splash, wash (waves)

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

26510

*ipak₂ split

2937

PWMP     *ipak₂ split     [doublet: *ibak]

WMP
Cebuano ipáksplit, break a piece off of something hard; divide into pieces
Bintulu ipakbranch of a river

Note:   Possibly also Kankanaey ípak ‘female pudenda’. With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.

27283

*i-palu make war on

3789

POC     *i-palu make war on

OC
Sa'a i-pelumake war on, fight
Ulawa i-pai-palumake war on, fight
Fijian valumake war on, be at war with
  i-valuwar; warrior

26512

*ipen tooth

2939

PMP     *ipen tooth     [doublet: *lipen, *nipen, *ŋipen]

WMP
Kapampangan ípantooth
Abaknon impontooth
Mapun impontooth
Yakan impentooth, teeth
Tausug ipuntooth
Bisaya (Limbang) ipontooth
Kayan (Uma Juman) ipeʔtooth (back-formation from misanalyzed ipe-n 'tooth of')
Simalur ixəntooth
Karo Batak ipentooth
Toba Batak iponincisor teeth
Nias ifõincisor teeth
Proto-Minahasan *ipentooth
CMP
Lamaholot ipentooth

Note:   Also Tiruray kifen ‘a tooth; to have gold-capped teeth; (of corn) showing its first kernels’. Blaan kifen ‘tooth’ may point to *qipen, which is a potential source of many of the forms in this comparison. However, this is not possible for Tiruray kifen, which may be a loan from Blaan or yet another seemingly random variant.

26599

*i(m)pes empty, deflated, shrunken

3057

PMP     *i(m)pes empty, deflated, shrunken

WMP
Tagalog impísshrunken, deflated
Javanese impesreduce a swelling
CMP
Manggarai ipesempty rice husk; rice chaff

Note:   With root *-pes ‘empty, deflated’.

26515

*ipi₁ to blow

2942

POC     *ipi₁ to blow

OC
Tolai ipi(to) blow, of the wind
  ifi-ʔito blow (trans.)
Tongan ifiblow with the mouth; blow or blow into or play (a whistle, or wind instrument)

Note:   Also Mono-Alu ifu ‘play pan-pipes, blow conch’, Roviana ivu-a ‘to blow, as a conch shell’, Eddystone/Mandegusu ivu ‘play on a musical instrument, esp. a flute’, ivu-a ‘to blow, as a flute or bassoon’, Bugotu ifu ‘to blow (fire, pan-pipes)’.

26516

*ipi₂ the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus, Inocarpus edulis

2943

POC     *ipi₂ the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis

OC
Gitua ipikind of nut tree: Inocarpus fagiferus
Eddystone/Mandegusu ivisp. of edible fruit, Inocarpus edulis, the so-called Tahitian chestnut, which is in fact a bean with solitary large seeds which are boiled or roasted
Fijian ivithe native chestnut tree, Inocarpus fagiferus, Leguminosae. The fruit is eaten either baked or boiled, and without any further treatment, or it may be grated on mushroom coral and made into bread or pudding
Tongan ifikind of tree bearing edible nuts about 3 inches long: the Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus edulis
Niue ifithe Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagiferus (introduced)
Samoan ifia tree (Inocarpus sp.), the Tahitian chestnut; the nut of that tree
Tuvaluan ifinut which drifts ashore
Anuta ipia tree: Inocarpus fagiferus
Rarotongan iʔithe chestnut tree and its fruit: Inocarpus edulis

Note:   Also Rotuman ʔifi ‘tree bearing edible nuts about 3 inches long, the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis’. Dempwolff (1934-38) treated the Fijian, Tongan, and Samoan forms cited here as reflexes of *qipil ‘a tree: Intsia bijuga’. However, the referents assigned to PMP *qipil appear to be distinct from those assigned to POc *ipi. On formal grounds Chamorro ifet points to initial *q- in *qipil, while Tongan ifi points to an initial vowel in POc *ipi. Against this formal criterion we can set the anomalous Rotuman form, which clearly is a Polynesian loan. If Rotuman ʔifi was borrowed from Tongan, and a native Tongan ʔifi was later replaced by ifi (from Samoan?) it remains possible that the POc word for the Inocarpus fagiferus began with *q-, but the distinctness of the referents would still appear to justify two independent etyma.

26513

*ipil ipil a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca

2940

PPh     *ipil ipil a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca

WMP
Ifugaw ipil-ípilleguminous tree bearing small leaves (often planted in coffee plantations, because they shade the coffee plants better than other trees)
Bikol ipíl-ípilsmall tree used as a border for plots of land, its seeds woven into bags and necklaces: Leucaena glauca
Cebuano ipil-ípilsmall rapidly growing tree of waste places or cultivated, extensively used for firewood. The leaves are used as animal feed and medicinally. It bears beans also used medicinally: Leucaena glauca
Maranao ipil-ipila leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth.
Tiruray ʔifil-ʔifilthe ipil ipil tree: Leucaena glauca L. Benth.

Note:   Samoan ifi-ifi ‘small tree (Parinarium sp.) with large brown oval fruits yielding oil’ appears to be distinct (cp. Tuvaluan ipi-ipi ‘soft, oily coconut kernel’, Tongan ʔipi-ʔipi ‘layer of fatty substance between soft kernel of sprouting coconut and the flesh’).

26514

*ipit near, come near; edge, border

2941

PMP     *ipit near, come near; edge, border

WMP
Rejang ipitget close to something; touch; near
  ipit-ipittight together, close together
Gorontalo ipitoclinging (of a small child that does not want to be left alone)
Bare'e impiwalk along the edge (so as to make room for someone passing)
CMP
Ngadha ipiedge, border, shore; approach, come near

Note:   Also Karo Batak impet ‘come near to something, approach’.

26519

*ipu- hair, feather

2946

POC     *ipu- hair, feather

OC
Label ih(i)-hair
  ih-a-manifeather of a bird
Tolai ivu-nahair of the human body or of animals; fur, feathers, plumage, bristle
Lakalai la-ivu-lahis head hair; plumage of a bird
Kwaio ifu-nahair
  ifu-ʔailet hair grow long in mourning
Lau ifu, ifu-nahair
  ifu-lahairy, covered with cast hairs
'Āre'āre ihu-nahair, feather
Sa'a ihuhair, feather; used with genitive i
  ihu-i menua bird's feather
  ihu i pweua hair of the head

28852

*ípun rice variety

6083

PPh     *ípun₃ rice variety

WMP
Kankanaey ípona variety of dark-colored palay (rice) with awns
Tiruray ʔifuna nonglutenous rice, a variety of farey

26517

*ipus tail

2944

PPh     *ipus tail

WMP
Itbayaten ipostail; one who tags along
Ilokano ípustail; back part of a G string
Isneg íputtail; stern (of a canoe); hind part (of a G string)
Itawis ífuttail
Bontok ʔípustail of an animal
Casiguran Dumagat ípostail (of animals, fish, birds, snakes)
Proto-Minahasan *ipustail
Mongondow iputtail; conclusion

Note:   Also Mongondow ipus (expected **iput) ‘tail’. Possibly with root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.

26518

*iput narrow

2945

PMP     *iput narrow     [doublet: *kiput]

WMP
Bare'e ipunarrow, hemmed in
CMP
Sika ipot-kipotnarrow; close together

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iq

iqi

26520

*iqi exclamation of surprise, pain, etc.

2947

PMP     *iqi exclamation of surprise, pain, etc.

