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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*k   

ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

ka

ka₁

ka₂

ka₃

ka₄

ka-₁

ka-₂

ka-₃

ka-₅

ka-₆

ka- -an₁

ka- -an₂

ka- -an₃

ka-₄

ka₅

ka-₇

kabá

kabal₁

kabal₂

kaban₁

kaban₂

kabaŋ

kabasi

kabat₁

kabat₂

kabatíti

kabe₁

kabe₂

kabég

kabej

kab(e)liŋ

kabi

kabiR

kabít

kabit₁

kabkáb

kablit

kaboRa

kabu-kabu

kabuq

kabuR

kabuRaw

kabus₁

kabut

kacaw

kaCu

kada

kadadak

kadapuR

kadaqdaq

kad(e)rit

kadik

kadkad

kadro

kaen

kagkag

kagud

kahir

kahiR

kahiw haŋin haŋin

kahug

kai

kaija

kain

kaiŋ

kak

kaka₁

kaka₂

kaka₃

kakak

kakaŋ

kakap

kakaq

kakas(-i)

kakawa₁

kakawa₂

kalába

kalabaw

kalalaŋ

kalamansiq

kalamata

kalámay

kalamuntiŋ

kalaqabusi

kalasag

kalasaR

kalat

kalatkat

kalaw

kalawit

kalayu

kaldít

kal(e)bit

kalem

kali

kali-

kalia

kalih

kalik

kalika

kalikiq

kalim-petpet

kaliŋ

kaliŋaw

kaliŋkiŋ

kalis

kalít

kalo

kalu

kaluban

kalug

kalumpaŋ

kaluŋ

kam- -an

kamaguŋ

kamaliR

kamandag

kamantigi

kamaŋ

kamaŋa

kamaŋi

kamaRi

kamas

kamatu

kamay

kamaya

kambu

kambur

kambuR₁

kambuR₂

kam(e)qáw

kamet

kamiá

kamiri

kamisu

kamit

kamkam

kampi

kampil

kampis

kampit

kampuŋ

kamu₁

kamu₂

kamuniŋ

kamwa-kamwa

kana-

kana₁

kana₂

kana-kana

kanam

kanaŋa

kanap₁

kanap₂

kanari

kanarum

kanawa

kanaway

kandaŋ

kandiŋ

kandis

kandoRa

kanduŋ

kaniá

kani-kani

kanisu

kanoŋ

kantuk

kanúmay

kanuqus

kanus

kaNasay

kañu-kañu

kañul

kaŋ

kaŋa

kaŋaRi

kaŋeqa

kaŋkaŋ₁

kaŋkaŋ₂

kaŋkaŋ₃

kaŋkaŋ₄

kao

kapak

kapal

kapaq-kapaq

kapas kapas

kapay

kape₂

ka(m)pet

kapet

kapika

kapiku

kapin

kapis

kapit

kapkap

kapuk

kapuru

kapuR

kaput

kapút

kapwa

kaq(e)pi

kaqiŋ

kaqis

kaqit

karagwam

karak₁

karak₂

kara-karawa

karamea

karani

karanzaŋ

karaŋ

karaŋi

karasi

karat₁

karat₂

karawina

karis

karkar

karus

karut₁

karut₂

kaRa

kaRaC

kaRadkad

kaRaka

kaRakap

kaRaskas

kaRaw₁

kaRaw₂

kaRem

kaReteŋ

kaRi₁

kaRi₂

kaRiŋ

kaRiqit

kaRiskis

kaRitkit

kaRkaR

kaRu

kaRud

kaRuki

kaRuŋkuŋ

kaRus

kaRuskus

kasambiʔ

kasaw₁

kasaw₂

kasay

kasep

kasi

kasika

kasíli

kaskas₁

kaskas₂

kaskas₃

kaso

kasu

kasuli

kaS(e)pal

kaSiw

kaSkaS

kaSu

kata

katadu

katae

kataman

katambak

katana

kataŋ

kataŋan

kataŋ-kataŋ

katapa

katapaŋ

katawa

katawan

kati₁

kati₂

katik

katimun

katiR

katita

katkat₁

katkat₂

katou

katud

katuday

katuk

katúk

kau₁

kau₂

kaubebe

kauŋ

kaup

kauru

kaus

kawa

kawa-kawa

kawaŋ

kawaq

kawar

kaway₁

kaway₂

kawayan

kawe

kawil₁

kawil₂

kawiŋ

kawit

kawkaw₂

kaya

kayab

kayajo

kayaŋ

kay(e)qat

kaykáy

kayu kayu

kazaŋ₁

kazaŋ₂

kazupay

26686

*ka₁ conjunctive particle, and

3146

PAN     *ka₁ conjunctive particle, and

Formosan
Basai kaand
Kavalan kaand (conjunctive)
Siraya kaand
WMP
Maguindanao kaand
Mori kaand
Kulisusu kaand
OC
Manam ʔaand
Vano ŋgaand
Buma kaand
  kaand
Paamese kaand
Lironesa kaand
Nengone kaand
Wayan ŋgaand
Fijian kaconjunction, "and", but used to connect sentences, adjectives, and verbs (between nouns and pronouns kei is used instead)

Note:   PAn *ka is less well-supported than PAn *maS ‘conjunction: and’, but given the restricted syntax of both forms in various languages it is possible that PAn and other early Austronesian proto-languages had more than one conjunction that can be translated as ‘and’. Alternatively, since words for ‘and’ are monosyllables in most languages regardless of genetic affiliation, this comparison may be product of convergence due to limited possibilities.

26687

*ka₂ conditional, if

3147

PAN     *ka₂ conditional, if

Formosan
Paiwan u kaif ... were to
  ka na i-kaif not ... then
WMP
Tboli keif
Lawangan a-kaʔif
Gayō kaif
OC
Makatea kaif
Samoan ʔa-naif

30941

*ka₃ oblique case marker for plural personal names

8800

PAN     *ka₃ oblique case marker for plural personal names

Formosan
Saisiyat ka¹nominative and accusative case marker for common nouns
Atayal kaʔnominative case marker for common nouns
Pazeh katopic marker
Bunun kanominative case marker (no personal/common distinction)
Rukai (Budai) kaoblique case marker for common nouns
Proto-Rukai *kanominative case marker for common nouns (Ross 2006:529)
WMP
Isneg kaobjective and locative case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
Itawis ka-nobjective, locative and oblique case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
  ka-n-ioblique case marker for the singular of personal names (Tharp and Natividad 1976)
  ka-n-daoblique case marker for the plural of personal names (Tharp and Natividad 1976)
Malaweg kaobjective and locative case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
Itneg ka-npossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Kapampangan ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Tagalog ka-yoblique case marker for personal nouns
Bikol kapossessive plural of personal names (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Bikol (Camarines Sur) ka-nagentive, genitive and oblique case marker for common nouns (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Kinaray-a ka-ŋagentive, genitive and oblique case marker for common nouns (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Waray-Waray ka-npossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Cebuano ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Tausug ka-npossessive plural of personal names (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Malay ka-a locative prefix corresponding to “ward” (upward, downward, inward, outward, Northward, etc.)
Mentawai kain, at, to, towards, from here, among, out of
Rejang ka-to, towards
Sundanese kato, towards
Madurese kato
Balinese kato; go to; at
Mongondow kopreposition: at, on, to, towards, between, from


Note:   ¹ Ross (2006:529) gives Saisiyat ka as marking both NOM and ACC, but according to Li (1978:600), and Zeitoun (to appear) it marks only the ACC.

31771

*ka₄ 2sg. subject pronoun

9941

PMP     *ka₄ 2sg. subject pronoun

WMP
Yami ka2sg. nominative
Itbayaten kayou (sg.)
Ibatan ka2sg. nominative
Ilokano -ka2sg. (familiar) absolutive enclitic pronoun
Isneg kayou; nominative and accusative of the abbreviated form of the personal pronoun of the second person singular: ikáw
Itawis kayou, 2sg nominative pronoun
Bontok ka2nd person minimal pronoun; you (sg.)
Kankanaey kathou, thee; you
Casiguran Dumagat ta2sg. topic pronoun
Ibaloy kayou, 2sg. topic set
Pangasinan kayou, sg., familiar, topic pronoun
Kapampangan (-)kayou (sg.); ing-case, non-emphasized
Tagalog kapronoun, the postpositive form of ikáw, you (singular)
Bikol kayou; si-class second person singular pronoun
Hanunóo you (singular); occurs mainly in certain set phrases; in all of them, however, may be replaced by the more frequently used káwu
Romblomanon kayou (sg.); occurs as sentence topic following the predicate; for the topic pronoun preceding the predicate see íkaw
Masbatenyo ka2sg topic pronoun; this pronoun occurs only as a clitic to verbs and particles
Aklanon kayou singular (contraction of ikáw)
Waray-Waray kayou (used in postpositive form)
Hiligaynon kayou (short form of ikáw)
Cebuano kashort for ikáw used in constructions requiring the nominative except the predicate
Central Tagbanwa ka2sg nominative pronoun, used as focused participant in verbal clauses, you
Maranao kayou -- primary
Binukid ka2sg topic pronoun: you
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ka2sg topic pronoun
Molbog ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = aka)
Rungus Dusun ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikow)
Lingkabau 2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikaw)
Abai Sembuak ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = oko)
Bisaya (Sabah) ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikow)
Bulungan ka2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ika)
CMP
Buruese kathou
OC
Mota ka2sg, subject pronoun

Note:   The exact function of this pronoun remains unclear. It seems to correspond to *=ka(hu) ‘2sg., NOM2’ in Ross (2006:542), although that by itself does not advance our understanding. In at least Proto-Philippines *ka evidently was a post-predicate clitic that corresponded in function to the free-standing *i-kahu in pre-predicate position. This raises the question whether the occurence of free-standing and clitic pronouns in syntactic complementation was unique to the second person singular, or was a feature of the pronoun system in general. Since there is little comparative evidence to support the latter alternative, it seems likely that the 2sg. pronoun allowed this option, while other persons and numbers did not.

26685

*ka-₁ marker of past time in temporal expressions

3145

PAN     *ka-₁ marker of past time in temporal expressions

Formosan
Paiwan tiawday before or after today
  nu-tiawtomorrow
  ka-tiawyesterday
  nu-ŋidawhen (future)?
  ka-ŋidawhen (past)?
WMP
Ivatan ka-past, in temporal expressions
  ka-koyabyesterday (cp. ma-koyab ‘afternoon’)
Itneg (Binongan) ka-gídaŋyesterday (cp. gídaŋ ‘afternoon’)
Tagalog ka-gabíyesterday (cp. gabí ‘night, evening’)
Mansaka kagabiyesterday
Tausug kahapunyesterday
Kadazan Dusun koniapyesterday
Minangkabau ka-pataŋyesterday (cp. pataŋ ‘evening’)
Sangir ka-hebiyesterday (cp. hebi ‘night’)
Bantik kanehabaʔyesterday
Mongondow ko-gobiithe previous night (cp. gobii ‘night’)

Note:   The Kadazan Dusun and Bantik words contain a reflex of *niRab, *neRab ‘yesterday’. All other extra-Formosan forms are based on the word for ‘afternoon, evening’ (PMP *Rabiqi, PPh *hapun). Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ka- ‘perfective verb prefix’.

31589

*ka-₂ stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions

9727

PAN     *ka-₂ stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions

Formosan
Kavalan qa-immediate future: qa-patay ‘will die’ (cp m-patay ‘to die, be dead’)
Amis ka-connective in negative word combinations where ma- would be used in a positive statement (Fey 1986:370): caay ka-fanaɁ kako ‘I don’t know’ (cp. ma-fanaɁ kako ‘I know’)
Thao ka-prefix of uncertain function: k-acay ‘Drop dead!’ (a curse expressed in anger; cp. m-acay ‘die, be dead’)
WMP
Bontok ka-a stative prefix occurring only on verbs preceded by the auxiliary daan (‘yet, still’): daan ka-loto ‘not yet cooked’ (cp. loto ‘to cook’)
Kankanaey ka-stative marker in negative constructions: adi ka-atéy ‘not to die, etc.’ (cp. m-atéy ‘dead’)

Note:   For further details on this prefix cf. Blust (2003b).

31590

*ka-₃ stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker

9728

PPh     *ka-₃ stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker

WMP
Yami ka-‘very’ (in comparative constructions): ka-tava-tava ‘very fat’ (cp. ma-tava ‘fat’)
Ilokano ka-with the particle idí, the ka- prefix with an adjectival root translates that the quality of the adjective is at the highest level: idí ka-pintás-na ‘at the highest level of his/her/its beauty’ (cp. pintás ‘beauty’)
Kapampangan ka-prefix with descriptive bases; produces emphatic descriptives
Aklanon ka-very productive adjective prefix, indicating a high degree (when standing alone), or the superlative (when with the -an suffix) ka-gwápo ‘very good looking’ (cp. gwápo ‘handsome’)
Hiligaynon ka-adjective formative affix designating comparative and superlative degrees of comparison: ka-tahúm sa ímu ‘How beautiful you are!’ (cp. ma-tahúm ‘beautiful, pretty’)
Cebuano ka-prefix added to adjectives in exclamations: ka-gwápu sa ímu-ŋ baláy ‘What a beautiful house you have!’ (cp. gwápu ‘beautiful, good-looking’); ka-dákuɁ ‘How big it is!’ (cp. dákuɁ ‘big, great’)

31592

*ka-₅ formative for abstract nouns of quality

9730

PAN     *ka-₅ formative for abstract nouns of quality

Formosan
Amis ka-active verbal particle: ka-tayal ‘work as an activity not necessarily in process’ (cp. ma-tayal ‘refers to the activity of working’)
WMP
Itbayaten ka-creates abstract nouns of quality: ka-vayah ‘redness’ (cp. vayah ‘red color’)
Bontok ka-derivational prefix forming an abstract noun: ka-dalem ‘depth’ (cp. ‘deep’)
Ifugaw ka-creates abstract nouns: ka-tagu ‘manhood’ (cp. tagu ‘man, human being’)
Aklanon ka-noun prefix: ka-támɁis ‘sweetness’ (cp. ma-támɁis ‘sweet’)
Cebuano ka-affix added to adjectives to form nouns which mean ‘the state of being [so-and-so]’: ka-súbuɁ sadness’ (cp. súbuɁ ‘sad’)
Manobo (Sarangani) ke-certain nouns are derived from adjective or verb roots by using the prefix ke-: ke-init ‘heat, warmth’ (cp. init ‘hot, warm’); ke-okit ‘passage’ (cp. okit ‘travel’)
Malagasy ha-formative added to adjectives to make them into abstract nouns: ha-tsara ‘goodness’ (cp. tsara ‘good’)
Sasak kə-formative for abstract nouns: kə-bəleɁ ‘size, magnitude’ (cp. bəleɁ ‘big, large’); kə-kodeɁ ‘smallness’ (cp. kodeɁ ‘small’)
Mongondow ko-marker of abstract nouns: ko-loben ‘size, magnitude’ (cp. mo-loben ‘large’)
Banggai ka-formative of abstract nouns from adjectival bases: ka-lanak ‘greasiness’ (cp. ma-lanak ‘greasy’)
Wolio ka-formative for deverbal nouns: ka-bari ‘number, quantity’ (cp. bari ‘be many, much); ka-pii ‘illness’ (cp ma-pii ‘ill’)
Muna ka-deverbal noun denoting the abstraction of the verbal quality’: ka-tehi ‘fear’ (cp. tehi ‘afraid’); ka-ghosa ‘strength, hardness, health’ (cp. ghosa ‘strong, hard’)

31593

*ka-₆ manner in which an action is carried out

9731

PWMP     *ka-₆ manner in which an action is carried out

WMP
Mapun ka-nominalizer with adjectives or stative verbs indicating the manner of doing an action
Tausug ka-nominalizer indicating the manner of doing an action: ka-kadtu ‘his getting there’ (cp. kadtu ‘go or take something to a place’)
Toba Batak ha-the time at which, place whence, or even the particular way in which the content of the verb takes place: ha-pogos ‘suffering poverty, being poor’ (cp. pogos ‘poor’)