WMP
Ilokano interjection: expressing wonder
Kankanaey no! nonsense! interjection of disbelief
Ifugaw íiutter sharp cries because of anger, or to express astonishment and surprise because something disagreeable suddenly happened
Cebuano particle showing disbelief
Javanese ihiexclamation of disgust, anger
Uma iiexclamation, ouch!
CMP
Ngadha iicry, whine
Buruese i-iiwhimpering
OC
Rotuman ībewail, fret about
Tuvaluan iiexclamation of assent
Kapingamarangi iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity
Rarotongan iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat

Note:   Also Tboli ihi ‘exclamation of self satisfaction’, Kayan iʔi ‘expression of longing for’, Malay ih ‘hey!’, Acehnese hihi ‘whinny’, Karo Batak ihih ‘shrill call’, Sundanese hih ‘phooey!’, iih ‘exclamation of surprise’, Javanese ih ‘exclamation of disgust or fear’, Balinese ih ‘vocative particle’, Rembong ie ‘exclamation of surprise’, ieʔ ‘cry to chase off a dog’, Ngadha ie ‘neigh, whinny’. The creation and shaping of the above forms clearly has been subject to the operation of universal human expressive tendencies, but this alone is no reason to assume that the forms compared have been independently invented in all daughter languages (cf. Note to *i₁).

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

ir

iraŋ₁

iraŋ₂

irid₁

irid₂

iriŋ₁

iriŋ₂

iro iro

iruq

26521

*iraŋ₁ redness; embarrassment

2948

PWMP     *iraŋ₁ redness; embarrassment

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ira-iraŋbright red
Old Javanese iraŋshame, embarrassment
Balinese éraŋashamed, blush; be angry
Tombulu iraŋshame

2949

PWMP     *ma-iraŋ red; embarrassed

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ma-hiaŋ <Mred
Malay mérah m-éraŋfiery red; bright red
Tombulu ma-iraŋashamed

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Tagalog igáŋ ‘dried up, dehydrated’ with the Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese members of this comparison, and reconstructed *iRaŋ ‘bright red’. The Tagalog form, however, contains a root *-gaŋ ‘dry near a fire’, and cannot be compared with the forms cited here. Ngaju Dayak ira-iraŋ and ma-hiaŋ presumably belong to different ‘speech strata’ (cf. Dyen 1956).

26522

*iraŋ₂ slope of a mountain

2950

PWMP     *iraŋ₂ slope of a mountain

WMP
Kelabit iraŋslope of a mountain
Mongondow iraŋvery steep rocky slope, abyss

Note:   Also Kenyah iaŋ ‘hillside’; m-iaŋ ‘steep’.

26524

*irid₁ fan; to fan

2953

PMP     *irid₁ fan; to fan

WMP
Old Javanese irirfan
Javanese ilirlarge woven-bamboo fan (to fan the fire, etc.)
Tae' iriʔto fan, blow against
Mandar iriʔwind
Makasarese iriʔto fan, to blow (of the wind)
CMP
Yamdena iritfan for fanning the fire
SHWNG
Numfor ir ~ rircool oneself by fanning
OC
Pohnpeian ir-ihrto fan (intr.)
  iri-pto fan (tr.)
Rotuman irito fan; to blow (wind)
Fijian irito fan; a fan
Tongan īfan
Niue ilito fan; to swing, as a weapon
Samoan ilito blow; fan
Rennellese igifan, as of coconut leaves; to fan

Note:   Also Balinese ilih ‘kind of fan; to fan’, Buginese iriŋ ‘to blow’, Selaru siri ‘to fan’, sir-sir ‘a fan’, Yamdena ndiri ‘to fan’, Paulohi hiri ‘to fan’, Numfor ir ‘cool oneself by fanning’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *iriR, but his inclusion of Tagalog ílig ‘shaking a container to cause the contents to set or mix’ is difficult to accept.

26525

*irid₂ pull, draw, drag

2954

PWMP     *irid₂ pull, draw, drag

WMP
Iban iritdraw, drag, haul
Old Javanese iridpull, draw, drag along; carry away, lead off, to lead
Sasak iritpull, drag

2955

PWMP     *ŋ-irid to pull, draw, drag

WMP
Iban ŋ-iritto draw, drag, haul
Sasak ŋ-iritto pull, drag

26528

*iriŋ₁ follow; accompany

2958

PMP     *iriŋ₁ follow; accompany

WMP
Ngaju Dayak m-iriŋfollow, follow after
Iban irin, iriŋlead by the hand
Malay iriŋIndian file. Of ants following in line one behind the other, etc.
Acehnese iréŋwalk single-file, follow, accompany, form a procession
Dairi-Pakpak Batak iriŋto lead, guide
Toba Batak iriŋlead someone
Sundanese iriŋfollow someone
Javanese iriŋescort, accompany
Balinese iriŋaccompany, follow a superior
Sasak iriŋfollow
Bare'e irito hunt, chase off or away
Mandar iriŋdrive animals before one (as in driving a flock of ducks to some location)
Buginese iriŋdrive animals before one
OC
Gilbertese irifollow, accompany

2959

PWMP     *maŋ-iriŋ follow; drive animals before one

WMP
Iban ŋ-iriŋ capito herd cattle
Toba Batak maŋ-iriŋ horbodrive a water buffalo before one
Sasak ŋ-iriŋto follow

2960

PWMP     *paŋ-iriŋ follower

WMP
Karo Batak peŋ-iriŋfollower of a leader
Sasak peŋ-iriŋfollower, adherent

Note:   Also Malay giriŋ ‘directing a stampede; driving animals in a desired direction, shepherding’, Buginese iriʔ ‘drive animals before one’.

26529

*iriŋ₂ similar; imitate

2961

PPh     *iriŋ₂ similar; imitate

WMP
Ilokano íriŋbe similar, differ slightly
Maranao iriŋimitate, emulate, follow
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) iriŋdo or be the same; the same
Tiruray ʔiriŋcopy, imitate

Note:   Also Ilokano aríriŋ ‘be similar, differ slightly’, Kankanaey ílig ‘same, alike, equivalent’, Lau ili ‘copy, imitate’, Kwaio ili ‘compare with, illustrate by, imitate’. This comparison may be identical to *iriŋ₁.

26530

*iro iro reflect, shine

2962

POC     *iro iro reflect, shine

OC
Aua iro-iroshine, reflect (Hambruch 1908)
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka eno-ilo-ilo-ina(of a star) to twinkle
Lau iro-irotranslucent pool, still and clear; looking glass, pearl shell of nautilus
  iro-iro-areflected light, dazzling, silver light of the moon on white clouds, moonshine
Arosi iro-iroclear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection

Note:   Also Arosi kiro-kiro ‘clear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection’.

26531

*iruq feel sad about, deplore

2963

PWMP     *iruq feel sad about, deplore

WMP
Sasak iroʔ, éroʔsad, saddening
Sangir iroregret, deplore

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iR

iReteŋ

iRik

iRimo

26523

*iReteŋ stretched tightly

2951

PWMP     *iReteŋ stretched tightly

WMP
Ilokano irtéŋto stretch, to strain (a rope, wire, etc.)
Tagalog igtíŋtightness (of tie or knot); tautness
Malay rentaŋhorizontal extension (of clouds stretching in lines across the sky, stretching a cord to its full length, using a surveyor's chain)

2952

PWMP     *iReteŋ-en to stretch tightly

WMP
Ilokano irteŋ-ento stretch
Malay rentaŋ-an talistretching a cord to its full length

Note:   With root *-teŋ₃ ‘stretch; taut’.

26526

*iRik thresh with the feet (as rice)

2956

PAN     *iRik thresh with the feet (as rice)     [disjunct: *qiRik]

Formosan
[Tsou m-irʔi, riʔ-athresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet]
Kanakanabu um-a-iríkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet
[Rukai (Maga) u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet]
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) m-a-iRik, iRik-uscrape off with feet, thresh with feet (as millet)
WMP
Ilokano iríkthe grains or kernels of rice when separated from the stalk
  irik-irik-énto trample (a person)
Kankanaey ilíkto shell (rice) with the feet
Pangasinan ilíkunhusked rice
Tagalog giʔík <Mthreshing of rice
Ngaju Dayak ihikwhat is trodden upon (rice, in threshing)

Note:   Also Kayan ilik ‘sieve’. Kanakanabu and Puyuma reflect a form with initial vowel, but Malay (h)irek points to *qiRik. Since all other languages are ambiguous for the zero vs q distinction, it is impossible to determine whether Malay (h)irek shows an isolated irregularity, or whether *q- was already present in the PMP form. Tentatively I adopt the latter interpretation.

26527

*iRimo a tree: probably Octomeles spp.

2957

POC     *iRimo a tree: probably Octomeles spp.

OC
Label irimutree sp.: Octomeles sumatrana
Mailu ilimobig, softwood tree from which some small canoes are made
Motu irimoa tree from which canoes are generally made

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

is

isa₁

isa₂

isaŋ

isaw

ised

isek

isem₁

isem₂

iseR

isi₁

isi₂

isi₃

isi₄

ísip

isiʔ

isu₁

isu₂

isud

isul

isuR

isut₁

isut₂

26533

*isa₁ one

2965

PAN     *isa₁ one     [doublet: *esa]

Formosan
Kavalan issaone
Rukai (Budai) iθaone
Paiwan itaone
WMP
Isneg isáone
Itawis isáone
Pangasinan isáone
Tagalog isáone; another
Bikol isáone
Hiligaynon isáone
Maranao isaone; a, an
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) isathe number one, used in counting
Samal isaone (in counting)
Kadazan Dusun isoone
Malagasy isaone
Bare'e isaone
CMP
Manggarai icaone
Kambera d-ihaone
  ihaalone, separate
Tetun ida (< *insa)one; a
Leti ida (< *insa)'one; each, every'
Kamarian isaone
SHWNG
Buli isaone

2966

PWMP     *isa-q one

WMP
Ma'anyan isaʔone
Mongondow intaʔone
Tae' issaʔone

2967

PWMP     *ika-isa first

WMP
Hiligaynon i-ka-isáfirst
Kadazan Dusun ko-isafirst

2968

PAN     *isa-ŋa the remaining one

Formosan
Paiwan ita-ŋathere is one left
WMP
[Cebuano usá-ŋathe other one of two or more]

2969

PAN     *isa isa distributive; one-by-one, one at a time

Formosan
Paiwan ma-ita itaone by one, one after the other
WMP
Tagalog isa isaone by one, one each time
Maranao isa isaalone, only
Kadazan Dusun to-isa isaone by one, one at a time
Malagasy tsi-isa isaone by one
CMP
Tetun ida idaone by one, each one

2970

PMP     *ma-isa only, alone

WMP
Hanunóo maysáoneness, aloneness
Sasak mésaʔself, alone
Tae' misaone, alone, on its own
Chamorro maysaone (of living things)
CMP
Tetun missa-kalone, one
  oan missa-konly child
Yamdena mésa-nsingle, alone (of only children)


Note:   Also Erai méha ‘only, alone’, and the morphological parallel in Kelabit edheh ‘one’, midheh ‘once’. Tagalog mag-isá ‘be alone, do something alone’ suggests that Hanunóo maysá may reflect *maR-isa. Mills (1975:712) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *(ma-)isa ‘one’.

2971

PAN     *paR-isa-an to unite, combine in one

Formosan
[Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR-asa-nto do once]
WMP
Tagalog pag-isah-ínto combine (many things) into one

Note:   The number ‘one’ is unique among numerals universally in that it alone tends to develop into an article. Moreover, semantically the number ‘one’ carries something of the "antithetical sense of primal words" (to borrow a phrase from Freud): morphological derivatives in many languages refer both to unity (‘one with’) and to aloneness (‘one apart from’). The number ‘one’ is unique among Austronesian numerals in that it alone has reconstructed doublets (*esa and *isa). Moreover, in addition to these apparent stem variants a clitic form *sa- is found in some languages, including languages that lack the full numeral (e.g. Malay se- formative in se-puluh ‘ten’, se-ratus ‘100’, se-ribu ‘1000’, etc., next to satu ‘one’; Tongan ha ‘indefinite article: a, an, some, any’, next to taha ‘one’).

The following additional points should be noted: 1. it is unclear whether *isaq should be treated as morphologically complex (*isa-q) or as a doublet (*isaq), 2. *ma-isa ‘alone’ appears to contain the stative or attributive prefix *ma-; Tagalog mag-isá ‘be alone, do something alone’, however, suggests that Hanunóo maysá may reflect *maR-isa. Such an interpretation is not available for Sasak, Tae', Chamorro, or Yamdena, where *R did not regularly disappear, 3. the nasal grade reflexes of *s (*insa) in Sulawesi and the Lesser Sunda islands are assumed to be a product of independent changes, 4. it is not clear whether a reflex of *esa or *isa survived in POc, although the clitic form *sa- evidently did. Possible reflexes of the full stems invariably appear subject to a morphological analysis which disqualifies them: Lakalai isasa (according to Chowning (n.d. a.) = i-sasa), Lamogai isawala (POc *tolu > Lamogai itlu ‘three’ suggests i-sawala ‘one’), Kilokaka kaʔisa (but kai-keu, kai-ke, kaʔi-sei, and the like in other languages of Ysabel, hence Kilokaka kaʔi-sa), TandaiI, Ghari kesa, Marau, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi eta ‘one’, where *esa would be reflected with initial o, and *isa with initial i; Sa'a ite ‘one, another’, but Arosi ta- ‘one, only’.

26534

*isa₂ name

2972

POC     *isa₂ name

OC
Tigak isa-name
Lakalai isa-name, identity
Sudest idaname
Puluwat yiitname, kind (as of a plant)
Woleaian it(a)name, personal name
Tutuba isa-name
Raga iha-name
Lonwolwol ih-name
Southeast Ambrym isEname
Anejom n-iθaname

Note:   Also Tolai iaŋ, Hukua hisa-, Nokuku kise- ‘name’.

26535

*isaŋ gills

2973

PWMP     *isaŋ gills     [doublet: *hansaŋ]

WMP
Malay isaŋ, iŋsaŋgills of a fish
Acehnese iseueŋgills
Karo Batak isaŋchin
Toba Batak isaŋ-isaŋlower jaw, chin

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak risaŋ ‘inner gills of fish’, Malagasy hisana ‘gills of fishes’, Nali isa-n, Loniu wosa-n, Lou lisa-n, Likum nise-n, Levei keseŋ ‘red inner gills of fish’. These items may share a common root *-saŋ. Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Tagalog síhaŋ ‘maxilla, jawbone’, a form which I regard as unrelated to reflexes of *isaŋ.

26532

*isaw intestines

2964

PWMP     *isaw intestines

WMP
Tagalog ísawsmall intestine; blind intestine
Lampung isawintestines
Javanese isolarge intestine, esp. of an animal slaughtered for a feast
Balinese isobelly, entrails (of animals)
Sasak isokidneys

Note:   PMP, PWMP *bituka, *t-in-aqi evidently meant ‘large intestine’ and ‘small intestine’ respectively. PWMP *isaw may have referred exclusively to the intestines of animals.