31597

*ka- -an₁ marker of the adversative passive

9736

PAN     *ka- -an₁ marker of the adversative passive

Formosan
Pazeh ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-udan-an ‘be soaked with rain, be caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ka-akux-an ‘heatstroke; be overcome by heat’ (cf. paka-akux ‘to warm up, to heat’); ka-bari-an ‘be blown about by the wind’ (cf. bari ‘wind’)
Paiwan ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-sulem-an ‘be caught by darkness’ (cp.sulem ‘darkness, twilight’)
WMP
Yami ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-cimoy-an ‘be rained on (as something left outside)’ (cf. cimoy ‘rain’)
Itbayaten ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-timoy-an ‘to be caught by rain’ (cf. timoy ‘rain’); k-aɁxep-an ‘be caught by night, benighted’ (cf.aɁxep ‘night’)
Mapun ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-lasuh-an ‘to be angry (at s.o. or about s.t.); (cf. lasu ‘anger’); ka-saŋom-am ‘be overtaken by the night (i.e. for night to come while one is doing something) (cf. saŋom ‘night, the period from about 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.); ka-uwan-an ‘to be rained on’ (cf. uwan ‘rain’)
Bahasa Indonesia kə- -anmarker of the adversative passive; kə-hujan-an ‘be caught in the rain, be caught in a downpour’ (cf. hujan ‘rain’); kə-siaŋ-an ‘to oversleep’ (cf. siaŋ ‘bright daylight’); kə-tidur-an ‘to fall asleep inadvertently (as when needing to stay awake)’ (cf. tidur ‘sleep’); kə-panas-an ‘be overcome by the heat of the sun’ (cf. panas ‘hot’)
Toba Batak ha- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ha-udan-an ‘caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ha-borŋin-an ‘to be overaken by nightfall’ (cf. borŋin ‘night’)
Sundanese ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-hujan-an ‘stand or walk in the rain; be rained on, be caught in the rain’ (cp. hujan ‘rain’)
Old Javanese ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-turw-an ‘overcome by sleep, falling asleep, dropping off’ (cf. turū ‘to sleep’); k-āŋin-an ‘moved (driven) by the wind; in the wind’; ka-panas-an ‘suffering from the heat; angry’
Javanese kə- -anmarker of the adversative passive; k-odan-an ‘to get rained on’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); kə-turo-n ‘to drop off to sleep accidentally, to doze’ (cf. turu ‘to sleep’)
Sangir ka- -aŋka-hebi—aŋ ‘overcome by darkness, benighted’ (cp. hebi ‘night’)
Tae' ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-uran-an ‘caught in the rain’ (cf. uran ‘rain’)

Note:   In some languages the adversative passive is expressed by the suffix *-an alone, as with Tausug ulan-an ‘to be rained on’, from ulan ‘rain’, or with the suffix *-an and some other prefix, as with Ilokano ma-tudú-an ‘to be caught in the rain’, from túdo ‘rain’. In a more limited set of languages in western Indonesia it is expressed by the circumfix *ka- -en, as with Karo Batak k-udan-en ‘timid, as goats that run to their stall when the rain begins’.

31598

*ka- -an₂ formative for nouns of location

9737

PAN     *ka- -an₂ formative for nouns of location

Formosan
Saisiyat ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-Ɂælop-an ‘hunting ground’ (cp. Ɂælop ‘to hunt’)
Amis ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-tayal-an ‘place of business’ (cp. tayal ‘work’)
Thao ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-kalhus-an ‘sleeping place’ (cp. kalhus ‘to sleep’)
Paiwan ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-ki-tjalav-an ‘athletic field’ (cp. ki-tjala-tjalaw ‘fight over something; to contest’); ka-tsasav-an ‘courtyard in front of house’ (cp. tsasaw ‘outdoors, outside’)
WMP
Ifugaw ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-kayu-an ‘place where there is firewood’ (cp. kayu ‘tree, wood’)
Pangasinan ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-aboŋ-an ‘houses, group of houses’ (cp. aboŋ ‘house’)
Bikol ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-umah-an ‘an expanse of farmland’ (cp. uma ‘farm’)
Mapun ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-batuh-an ‘a rocky area’ (cp. batu ‘stone, rock’)
Toba Batak ha- -anformative for nouns of location; ha-mate-an ‘place where one has died’ (cp. mate ‘die’)
Javanese ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-lurah-an ‘residence of the top village official’ (cp. lurah ‘top village official’)

31599

*ka- -an₃ formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal)

9738

PAN     *ka- -an₃ formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal)

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’
WMP
Tagalog ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-takút-an ‘fear’ (cp. ma-tákot ‘to be afraid’)
Bikol ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-asgad-án ‘saltiness’ (cp. ma-asgád ‘salty, saline’)
Malay kə- -anformative for abstract nouns; kə-ada-an ‘existence’ (cp. ada ‘be, exist’)
Toba Batak ha- -anformative for abstract nouns; ha-mate-an ‘death’ (cp. mate ‘die’)
Javanese ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-urip-an ‘life, existence’ (cp. urip ‘living, alive’)
Tae' ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-mate-an ‘time of death’ (cp. mate ‘die, dead’)

Note:   Possibly the same circumfix as *ka- -an₂, but none of the nouns formed by this process have a clear locative sense. It is worth noting that some languages use the same affixed form in both locative and general abstract senses, as with Toba Batak ha-mate-an ‘place where one has died’ (cf. *ka- -an₂), and ha-mate-an ‘death’ (*ka- -an₃).

31591

*ka-₄ mate, partner, cohort

9729

PPh     *ka-₄ mate, partner, cohort

WMP
Yami ka-company, co-: ka-kteh ‘fellow brothers and sisters, siblings’ (cp. mi-keteh ‘sibling relationship’)
Itbayaten ka-corresponding one, mate: ka-yvan ‘companion, escort’ (cp. ivan-an ‘to accompany, escort’); ka-kovot ‘spouse’ (cp. mi-chovot ‘to become spouses to one another’)
Ilokano ka-transitive verbal prefix indicating companionship of the action expressed by the root (ka-sala ‘to dance with someone’, ka-sao ‘to speak with someone’)
Ilongot ka-mate, partner: ka-duwa ‘companion’ (cp. duwa ‘two’)
Pangasinan ka-person or thing proximate to oneself: ka-aráp ‘one who is in front’ (cp. aráp ‘front’)
Bikol ka-prefix that creates nouns of accompanied action: ka-úlay ‘the person one is talking to’ (cp. maki-úlay ‘to converse with’)
Cebuano ka-affix forming nouns which mean ‘one’co-[noun]’: aku-ŋ ka-klási ‘my classmate’ (cf. klási ‘class, kind’), aku-ŋ ka-áway ‘my opponent’ (cp. áway ‘to quarrel, fight’)
Tondano ka-derives animate nouns indicating a person who shares the thing expressed by the stem: ka-Ɂawu ‘spouse’ (cp. awu ‘kitchen, hearth’); ka-wanua ‘fellow villager’ (cp. wanua ‘village’)

32005

*ka₅ (human) member of a category

10232

POC     *ka₅ (human) member of a category     [doublet: *kai]

OC
Tabar kaman
Mendak ka-dioŋstranger, foreigner
Bulu ka-ka taraperson (tara = ‘mature’)
Ormu ka-ruperson
Manam ka-letiforeigner, white man

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Ross and Osmond (2016:49-50).

31594

*ka-₇ past participle/achieved state

9732

PMP     *ka-₇ past participle/achieved state

WMP
Murut (Timugon) ka-marker of achieved states: ka-aguy ‘tired’ (cp. (ma-aguy ‘is tired’)
Ma'anyan ka-marker of past participle or achieved states: ka-reŋey ‘heard’ (cp. reŋey ‘to hear’); ka-ituŋ ‘remembered’ (cp. ituŋ ‘to remember’)
Old Javanese ka-passive prefix: the ka- passive refers more to the state achieved, in contrast to the -in- passive, which refers more to the action: ka-bebed ‘bound, entwined’ (cp. bebed ‘band, tie, bandage’); ka-dawut ‘uprooted’ (cp. dawut ‘pull out, uproot’)
Makasarese ka-prefix that forms adjectives carrying a sense of being caused or brought about: ka-mallaɁ-mallaɁ ‘struck with fear’ (cp. mallaɁ ‘afraid’)
OC
Nggela ka-prefix forming past participles: ka-mbihu ‘broken off’ (cp. mbihu ‘to separate, break apart’)
Fijian ka-marker of achieved states: ka-basu ‘torn open’ (cp. basu ‘break open a person’s eyes or mouth’)

31602

*kabá anxious, nervous

9745

PPh     *kabá anxious, nervous

WMP
Ilokano ag-kabá-kabáto be anxious, perplexed
Tagalog kabápalpitation of the heart or pulse; twitter; an excited condition; to feel nervous; to have a premonition of something
Bikol kabáfright
  ma-kaba-ánto get a fright; to be startled,
  mag-kabá-kabáto throb (as the heart); to palpitate

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.

31897

*kábag gas pains

10107

PPh     *kábag gas pains

WMP
Ilokano kábaggas pain; flatulence
  kabág-anto have gas pains
Tagalog kábaggas pain; flatulence
Aklanon kábagto have gas pains (in stomach), suffer from hyperacidity or indigestion
Cebuano kábagto have gas pains; gas pains

31603

*kabal₁ clothing

9746

PAN     *kabal₁ clothing     [disjunct: *kabaR]

Formosan
Kavalan qabarclothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre
WMP
Itbayaten kavaxclothing, garment

31935

*kabal₂ invulnerable, invulnerability

10151

PWMP     *kabal₂ invulnerable, invulnerability     [doublet: *kebel]

WMP
Ilokano kabálbreastplate; armor; bulletproof vest
  kab-kabal-ansurgeonfish: Acanthurus triostegus
Tagalog kabála potion, charm or talisman supposed to render one invulnerable against knives, daggers, bullets, etc.
  kabál sa sakítimmunity; reistance to disease, poison, etc
Bikol kabálan amulet which has the power of making its possessor invulnerable to the bolo and the spear, rendering these weapons dull, or suspending them in air upon attack; generally a circular piece of copper with a hole in the center, or a bit of shell roughly carved into the shape of an aníto (ancestral spirit) noted for particularly admired exploits (Bikol mythology)
Hanunóo kabáldefensive power believed to make the owner virtually invulnerable, i.e., indestructible by ordinary weapons
Ngaju Dayak kabal ~ gabalthick-skinned so that one is not harmed by blows
Javanese ŋawalto guard, escort
Bare'e kabainvulnerable
Tae' kabaninvulnerable, possessing a magical charm that makes one invulnerable so that the point of a lance or a bullet cannot penetrate the body

Note:   Some of these forms may be loans from Malay, but this seems unlikely for the lot.

31573

*kaban₁ companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend

9700

PWMP     *kaban₁ companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend

WMP
Hanunóo kabántogetherness, companionship
Ngaju Dayak kawanherd (of animals), flock (of birds), school (of fish); throng, crowd, multitude; species, kind; relationship
  ha-kawanstay together in herds
  ma-ŋa-ŋawanbe together in little bands
Malagasy hávanaa relation, an alliance, a friend
  haván-inato be entered into relationship with; to be consorted with
Iban kabankinsman, relation; companion, follower, supporter; group, band, herd, member of group
Malay kawancompany; party; herd; comrade; companion; friend; follower (refers to any group of living things, as a herd of elephants, flock of goats, swarm of bees, or band of robbers)
  me-ŋawanto couple; to pair (of animals)
Acehnese kawanherd, flock, crowd; friend, comrade, companion, mate; follower; assistant; adherent
Toba Batak habana herd, as of cattle
Rejang kabeungroup, party, crowd
Old Javanese kawancompanion; group
  sa-kawana group (belonging together)
  sama-kawantogether, in a group
  sa-kawan-anin groups

9701

PMP     *maR-kaban to be friends with, to be a companion of

WMP
Hanunóo mag-kabángo together as companions
Malagasy mi-hávanato be in a state of friendship with, to be on friendly terms with, to show friendship towards

Note:   Also Tagalog káwan ‘herd; a number of animals together; flock; a group of animals or birds of one kind; swarm; a group of bees that fly off together to start a new colony; a large group of insects flying or moving about together; a school (of fish); multitude; a large number’; mag-káwan ‘to form a flock, aherd, a group or a school’.

31614

*kaban₂ storage chest

9760

PWMP     *kaban₂ storage chest

WMP
Isneg kabānchest, trunk, box
Itawis kabánlarge chest, trunk
Ifugaw (Batad) kabana miniature house sepulchre for the dead, of traditional design (used only for a rich person)
Casiguran Dumagat kabanwooden chest
Pangasinan kabána trunk for storing clothes, etc.
Tagalog kabánchest or trunk, esp. one for clothes
Bikol kabánchest, trunk, coffer
  mag-kabánto place something into a chest
Hanunóo kabántrunk, chest for storage; seen by Hanunóo in Christian barrios
Aklanon kabánfootlocker, trunk (for clothes)
Agutaynen kabana wooden box or trunk used like a bag or suitcase (these boxes were used in the past and are rarely used today)
Cebuano kabántrunk, chest; to store in a trunk
  kabán-kabánkind of bivalve, so called because it opens and closes like a trunk
Maranao kabanchest, case, box
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kavana trunk; a large wooden box
Tausug kabana closed coffin
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) kabansmall wooden box

Note:   Also Malay kəban ‘a four-cornered matwork bag’, Toba Batak hobon ‘very large round rice container made of bamboo strips’. Possibly a loan, but if so the source is yet to be determined.

31604

*kabaŋ spotted, dappled

9747

PPh     *kabaŋ spotted, dappled

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kabaŋterm for a spotted domestic pig
Ibaloy kabaŋanimals with white spots, mixed with color, on its fur
Tagalog kabáŋmulti-colored; varicolored; spotted; white patch of skin on face or arms (used in some areas)
Bikol kabáŋtwo-toned; half and half (color, contents)
Cebuano kabáŋspotted, splotched; unevenly painted or cut
Maranao kabaŋspotted
Mansaka kábaŋto be spotted or striped (as an animal); to be nonuniform; to be variegated
Tausug kabaŋspotted, piebald (of animals, fish, material, etc.)
Mongondow kabaŋwhite spots on the skin; also scar

Note:   Also Tiruray kabaŋ ‘of mixed color; (of animals only) spotted’.

30797

*kabasi kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.

8541

PWMP     *kabasi kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.

WMP
Ilokano kabásikind of large marine fish, gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.
Casiguran Dumagat kabásesmall-mouthed threadfin fish: Polynemus microstoma
Aklanon kabásikind of fish
  k<in>abásibolo (having shape of kabási)
Cebuano kabásigizzard shad: Nematalosa nasus, and Anodontostoma chacunda
Maranao kabasifish --- herring
Malay ikan kebasibony bream or hairback, Dorosoma spp. (name on east coast of Malay peninsula)

Note:   Also Tagalog kabásiʔ ‘species of fish: gizzard shad’.

31629

*kabat₁ wrap, bundle up

9781

PWMP     *kabat₁ wrap, bundle up

WMP
Ilokano kabát-ento package, bundle, pack up
Maranao baŋkat <Mto pack, to tie; band
Minangkabau kabatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet

Note:   Also Malay kəbat ‘binding round; band; wrapper; circlet’. This form suggests that Minangkabau kabat may reflect a form with penultimate schwa, thus invalidating this comparison on the PWMP level and leaving it weak on the PPh level.

31746

*kabat₂ canoes joined together side-by-side (?)

9915

POC     *kabat₂ canoes joined together lengthwise (?)

OC
Gedaged kapata raft; several logs thrown over a ditch or stream
Motu kapa-kapasmall canoes joined together without space between

Note:   Possibly a chance resemnblance. Gedaged clearly loses original final consonants in most forms, but has apparent retentions in enough cases to leave open the question whether in any given comparison it may preserve a final consonant that was lost in most Oceanic languages.

32006

*kabatíti a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp.

10233

PPh     *kabatíti a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp.

WMP
Ivatan kabatitia vine with edible, long cylindrical fruits: Luffa cylindrica (Rubino 2000)
Ibatan kabatitia kind of luffa
Ilokano kabatítia vine with edible, long cylindrical fruits: Luffa cylindrica
Isneg kabatítia scandent, cucurbitaceous, herbaceous vine with large leaves, yellow flowers and oblong, cylindric, green, ribbed or smooth fruits that are used for vegetables; taboo to trappers that have come home after having constructed a balét trap (bow or spear trap for deer or wild boars)
Kankanaey kabatítia cucurbitaceous vine with yellow flowers, cultivated for its edible fruit: Luffa sp.
Casiguran Dumagat kabatítivariety of uncultivated plant (leaves are boiled with fish as a vegetable)
Tagalog kabatétethe Javan cucumber, a gourd-bearing liana belonging to the pumpkin family: Alsomitra macrocarpa Roem. Cucurbitaceae
Bagobo kabatitia shrub: Callicarpa caudata Maxim., Verbenaceae

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan, although this appears unlikely both because of the wide and scattered distribution from the Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao, with an apparent near-absence of the form throughout the central Philippines, and because of the manner in which beliefs about this plant are deeply embedded in some of the cultures of northern Luzon, as the Isneg gloss shows.