26536

*ised budge, shift, move aside

2974

PMP     *ised budge, shift, move aside     [disjunct: *iseR, *isud, *isuR]

WMP
Sundanese isedmove up, push up, make room, move over
[Old Javanese iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away]
  [isermove aside]
Javanese iŋsedshift, budge
  [iŋserto have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained]
SHWNG
[Numfor isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

Note:   Also Bikol ugsód ‘pushed or carried along by the wind or current’, Iban ansat ‘shift, move’, ginsit ‘move, budge’, iŋgut ‘move a little’, Malay aŋsur-aŋsur ‘a little at a time in action or in motion’, Minangkabau ansut ‘move a little’, ter-kaŋsur ‘edged aside’, Old Javanese aŋseg ‘to advance, push forward’, Javanese uŋsed ‘move (in some direction), inch over’, Madurese aŋset ‘change place by pushing aside someone else; budge’, lerset ‘edging towards’, Manggarai (West) hisut ‘move a little, budge.’

26537

*isek cram, crowd, be compressed or congested

2975

PWMP     *isek cram, crowd, be compressed or congested

WMP
Kadazan Dusun moŋ-insoktrample down
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ésektightness in breathing, e.g. of asthma
Toba Batak isokillness in the chest
Tontemboan isekpress something down to make it more compact

Note:   With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.

26538

*isem₁ smile, to smile

2976

PWMP     *isem₁ smile, to smile

WMP
Ilokano isemto smile
Javanese ésemto smile

26539

*isem₂ sour

2977

PWMP     *isem₂ sour     [doublet: *qalesem]

WMP
Nias isõsour fruits
  a-isosour
Proto-South Sulawesi *insɨmsour
Mandar ma-issaŋsour

26541

*iseR budge, shift, move aside

2979

PMP     *iseR budge, shift, move aside     [disjunct: *ised, *isuR]

WMP
[Cebuano isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief]
Maranao isegmove
  iseg-isegmove farther
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) isegmove over or move along
Tiruray ʔiseg, insegmove something, move oneself a short way
Sundanese isermove, push
  isermove, push
[Old Javanese iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away]
  [isermove aside]
[Javanese iŋserto have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained]
SHWNG
[Numfor isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

26543

*isi₁ tooth

2981

PWMP     *isi₁ tooth

WMP
Kalamian Tagbanwa isitooth
Maloh isitooth
Sangir isitooth
Tae' isitooth
Buginese isitooth

Note:   Reid (1971: 225) gives Kalamian Tagbanwa isi with the meanings ‘tooth’; also ‘flesh, meat, tuber’. Since far better candidates than *isi are available for the general category ‘tooth’ in PAn, PMP, and PWMP (notably *ipen, *lipen, *nipen, and similar variants), there is perhaps reason to suspect that the present comparison is a product of parallel semantic shifting from a form that originally did not mean ‘tooth’. The best candidate for such a source would appear to be *isiʔ ‘flesh, meat; pit of a fruit’. For the present, however the matter remains unresolved.

26544

*isi₂ to peel, strip off

2982

PCEMP     *isi₂ to peel, strip off

CMP
Rotinese isito peel, as an onion; to scale a fish
OC
Fijian isito tear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise as bamboo, cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string
Niue īhi, ihi-ihisplit, divide, rip open
Samoan isisplit
Nukuoro isipeel off in long, thin strips
Maori ihistrip bark off tree
Hawaiian ihito strip, peel

Note:   Also Kei isin ‘peel off, skin’. Rotinese isi may belong under *isi₃ ‘to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell’.

26545

*isi₃ hiss

2983

POC     *isi₃ hiss

OC
Nggela isihiss to chase off a dog
Pohnpeian isihhiss at
Rotuman isihissing noise to attract attention, or as a request to keep silent
Maori ihimake hissing or hushing noise

Note:   Also Ngadha esi ‘hiss at, chase off (as a dog)’, Paulohi ii ‘rushing of water’. Kambera ihi ‘sound of sighing or groaning; utterance of worry or pain’, ʔihiku ‘moan, groan’ may be connected, but probably is a product of convergence.

26546

*isi₄ to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat

2984

POC     *isi₄ to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat

OC
Lakalai isiscrape, grate (as coconut); to scrape wood smooth
Molima isi, isi-ato grate, as on a grater, to rub (it)
Rennellese isito scoop, scrape, as coconut meat from a shell

28853

*ísip thinking, thoughts; opinion

6084

PPh     *ísip thinking, thoughts; opinion

WMP
Ilokano ísipintellect, mind, intelligence; consider, think on, study, ponder
Kankanaey ísipthink, deem, be of opinion
Casiguran Dumagat ísipthought, understanding, judgement, sense, opinion, think, think deeply, plan
Pangasinan ísipmind; to think
Kapampangan ísipthink
Tagalog ísipthought, understanding, judgment, sense; criterion, opinion; discernment; idea; plan, intend
Bikol ísipmind, opinion, judgment; think about, mull over
  isípselfish; an egoist or egotist
Hanunóo ísipthoughts, thinking; perception, feeling; think
Aklanon ísipegoistic, selfish, always considering oneself; think of, consider, reckon, ponder; thought, consideration
Hiligaynon ísipnumber, count
Cebuano ísipcount something; consider, treat something or someone as something
Maranao isipcount; number
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) isipthe mind; to think

6085

PPh     *isip-en think (goal focus)

WMP
Ilokano isíp-enconsider, think on, study
Kankanaey isíp-enthink, deem, be of opinion
Kapampangan isíp-anthink
Tagalog ísip-inthink (of something)
  isip-ínmatter for thought; things to be thought of
Bikol ísip-onthink about, mull over, ponder
Aklanon isíp-onthink over
Hiligaynon ísip-unto count, reckon, enumerate
Cebuano isíp-unto count

6086

PPh     *ka-ísip (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Kapampangan ka-ísipone who thinks the same
Aklanon ka-ísipegoism, selfishness, self-consideration

6087

PPh     *ka-ísip-an thought, opinions

WMP
Pangasinan ka-ísip-ánvoice, opinion
Bikol ka-ísip-anthoughts
Cebuano ka-ísip-anmind, seat of consciousness, intellect

6088

PPh     *ma-ísip wise, thoughtful

WMP
Ilokano ma-ísipunderstand, comprehend
Bikol ma-isípselfish
Aklanon ma-ísipegoistic, selfish
Cebuano ma-ísipwise, learned; prudent, thinking before acting

Note:   Also Mentawai isi ‘think about something, desire’.

26547

*isiʔ flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents

2985

PAN     *isiʔ flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents     [doublet: *hesi]

Formosan
Kanakanabu ʔa-ísiexist
Saaroa maa-is-an-acontent (Tsuchida 1976:251)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) isimeat, flesh
WMP
Kalamian Tagbanwa isiflesh, meat; tuber
Palawan Batak ʔisímeat, flesh
Ngaju Dayak isiflesh (of humans, animals, fruits); blade (of knife, dagger, etc.)
Malagasy ísybe, exist; there is
Banjarese isicontents
  ba-isihave, exist
Iban isiʔcontent; capacity; interior; fill
Maloh isiʔmeat, flesh
Malay isicontents; component parts. Etymologically, the "flesh" of anything
Simalur isicontents, inhabitants; flesh
  maŋ-al-isito fill
Karo Batak isicontents; residents of a house, of a village, etc.
Toba Batak isicontents; inhabitants
Nias isicontents
Rejang iseycontents
Lampung isifill something
Old Javanese isicontents, what is found (lives, etc.) in a place; the special content, the core or essence
Javanese isiinsides, contents; full (of), filled (with)
Balinese isicontain, be contained in, be filled with; contents, filling, kernel (nut), produce (of a field or garden); flesh (as opposed to fat and bone)
Sasak isicontents; flesh (of animals, fruits)
  isi-n balemembers of the household
  isi gigigums
  b-isi, ber-isicontain
  isiʔto fill; to place food on a wooden dish in order to serve a meal
Uma ihiflesh
Tae' issicontents, stuffing; the soft parts of a body as against the bones, the soft parts of a fruit as against the pit
Mandar issicontents
CMP
Bimanese isicontents; seed
Komodo isimeat
  isi waragums
Manggarai iciflesh
  ici-ŋto fill
Ngadha isiflesh without bones and fat; tuber; residents, people; corpulent
Sika ʔisicontents
Kambera ihicontents
Hawu ihicontents
Rotinese isiinsides, content; flesh, pulp; what is loaded into a gun; an arrow to a bow
  nusak-a isi-n(a)the inhabitants of a country
  uma-isimembers of a household; the servants, taken as a whole; point of an arrow; point, sharp part of a lance
Tetun isi-nbody or torso, the product, the internal part, the contents, the useful part, a layer; a keen cutting edge of a knife, etc.
  talas isi-n, uhi isi-nyam roots or sweet potatoes
  isi-n onasaid when plants have produced tubers, or when fruit is nearing maturity
Erai ihi(n)contents; body; rice out of the ear
Leti isicontents; flesh
Yamdena isi-nflesh, contents; blade of knife, point of an arrow, etc.; harvest of the crops; have a plentiful yield, of tubers
  na-isifleshiness
Fordata ihi-nflesh, contents; flesh of tubers, pit of a nut, yield of the crops
  nahi-n ihi-nblade of a knife or other weapon
Kei ihi-nflesh of people, animals and fruits, and in general the edible, useful or most prominent part of something
Paulohi isi-niflesh; contents
Asilulu isi-flesh
Buruese isi-nmeat, flesh; contents, usable part
Soboyo isiput in, fill up
  isi-nflesh, contents, juice, milk
  mboa n-isi-npork
  jubi n-isi-narrow of a bow

2986

PWMP     *isiʔ-an what is filled; container

WMP
Malay isi-anwhat is filled
Toba Batak isi-anvessel, receptacle, container
Old Javanese isy-anfilling
Mandar isi-aŋfilled

2987

PMP     *ka-isiʔ well-filled

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ka-isirichness, wealth
Old Javanese kesimade the contents (core, essence) of something, kept in, treasured in
Tae' ke-issiwell-filled, fruitful or abundant, as a rice crop
CMP
Rotinese ka-isi-khave contents, flesh, muscles

2988

PMP     *ma-isiʔ filled with

WMP
Old Javanese ma-isi, mesifilled with, containing, possessing; full, meaningful, pregnant, full of love
Tae' ma-issiwell-filled; fleshy, stout
Mandar ma-issiold (of bananas nearly ripe on the stalk); having plenty of content
CMP
Rotinese ma-isi-khave contents, flesh or muscles

2989

PWMP     *maŋ-isiʔ to fill

WMP
Malagasy man-ìsycreate, produce, make, put into something
Malay meŋ-isito fill, fill up
Karo Batak ŋ-isito fill
Toba Batak maŋ-isito fill
  maŋ-isi bodilload a gun
Javanese ŋ-isito fill, put something into
Tae' maŋ-issito fill

2990

PWMP     *maR-isiʔ to contain

WMP
Ngaju Dayak m-isihave flesh
Banjarese ba-isihave, possess; exist
Malay ber-isihave contents, contain
Simalur mal-isifull, filled
Karo Batak pagé mar-isirice variety
Toba Batak mar-isihave contents, be filled

2991

PMP     *pa-isiʔ contents

WMP
Toba Batak paŋ-isiinhabitants
Old Javanese paŋ-isicontents; core, essence
Tae' paŋ-isisickness in which one urinates only a few drops

Note:   Also Itbayaten aʔsi ‘fruit, meat of fruit, meat, flesh, rice ears, corn ears’, Kenyah isé ‘content’, ŋ-isé ‘to fill’, Uma ihiʔ ‘content’ (cp. ihi ‘flesh’), Rembong isiʔ ‘contents’, isiʔ ŋ tanaʔ ‘original inhabitants, aborigines’, Ngaju Dayak hisi ‘have flesh’, Old Javanese hisi ‘contents’. The appropriateness of including some morphologically complex forms (as Mandar ma-issi and Tae' paŋ-issi) under *isi is questionable, but in these respects I have followed my sources. Perhaps the most interesting feature of this comparison is its gloss.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *isi with the rather bland meaning ‘contents’. Abstract ideas generally have their foundations in sense perceptions, and we might therefore expect the idea of ‘contents’ to be rooted in something more concrete. This is the case with *isiʔ, which meant ‘flesh’ in addition to ‘contents’. Moreover, it is clear from witnesses as diverse as Ngaju Dayak, Sasak, Tae', Rotinese, and Kei that ‘flesh’ must be taken in its broadest English sense: the meat of humans or animals (in contradistinction to the bone and fat) and the flesh of fruits (in contradistinction to the pit), or of vegetables.

One recurrent reference to vegetable flesh is seen in Kalamian Tagbanwa isi ‘flesh, meat; tuber’, Ngadha isi ‘flesh without bones and fat; tuber’, Tetun talas isi-n ‘sweet potato roots’, ubi isi-n ‘yam roots’, isi-na ona ‘said when plants have produced tubers or when fruit is nearing maturity’, Fordata ihi-n ‘flesh of tubers’, and the Malay proverb diam ubi ada-ña ber-isi "resting like a tuber that puts on flesh by rest" = recuperative and profitable rest.

From this broad sense of ‘flesh’ it appears that PMP *isiʔ referred to the useful part of a thing, or its "essence". Intriguingly, this notion is extended to the blade of a knife or the point of an arrow both in WMP and in CMP languages, where the extended referential range of *isiʔ appears to have competed with that of *mata ‘eye; focal point; most prominent part’. In a similar vein the arrow is the isi of the bow in Soboyo, and the bullet the isi of the gun in Toba Batak.

In striking contrast with semantic categories typical of Indo-European languages (cf. e.g. Buck 1949), reflexes of *isiʔ also referred to humans in two related senses: (1) residents (the *isiʔ of the house), (2) inhabitants (= the *isiʔ of the land). Finally, it is noteworthy that although PMP *penuq meant ‘full (as a container)’, the common verb meaning ‘to fill’ evidently was not based on *penuq, but rather on *isiʔ. The existential meanings of reflexes in Kanakanabu, Banjarese, and Malagasy are assumed to be products of convergence.

26554

*isu₁ budge, shift, move aside

3001

PMP     *isu₁ budge, shift, move aside     [doublet: *ised]

WMP
Sangir isumove up, push aside, budge; shoving motion
CMP
[Ngadha isupress on, push away, press down]
SHWNG
Numfor isslide oneself over the ground, as someone who is lame

26555

*isu₂ interjection used to chase off animal

3002

PMP     *isu₂ interjection used to chase off animal

WMP
Isneg issúto shoo pigs
CMP
Bimanese isoshout to chase off chicken

Note:   With unexplained o for expected u in Bimanese.

26548

*isud budge, shift, move

2992

PMP     *isud budge, shift, move     [disjunct: *icud, *isu₁]

WMP
[Tagalog ísodact of moving up or away in position]
[Kadazan Dusun insud-onthe place to which one moves]
Malay éŋsutpushing away gently; edging a child off a seat; (of a wind) just making the boat move; edging towards or away
Acehnese isotshove
CMP
[Ngadha isupress on, push away, press down]
OC
['Āre'āre isumove, remove, of persons and things]
  [isu maimove here, nearer]
  [isu woumove away a bit]

26549

*isul retreat, move backwards

2993

PPh     *isul retreat, move backwards

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat isóltake a step backwards; step back
Aklanon ísoemove backwards
Hiligaynon ísulretreat, move back so as to make way
Cebuano ísulmove backwards without turning around

Note:   Also Itbayaten iso ‘idea of going backward’, Banggai isul ‘cease, stop, desist’.