30178

*kabe₁ a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets

6977

POC     *kabe₁ a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets

OC
Lou kamkind of fiber from a jointed vine, used to make cordage for nets
Loniu kapstring made of vine fiber
Nali kapfishing line
Lakalai la abevine used for cordage
Nggela gambespecies of creeper used for twine of fishing nets
Arosi ʔabea creeping, jointed plant, from whose strands string is made; a woman’s string girdle
Fijian kabethe skin covering the coconut leaf stalk, and used for tying

30468

*kabe₂ wing

7662

POC     *kabe₂ wing

OC
Motu apewing
Vartavo γaβe-nwing
Rerep xambe-nwing

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

31619

*kabég large fruit bat

9770

PPh     *kabég large fruit bat

WMP
Kapampangan kabága kind of bat (mammal)
  má-kabágbat-infested
Aklanon kabógfruit bat
Cebuano kabúgkind of large fruit bat with a dark brown color, growing to a five or even seven foot wingspan; the flesh is highly esteemed
Maranao kabegbat
Binukid kabegkind of large fruit bat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaveggiant fruit bat
Mansaka kabuglarge kind of bat, measuring 30 cm. in length

Note:   Also Tagalog kabág ‘a species of fruit bat; a large bat’, Binukid kabal ‘kind of large bat’, Tiruray kabeg ‘a giant fruit bat: Pteropus vampyrus lenensis Mearns.’ (Danaw loan). The semantic distinction between this term and reflexes of PMP *paniki ‘fruit bat, flying fox’, both of which are reflected in a number of Philippine languages, remains unclear.

31747

*kabej tie up, tie by wrapping around

9916

PWMP     *kabej tie up, tie by wrapping around

WMP
Cebuano kabúdtie ropes, strings, wires around something large
Minangkabau kabatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet

Note:   Also Malay kəbat ‘binding round; band; wrapper; circlet’. With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.

32007

*kab(e)liŋ kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin

10234

PPh     *kab(e)liŋ kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin

WMP
Ilokano kablíŋspecies of aromatic herb with pink-purple flowers: Pogostemon cablin
Tagalog kablíŋa species of aromatic herb

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.

31890

*kabi to catch, as in a trap

10097

POC     *kabi to catch, as in a trap

OC
Tolai kap ~ kapito catch, take, as a bird in a trap
Gedaged abito take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take
Motu abi-ato have, hold
'Āre'āre kapia trap

Note:   Apparently distinct from PAn *kapit ‘fasten together by sewing or tying’.

31620

*kábig to turn around, as a boat

9771

PPh     *kábig to turn around, as a boat

WMP
Ilokano kábigto turn (a steering wheel)
Bikol mag-kábigto set a boat back on course by turning it with an oar

9772

PPh     *kabíg-en to turn around, as a boat

WMP
Ilokano kabíg-ento turn (a steering wheel)
Bikol kabíg-onto set a boat back on course by turning it with an oar

26607

*kabiR draw toward oneself; annex, make subject

3065

PWMP     *kabiR draw toward oneself; annex, make subject

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kábigto draw or pull something towards oneself (as to hug a person, to scoop up the money in gambling, to scrape dirt into a pile with a shovel; to paddle a canoe drawing the paddle towards you so that the boat will turn)
Tagalog kábigact of drawing or pulling towards oneself; vassal, subject, follower
Bikol mag-kábigto rake in with the hand (as chips in the game of roulette)
Cebuano kábigmake something move toward one; to convert
Tiruray kabigthe extent (geographical or social) of a leader's following, jurisdiction or authority
Malay kabirdrawing towards oneself. In two senses: 1. (MIN) scooping in, annexing, 2. (MAL) side-paddling
Balinese kabihbe supported
Tae' kabeʔdraw toward oneself; reach for something; grasp at something; stretch the hand out toward

Note:   Zorc (1981) proposes Proto-Southern Philippines *kábig ‘take for oneself’.

31920

*kabít to lead, support (as a feeble person)

10135

PPh     *kabít to lead, support (as a feeble person)

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kabítto lead someone by the hand; to walk hand in hand
Bikol mag-kabítto support, hold up (as a weak person)
Aklanon kabítto cling to, hang on to; franchise, collaborate; mistress, paramour
Cebuano kabítcling to, hang on to; join in on a transportation franchise on a minor basis; hook up to a telephone with another line; take a paramour or lover

30301

*kabit₁ hook

7239

PAN     *kabit₁ hook     [doublet: *kawit]

Formosan
Pazeh kabithook
  mu-kabitto hook
  saa-kabita hook
Amis kafitattached to, stuck to; to hang
WMP
Kankanaey kábitto hook
Pangasinan kabítattach; joint; share a part
Kapampangan kabítput, fix, attach
Tagalog kabítconnected; attached; fastened; united
Bikol kabítto attach, fasten, to clamp
Maranao kabithang onto a vehicle
Kadazan Dusun kavitto hook, pluck with a hook
Bintulu sə-kabithook at the end of a fruiting pole
Iban kabithang or hook on (as in hooking coins onto the hem of a skirt, or hanging a basket on a branch)
Wolio kabibarb on fishhook

Note:   Also Ilokano kabʔít ‘hook’, Cebuano kabɁít ‘hook, crook; hook around something, for a crook to catch onto something; cause it to do so’.

31630

*kabkáb dig a hole, hollow something out

9782

PPh     *kabkáb dig a hole, hollow something out     [doublet: *kadkad]

WMP
Bontok kabkábto dig a hole; to hollow a piece of wood, as in making a wooden dish or bucket
Cebuano kabkábdig a hole by scooping out dirt
Sangir kəɁkabəɁa pit, a hollowing out
  ma-kəɁkabəɁbecome hollowed out, become a pit (after digging)
  ma-ŋəɁkabəɁgo into the depths (of a fish that dives, etc.

31621

*kablit touch someone lightly, as to get attention

9773

PPh     *kablit touch someone lightly, as to get attention

WMP
Isneg kabbítto touch
Pangasinan káblitto touch lightly
Bikol mag-kablítto touch someone on the arm or touch someone’s clothing to get his attention
Aklanon káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger
Cebuano kablítto touch, move something by curling the fingers; ask a favor readily from a close acquaintance or friend
  gi-k<in>ablitto play a guitar
Binukid kablitto touch, move (something) by curling the fingers; to pluck (guitar strings)
Mansaka kablitto touch lightly (so as to get attention)
Tausug kablitto touch (something) with a flicking motion of the finger, to strum (a guitar)

Note:   Also Bikol mag-kiblít ‘to touch someone on the arm or touch someone’s clothing to get his attention’. Mapun mag-kabbit ‘to pluck or play a guitar or stringed instrument; to flick someone with one’s fingers in a manner one would pluck an instrument and immediately withdraw the hand (usually in order to get someone’s attention)’ is assumed to be a loan from a Greater Central Philippines source.

31958

*kaboRa catfish

10182

POC     *kaboRa catfish

OC
Loniu kopow <Acatfish or catfish eel
Misima kaboiyastriped catfish: Plotosus lineatus
Lewo kapwocatfish
Fijian kaboasmall black fish that goes about in shoals: catfish, Siluridae

Note:   A much extended version of this comparison with many irregular forms was first proposed by Osmond (2011:42). The evidence for *R in the present comparison is confined to Misima. Osmond also includes Nggela i-gabola, which she glosses as ‘catfish sp.’ (with ga- reanalyzed as iga ‘fish’). However, Fox (1955) gives igambola ‘butterfish’.

26608

*kabu-kabu the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra

3066

PMP     *kabu-kabu the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra     [doublet: *kapuk]

WMP
Malay kabu-kabutree-cotton, kapok
Karo Batak kabu-kabukapok tree and fiber
Toba Batak habu-habutree which yields a kind of worthless cotton
Bare'e ka-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Ampana kawu-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Makasarese kau-kaukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Wolio kawu-kawuthe kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
CMP
Manggarai kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
Rembong kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
Rembong (Wangka) kawu-kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra

Note:   Also Kamarian kabus ‘the silk cotton, or kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70). Mills (1981:64) proposes Proto-South Sulawesi or Proto-Toraja *ka[bw]u ‘kapok tree and fibre’, "Proto-Indonesian’ *ka[bw]u or ? *kabuk, but he cites no evidence from languages outside the southern half of Sulawesi.

31783

*kabuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup

9959

PMP     *kabuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup

WMP
Cebuano kabuʔdip water, scoop solids out of a container; fetch water; make, use as a water dipper; something used as a dipper or scoop
  kab-an-ancontainer for fetching water
Maranao kaboʔdipper, container to get water from wells; fetch water

9960

POC     *kapuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup

OC
Tongan kapuform into a cup-like shape, esp. a banana leaf
Hawaiian ʔapucoconut shell cup

31606

*kabuR to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm

9749

PPh     *kabuR to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm

WMP
Ilokano ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger)
Bikol mag-kabógto agitate water with the hand

Note:   Also Malay kəbur ‘driving before one, as beaters drive game; also of driving fish (cf. kəbar); disturbing water to stir up the mud; churning liquid or sand’.

31607

*kabuRaw kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix

9750

PPh     *kabuRaw kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix

WMP
Yami kavovoyawtree with orange fruit: Tabernaemontana subglobosa
Itbayaten kavoyawa tree that grows on the edge of the forest, with green to yellow-orange fruit that is eaten mostly by goats: Pittosporum oporatum Merr.
Ilokano kabúrawa variety of the kabugaw lemon
Cebuano kabúgawkind of astringently sour citrus used for hair rinse and seasoning: Citrus hystrix

Note:   Also Yami kavovoyaw ‘type of plant: Tabernaemontana subglobosa’, Itbayaten kavoogaw ‘kind of orange’, Ilokano kabúgaw ‘a kind of seedy lemon, larger than the daláyap (Citrus lima), kamúyaw ‘kind of wild lemon’, Tagalog kabuyaw ‘a species of citrus tree and its fruit’. Tagalog kabuyaw is best regarded as a Kapampangan loan, and Ilokano kabúgaw as a loan from a still undetermined source. This form appears to have a heavy history of borrowing, but the three forms cited in the main comparison are problem-free, and point unambiguously to *kabuRaw. Note that various species of Pittosporum are called ‘lemon wood’ from the lemony odor of their wood, which seems to be the unifying thread in this comparison.

31595

*kabus₁ run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor

9733

PMP     *kabus₁ run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor

WMP
Itbayaten kavosidea of ending
  ka-kavosact of concluding or finishing
  om-kavosto terminate, to finish
Aklanon kabósto be short, run short of, not have enough of
Cebuano kabúsvery poor, indigent; to run out of something
Binukid kabus(for food, etc.) to be insufficient, run short
Mansaka kabosto do completely (as a flood wiping out all the people, someone completely eating all the rice given to him, etc.)
Mapun kabusfor someone to have run out of something (as money, or provisions when housebound during a typhoon)
Tausug kabuslacking, incomplete, deficient, premature
  kabus-unto be lacking in, be short of, run out (of something)
  kabus-kabus(of a person) abnormal, mentally handicapped
Sangir kawusəɁa spot that remains uncovered, where the covering doesn’t extend; hiatus, opening; insufficient, inadequate
Tondano kawusto finish, use up
Balantak kabusfinished
Banggai kabusall gone, finished, consumed, used up
  maŋa-kabusto spend, squander
  po-kabus-ontil it is all gone, totally
CMP
Rembong kabusgone, used up

Note:   Also Binukid kulabus ‘(for food, etc.) to beinsufficient, run short’. With root *-bus ‘finish, end’.

31596

*kabut fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry

9734

PMP     *kabut fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry

WMP
Tombonuwo kawutwhite cloud
Iban kabut(of weather) continually bad, stormy
Malay kabutanything that blurs or render indistinct
  anjiŋ kabuta dog with clouded markings
  kabut matadim-sightedness
  napas bər-kabutsteamy breath
Toba Batak habutfog, haze, mist; turbid; opaque, of a dim lamp, dirty window glass, or something obscure in the distance
Rejang kabuetfog, mist, low-lying cloud

9735

POC     *kaput₂ fog, haze, mist

OC
Motu ǥahumist, fog at sea, haze
Eddystone/Mandegusu ŋgabumist; dust, dirt; rain-cloud, nimbus
Nggela ŋgavuhaze, mist; hazy, misty
Lau gafuindistinct, blurred, of writing or distant object; mist
Arosi gahumist, to be misty, dim
Fijian kabufog, mist, haze

30112

*kacaw disturb

6841

PWMP     *kacaw disturb

WMP
Cebuano kásawmake noise by splashing in the water (so as, for example, to disturb someone who is fishing)
Iban kacawdisturbed, in disorder, confused, troubled, in a stir, annoyed
  kacaw-kacawstirring, moving, moved (as leaves stirred by a troupe of monkeys)
Malay kacawjumbled up, mixed indiscriminately
Bahasa Indonesia kacawmixed indiscriminately; tangled, disordered; disturbed, not at peace

26609

*kaCu bring, carry

3067

PAN     *kaCu bring, carry

Formosan
Thao kacubring
Paiwan katsucarry
WMP
Totoli pa-katuto send
Balaesang pa-katuto send
Bare'e katuconsignment, what is sent; a gift that is sent
Sa'dan Toraja pa-katuto send
Proto-South Sulawesi *katuto send
Makasarese pi-katuto send

7156

PMP     *katu send

CMP
Bimanese ŋgadusend
Manggarai katusend
Proto-Ambon *katusend

6605

PAN     *k<in>aCu was brought; what was brought

Formosan
Thao k<in>acuwas brought
Paiwan k<in>atsusomething which has been carried

6606

PAN     *k<um>aCu to bring, to carry along

Formosan
Thao k<m>acuto bring
Paiwan k<m>atsuto carry

6607

PAN     *pa-kaCu to send

Formosan
Thao pa-kacuto send
Paiwan pa-katsucause something to be carried
WMP
Banggai ka-patu <Msend
Tae' pa-katusend
Makasarese pi-katusend

Note:   A number of the forms in languages of Sulawesi appear to contain a fossilized causative prefix.

31868

*kada stalk or cluster of fruit

10075

POC     *kada stalk or cluster of fruit

OC
Motu adastalk (pedicel) of one banana; stalk of various fruits; body of penis; the stalk (pedicel) of a bunch of bananas is kwasi
Roviana kata-nabunch or cluster of fruit

31748

*kadadak colic, choleric diarrhoea

9917

PWMP     *kadadak colic, choleric diarrhoea     [doublet: *kadaqdaq]

WMP
Maranao kadadakviolent diarrhoea
Malay kədadakviolent colic; choleric diarrohea

Note:   Possibly a Malay loanword in Maranao, although the doublet *kadaqdaq makes this appear less likely.

31959

*kadapuR rain cloud

10183

POC     *kadapuR rain cloud

OC
Nauna cipan kalahrain cloud (lit. ‘piece of cloud’)
Penchal kalaprain cloud
Lenkau kalaprain cloud
Loniu kaʔahrain cloud
Papitalai kandrahcloud, sky
Lindrou asi kandrahrain cloud
Bulu kadavujrain
Piva garavurain
Banoni garaurain
Gilbertese karaurain, rainwater; to rain

Note:   A somewhat different version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003b:142), who cited Loniu kaɁæh ‘cloud’ with a vowel that does not occur in this language (cf. Hamel 1994:15). The form and gloss cited here are drawn from my 1971 fieldnotes.

31749

*kadaqdaq colic, choleric diarrhoea

9918

PWMP     *kadaqdaq colic, choleric diarrhoea     [doublet: *kadadak]

WMP
Tiruray kadaʔdaʔa sickness involving vomiting and diarrhea, believed to be caused by sorcery
Malay kədadahviolent colic; choleric diarrohea

26610

*kad(e)rit sound of grating

3068

PWMP     *kad(e)rit sound of grating

WMP
Cebuano kadlítstrike a match
Ngaju Dayak karitcrunching, gnashing of the teeth

Note:   With root *-riC₁ ‘sound of ripping, etc.’.