26550

*isuR budge, shift, move aside

2994

PMP     *isuR budge, shift, move aside     [disjunct: *ised, *iseR]

WMP
[Bikol ísogmove nearer or farther]
  [mapa-ísogget unintentionally shoved (as when something is bumped into)]
[Cebuano isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief]
Iban insurmove, adjust
CMP
[Ngadha isupress on, push away, press down]
SHWNG
[Numfor isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

Note:   Also Hanunóo ísul ‘movement on one's buttocks, as in changing one's sitting position’, Fordata isuk ‘push to the side, set to the side’, Buruese isuk ‘budge, touch, upset, move’.

26551

*isut₁ little, small

2995

PWMP     *isut₁ little, small     [doublet: *iut]

WMP
Aklanon isótbecome smaller; almost, barely, nearly
Ngaju Dayak isuta little; short time
Buginese iccuʔlittle

2996

PWMP     *ka-isut little bit

WMP
Aklanon ka-isótlittleness, tininess; triviality
Ngaju Dayak ka-isut, k-isutthe least
Mandar keccuʔlittle, little bit, few

2997

PWMP     *ma-isut little

WMP
Aklanon ma-isótlittle, tiny, small
Ngaju Dayak m-isut, ma-m-isutalways only a little bit (in giving, receiving, etc.)

Note:   Also Bugotu iso ‘small, little; few’.

26552

*isut₂ rub, scour, scrub

2998

PWMP     *isut₂ rub, scour, scrub

WMP
Ngaju Dayak isutwhat is scrubbed or scoured
Rejang butew isutmortar (for grinding food)
Bare'e isurub; scrub or scour gently
SHWNG
Numfor isukrub, scour something until it breaks in two

Note:   Ifugaw íhu ‘washing of one's face (and hands)’ appears to be distinct.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iS

iSeq

iSiq

iSu

26540

*iSeq urine, urinate

2978

PAN     *iSeq urine, urinate     [doublet: *iSiq]

Formosan
Bunun isahurine (Tsuchida 1976: 162)
WMP
Nias urine
  k-iõurinate
Lampung iohurine
  ma-iohurinate

Note:   Also Toba Batak eo ‘urine’; tar-eo-eo ‘urinate’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared only the Tagalog and Toba Batak forms, and reconstructed last-syllable shwa. Tsuchida (1976: 162) suggests that the Rukai, Amis, and Paiwan forms reflect *iSeq with sporadic assimilation of the last vowel, but in view of the unambiguous evidence, for a variant *iSiq, this seems unnecessary. Toba Batak tar-eo-eo ‘urinate’ and Aklanon tag-íhiʔ ‘feel like urinating’ (cf. *iSiq) probably can be taken as support for a morphologically complex word *taR-iSeq, *taR-iSiq.

26542

*iSiq urine, urinate

2980

PAN     *iSiq urine, urinate     [doublet: *iSeq]

Formosan
Amis isiʔurine, urinate
Favorlang/Babuza isiurine
Rukai (Maga) isíiurine
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) isiHurine
Paiwan isiqurine

8946

PMP     *ihiq urine; urinate

WMP
Kapampangan urine
  m-iʔ, mim-iʔurinate
Tagalog íhiʔurine
  ihíʔsuffer from frequent urination
Bikol íhiʔurine
  mag-íhiʔurinate
  íhiʔ-anurinal
Hanunóo íhiʔurine
  ʔum-íhiʔurinate; always done in a squatting position by men as well as women
Aklanon íhiʔurine, urinate
  il-ihiʔ-ánurinal, place to urinate
  tag-íhiʔfeel like urinating
Cebuano íhiʔurinate
  paN-íhiʔurinate
  ka-íhiʔ-unfeel like urinating
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ihiʔurine, urinate

26553

*iSu 2sg. personal pronoun: you

2999

PAN     *iSu 2sg. personal pronoun: you

Formosan
Kavalan a-isu2sg.
Atayal isunominalized pronoun II; you sg.
Seediq iso2sg.
Amis iso2sg.

3000

PMP     *iu₃ 2sg. personal pronoun: you

WMP
Kankanaey yoyour, you, ye
Tagalog your, yours
Maranao ioyou (plural)

Note:   Also Saisiyat soʔo ‘2sg.’, Bunun isuʔu ‘your (before a noun)’. This item apparently underwent sporadic loss of *S (for expected **h) in PMP. For a discussion of the possible historical connection of *iSu and *kaSu cf. Blust (1977).

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it

ita₁

ita₂

itaq

itek

iten₁

iten₂

itik₁

itik₂

itik₃

itil

itíp

ituk

ituq

26557

*ita₁ we (incl.)

3004

PAN     *ita₁ we (incl.)     [doublet: *kita]

Formosan
Kavalan ita ~ a-itawe (incl.), nominative
Saisiyat itawe (incl.)
Atayal itawe (incl.)
Seediq itawe (incl.), emphatic form
Pazeh itawe (incl.)
  ita-anwe (incl.), locative
Amis t-ita-ananto us (incl.)
Thao itawe (incl.), nominative
  m-itaour, ours (incl.)
Saaroa ita ~ ilhatawe (incl.)
Rukai (Mantauran) itawe, us (incl.), topic pronoun
Puyuma ta-we, 1st person plural incl. nominative bound pronoun
WMP
Atta s-ittawe (dual incl.)
  s-itta-mwe (plural incl.)
Itawis ittáwe (dual) nominative and long nominative pronoun
Balangao d-itawe (dual incl.)
  d-ita-wwe (plural incl.)
Pangasinan (i)táwe (dual) topic pronoun; form used when the preceding word ends in a consonant
Sambal (Botolan) h-itawe (dual incl.)
  h-ita-mowe (plural incl.)
Kalamian Tagbanwa itawe (plural incl.)
Subanen/Subanun itawe (plural incl.)
Narum itahwe (plural incl.)
Sebop ita-mwe (plural incl.)
Penan (Long Labid) ita-mwe (plural incl.)
Murik itaʔwe (plural incl.)
Kayan itaʔa collective, impersonal, 1st person pronoun, expressing humility; I, in association with others
  ita-mwe, us (incl.; many people – more than ten)
Kayan (Uma Juman) ita-mwe (plural incl.)
Ngaju Dayak itawe (plural incl.)
Karo Batak ras itathe two of us together
  itawe (plural incl.); same as kita, but more familiar/intimate
Toba Batak ita-bahen ~ ta-bahenwe do
  ita ~ tawe (plural incl.), with verbs
Nias ita1st person pronoun, now used for the singular as an impolite gesture, but still normally used for the plural
Sasak ita1st person pronoun, now used for the singular as an impolite gesture, but still normally used for the plural
Balaesang itawe (plural incl.)
Muna inta-idiwe (dual incl.)
  inta-idi-imuwe (plural incl.)
Palauan ŋid1st person plural inclusive; us
CMP
Bimanese nda tawe, us (incl.)
Manggarai itewe, us (incl.); you (respect form)
Lamboya yitawe (plural incl.) (Fox n.d.)
Erai itawe (plural incl.)
Damar (West) it-itowe (incl./excl.)
Fordata itawe (plural incl.)
Alune itewe, us (incl.)
OC
Kairiru ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix
Takia ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix
Yabem ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix
Gapapaiwa ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix
Zabana ɣitawe (incl.)

7698

PAN     *n-ita 1st pers. incl. genitive; our

Formosan
Seediq n-itaour
Pazeh n-itaour, ours
WMP
Mamanwa n-ita1st dual incl. genitive (Lobel 2012)

7699

PAN     *iten₃ we (incl.)

Formosan
Paiwan ti-tjenwe (incl.), independent form
  ni-tjenours (incl.)
  tjanu-itjenus (incl.)

7700

PWMP     *aten₃ we (incl.)

WMP
Yami (Imorod) y-atenwe (incl.)
Itbayaten y-atenwe (incl.)
  yate-yate-ʔenwe ourselves only
Tagalog átinour, ours, of us (incl.)
Inati yatinwe (incl.) (Lobel 2012)
Ida'an Begak n-aton1st plural accusative; us (incl.)
Mongondow n-aton1st plural incl.

Note:   Also Bunun ata ‘we (incl.)’.

26558

*ita₂ come on! let's go!

3005

PWMP     *ita₂ come on! let's go!     [disjunct: *itaq]

WMP
[Casiguran Dumagat itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá)]
[Pangasinan itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow]
Maranao italet's go!
Mongondow intacome on! let's go!
[Bare'e intaforward! come on! let's go!]

26556

*itaq come on! let's go!

3003

PWMP     *itaq come on! let's go!     [disjunct: *ita₂]

WMP
[Casiguran Dumagat itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá)]
[Pangasinan itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow]
Dairi-Pakpak Batak itahexpression inviting or inciting someone to leave together with the speaker; come on! let's go!
[Bare'e intaforward! come on! let's go!]

Note:   Also Makasarese iti ‘come on! let's go!’; ta ‘adhortative prefix of the 1p and 2p plural, sometimes in combination with person marking suffixes’. It is tempting to consider this item as containing the pronominal element *-ta ‘1p dual, 1p plural incl.’ All Philippine evidence is consisitent with this interpretation, but Dairi-Pakpak Batak itah is not. The latter form may contain a reflex of the vocative suffix *-q, found in a number of reconstructed kin terms (Blust 1979).

26559

*itek be small, become small

3006

PMP     *itek be small, become small     [doublet: *ituk, *qitik]

WMP
Aklanon íntokbecome smaller, shrink
Manobo (Sarangani) de-ʔiteksmall
Kayan itekimmature; small fruits still green
Simalur itoʔsmall
  a-itoʔmake small, reduce in size
  maŋ-a-itoʔmake small, reduce in size
Mongondow intoksmall, young; be or become small
CMP
Manggarai iteksmall in amount, often used of liquids

3007

PPh     *ma-intek small

WMP
Aklanon ma-intoksmall, short, tiny
Mongondow mo-ʔintoksmall, young

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) de-ʔisek ‘small, make smaller’.

26560

*iten₁ 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)

3008

PAN     *iten₁ 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)

Formosan
Paiwan itjenwe, us, our

3009

PMP     *aten₁ 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)

WMP
Yami (Imorod) n-atenours
Yami (Iranomilek) y-atenours
Tagalog átin, n-átinour, ours (incl.); us (object of preposition)
Aklanon n-átonour; we (incl.)
Hiligaynon n-átunour, ours (incl.)

Note:   For the argument supporting the reconstruction of PAn *iten see Blust (1977).

30581

*iten₂ 1pl in oblique

7964

PAN     *iten₂ 1pl in oblique     [doublet: *ateq]

Formosan
Bunun itun1pl in accusative and absolute possessive pronoun
Paiwan ti-akenI
  tjanu-akenme

7965

PMP     *aten₂ 1pl in oblique

WMP
Ibatan y-aten1pl in topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun
  dy-aten1pl in dative and emphatic possessive marker
Tagalog átin1pl in oblique
Aborlan Tagbanwa aten1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Tambunan Dusun d-aton1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Ida'an Begak n-aton1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Mongondow koʔi-n-aton1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.)

26561

*itik₁ drop of liquid

3010

PWMP     *itik₁ drop of liquid

WMP
Sasak itikdrip
  ŋ-itikto drip, dribble
Buginese ittiʔdrop of water (as a teardrop forming in the corner of the eye)

Note:   Also Malay titék ‘drop, liquid particle; dot or spot left by a liquid particle such as a drop of ink’, Tae' iʔtiʔ ‘let drip off, pour off the water of rice that has been cooked’, maŋ-iʔtiʔ ‘pour something off’.

26562

*itik₂ duck, Anas spp.

3011

PWMP     *itik₂ duck, Anas spp.

WMP
Itbayaten itika sp. of fowl, duck (black, smaller than paato)
Ilokano ítikkind of freshwater duck with speckled plumage, yellow, brown, etc. It is not very common
Ifugaw ítikkind of small duck which lays her eggs anywhere
Pangasinan ítiknative duck
Tagalog ítiksp. of duck which produces eggs made into balót
Bikol ítikdomesticated sp. of duck
Aklanon itíkduck
Hiligaynon ítikduckling
Cebuano ítikwhite duck
Maranao itikduck -- animal
Melanau (Mukah) itikduck (bird)
Ngaju Dayak itikduck
  ha-itikraise ducks, keep ducks
Iban ititduck, Anas sp.
Malay itékduck. Domesticated ducks include the muscovy duck and the mandarin duck. Wild iték include the cotton teal and the mallard
  ayam itékpoultry
Simalur étiʔwild duck
Karo Batak manuk itikduck
Nias itiwild duck
Old Javanese itikduck, young bird
  a-itik-anto keep, as a young bird
Buginese itiʔduck

Note:   Also Maranao itit ‘chick’, Iban anak itik, ‘chicken, chick, hen’. Some examples of this word appear to be loans. Thus Yamada (1976) explicitly marks Itbayaten itik as a borrowing from Tagalog, and it is likely that Buginese itiʔ derives from Malay. However, the word seems to be directly inherited in many languages, as it refers to native or to wild ducks, sometimes in contradistinction to introduced types.

26563

*itik₃ vine, creeper sp.

3012

PWMP     *itik₃ vine, creeper sp.

WMP
Cebuano itikkind of ornamental vine: Aristolochia elegans
Iban daun ititherb, unid.
Nias itiʔ-iticlimbing plant, creeper

26564

*itil clitoris

3013

PWMP     *itil clitoris

WMP
Kankanaey itílLatin: Muliebria, verenda feminae
Bikol ítilclitoris
Cebuano intílclitoris
Banjarese itilclitoris
Malay itilclitoris
Dairi-Pakpak Batak itilclitoris
Sundanese itilclitoris
Javanese itilclitoris

Note:   Also Bikol ítin ‘clitoris’, Toba Batak itit ‘clitoris’, Makasarese dittiʔ ‘clitoris’. With root *-til ‘small protruding part’.

26567

*itíp hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot

3016

PPh     *itíp hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot

WMP
Ilokano ittípcrust of rice; the rice that adheres to the bottom of the earthen jar when it is cooked
Aklanon itíphard-cooked rice (at the bottom of the pot)

26565

*ituk small in amount

3014

PMP     *ituk small in amount     [doublet: *itek, *qitik₁]

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ituklittle, not much
CMP
Ngadha itusmall, small in amount

26566

*ituq a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum

3015

PWMP     *ituq a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum     [doublet: *ni(n)tuq]

WMP
Kankanaey ítoLygodium sp. Twining ferns used in the manufacturing of hats, etc.
Palauan ŋídəʔclimbing fern: Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.); large food basket made from ŋídech plant

Note:   As noted by Verheijen (1984), the bark of this fern is used for binding and plaiting, and the tips are eaten. Since the doublet *ni(n)tuq can be reconstructed for PMP, and since variants with initial m- are found in several CMP languages of Flores, it is likely that *ituq was also found in PMP.