31960

*kadik large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant

10184

POC     *kadik large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant

OC
Bulu kadistinging black ant
Nehan kadikred ant that builds nest in trees: Hymenoptera, family Formicidae
  kadik kurumlarge black ant found on the ground (has a bad sting which can last for several hours)
Simbo kadikiblack ant
Nggela gandia species of black ant, bulldog ant
Kwaio kaa-kadistinging black ant
Lau kadi ~ ka-kadibulldog ant
Toqabaqita kaa-kadispecies of black ant that stings
Fijian kadia large kind of black ant that stings
  kadi damua similar kind of red ant that destroys wood

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011a:391).

31631

*kadkad dig a hole

9783

PPh     *kadkad dig a hole     [doublet: *kabkáb]

WMP
Bikol kadkad-ónto dig a hole with the hand or a stick
  kadkad-ánto dig a hole in
Mansaka kadkadto dig
Sangir kəɁkadəɁpit, hole in the ground, in which for example one sets a housepost

32008

*kadro neck

10235

POC     *kadro neck

OC
Mussau alo-neck
Patpatar kado-neck
Roinji aro-tua-neck
Motu gado-throat, voice, speech, language
Roro ako-throat, neck

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Osmond and Ross (2016:140).

30603

*kaen eat

8008

PAN     *kaen eat

Formosan
Kavalan qaneat
Amis kaenpertaining to food
Thao kaneat!, lets eat!
Bunun (Takituduh) kaʔuneat
Kanakanabu kaənəfood
Proto-Rukai *kanəto eat
Puyuma əkaneat
Paiwan kanto eat
WMP
Yami kan ~ akaneat
Itbayaten kanidea of eating
Isneg kānto eat
Itawis na-káneaten
Bontok ʔək-əkanfeast
  pan-ʔəkanmeal time; time for eating
Kankanaey kaénto eat, to eat up
  siŋ-ka-kaénone meal, one repast
Ifugaw kanwordbase conveying the meaning of “eating”, especially cooked rice or sweet potatoes
Ifugaw (Batad) anthe taste of food; to eat; for a fire to consume something combustible; for a saw to cut into iron, wood
  a-ʔanthe taste of a staple or snack food, such as rice, sweet potato, bread or pastries, fermented rice grains, and fruit
Ibaloy kaneat
  ke-kenfood; will eat
Ilongot kanto eat
Pangasinan na-kánfood
Sambal (Botolan) əkanto eat
Tagalog káʔinconsumption of food; consumption of any supply, e.g. fuel
  mag-káʔinto eat frequently
  pa-kaʔínfood
Bikol mag-ka-kánto eat
Hanunóo káʔuneating; food
  pag-káʔunfood
Romblomanon kāʔunsomeone or something eats something
Masbatenyo pag-káʔonfood
Aklanon káonto eat; to take (in chess), jump (in checkers)
  pag-káonfood
Waray-Waray kaonthe act of eating
  pag-kaonthe act of eating
Hiligaynon kaʔúneat, devour
Cebuano káʔuneat; destroy by fire; consume, use up; take a man in games of chess, checkers and the like; for a man to have sexual relations with a blood relative; for a girl to be old enough to be had for sexual intercourse; for a fish to bite on one’s line
  hi-ŋáʔunfond of eating
Maranao kaneat, feed on
Binukid kaento eat (something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaʔanto eat
Mansaka kaanto eat something
  pag-kaanfood
Kalagan ka:nto eat
Yakan mag-ka-kanto eat
Tboli kenfood; to eat; to swallow up; to consume, as by fire, debt; to beat an opponent, as in a game
Tausug kauneat
  ka-kaunfood, meal
  pag-kaunfood, meal
Kadazan Dusun a-kanto eat, consume, wear away; (in such games as chess) take a piece, destroy (as if by eating)
Tombonuwo moŋ-o-kanto eat
Ida'an Begak kkancooked rice (< əkkan < əkan)
  məŋ-əkkanto eat
Lun Dayeh a-kana meal, food supply
Kayan kanfood eaten with rice
  mə-kanto eat vegetables, meat or fish with rice; to always have vegetables or meat for food
Sundanese ha-kanto eat, eat up; food
Sangir kaəŋfood
Totoli kaanto eat
Boano kaʔanto eat
Balantak kaanto eat
Banggai poo-kaanto eat together
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kaaNeat
CMP
Manggarai haŋto eat, to swallow; eaten by, consumed by (as fire); food; cooked rice
Ngadha kato eat
Li'o kato eat
Solorese kanto eat
Kédang kato eat, bite
Bobot kanto eat
Kamarian aato eat
Alune kaneto eat
Soboyo kañto eat
SHWNG
Buli ānfood; to eat
Numfor ānto eat
OC
Vitu hanito eat; get infected
  hani-ŋafood
Rotuman ʔāto eat; to use up, go through, consume

8010

PAN     *ma-kaen will eat (?)

Formosan
Pazeh me-kento eat
Amis ma-kaento have eaten
Thao ma-kanwill eat; eat (irrealis)
Puyuma mə-kanto eat
Paiwan ma-kánbe eaten
WMP
Itawis ma-kanthat which is edible
Bontok ma-kancooked rice
Kankanaey ma-káncooked rice; in tales, however, it may mean any rice
Ifugaw ma-kánit is edible
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-ʔana main-dish food, either a staple food, normally eaten with a side dish, or a snack food, as fruits of various varieties, bread or pastries
Casiguran Dumagat ma-kanedible
Ibaloy me-kanfood; will eat
Tagalog má-káʔinto be eaten; to have something to eat; to happen to eat something
Romblomanon ma-kāʔunwill eat
Masbatenyo ma-kaʔun-káʔunvery edible
Kadazan Dusun ma-kanto eat
Bisaya (Limbang) ma-kanto eat
Narum ma-hanto feed
Kayan ma-kanto feed animals, etc. (and also used of people)
Kayan (Uma Juman) ma-kanto feed (humans)
Malagasy mamáhanato feed, to tend, to treat hospitably
Iban ma-kaito eat
Malay ma-kanto eat; to consume; to wear away; (in chess) to take a pawn or piece; (of weapons) to take effect (e.g. di-makan peluru ‘killed by a bullet’)
  ma-kan-anfood
Acehnese ma-kan-anto eat; all food other than rice
Karo Batak ma-kan-ito feed, give food to
Toba Batak ma-ma-hanto feed animals
Old Javanese a-ma-kan-ito feed, give someone something to eat
Javanese ma-kanto feed an animal
Sangir ma-kaəŋeaten by accident; edible

8011

PPh     *maka-kaen edible, able to be eaten; able to eat

WMP
Yami máka-ka-kanable to eat
Isneg mak-kānto be able to eat; edible stuff
Bontok mak-ma-kanedible
Tagalog maká-káʔinedible, can be eaten
Bikol maka-kánedible
Romblomanon maka-kāʔunable to eat


Note:   In contemporary standard Bikol makakán evidently is ma-kakán, but comparative evidence shows that this almost certainly is a reanalysis of earlier maka-kan.

8012

PPh     *maki-kaen to eat together, join others in eating

WMP
Yami maci-akaneat together with someone
Ibaloy meki-kanto eat with someone, join in a meal, esp. of going to a feast
Tagalog maká-káʔinto join others at a meal

8013

PWMP     *ma-ŋaen to eat

WMP
Ilokano ma-ŋánto eat
Isneg ma-ŋānto eat
Itawis ma-ŋánto eat
Bontok maŋ-anto eat
  maŋ-an-anany pot or jar in which rice is usually cooked
Kankanaey ma-ŋánto eat; to take one’s meals; to feed
Ifugaw ma-ŋánto eat
  ma-ma-ŋánperson who gives to eat (feeds)
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-ŋanfor someone to engage in eating, especially a scheduled meal (regular meals are eaten in the morning and at night; a noon meal is more casual and irregular); for someone to eat with someone else
Casiguran Dumagat mə-ŋanto eat
Ibaloy me-ŋanto eat; to bite, cut into (as auger bit cuts into wood)
Pangasinan ma-ŋanto eat
Sambal (Botolan) ma-ŋanto eat
Kapampangan ma-ŋanto eat
Tagalog ma-ŋáʔinto eat small things or pieces of things one after another
Hanunóo ma-ŋáʔunto eat
Masbatenyo ma-ŋáʔonto eat (refers to eating a variety of things)
Agutaynen pala-ma-ŋan-andining room
Mapun ma-ŋanto eat something, consume something; to bite into something (as sandpaper into wood)
  ma-ŋan-anutensils for eating, such as spoons, glasses, plates, etc.
  ma-ŋan ma-ŋanto have a picnic
Gayō ma-ŋanto eat
Simalur ma-ŋanto eat; to bite (of a fish taking the bait)
  ma-ŋan ma-ŋanto eat on and on, to go on eating
Karo Batak ma-ŋan-ieat from something; eaten up by animals; consumed by fire
Toba Batak ma-ŋanto eat, consume
Old Javanese u-ma-ŋanto eat, swallow, devour
  a-ma-ŋan-ito hurt, wound
Javanese ma-ŋanto eat, to consume
Balinese ma-ŋanto eat
Sasak ma-ŋanto eat
Banggai maŋ-kaanto eat
Mori Bawah moŋ-kaato eat
Padoe moŋ-gaato eat
Bonerate ma-ŋato eat


Note:   Also Gaddang, Yogad me-ŋŋan, Lampung me-ŋan ‘to eat’.

8014

PPh     *maR-kaen to eat

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice
Casiguran Dumagat məg-kanto eat casually
Bikol mag-ka-kánto eat; to dine on; to devour; to jump (as in checkers)
Romblomanon mag-kāʔunto eat
Masbatenyo mag-káʔonto eat
Hiligaynon mag-kaʔúnto eat, to devour
Tausug mag-kaunto eat

8015

PAN     *pa-kaen to feed

Formosan
Kavalan pa-kan ~ pa-kannto feed, to make someone eat
Pazeh pa-kanto feed (as a mother feeding her young child)
Amis pa-kaento feed, give food
Thao pa-kanto feed (as children or domesticated animals); to serve, as food or drink to a guest or honored person
Puyuma pa-kanto feed
Paiwan pa-kánto feed
WMP
Itbayaten i-pa-kanbait (for catching), refreshment, meal to be served
Ilokano pa-kánto feed
  ag-pa-kánto host a feast
Bontok pa-kanto feed, to raise, as an animal
Kankanaey mai-pa-kánto be given to eat; woof, weft
  pa-kan-anwoof, weft
Ifugaw pa-kánthread shot through the gape which the woman who is weaving made by raising the even (or the uneven) threads
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-ʔana weft thread; transverse strips of certain baskets; to weave a weft thread onto warp threads
Pangasinan pa-kánto feed; to serve food
Kapampangan pa:-pa-kanfeed someone
Tagalog pa-kaʔínration of food
Hanunóo mag-pa-káʔunto feed, give food; also, by extension, give (other things)
Romblomanon pa-kāʔunfood is allowed by someone to be eaten by someone else; an eating event, as at the reception of a baptism or wedding
Masbatenyo pa-káʔonfeast
Aklanon pa-káonto feed
Hiligaynon gin-pa-káʔunto feed
Binukid pa-kaento feed (a person or an animal)
Mansaka pa-kaanfood offered (esp. to some person)
Yakan pa-ka-kanto eat into something (as a saw); sink into something (as tires); consume something (as fire)
Narum pa-hanto feed (as a child)
Kayan pa-kanto feed (as chickens)
Kayan (Uma Juman) pa-kanto feed (animals); fodder
Malagasy fá-hananourishment, strength; ration; subsistence
Iban pa-kaito eat, consume
Malay pa-kanfodder; to eat; to feed, of animals; woof, weaving
Simalur a-ʔanto feed
Javanese pa-kananimal food
OC
Mbula -pa-kanto feed someone
Eddystone/Mandegusu va-γan-ito eat

8016

PAN     *pa-kaen-en to feed, be fed

Formosan
Thao pa-kan-inis being fed by someone
WMP
Itbayaten pa-kan-ento feed
Ilokano pa-kan-ento feed
Agta (Dupaningan) pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal
Isneg pak-kan-ánto feed (animals)
Casiguran Dumagat pə-kan-ənto feed
Tagalog pa-kaʔín-into feed someone
Bikol pa-ka-kan-ónto feed
Tausug pa-kaun-unto feed (as children); cooked rice
Kadazan Dusun pa-a-kan-onto cause or allow to be fed
Toba Batak pa-han-ondomesticated animals

8017

PWMP     *pa-ŋaen food

WMP
Bontok paŋ-anto feed; to feed on
Kankanaey mai-pa-ŋánviand; food; all that is edible and is eaten with rice
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-ŋanfor someone to feed someone something
Ibaloy pa-ŋan to“his meal”, designation for the first day of the aremag/siling funeral celebration, when one pig is butchered
Kalamian Tagbanwa pa-ŋanto eat
Agutaynen ag-pa-ŋan-ento be eaten
Gayō pa-ŋanto be eaten by someone
Karo Batak pa-ŋānfood, all kinds of food
Toba Batak pa-pa-ŋan-ieat a lot
Lampung pa-ŋanfood to be eaten
Sundanese pa-ŋanfood
Old Javanese pa-ŋanfood, eating
  ka-pa-ŋan-andevoured by; addicted to?
Javanese pa-ŋanfood, something to eat
Balinese pa-ŋanfood, things to eat
Sasak pa-ŋancookies made of sticky rice flour; to eat
  kə-pa-ŋaneclipse
CMP
Geser ŋga faŋato eat

8018

POC     *paŋan food; to feed

OC
Nauna haŋɨn-ito feed
Baluan paŋto feed
Lou to feed
Penchal haŋínto feed
Lenkau haŋto feed
Pak haŋto feed
Loniu haŋin-ifeed him!
Ere aŋ-haŋto feed
Leipon heŋen-ito feed
Ahus a-heŋto feed
Bipi hakto feed
Nalik faŋanto eat
Duke of York waŋanto eat
Bugotu vaŋato eat; vegetable food
  vaa-vaŋacrops, food
Nggela vaŋafood, properly vegetable food; to eat, have a meal
  vaŋa ni tahifood in the sea; fish, shellfish, etc.
  vaŋa-gato bear fruit; fruitful; the contents of anything
  vaŋa-vaŋato eat into, of a sore
Kwaio faŋafood; eat
Lau faŋato eat, have a meal; a meal, food; to bite, nibble, of fish
  fā-faŋato feed
Toqabaqita faŋato eat
  faŋa i anoeat food directly from the ground (rather than from a leaf, a plate, etc.) because of being in mourning
Rotuman haŋato feed

8019

PWMP     *pa-ŋaen-an food (?)

WMP
Isneg pa-ŋan-ánto feed (human beings)
Ifugaw pa-ŋan-áneating place; eating time
Kayan (Uma Juman) pə-ŋan-anfood (in general), diet
Toba Batak pa-ŋan-anplate or anything similar from which a person eats
Old Javanese pa-ŋan pa-ŋan-anfood
Balinese pa-ŋan-anfood, things to eat
Totoli pa-ŋan-anfood
Uma pa-ŋan-abetel nut, areca nut

8020

PAN     *p<in>a-kaen was fed by someone

Formosan
Kavalan p<n>a-qanwas fed by someone
Thao p<in>a-kanwas fed by someone
Puyuma p<in>a-kan-anwas fed with something
WMP
Cebuano p<in>a-kaʔunbe fed with something special on a regular basis
Narum p<an>ahanwas fed by someone
Toba Batak p<in>a-handomesticated animals

8021

PAN     *Si-kaen instrument used for eating

Formosan
Bunun is-kaʔunany instrument used for eating, as chopsticks
Paiwan si-káneating implement; reason for eating

8022

PMP     *hi-kaen (??)

WMP
Pangasinan i-kan-áingredients


Note:   Also Kavalan ti-qan ‘to eat with (instrumental focus)’.

8023

PAN     *ka-kaen-an place where one eats

Formosan
Pazeh ka-kan-andining table
Amis ka-k<om>aen-antable, dining area
Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaʔun-anany place for eating, as a table
Paiwan ka-kan-andining room
WMP
Bikol ka-kan-andining room
Mapun ka-kan-anthe amount that someone can eat


Note:   Also Sangir ka-kanəŋ-aŋ ‘eating place, eating trough’. Presumably with *ka- -an ‘formative for abstract nouns’, although most reflexes of *ka-kaen-an appear to be concrete.