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iu

iu₁

iu₂

iuk₁

iuŋ

iut₁

iut₂

26570

*iu₁ bathe

3019

POC     *iu₁ bathe

OC
Tolai iubathe
Eddystone/Mandegusu iuto wash, esp. the body

Note:   Tolai iu may reflect PMP *hisuq ‘clean oneself by scrubbing’.

26571

*iu₂ spear

3020

POC     *iu₂ spear     [doublet: *io]

OC
Tanga iuspear
Kairiru iuspear

26568

*iuk₁ cluck, squawk

3017

PMP     *iuk₁ cluck, squawk

WMP
Tagalog iókshriek of poultry
Sundanese hiukthe sound or howl of the wind, or of something that moves forcefully through the air
CMP
Manggarai éokclucking of a chicken; cracking sound of a tree about to topple; growling of the stomach in hunger
  iokcheep, chirp, peep
  iuksound of sword being drawn, etc.; sound of sick stomach
Ngadha ioscream, cry, shriek (as an eagle)
Yamdena iukall birds that make the sound "iuk!"

26572

*iuŋ shake, sway

3021

PWMP     *iuŋ shake, sway

WMP
Karo Batak iuŋshake, undulate, of the ground in an earthquake
Balinese iuŋbe in commotion (country), be unrestful;
  yuŋdamaged, destroyed, upset, in confusion; swing
  yuŋ-yuŋ-aŋbe made to swing, be given a swing (of a child)
Sasak ioŋcradle; to rock

Note:   Probably with root *-yuŋ ‘shake, sway’.

26569

*iut₁ little, small, trifling

3018

PMP     *iut₁ little, small, trifling     [doublet: *isut₁]

WMP
Kenyah iutlittle, small in quantity
CMP
Ngadha iulittle bit, trifle, small matter

31312

*iut₂ movement in coitus; sexual intercourse

9381

PPh     *iut₂ movement in coitus; sexual intercourse     [doublet: *kiud, *kiuq, *kiut]

WMP
Ilokano ag-yotto copulate
  panag-yotsexual intercourse, coitus
  yut-énto copulate with (a woman); to cover, serve; to leap (a female animal); to brim (swine), to tread (birds)
Ibaloy iyothuman copulation, sexual intercourse (not an appropriate word in most conversations)
  iyot-ento have sexual intercourse with someone
Aklanon iyót“fuck” (very strong term of anger or disgust)
Cebuano íyuthave sexual intercourse with (avoided word)
Tausug mag-iyutto copulate, have sexual intercourse (vulgar, often used in foul language and cursing)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat əyot ‘to have sexual intercourse’.

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iw

iwa

iwaq

iwas

íwik

íwit

26575

*iwa put in the lap

3024

PMP     *iwa put in the lap     [disjunct: *iwaq]

WMP
Sasak iwahold something in the lap
CMP
[Bimanese iwaput in the lap]
[Rotinese ifahold in the lap]

26573

*iwaq put in the lap

3022

PMP     *iwaq put in the lap     [disjunct: *iwa]

WMP
Sasak iwaʔlap
CMP
[Bimanese iwaput in the lap]
[Rotinese ifahold in the lap]

26574

*iwas avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to be with)

3023

PPh     *iwas avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to be with)

WMP
Ilokano íwasramble, rove, roam, range; to move from side to side; to turn to the left, to the right
  iwas-ento move aside, toward the side (a log, a stone, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat iwásavoid, evade (as to avoid meeting someone on the trail by turning aside, or to avoid going to a village where there are drunks being rowdy)
Pangasinan íwasshift one's position, shift something, but not away from the general area in which it is situated
Tagalog íwasavoidance, evasion
Cebuano iwás, íwasslip away from, get out of the way (as someone slipping away from his drunken companions)

28867

*íwik to squeal

6102

PPh     *íwik to squeal

WMP
Ifugaw íwikexclamation to express one's disgust, disapproval, criticism
Hanunóo íwiksquealing, as of pigs
  mag-ʔíwikto squeal
Aklanon iwíkto squeal, howl (said of a pig)
Cebuano íwikfor pigs to squeal

Note:   Also Cebuano iwígik ‘for pigs to squeal’.

28868

*íwit rear part

6103

PPh     *íwit rear part

WMP
Kankanaey in-íwit-anhind part of a G-string
Ifugaw iwíttail
  iwit-anloose end of a G-string that hangs down at the back
Cebuano iwítlast in a race, class, or anything where things are compared

Note:   Also Isneg íwid ‘to follow, to accompany’.

TOP      ia    ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    i-    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

iz

izap

izep

izig

izuk

26576

*izap wink, blink

3025

PWMP     *izap wink, blink     [disjunct: *izep]

WMP
[Iban ijapwink the eye, blink]
Mongondow irap, iapwink, blink
Gorontalo ilapowink

26577

*izep wink, blink

3026

PWMP     *izep wink, blink     [disjunct: *izap]

WMP
[Iban ijapwink the eye, blink]
Karo Batak idepnot clearly visible, as a small star that now is seen and now is not
Toba Batak irdopto blink

Note:   Also Bintulu siɗəp ‘a blink’, bə-siɗəp ‘blink the eyes’. With root *-zep ‘wink, blink’. The semantic connection between flickering (intermittent light at the source) and blinking (intermittent light at the receptor) is well-established (cf. Blust 1980: 92-93)

26578

*izig step, stride

3027

PWMP     *izig step, stride

WMP
Javanese aŋ-ijig-ijigwith quick steps
Sangir indigeʔstride forward slowly and solemnly, with the legs moving and the upper torso motionless

Note:   Also Iban indik ‘tread, step on, trample; standing on, supported by’, Malay hindék ‘leverage with the foot; the use of a pedal’, Simalur indiʔ ‘rice pounder with foot drive’, Old Javanese indik-indik ‘walk slowly and cautiously’, Javanese iṇḍik ‘sneak toward something in order to seize it’, Balinese ijik ‘to trot (horse)’, Sasak ijik ‘a certain way of trotting (of a horse)’.

26579

*izuk the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata

3028

PWMP     *izuk the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata

WMP
Tagalog irokthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera
Iban ijoka palm: Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Merr. (formerly A. saccharifera Lab.). It yields a toddy, soft brown sugar, and good black cordage
Malay ijoksugar-palm fibre. A dark substance resembling horse-hair, obtained from Arenga saccharifera and used for making string and thatch
Karo Batak ijukblack fibres of the sugar palm used as roofing material
Toba Batak ijukfibres of the sugar palm which resemble horse hair, and which are used in making cordage and roofing
Rejang ijuʔsugar palm fibres, used to make roofing and twine
Sundanese injukthe black and hairy tissue of the sugar palm which grows where the leaves come out
Sasak ijukfibrous substance from the sugar palm
Tae' indukthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera
Makasarese inruʔthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera; the flower spadix is tapped to make palm wine

Note:   Also Hanunóo iyúk ‘sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.) Merr.); sago is occasionally extracted from the bole’, Maranao idiok ‘sugar palm’, Proto-Sangiric *idup ‘palm fibre’, Mongondow idup ‘hairy fibres of the sugar palm’. The Hanunóo and Maranao items seem clearly to be loanwords from Malay, and the same may be true of a number of other forms cited here. Despite the widespread dissemination of this term through borrowing there appears to be sufficient evidence to justify a PWMP etymon.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-i