8024

PAN     *ka-kaen-en edible things, food

Formosan
Pazeh ka-kan-ento eat
Amis ka-kaen-enfood, things to eat
Thao ka-kan-infood; be fed by someone
Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaʔun-unfood; anything that is eaten
Paiwan mere-ka-kan-enlarge edible thing (as sweet potato); (metaphorically) penis (“eaten” by vagina)
WMP
Yami ka-kan-enfood
Itbayaten ka-kan-enedible, edible thing
Pangasinan ka-kan-enthings to eat
Kapampangan ka-kan-anfood
Tagalog ka-kaʔin-ínsweets; tidbits; dainties
Bikol ka-kán-onfood, victuals
  ka-kan-ónto corrode; to be eaten away
Banggai ko-koon-onfood, meal

8025

PAN     *k<in>aen was eaten; what was eaten

Formosan
Pazeh k<in>an sawwas eaten by a person (someone)
Thao k<in>an sumawas eaten by someone
WMP
Itbayaten ch<in>anate, eaten; eaten part; the one eaten, something eaten
  ch<in>an-an ~leavings at the table, leftover food
Isneg kinnānpast tense of kanán, to eat
Ibaloy k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Romblomanon (nag)-k<in>āʔunwas eaten
Aklanon k<in>áonwas eaten by someone
  pa-ŋ<in>áonto have an appetite, eat well
Cebuano k<in>áʔuneaten, consumed
  k<in>áʔun sa gabassawdust (what was eaten by the saw)
Mapun k<in>a-kangeneral term for food or cooked rice
Yakan k<in>a-kanfood; staple food (usually thought of as rice)
Lun Dayeh k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Kelabit k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Narum h<in>anwas eaten by someone
Ngaju Dayak k<in>anbe eaten by someone
Malagasy mi-h<ín>anato eat, to consume, to spend
Sangir k<in>aəŋprey
Banggai k<in>aanwas eaten by someone; food

8026

POC     *k<in>an food; meat

OC
Ere kina-nmeat; its meat
Mussau inanafood
Roviana g<in>anifood
Tongan kinameat or fish portion of a baked or roasted meal


Note:   Roviana g<in>ani is assumed to be a reformation made by infixing the reflex of POc *kani.

8027

PAN     *k<um>aen to eat

Formosan
Taokas um-anto eat
Basai k<um>anto eat
Kavalan q<m>an ~ q<m>annto eat
Amis k<om>aento eat
Favorlang/Babuza manto eat; meal
Thao k<m>anto eat food, to chew betel nut, to smoke tobacco
Bunun (Takituduh) maʔunto eat
  ma-maʔunto keep on eating
Tsou bonəto eat
Kanakanabu k<um>a-kaənəto eat
Paiwan k<m>anto eat
WMP
Yami k<om>anto eat
Itbayaten k<om>anto eat, to dine
Bontok k<umm>anto eat
Ifugaw k<um>ánto eat
Tagalog k<um>áʔinto eat
Hanunóo k<um>áʔunto eat
Tausug k<um>aunto eat
Lun Dayeh k<um>anto eat, have a meal
Kelabit k<um>anto eat
  pə-ŋ<um>anto eat
Narum h<um>anto eat
Kenyah (Long Anap) pə-ŋ<um>anfood (in general)
Kayan k<um>anto have a meal; to eat
Kayan (Uma Juman) k<um>anto eat
  pə-ŋ<um>anfood (in general), diet
Ngaju Dayak h<um>anto eat (of people or animals)
  ma-ŋ<um>anto eat (animals), to corrode, to spread, as an abscess
  pa-ŋ<um>anwhat always spreads, “eats” up a wider area
Taboyan k<um>anto eat
Ma'anyan k<um>anto eat
Malagasy h<óm>anato eat, to consume a meal; to expend; to bite, as a saw, etc.
Sangir k<um>aəŋto eat


Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) uman ‘to eat’ (presumably a back-formation from pə-ŋ<um>an ‘food (in general), where the base could potentially begin with k or zero.

8028

PMP     *kaen-a eat it (imper.)

WMP
Itbayaten kan-aeat
Aklanon kanʔ-a <Meat it! (imper.)
Waray-Waray kaon-ato eat up
Maranao kan-aeat it
Tiruray kan-aa guest or visitor; to serve food to visitors
CMP
Wetan an-ato eat

8030

PAN     *kaen-an place where one eats; food

Formosan
Kavalan qann-anbe eaten; food
Bunun kaun-anpipe (for smoking)
Puyuma a-kan-anfood
Paiwan kan-anplace where one eats
WMP
Itbayaten kan-aneating place
Isneg kan-ánto eat; food contained in the stomach
Tagalog káʔín-aneating together (whether persons or animals)
Romblomanon kaʔūn-anplace from which something is eaten (as a plate); an eating place (any area where one eats – a table, the floor, a beach)
Masbatenyo kaʔún-anto eat with (someone)
  kaʔun-ándining room
Cebuano kanʔ-an-an <Meat somewhere regularly; place to eat (eating table, dining room, restaurant)
Maranao kan-anutensil, dish, plate
Kenyah (Long Wat) kananeating utensils (taken collectively)
Bintulu kananjar
OC
Pak kanfood
Loniu kanfood
Titan kanaŋ-kanto eat
Leipon kanfood
Levei kan-afood
Seimat anfood
Wuvulu ana-nafood
Mendak anəneating
  e anənfood
Nggela ganafood

8031

PAN     *k<in>aen-an what was eaten; food

Formosan
Kavalan q<n>ann-ansomething eaten
Thao k<in>an-anwas eaten by someone; what was eaten by someone

8032

PAN     *kaen-ay will eat

Formosan
Pazeh ka-kan-aywill eat, shall eat
Puyuma əkan-ayto eat (locative focus)

8033

PAN     *kaen-en be eaten by someone; cooked rice

Formosan
Thao kan-inbe eaten by someone; food
Bunun kaun-uneaten; food
Bunun (Takituduh) kaʔun-unto be eaten by someone
Paiwan kan-enfood
WMP
Yami kan-enbe eaten
Itbayaten kan-ensomething to eat, food
Ilokano kan-énfood; to eat something
  kan-kan-ensweets (rice cakes)
Agta (Dupaningan) kan-anfood, especially rice
Itawis kan-ánfood
Bontok kan-ənto eat
Kankanaey kan-kan-énbread; cake; bonbon; sweetmeat; pastry (probably < Ilokano)
Casiguran Dumagat kan-ənto eat something; food, cooked rice
Pangasinan kán-enfood
Tagalog kaʔín-into eat
Hanunóo kánʔ-un <Mbe eaten by someone
Romblomanon kaʔún-unwill be eaten by someone; something to eat
  kanʔ-un <Mcooked rice
Aklanon kán-onrice; staple food
Hiligaynon kaʔun-unto eat, to devour
Cebuano kanʔ-un <Mcooked rice or corn
Binukid kaen-encooked rice, corn grits; any staple food eaten with viand
Mansaka kan-unfood; cooked rice
Mapun ka-kan-unto eat something
Tausug kaun-unbe eaten by someone
Kadazan Dusun a-kan-on(to be) eaten, destroyed (as if by eating)
Tombonuwo o-kan-oncooked rice
Kenyah (Long Anap) kan-əncooked rice
Kayan (Uma Juman) kan-əncooked rice
Melanau (Mukah) uaʔ ka-nənany special food, as one’s favorite food
Malagasy hán-inafood, victuals, viands, nourishment; to be eaten, to be devoured, to be consumed
  mi-h<in>an kán-inato eat
Palauan kallfood

8034

PSHWNG     *kanon₁ to eat, consume

SHWNG
Waropen anoto eat, consume

8035

POC     *kanon₂ flesh; kernel

OC
Numbami anofruit; meat; essence
Tongan kanoflesh or substance: generally used instead of ka-kano when –‘i (of) is attached, as in kano ‘i puaka, pig’s flesh, pork, and in compound expressions such as kano lelei, having good flesh or (of a sermon, etc.) meaty
  ka-kanoflesh; lean (as opposed to ngako, fat); muscle; contents or substance
  kanon-ito increase or add to (object something already heavy or painful or otherwise unpleasant); to aggravate
Niue kanograin, seed
  ka-kanokernel, flesh, meaning, contents
  kanon-iafull, filled
Futunan kanocentral part (of a road, an army)
  kano ’i matapupil of the eye
Samoan ʔa-ʔanoflesh; kernel, meat; gist, essence, heart (of the matter); fleshy; meaty, substantial (as a sermon); of words, speech, etc., be full of substance
Nukuoro ganoflesh of, meat of
Rennellese kanokernel, as of a nut; flesh, as of a coconut, fish, or bivalve; genitalia, labia
  kano sonivagina
  kano ugepenis
  ka-kanocore of wood; to have a core
Maori kanoseed
  kā-kanoseed, kernel, pip

8036

PAN     *kaen-i eat it!

Formosan
Kavalan qann-ieat (imper.)
Pazeh kan-ieat (imper.)
  ta-kan-ilet’s eat!
Bunun kaun-ito eat (imper.)
Paiwan kan-ilet’s eat!
WMP
Kayan kan-ieaten; to eat
Kayan (Uma Juman) kan-ibe eaten

8037

POC     *kani to eat

OC
Pak kanfood
Loniu kanfood
Titan kanaŋ-kanto eat
Leipon kanfood (keykay < Tok Pisin kaikai used by younger speakers)
Likum ya-ʔanto eat
Seimat anfood
Yapese kaayto eat
Tanga ento eat; feast
Tolai änito eat
Amara -keneat
Lusi -anito eat
Kove anito eat
Lakalai alito eat, to chew
Kairiru -ʔan-to eat
Manam kaŋto eat, to consume
Mbula -kaneat, consume, use up, burn up
Numbami anito eat
Molima ʔaito eat
Teop anito eat
Eddystone/Mandegusu γanito eat; to bite, as a fish; food
Bugotu ganito eat up, consume
Nggela ganito eat; to burn up, consume; burnt, eaten; scraps of food
Ghari ha-hanito eat
Chuukese áni-to eat (of cooked starchy food, bread, any leafy vegetable, cooked or uncooked, cooked fish, copra; but not uncooked bananas or other fruit, uncooked fish, or cooked or uncooked meat)
Mota ganto eat food; to eat, as an ulcer or sore; to spread, as fire
Cape Cumberland hanito eat
Central Maewo γanito eat
Northeast Ambae ka-kanito eat
Namakir -kanto eat
Ura n-enito eat
Lenakel -kənto eat
Iaai hanto eat; meal
Dehu xento eat
Nengone kānto eat (in general), to eat vegetable food
Wayan kani(of animals) to eat, consume food; (of the sea, insects) erode, eat away at something, bore holes; use up someone’s resources, cost someone a lot
Tongan kaito eat; (of fish) to bite (at the bait); (in games) to score, make a score
Niue kaito eat
  kai-aŋaa meal, feast
Futunan kaito eat (transitive or intransitive)
Samoan ʔaito eat; bite, grip; food; score, goal, point, run
Tuvaluan kaito eat; score in a game
  mea kaifood
Kapingamarangi gaito eat
Nukuoro gaieat; food
Rennellese kaito eat, be eaten; to erode, as a sore; to smoke, as tobacco; food (rare)
  haka-kaito enlarge, as a hole in the ear
Anuta kaito eat; generic name for food crops
  kai taeeat shit! (curse)
Rarotongan kaito eat
Maori kaiconsume, eat; drink any liquid other than water, for which inu is used; bite; food
Hawaiian ʔaifood or food plant, especially vegetable food as distinguished from iʔa, meat or fleshy food; often ʔai refers specifically to poi; to eat, destroy of consume, as by fire, erode; to taste, bite, take a hook, grasp, hold on to; edible; ; score, points in a game; stake, wager
  ho-ʔaito feed, give food to

8038

POC     *kani-a eat it

OC
Motu ani-ato eat something
Roviana gani-ato eat
Nggela gani-aedible
Toqabaqita ʔani-ato eat
'Āre'āre ani-ato eat; to wear out, to burn
Gilbertese kani-ato eat, to devour, to consume; to gnaw; to deteriorate
Rotuman ʔani-ato eat
Fijian kani-ato eat (something specified)


Note:   Also Gilbertese kaŋ ‘to eat, to consume’, Pohnpeian, Mokilese, Kosraean kaŋ ‘to eat’, Woleaian gaŋ-i ‘eat it’.

8039

PMP     *kaen kaen (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Hanunóo kaʔun-káʔuneat and eat!
Cebuano káʔun-káʔuneat light snacks between meals
SHWNG
Numfor ān-ānto eat

8040

POC     *kani kani to eat, keep on eating

OC
Lakalai ali-alito eat, to chew
Gapapaiwa kani-kanibe eating
Motu ani-anifood; to eat (intr.)
Molima ʔai-ʔaito eat
Roviana gani-ganito eat
Eddystone/Mandegusu γani-γanito keep on eating, feast
Cape Cumberland ʔani-ʔanito eat
North Malo xan-xanto eat
Wayan kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; keep eating, eat (frequently)

Note:   This base is exceptionally rich in affix potential. At the same time it has caused considerable confusion to some comparativists. Dempwolff (1938) posited *ka ‘to eat’, *ka-en ‘what is to be eaten, food, nourishment’, on the assumption that *kaen contained a base *ka plus the patient suffix *-en. However, this is a misanalysis, as the comparative evidence supports *kaen ‘to eat’ and *kaen-en ‘be eaten by someone; what is to be eaten, food, nourishment’. Wolff (2010:855-856), on the other hand, posits *kan ‘eat’, but has no explanation for the second vowel (or for vowel length) in widely separated languages such as Bunun, Amis, Tagalog, Hanunóo, various Bisayan and Manobo languages, Karo Batak, Sangir, Tondano, Mongondow, Totoli, Boano, Banggai and Proto-Bungku-Tolaki. Moreover, following a prior suggestion by Dahl he proposes *isekan ‘fish’ as a morphological derivative, although the comparative evidence points clearly to PAn *Sikan, with last-syllable *a, not *e (cp. Bunun iskan ‘fish’, vs. kaʔun ‘eat’).

The simplest explanation for these various confusions is that the base *kaen frequently contracted to a monosyllable because schwa next to another vowel is particularly weak, and tends to be absorbed. This is especially the case with affixed forms, and an examination of almost any dictionary of a contemporary language shows that reflexes of the base *kaen rarely occur unaffixed, and that when they do they are more likely to retain the medial vowel sequence, as with Aklanon káon ‘to eat’, but kán-on ‘rice, staple food’ (not **káon-on). Where *kaen has contracted to a monosyllable several languages independently have restored the favored disyllabism of content words through epenthesis, as in Puyuma əkan, Yami (a)kan, Bontok ek-ekan, KADAD akan, or Maloh aŋkan ‘eat’ (the latter with subsequent sporadic medial prenasalization).

The rich morphology of this base is ubiquitous in Taiwan, the Philippines, northern Borneo and northern Sulawesi, but contracts radically in languages further to the south, where only paradigmatically dissociated elements remain, as in the Uma Juman dialect of Kayan (Blust 1977:63-64), where kani, kanən, kinan, kuman, makan, pakan, pəŋanan and pəŋuman are no longer anchored to a common base, and where most of the morphology in this fragmented paradigm is fossilized (-ən, -in-, ma-, pa-, pəŋ- and –an are otherwise unknown in the language, and although a reflex of *-um- continues to function as the marker of active voice, its form is –əm-, not –um-). Similarly, for Ngaju Dayak Hardeland (1859:276) cites kuman as a dictionary entry, and notes that “Das Passiv von kuman is unregelmässig, heisst: kinan, gegessen, getrogen werden, (sind essbar).”

31632

*kagkag to dry something in the sun

9784

PPh     *kagkag to dry something in the sun     [disjunct: *kaRkaR]

WMP
Ilokano ag-kagkágto bask in the sun
Casiguran Dumagat kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kagkagto dry something in the sun
  peni-ŋagkagto warm oneself in the sun

31721

*kagud scrape, grate

9888

PPh     *kagud scrape, grate

WMP
Bontok kagudto remove rice grain from the stalk by scraping or trampling, preparatory to planting
Tagalog kagódgrating sound, as that of a coconut against the coconut grater
Cebuano kagúdgrind something to shreds by rubbing or scraping it; to abrade, wear off; have intercourse (slang)
Binukid kagudto scrape something out of something else (as meat out of a coconut)
Mansaka kagodto grate
Tausug mag-kagudto scrape, remove something by scraping

31634

*kahir scratch the ground, as a chicken does

9786

PWMP     *kahir scratch the ground, as a chicken does     [disjunct: *kahiR]

WMP
Binukid kahilclaw part of chicken feet (used in scratching); for a chicken to scratch, scratch around in something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kahirthe cleared area on the ground in front of a chicken after he has scratched it clean looking for food
Iban kairto scratch, scrape with the foot (as a hen searching for food)
Karo Batak kair-kaira rake
  ŋ-kair-ito rake

26612

*kahiR scratch the ground, as a chicken does

3070

PWMP     *kahiR scratch the ground, as a chicken does     [disjunct: *kahir]

WMP
Tagalog káhigscratching loose soil (as fowls do); inciting two roosters to fight but holding them back by the tail, thus causing them to scratch the soil
Hanunóo kayígscratching of the ground, as by chickens
Hiligaynon káhigto rake, to shovel
Iban kairscratch, scrape (with the foot)
Karo Batak kair-kairrake
Sasak kaehscratch up the ground (as a chicken)

Note:   Also Proto-Sangiric *kaeiR ‘to scratch; sweep’. Sasak normally reflects *R as /r/, but shows *R > -/h/ in a few other forms, as *kuluR > kuluh ‘breadfruit’, or *muRmuR > kə-mumur ~ kə-mumuh ‘to gargle’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *kahiR ‘scratch’.

26613

*kahiw haŋin haŋin type of lichen

3071

PWMP     *kahiw haŋin haŋin type of lichen

WMP
Javanese kayu aŋin-aŋinkind of bluish-white lichen that grows on tree trunks: Usnea barbata; it is sometimes used as a medicine (van der Veen 1940)
Tae' aŋin-aŋinkind of bluish-white lichen that grows on tree trunks: Usnea barbata; it is sometimes used as a medicine
Makasarese kayu aŋina tree, Casuarina spp.

31947

*kahug to mix, mingle

10164

PWMP     *kahug to mix, mingle

WMP
Cebuano kahúg ~ káhugto mix moist and dry ingredients together; to stir something thick
Sangir məʔ-kaugəʔto mix together
  mə-ŋaugəʔto mix (as sand with lime in making mortar)
Mongondow kaugto stir, mix together; also to disturb

32009

*kai (human) member of a category

10236

POC     *kai (human) member of a category

OC
Bola ka-kaiboss
Medebur kai-nboy
  kai-dik-waunyoung man (waun = ‘new, young’)
Lau ʔaia person, individual; a woman; thing; kind, sort; another, different
  ʔai burijunior; second wife (buri = ‘after, behind’)
  ʔai manua flock of birds
  ʔai naosenior; first wife
  ta ʔaianyone
Toqabaqita ʔaiused to refer to collectivities of various kinds
  ʔai ni bulisipolice unit
  ʔai ni fasiathe founding family, group in a given place
  ʔai ni gavmangovernment (as a collective body)
  ʔai ni maesaga-like song which is the history of a family line
  ʔai ni niucoconut grove
Arosi aia native of, person of
  ai (ni) Wangoa native of Wango
Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *kai-masisorceror (cf. masi-ŋa ‘love magic’)
Fijian kaia male inhabitant or native of a place; it is never used alone and does not refer to women
  kai ðoloinhabitant of the mountainous interior of Viti Levu
  kai muaa sailor
  kai Peritaniaa Britisher
  kai waiinhabitant of the shore
Tongan ka-kaipeople (collectively); to be peopled, inhabited, occupied; to be attended by people, to be more or less full of people
Futunan ka-kaipeople, inhabitants
Samoan ʔa-ʔaivillage, town
Tuamotuan ka-kaibody, group of blood relatives

Note:   Also Wayan koi ‘person of a place or category specified by the following noun’, koi mua ‘sailor, seaman’, koi viti ‘inhabitant of Fiji, Fijian’, koi wai ‘inhabitant of the coast or island, islander, coastal dweller’. A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Ross and Osmond (2016:49-50). Although this term evidently was restricted to human referents in POc, several languages of the Southeast Solomons have extended it to include animals (Lau Ɂai manu), plants (Toqabaqita Ɂai ni niu), or even inanimate referents (Toqabaqita Ɂai ni mae, although in this case there is a connection with humans).

31635

*kaija when? (in the past)

9787

PAN     *kaija when? (in the past)     [doublet: *ijan 'when']

Formosan
Thao kaizawhen? or else
Rukai kəigawhen? (past; Ferrell 1971)

9788

POC     *ka-ica when?

OC
Wuvulu aigawhen?

Note:   Also Paiwan nu-ŋida ‘when? (future)’, ta-ŋida ‘when? (past)’.

31648

*kain woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing

9804

PWMP     *kain woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing

WMP
Ilokano káinlong skirt
  naka-káinwearing a long skirt
Kankanaey k<in>áina kind of tapis (apron, sarong), black with elaboratered and yellow designs
Ibaloy kaintraditional wraparound skirt
Iban kaincloth, skirt (esp. short skirt worn by women); kinds of cloth
Malay kainwoven fabric; cloth; untailored garment; (specifically) the Malay sarong; cloth of any material

31898

*kaiŋ large openwork basket

10108

PPh     *kaiŋ large openwork basket

WMP
Ilokano káiŋlarge openwork basket
  i-káiŋto place in a káiŋ basket
Cebuano kaíŋlarge cylindrical rattan basket, loosely woven in a hexagonal design, 3 feet high by 2 feet across

26615

*kak sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.

3073

PAN     *kak sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.

Formosan
Kavalan qaqcrow
WMP
Ibatan kaka crow
  may-kakakto caw like a crow
Kankanaey kakshriek, screech, scream, as chickens do when startled
Iban kaka crow
Malay kaksound of laughter
CMP
Manggarai kakto bark, yelp, of a dog
OC
Sa'a kaaclear the throat
Tongan to hawk, clear the throat forcibly and noisily

Note:   Also Tombonuwo kaak ‘kind of crow’. This appears to be the bare root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’, found as the last syllable in a number of CVCVC forms.

30195

*kaka₁ flaky skin disease

7022

POC     *kaka₁ flaky skin disease

OC
Tolai kakamange
Roviana kakaskin disease (Leucoderma) which causes white patches on hands and feet

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

31601

*kaka₂ elder sibling

9742

PAN     *kaka₂ elder sibling

Formosan
Kavalan qaqaelder sibling (reference)
  nan-qaqato be siblings (in case of two males or one male and one female)
  qa-qaqathe eldest sibling
Amis kakaolder sibling (brother or sister); one more advanced than Ego; in a superior position
  mali-kakabrothers and sisters belonging to each other
Rukai (Budai) kákaelder sibling (address)
Rukai (Tona) kákaelder sibling (address)
Proto-Rukai *kakaelder sibling (address)
Paiwan kakasibling, first cousin; term of address for siblings or cousins of either sex (or for any young man of Ego’s generation, whether kin or not)
Paiwan (Western) ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference)
  ti-kakamy older siblings (reference)

9743

PMP     *kaka elder sibling of the same sex

WMP
Yami kakaolder brother or sister
Ivatan kakaolder sibling
Ilokano kákaelder sibling
  ag-kákatwo siblings together
Atta kakáolder sibling or cousin
Itawis kakáolder sibling
Kapampangan káka-Ɂolder brother
Tagalog kaká-Ɂelder sibling or cousin
Hanunóo káka-Ɂolder sibling (both nominative and vocative)
Agutaynen kakaolder sister
Maranao kakaelder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kake-yolder or oldest sibling; the first wife of a man who has more than one
Manobo (Sarangani) kaka-yolder sibling
Bisaya (Limbang) kakoelder sibling
Ngaju Dayak kakaelder sibling of the same sex
Iban kakaelder sister
Maloh kaka-Ɂelder sibling
Malay kaka-kelder sister; (sometimes) elder brother
Karo Batak kakaolder brother or sister, older clansman
Toba Batak hahaelder sibling of the same sex; older brother’s wife (man speaking), older sister’s husband (woman speaking)
  si-haha-anthe oldest brother or sister
  hahá-ŋelder parallel sibling (vocative)
Minangkabau kaka-Ɂolder sister (in some places also older brother); term of address used with the wife of an older brother or for women who the speaker regards as older than himself
Rejang kako-Ɂolder brother or sister (actual or classificatory)
Enggano ʔaʔaelder sister, elder brother
Old Javanese kakaelder brother or sister; also used in addressing somewhat older persons, and for the husband (between man and wife)
  a-kakatoward an elder brother
Javanese kakaolder brother
  kaka-ŋolder brother; husband
  tə-kakaolder than (of siblings)
Proto-Sangiric *kaka-Ɂolder sibling
Sangir kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister, used to call an older brother or sister, and as a term of respect for older people with whom one does not wish to use a personal name
Proto-Minahasan *kaka-Ɂelder sibling
Bare'e tu-kakaolder brother or sister, older cousin
Tae' kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister (term of address)
Proto-South Sulawesi *kakaolder brother
Mandar kakaolder sibling
Makasarese kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister; sometimes used by a woman as a term of address to her husband
CMP
Adonara kakaelder sibling (same sex?; Lebar 1972:93)
Kisar kakaelder brother, male first cousin (man speaking; Lebar 1972:111)
Buruese kakasister-in-law (brother’s wife or husband’s sister)
Kayeli kaka-nelder sibling or cousin (possibly same sex)
OC
Manam kakaelder brother
Motu kaka-naelder brother of a male; elder sister of a female
Kokota kakaelder sibling
Bugotu kakaelder brother or sister (vocative)

9744

PPh     *kaka-en (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Yami kaka-ento call someone an older brother or sister
Ilokano kaká-ento be the elder of the two

Note:   Also Proto-Rukai *taka-taka ‘elder sibling (reference)’. In some parts of the Pacific this word has evidently been borrowed into Papuan languages, where it has been better preserved than in the sources from which is probably came, as with Bilua (Vella Lavella, Solomons) kaka ‘elder brother’ (Tryon and Hackman 1983:227).

31809

*kaka₃ fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds

9999

POC     *kaka₃ fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds

OC
Patpatar kakanew coconut frond that has not opened yet
Efate (North) kakcoconut mat, mesh formed by the coconut palm, used for straining liquids
Efate (South) kakacoconut mesh
Tongan kakafibrous integument at the top of coconut palms
Niue (lau)kakathe fibrous wrapping round the base of a young coconut frond
Samoan ʔaʔacoarse fibrous material found at the base of coconut leaves and used for strainers, etc.
Tuvaluan kakafiber from coconut trunk
Nukuoro gagafibrous sheathing (at the base of the petiole sheath of the flower) of the coconut tree
Rarotongan kakathe textile-like stipule at the base of the coconut leaf or frond, which was formerly used as a coarse kind of clothing; it was also used for straining expressed oil, in the preparation of arrowroot, and as a wrapper for fish nets and other articles of value
Maori kakafiber, single hair; stalk
  kā-kakastem of the fern Pteridium aquilinium var. esculentum
Hawaiian ʔa-ʔaʔacoconut cloth, vascular bundles in taro corm, chaff; fibrous

Note:   Also Hawaiian a-ɁaɁa ‘network of veins’. A slightly different version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross and Evans (2008).

26614

*kakak caw, cackle

8921

PAN     *kakak caw, cackle

Formosan
Pazeh kakaka crow
Puyuma kakakquack of the duck and honk of the goose
  k<əm>akakto quack

3072

PMP     *kakakₐ to cackle

WMP
Ilokano kákakthe uniform cry of the hen, when restless, looking for a nest, etc.
Bontok kákakto cackle, of a hen after laying an egg
Kankanaey kákakchatter, babble, as hens do
Tagalog kakakcackling, quacking (of hens, ducks, etc.)
Cebuano kákakcackle
Maranao kakakgobble, cackle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kakakcackle
Mansaka kakakto cackle (as hen)
Tausug kakakthe quack of a duck; a loud, coarse, burst of laughter
  mag-kakakto quack like a duck; to laugh boisterously
Malay meŋ-akak (< kakak)to quack, of a duck
  pe-kakakkingfisher (from its cry)
Malay (Kedah) kaʔkakcackling laughter
Toba Batak mar-hahakto laugh loudly
Nias mo-kaka-kakato laugh loudly
Javanese kakaklaugh uproariously
Sasak kakakboisterous laughter
CMP
Manggarai kakakguffaw
Sika kakakcackling of a hen at night
OC
Pohnpeian wah-kahkcall or cackle loudly, of a hen

Note:   Also Amis kaɁkaɁ ‘to roar with laughter’. With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.

31636

*kakaŋ bridle, as for a horse

9789

PWMP     *kakaŋ bridle, as for a horse

WMP
Mansaka kakaŋbridle for a horse
Mapun kakkaŋa bit (used in a horse’s mouth)
Kadazan Dusun kakaŋbridle, halter, reins (as for a horse)
Nias kakabridle, harness (for horse)

Note:   The meaning of this term is problematic, as it is not consistent with what can confidently be inferred about PWMP culture. However, this term has a wide and scattered distribution which cannot easily be accounted for by a borrowing hypothesis. Presumably it had a somewhat different meaning in PWMP and shifted to the only meaning attested here sometime after the introduction of the horse, possibly at the time of first Indianization, roughly 2,000 years ago.

31639

*kakap kind of large, edible marine fish

9793

PWMP     *kakap kind of large, edible marine fish

WMP
Ilokano kákapkind of edible marine fish
Tombonuwo kakaptype of scaly fish
Malay ikan kakapa large fish (‘cockup’ of India; Palmer of Queensland; Dutch kaalkop, Lates spp.)
Old Javanese kakapa large (predatory) fish, Lates calcarifer (“cockup”)

Note:   The similarity of this word to the Dutch name kaalkop (‘bald head’) raises questions about whether it is native in the languages from which it is cited here. However, since it is found in Old Javanese, which had ceased to exist before Dutch contact at the beginning of the 17th century, and since it is native to island Southeast Asia, the simplest explanation is that the native term was borrowed into European languages rather than the reverse. In English this became the unanalyzable ‘cockup’, but in Dutch it evidently underwent a folk etymology that provided it with a false morphological transparency.

26692

*kakaq split

3152

PMP     *kakaq split

WMP
Cebuano kakaʔchildren's word for female genitalia
Maranao kakaʔtear, torn, separate; have a gaping wound
Kiput akaːʔspread something (as tweezers) apart
Bare'e kakawith interstices, with lacunae
CMP
Kei kakaseparate, divide, split
OC
Sa'a kakatorn, split
Arosi kakatorn, split

Note:   Also Javanese rekah ‘cracked’. With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.

31848

*kakas(-i) to split

10046

POC     *kakas(-i) to split

OC
Duke of York kaito scrape, scratch, chop up food, esp. taro and coconut
Lau kakas-ito split open
  kasito adze, chop; to knock a nut with a stone on another stone
Sa'a kakato be torn, to be split
  kaka-sito tear, to split
Arosi kakato split
  kaka-sito split something

Note:   A somewhat more extended version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross, Clark and Osmond (1998:261).

31921

*kakawa₁ spider

10136

PWMP     *kakawa₁ spider     [doublet: *kalawaq, *lawaq]

WMP
Ifugaw kakáwaspider
Ibaloy kakawaspider
Balinese kakawaspider
  kakawa hembuŋgiant spider

Note:   Also Bontok kawá ‘spider’, Ifugaw kaw-káwa ‘spider; belongs to the weaving terminology, to be distinguished from kakáwa, which is the current word for spider.

31961

*kakawa₂ goby, blenny

10185

POC     *kakawa₂ goby, blenny

OC
Arosi ʔaʔawaa fish, blenny sp.
Bauro gagawaa fish, blenny sp.
Anejom ne-koablenny: Ecsenius sp.
Hawaiian ʔaʔawawrasse: Bodianus bilunulatus

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison with several phonologically irregular forms was proposed by Osmond (2011:99). Possibly a chance resemblance.

31649

*kalába honeycomb

9805

PPh     *kalába honeycomb

WMP
Ilokano kalábahoneycomb
Casiguran Dumagat kalabehoneycomb
Ibaloy kalababeehive, ant hill, wasp nest, similar insect colonies
Pangasinan kálabahoneycomb; similar nest of insect
Tagalog kalabalower section of a beehive
Cebuano kalábahoneycomb; to form or build a honeycomb

Note:   Also Ibaloy kaleba ‘beehive, ant hill, wasp nest, similar insect colonies’.

30657

*kalabaw rat, mouse

8173

PCEMP     *kalabaw rat, mouse     [doublet: *balabaw, *labaw]

CMP
Bimanese karavorat, mouse
Selaru klahrat, mouse

8174

POC     *kalapo rat, mouse

OC
Fijian kalavoa rat

26616

*kalalaŋ narrow-necked water jar

3074

PWMP     *kalalaŋ narrow-necked water jar

WMP
Tagalog kalalaŋnarrow-necked water jug
Malay kelalaŋdecanter; calabash-like water vessel

31962

*kalamansiq citrus tree with fruit like a lemon

10186

PPh     *kalamansiq citrus tree with fruit like a lemon

WMP
Itbayaten kalamansicalamondin orange; edible; juice of fruit is used for seasoning and curing throat-ache: Citrus microcarpa Bunge
Ilokano kalamansí ~ kalamansíŋthe Philippine lemon, smaller than the daláyap lemon: Citrus mitis
Yogad kalamánsia kind of lemon said to be better tasting than an ordinary lemon
Tagalog kalamansíʔcitrus tree bearing small acidic fruit: Aldonisis
Cebuano kalamánsi ~ kalamánsiʔa small citrus tree bearing small, round, acid fruit, orange-colored when ripe, with an easily separable peel: Citrus microcarpa

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

26617

*kalamata kind of plaitwork

3075

PWMP     *kalamata kind of plaitwork

WMP
Maranao kalamataweave, woven material
Banggai kalamatalarge basket
Tae' kalamata(listed independently and under mata) kind of plaitwork with hexagonal openings

31669

*kalámay sticky confection made of rice and coconut

9826

PWMP     *kalámay sticky confection made of rice and coconut

WMP
Ilokano kalámaykind of sticky coconut sweet made of rice
Tagalog kalámaya sweet conserve made from cornmeal, rice flour or cassava flour, and cooked with coconut milk and sugar
Masbatenyo kalámaybrown sugar; this is made from sugarcane juice
Aklanon kaeámaybrown sugar
Hiligaynon kalámayrefined sugar
Cebuano kalámaysugar; brown sugar (as opposed to asúkar); make sugar; become sugar
Malay kəlamaya Malay cake

Note:   Also Iban kelami ‘cake or pudding made of rice flour and sugar’, Malay gəlamay ‘a Malay cake’.

31750

*kalamuntiŋ kind of plant, unident.

9919

PWMP     *kalamuntiŋ kind of plant, unident.

WMP
Ilokano kalamutiŋa plant: Pouteria macrantha (Merr.) Bachni, Sapotaceae
Malay kələmuntiŋrose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance in view of the misalignment of taxonomy. However, the length of this form and perfect phonological agreement are most plausibly attributed to common origin.

31972

*kalaqabusi a shrub: Acalypha sp.

10196

POC     *kalaqabusi a shrub: Acalypha sp.

OC
Kwara'ae ʔalabusia shrub: Acalypha grandis
Tikopia karāpusishrubs, Acalypha hispida and Macaranga spp.
Wayan karabusishrub common in rocky hillside garden areas, with thin oval toothed leaves, and pinkish-green spikes of small flowers: a shrub: Acalypha repandra
Fijian kalabucia plant: Acalypha insulana; also an ornamental plant: Acalypha grandis
Futunan kalaʔapusia shrub: Acalypha grandis

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008c:238-239), and assigned to POc *ka(r,l)qabusi in view of the unexplained absence of the medial liquid in several otherwise appealing witnesses. Forms such as Tongan kala-kalaɁapusiAcalypha spp.’, with s for expected h, or the disagreement between Fijian l and Wayan r suggest a history of borrowing. In addition, at five syllables this form is suspiciously long, and may be bimorphemic.

26619

*kalasag type of shield

3077

PWMP     *kalasag type of shield

WMP
Ilokano kalásagshield, buckler; defender; defensive covering
  ag-kalásagto wear a shield, use a shield
Isneg kalátagshield; it is cut out of a block of wood in such a way as to be slightly convex at the outside, with a projecting longitudinal ridge in the middle; it is rectangular in shape, with a point projecting at both ends in the center; in the center of the aforementioned ridge is a knob that corresponds to the handle that is cut out at the concave side, and consists of a bar that runs in the same direction as the ridge
Bontok kalásaga wooden shield, used as protection when fighting an enemy
Casiguran Dumagat kalasagshield (used in warfare by the Ilonggot people, never by Dumagats); to shield oneself behind a shield
Tagalog kalásagemblem, coat-of-arms; shield; a piece of armor carried on the arm to protect the body in battle
  kalaság-anto provide someone with an emblem, coat-of-arms, or shield
Bikol kalásagshield
  kalaság-onto shield a blow, ward off; to shield someone
Cebuano kalásagshield
Binukid kalasaga shield
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kelasagshield
Mansaka karasagto shield (as shielding a bolo in a scabbard)
Malay kelasaklong body-shield of wood or leather with a handle at its center

Note:   Probably referred to rectangular shields; cf. *tamiŋ (Blust 1980), which appears to have designated round shields.

26620

*kalasaR floor beam

3078

PWMP     *kalasaR floor beam

WMP
Maranao kalasag-anpurlins
Kayan kelasahbamboo flooring of boat or canoe

30887

*kalat thick, heavy rope

8716

PWMP     *kalat thick, heavy rope

WMP
Hanunóo kálata tie rope for animals
Aklanon kaeátrope (made of abaca fibers)
Maranao kalatrope that holds the sail in place
Murut (Timugon) kalatrope
Lun Dayeh kalata piece of rope
  kalat sabutrope made of jute fiber
Kelabit kalatrope
Kayan kalata rope made of two or three twisted rattans --- very strong
  ŋalatpull with a heavy rope
Bintulu kalatthick rope used to control the direction of fall when felling a coconut tree

Note:   Also Javanese kelat ‘long, heavy rope used to pull trees down; rope for the sail’.

31671

*kalatkat climb up, as a vine

9828

PPh     *kalatkat climb up, as a vine

WMP
Ilokano k<um>alatkátto climb (said of vines and plants)
  pa-kalatkátsupport made for climbing plants
Tagalog kalatkátspreading out by climbing or creeping (as vines)
Cebuano kalatkátclimb up something using the hands and feet; climb to get, bring
Maranao kalakatto scale up a wall

26622

*kalaw bird sp.

3080

PAN     *kalaw bird sp.     [doublet: *alaw]

Formosan
Paiwan kala-kalawbird sp.

8592

PMP     *kalaw a bird: the hornbill

WMP
Ilokano kálawkind of hornbill
Isneg kalláwhornbill
Tagalog kálawhornbill
Cebuano kálawthe hornbill: Buceros hydrocorax
Subanen/Subanun kalauhornbill (Churchill 1913)
Mansaka karawhornbill
Kayan kalauspecies of big bird
CMP
Kamarian alahornbill
Alune alakwehornbill
Murnaten alakwehornbill

Note:   Also Kankanaey koláaw, Wolio halo ‘hornbill’. Zorc (1971) proposes PPh *kalaw ‘bird sp.’, and Mills (1975: 618) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *alo ‘the rhinoceros bird: Cranorhinus cassidix’ < "Proto-Indonesian" ? *alaw.

26621

*kalawit hook

3079

PWMP     *kalawit hook

WMP
Tagalog kalawithook, drag hook, grapnel
Hanunóo kalawíta barbed spear point
Kenyah (Long Anap) kelawithook

Note:   Also Kelabit keluit ‘hook’. With root *-wit ‘hook-shaped’.

32010

*kalayu a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa

10237

PWMP     *kalayu a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa

WMP
Tagalog kalayoa tree: Lepisantheses rubiginosa
Malay kəlayua tree: Erioglossum edule

Note:   Despite the different genus designations, these plants are cited in close proximity in treatises on medicinal and poisonous plants, and presumably had similar uses in traditional pharmacology.

31722

*kaldít to make an incision to draw blood

9889

PPh     *kaldít to make an incision to draw blood

WMP
Ilokano kaldit-énto bleed (someone); to open an abscess or boil
Bikol mag-kaldítto make an incision for the purpose of drawing blood

31948

*kal(e)bit touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger

10165

PPh     *kal(e)bit touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger

WMP
Ilokano kalbíta touch, a nudge
  i-kalbítto catch one’s attention by touching
  kalbit-énto nudge, pluck; make plucking motion of fingers to call someone’s attention; touch tip; pull the trigger of a gun
Bontok kalbítpull back with one’s finger
Casiguran Dumagat kalbíttrigger of a gun; to pull a trigger
Ibaloy kalbittrigger of a gun and other such devices
Kapampangan kalbitpinch, pressure
Tagalog kalbítlight touch with the finger to draw the attention of someone; plucking of the strings of a musical instrument

10166

PPh     *kal(e)bit-en touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger

WMP
Bontok kalbit-énto pull back with one’s finger, as the trigger of a gun
Tagalog kalbit-ínto touch lightly with the finger; to pluck the strings of a musical instrument

Note:   Also Ibaloy kabdit ‘trigger of a gun and other such devices’.

26623

*kalem dark

3081

PMP     *kalem dark

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak karumdark
CMP
Tetun kalannight

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.

26626

*kali canal, ditch

3084

PAN     *kali₁ canal, ditch

Formosan
Amis kalichannels for water in the fields; ditch
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) karicanal, an artificial small waterway for irrigation
WMP
Ilokano káliditch; dike; drainage
Ifugaw káliditch gutter in the earth
Bikol kalícanal, ditch, trench; gutter (in bowling)
  kalí-kálismall ditch or canal; furrow, groove, rut, channel, drain; tread of a tire
  mag-kalíto leave tread marks in; to leave furrows or grooves in
Masbatenyo kalígully, canal, ditch
  mag-kalímake a canal, make a drainage ditch
Malagasy hadyditch, trench, moat, fosse
Sundanese kalenpit, groove, gutter, conduit, ditch
Old Javanese kalideep watercourse, river-bed, channel
Balinese kaliriver (in some place names)
CMP
Fordata kal-kalipit, quarry; groove

31866

*kali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-)

10073

PAN     *kali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-)

Formosan
Paiwan kaliduŋuduŋulʸbutterfly
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kaliduwasoul, spirit of a living person
Binukid kalibaŋbaŋbutterfly
Iban kelelawaybutterfly
Karo Batak kalimantekjungle leech
  kalisuŋsuŋwhirlwind
Sasak kaliotoŋmale flying ant
Sangir kaḷisusuwhirlpool, whirlwind; crown of the head where the hair whorls
Banggai kalitatakbutterfly
Makasarese kaliwaraant
SHWNG
Gimán kalibobobutterfly

Note:   For further details on the analysis and meaning of this affix and its variants see Blust (2001).

29935

*kalia large fish, probably grouper

6615

POC     *kalia large fish, probably grouper

OC
Lenkau kelilarge sea fish, grouper
Nali kaliylarge sea fish, grouper
Titan kalilarge sea fish, grouper
Leipon kelilarge sea fish, grouper
Sori ariylarge sea fish, grouper or rock cod
Bipi kalilarge sea fish, grouper
Seimat alilarge grouper, up to six feet in length
Wuvulu alialarge sea fish, grouper
Arosi ariaa large species of freshwater fish
Fijian kaliaspecies of fish, called ulu rua from the peculiar formation of its forehead

Note:   This word almost certainly referred to the grouper, perhaps together with the rock cod, in Proto-Admiralty . Its meaning in POc is less clear. Fijian kalia probably is the name of the double-headed parrotfish, and it is conceivable that Tongan kalia, Samoan ʔalia ‘double canoe’, Rotuman karia ‘k.o. large canoe with outrigger’ is a metaphorical derivative from this fish name. Kwaio alia ‘pike-like large freshwater fish’ and related forms elsewhere in the Southeast Solomons reflect *alia, and are distinct from this.

30492

*kalih a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers

7702

PAN     *kalih a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *kariʔto dig
Pazeh saa-karidigging stick
Thao karidig up or out, as tubers
  kari-anbeing dug up, of a place
Bunun (Takituduh) ma-kaihto dig (Tsuchida 1976)
Siraya karidig
Paiwan kalia hole that has been dug
  ma-kaliearth to be dug or disturbed
  k<ar>a-kalito dig everywhere, dig indiscriminately

7703

PMP     *kali₂ a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers

WMP
Yami ni-key-kalidug up (as sweet potatoes)
Itbayaten kalihole in the ground, pit
  mi-chalito dig, to excavate, to dig (a pit, hole), to make a hole for planting yams
  kali-ento dig out, to dig up something from the ground
Ilokano kálihole; pit
  ag-kálito dig
  i-kálito bury something, inhume
  pag-kálidigging instrument
  kali-ento dig out, exhume
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-kalito dig
Ifugaw muŋ-kálito dig
Casiguran Dumagat kaleto dig up roots (using a bolo to dig with)
Pangasinan kalígold mine
Hanunóo kálidigging up, as of rootstocks, tubers, etc.
Hiligaynon mag-kálito dig up (as sweet potatoes)
Maranao kalidigging stick; dig
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kália digging stick used for digging sweet potatoes, cassava, etc.
Mansaka karito dig up (as sweet potatoes)
Malagasy mi-hadito dig, to delve
Iban kalidig up or out
Malay galidigging; surface mining
  meŋ-galito dig up yams
  gali-analluvial mine
Karo Batak ŋ-kalito dig, dig up
Toba Batak maŋ-halito dig (as a grave), dig up (as yams)
Sundanese kalidigging up of something
  ŋali-anto dig up, dig for something; dig or root something up
Sasak kaliʔdig
Tontemboan kaligutter, drain; dig out, dig a gutter
Mongondow mo-kalito dig, dig up; busy with digging
  k<in>ali-anplace that is dug up
Tae' kalidig
  pe-kalidigging stick
Muna selito dig, dig up
Chamorro halito harvest root crop
CMP
Manggarai halito dig up the ground
Palu'e kalito dig
Sika galito dig out or up
Rotinese kalito scratch, dig in the earth (of a dog, chicken); to dig a hole
Atoni hanito dig
Erai kalito dig
Yamdena n-kalto dig, dig into; to hollow out trees
  n-kal asakmake holes for the planting of tubers
  ka-kalidug up
Fordata kalito dig
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) kelto dig
Buruese kali-kto dig, as a trench
OC
Maori karito dig, dig for, dig up
Hawaiian ʻeli ~ ʻalito dig, excavate

7704

PMP     *ma-ŋali to dig, dig up

WMP
Yami ma-ŋalito dig up (as in digging up taro)
Malagasy ma-ŋadito dig, to delve
Iban ŋalito dig, dig up or out
Sundanese ŋalito dig, dig up
Sasak ŋaliʔto dig
Mongondow mo-ŋalito dig, esp. a grave
Tae' maŋ-kalito dig; to have the occupation of digger
CMP
Bimanese ŋarito dig

7705

PAN     *ka-kalih digging stick

Formosan
Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaihdigging stick (Tsuchida 1976)

7706

PMP     *ka-kali digging stick

WMP
Yami ka-kalispade, shovel, metal stick

7707

PWMP     *pa-ŋali digging stick (?)

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pe-ŋalito dig up sweet potatoes
Malagasy fa-ŋadia spade
Karo Batak pe-ŋalia stick or other implement used for digging things up
Sundanese pa-ŋalia piece of bamboo, wood, or iron used in digging
Sasak pe-ŋaliʔdigging stick
Tae' paŋ-kalia piece of ground that has been dug up for planting, but not yet planted

7708

PAN     *k<um>ali to dig up, excavate, as tubers

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) k<om>aLihto dig something up
Seediq k<m>arito dig (Ferrell 1969)
Thao k<m>arito dig, as in loosening the soil with a pick
Saaroa k<um>a-kalito dig
Siraya k<m>arito dig
Paiwan k<m>alito dig a hole
WMP
Ilokano k<um>álito dig into
Tontemboan k<um>alidig postholes

7709

PAN     *k<in>alih-an place that has been dug up

Formosan
Paiwan k<in>ali-anplace where a hole has been dug

7710

PMP     *k<in>ali-an place that has been dug up

WMP
Mongondow k<in>ali-anplace that has been dug up

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Taai) k<om>olʸih ‘to dig something up’, Banggai maŋ-gali ‘to dig’ (apparently from Malay), Wetan kai ‘to dig, dig up, dig out’, Watubela galik ‘to dig’. Although this word refers to general digging in many languages, there are a number of indications that it referred more specifically to the digging up of tubers, in particular yams. In some languages, as Ilokano, Ifugaw, or Malagasy, reflexes of PAn *kali ‘canal, ditch’ and the present reconstruction appear to have fused into a single form as a result of phonetic similarity and the common element of excavation shared by both.

30167

*kalik wooden headrest

6957

POC     *kalik wooden headrest

OC
Gedaged kalikhead (neck) rest (support); pillow
Wayan kalipillow (formerly made of wood)
Fijian kalinative pillow, made of wood; lay one’s head down on something
Tongan kalinative wooden pillow or headrest (carved, with two short legs)
Futunan kaliwooden headrest with short legs
Samoan ʔalibamboo pillow, headrest

Note:   Also Mbula kiliigi ‘pillow (something on which to rest one’s head, traditionally made out of wood)’. Osmond and Ross (1998) give POc *kalik ‘native wooden pillow’, based on a similar distribution. This form is in competition with POc *quluŋan for the same meaning, thus raising a question about possible semantic distinctions. A clue is found in Futunan where Moyse-Faurie (1993) gives kali ‘wooden headrest with short legs’, but ʔuluŋa ‘wooden headrest without legs’. Since reflexes of the latter are considerably more common than reflexes of *kalik, it is likely that headrests without legs were more commonly used than those with legs, perhaps correlating with a distinction of social class (*kalik ‘wooden headrest with short legs’ being the prerogative of the upper class?).

31963

*kalika rock cod, grouper

10187

POC     *kalika rock cod, grouper

OC
Nauna kelismall to medium-sized groupers
Lou keliyrock cod, grouper
Loniu kelismallest type of grouper
Ere kaliysmall grouper
Leipon kelilargest kind of grouper
Levei kaaliprock cod, grouper
Sori ariyrock cod, grouper
Lindrou kaliksmall to medium-sized groupers
Bipi kalirock cod, grouper
Seimat alilarge grouper (about 6 feet long)
Wuvulu aliarock cod, grouper
Satawal yaniyrock cod (generic): Epinephelidae

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:67). While a Proto-Admiralty form is well-established, the extension to POc depends crucially on a single witness for which little published data exists, and it is possible that the resemblance of Satawal yaniy to Proto-Admiralty *kalika is a product of chance.

30020

*kalikiq kind of edible fruit

6716

PWMP     *kalikiq kind of edible fruit

WMP
Minangkabau kelikéhpapaya
Bare'e kalikipapaya
Tae' kalikithe papaya: Carica Papaya

Note:   The papaya is a New World cultigen, and PWMP *kalikiq therefore cannot have had this meaning. Adriani (1928) marks the Bare'e word as a loan from Buginese and the same may be true of Tae' kaliki. However, Minangkabau kelikéh cannot easily be explained in this way, and the simplest solution on the basis of current evidence is that *kalikiq referred to a native fruit that resembles the papaya and shifted reference to the introduced plant both in Sumatra and in Sulawesi.

26624

*kalim-petpet firefly

3082

PWMP     *kalim-petpet firefly     [doublet: *qali-petpet, *salim-petpet]

WMP
Karo Batak kalimpetpetfirefly
Uma kalipopoʔfirefly
Wolio kali-kalimpopofirefly

26627

*kaliŋ bunch, cluster, as of fruit

3085

PWMP     *kaliŋ bunch, cluster, as of fruit

WMP
Hanunóo kalíŋbunch
  kaliŋ-ancluster of small palm fruits
Iban kaliŋcluster of fruit

27017

*kaliŋaw to forget, be forgotten

3487

PWMP     *kaliŋaw to forget, be forgotten

WMP
Kapampangan kaliŋwanforget
Bikol mag-liŋáwto forget, to dismiss
  ma-liŋaw-ánto forget
  pag-ka-ma-liŋaw-onforgetfulness, absent-mindedness
  liŋaw-ánto forget, dismiss
Aklanon liŋáwto be noisy, make a racket
  ma-liŋáwnoisy, boisterous, raucous
Hiligaynon mag-liŋáwto distract, to bother, to amuse, to relax
Manobo (Ata) kaliŋowforget
Mansaka liŋawforget
Malagasy hadínoforgotten
  ma-nadínoto forget, to neglect
  hadinó-inabe forgotten, neglected

Note:   Given such forms as Malagasy ma-nadíno < *maŋ- + *kaliŋaw, it seems likely that this base morpheme was trisyllabic. However, its resemblance to a potential disyllable *liŋaw with prefixation by *ka- ‘past participle, achieved state’ may have led speakers of Central Philippine languages to reanalyze it as *ka-liŋaw, hence the various affixational possibilities in Bikol which are not shared outside this subgroup.

31723

*kaliŋkiŋ little finger, pinky

9890

PWMP     *kaliŋkiŋ little finger, pinky

WMP
Tagalog káliŋkiŋ-anlittle finger; little toe
Malay kəliŋkiŋlittle finger

Note:   Also Malay kəleŋkeŋ ‘little finger’.

26625

*kalis harden one's feelings, become inured

3083

PWMP     *kalis harden one's feelings, become inured

WMP
Ilokano kalísdissimulate, dissemble, disguise (one's thoughts, etc.), express (one's thoughts, etc.) with difficulty
Malay kalisirreceptive; (fig.) transient, superficial -- of feelings
Sundanese kalisput someone or something out of one's thoughts, to think no more of someone or something
Old Javanese a-kalishard, unfeeling, unreceptive, callous, indifferent; untouched, unscathed

31724

*kalít to cheat, deceive

9891

PPh     *kalít to cheat, deceive

WMP
Ilokano kalítcheat
Bikol kalítfraud, deceit
Waray-Waray kalíttreacherous attack
  pag-kalítthe act of making or doing something, as of inflicting bodily harm on someone with treachery

30061

*kalo neck

6762

POC     *kalo neck

OC
Ere kʷalo-nhis neck
Mussau alo-neck
Cape Cumberland kalo-neck
  kalo-neck

Note:   Also Nali koyu-, Merlav ndalo-, Tangoa ralo-, Axamb nə-xalua-, Apma kawo- ‘neck’. The possessive paradigm in Ere shows o ~ u (cf. kʷalu ‘my neck’, kʷalu-m ‘your neck’, raising questions about the underlying form of the final vowel in languages of the Admiralties. This form may have been *kʷalo.

31725

*kalu to stir

9892

PMP     *kalu to stir

WMP
Maranao kaloto stir; stirring rod
Singhi Land Dayak karuchto stir about
CMP
Asilulu kaluto stir
OC
Nggela kaluto stir up
  kalu-kaluto stir up; soup
Mota kalto stir round and round, mix by stirring

Note:   Also Arosi Ɂaro ‘to turn round and round, to stir around’.

31964

*kaluban sheath for bolo or knife

10188

PPh     *kaluban sheath for bolo or knife

WMP
Ilokano kalúbansheath (covering knives or blades)
  i-kalúbanto sheathe
Casiguran Dumagat kalubanbolo sheath; to sheathe a bolo
Tagalog kalúbanscabbard; a sheath or case for the blade of a sword, dagger, etc.
  kalúban ng barilholster

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution. Weighing against this interpretation is the observation that Ilokano has kalúb ‘cover, lid’, kalub-án ‘to cover, put a lid on’, while Tagalog kalúban is not synchronically derivable from a base kálub.

31965

*kalug to shake something, as an egg or coconut

10189

PPh     *kalug to shake something, as an egg or coconut

WMP
Yogad kalúgto shake, as the contents of a container
Pangasinan man-kalógto shake up and down
Hanunóo kálugshaking
Agutaynen mag-kalog-kalogto shake something

26628

*kalumpaŋ a tree: Sterculia foetida

3086

PMP     *kalumpaŋ a tree: Sterculia foetida

WMP
Tagalog kalumpáŋa wild almond tree (Sterculia foetida) the flowers of which have a rather offensive odor, while the fruit yields an oil that can be used for illumination purposes
Cebuano kalumpaŋspreading tree bearing foul-smelling flowers which are a deep red in color, and kidney-shaped fruit: Sterculia foetida
Malay kelumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida
Bare'e kayumpaŋ ~ kalumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida
Wolio kalumpaa tree: Sterculia foetida
CMP
Kambera kalumbaŋua stalwart tree: Sterculia foetida

Note:   Also Malay kelapoŋ ‘a tree: Sterculia foetida; its roots and leaves are used medicinally’. The CMP evidence for this form was first pointed out by Verheijen (1984).

26629

*kaluŋ curved

3087

PWMP     *kaluŋ curved

WMP
Kadazan Dusun kahuŋdeformed (foot, hand)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kaluŋcurved, of carabao horns
Rejang kaluŋnecklace
Bare'e kalustiff, of something that has been bent for some time (as a limb); bent (as fingers that have cramped)

Note:   With root *-luŋ₁ ‘bend, curve’.

31622

*kam- -an formative for collateral kin

9774

PWMP     *kam- -an formative for collateral kin

WMP
Yami kam-ina-naunt (< *ina
Rungus Dusun kom-ina-nfather’s sister, mother’s sister
  kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother (< *ama ‘father’)
Murut (Timugon) kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother
  kam-ina-nfather’s sister, mother’s sister
Bisaya (Limbang) kam-ina-naunt
  kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother
Ba'amang kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’)
Banjarese kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’)
Mentawai kame-ina-nfather’s sister
  kam-ama-nmother’s brother

Note:   Also Western Subanon kom-anak, Western Bukidnon Manobo anak-en ‘nephew, niece’, Mamanwa amaɁ-en ‘uncle’ (amaɁ ‘father’), inaɁ-en ‘aunt’ (inaɁ ‘mother’), the first lacking a suffix and the last three a prefix. A parallel pattern whereby the terms for parental siblings are derived from the words for ‘father’ and ‘mother’ by use of a circumfix different from *kam- -an is seen in some Philippine languages, as Pangasinan, with paŋ-ama-en ‘uncle’, and paŋ-ina-en ‘aunt’.

31650

*kamaguŋ large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor

9806

PPh     *kamaguŋ large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor

WMP
Ilokano kamágoŋa tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor
Bikol kamagóŋa tree, Philippine mahogany, producing a light red wood streaked with reddish-brown, used in the making of furniture; also producing an edible fruit: Diospyros discolor
Hanunóo kamagúŋa tree, (Diospyros discolor Willd.?); the term is used only to designate young trees the wood of which is still light in color; for older trees or wood having a darker, seasoned color the term used is baluntínaw
Cebuano kamagúŋkind of large forest tree producing a prized, hard, black wood used as building material and for making canes; the fruit is brown and hairy with white flesh and edible: Diospyros discolor (varieties bearing few seeds are planted and sold commercially as mabúlu)
Maranao kamagoŋPhilippine teak, camagon

30496

*kamaliR bachelor’s house, men’s house

7725

PMP     *kamaliR bachelor’s house, men’s house

WMP
Yami kamaligboat house
Ilokano kamáligkind of low granary or warehouse, lower than the agamang but with a larger capacity
  i-kamáligto store in the granary
Kankanaey kamáligkind of box or case found under houses, used for a sleeping place, mostly in the daytime, for a playroom of little children, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat kamáliggranary (house for storing rice until it can be threshed, put in sacks, and transferred to a house or storehouse)
Tagalog kamáligwarehouse, storehouse, shed; barn; granary; building where grain is stored
Bikol kamáliga temporary shelter, consisting of a roof and posts, but no walls, built in the fields or along the coast to protect harvested crops, boats, etc.
  kará-kamáliga hut or shed
Masbatenyo kamáliggranary, barn, animal stable
Aklanon kamáliggrain house or shed
Waray-Waray kamaligbarn, barnhouse, storage
Hiligaynon kamáligbarn
Cebuano kamáligstorehouse for farm products; stable for work animals
Maranao kamaligshed, type of shelter
Binukid kamaligstorehouse for farm products
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemaliga large but temporary house or shelter; to erect such a house or shelter
Tausug kamaliga (private) storehouse for harvested grain
Old Javanese kamalira particular kind of (religious?) building
Sasak kemaliʔholy place, holy object
Mongondow komaligthe house of the prince: palace. In priestly language: house
Banggai kamalipalace, residence of the prince
Bare'e komaliworkshop of a blacksmith; forge
Buginese kamaliʔbedroom
Wolio kamalipalace (esp. single-storey)
Muna kamalipalace (the former house of the Muna king in the old Kota Muna)
CMP
Hawu kemalihouse; member of the household
OC
Loniu kamanman, male
  lo komanmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’)
Nali kamaymen’s house; man, male
Ere kimalman, male
Titan kamalmen’s house; man, male
Leipon kimelman, male
  lo kimelmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’)
Ahus kamalman/male; men’s house
Kuruti kamalmen’s house; man, male
Sori amaŋmen’s house
Lindrou kamenmen’s house
Mota gamalclubhouse of suqe (club) or of a single high rank
Araki ham̈alimen’s clubhouse, where eminent men traditionally meet and take important decisions
Northeast Ambae kamalimen’s house
Raga xamalimen’s house
Bonkovia kamelimen’s house
Vowa kamalmen’s house
Namakir na-kamalmen’s house
Makatea kamalimen’s house

Note:   Also Ifugaw kamálig ‘a wooden floor constructed under an Ifugao house when its inhabitants celebrate the expensive kamálig feast … In hudhúd literature kamálig is used in the sense of hagábi, “lounging bench”; it is set under the house of a wealthy family,’ Ilongot kamari ‘squarish domestic house, raised 6 to 15 feet above the ground’ (Lebar 1975:104), Pangasinan kamálir (expected **kamálil) ‘granary’, Kapampangan kamálig ‘storehouse’, Yakan kamalig ‘storage shed, chicken house, shelter for animals. (A small house for storage of different kinds of things such as rice, corn or implements. It is often built on the ground without flooring, or the floor is close to the ground. Sometimes it consists of a roof only)’, Sangir kamalir-aŋ ‘shed, hut, esp. for a boat’. Not to be confused with Ilokano kamarín ‘barn, granary’, Agta (Eastern) kamárin ‘any small house used for storage; barn’, Ifugaw (Batad) kamalín ‘a relatively large building, as a house built to be lived in; a barn, church, school building’, Cebuano kamarin ‘warehouse with an iron roof’, Mansaka kamarin ‘storage shed’, all of which appear to be borrowings of Spanish camarín ‘small side-chapel; (actor’s) dressing-room; closet’, some acquired directly, as Ilokano kamarín, Cebuano kamarin, or Mansaka kamarin, but others indirectly, as Agta (Eastern) kamárin, which is said to be from Ilokano

As noted in Blust (1987) the most reasonable gloss for this challenging form is ‘men’s house’, that is, a dormitory for unmarried men. According to Fox (1993b:12) “This designation assumes, however, the existence of Melanesian type men’s houses among the early Austronesians prior to their contact with the non-Austronesian populations of New Guinea,” and he notes that “Tryon (1993), assigns *kalamiR the gloss, ‘granary, shed’. It might therefore be appropriate to see the widespread Western Malayo-Polynesian reflexes as a retention and the usages found in Oceania as an innovation.” Quite apart from his repeated mis-citation of the form as *kalamiR (three times in a single 13-line paragraph), and his patently false assertion that “widespread Western Malayo-Polynesian reflexes” support the meaning ‘granary’, there are a number of problems with this statement. First, Fox apparently fails to understand that *kamaliR must be reconstructed for Proto-Oceanic, as this is the only gloss (apart from ‘man, male’ in the Admiralties) that reflexes of *kamaliR have in Oceanic languages. But Proto-Oceanic was spoken by a language community that had only recently arrived in the western Pacific, and that shows little influence from the Papuan languages that were already present in this region. Second, in the context of the wider set of ‘house’ terms considered by Blust (1987) *lepaw is clearly a better PMP candidate for the meaning ‘granary’, as it is attested in this sense in both CMP and WMP languages, whereas *kamaliR is attested in this meaning only in the Philippines. Third, a search through Tryon (1995) turns up no reference to ‘granary shed’, and hence no data that was not already considered in Blust (1987). Fourth, Fox’s suggestion that bachelor’s houses were unknown to Austronesian speakers prior to reaching New Guinea is fundamentally at odds with the ethnographic evidence, since the institution of bachelor’s houses has been described for inter alia, the Amis, Tsou, Rukai and Puyuma of Taiwan (Chen 1988:271ff), the Lepanto and Bontok of northern Luzon (Keesing 1962:121, Lebar 1975:83), the Modang of east Kalimantan (Guerreiro 1998), the Acehnese of northern Sumatra (Loeb 1972:221ff), the Mentaweians just west of Sumatra (Lebar 1972:42), the prehispanic Chamorros, Palauans, and Yapese of western Micronesia (Alkire 1977:21, 30ff, 33ff) ), the Ende of central Flores (Lebar 1972:87), the Sika of east Flores (Lebar 1972:89), the Solorese of east Flores and Adonara (Lebar 1972:92), and the Tanimbarese of the southern Moluccas (Lebar 1972:112). Surprisingly, Green and Pawley (1999:55ff) adopt the same position, concluding that PMP *kamaliR meant ‘granary’ despite the fact that this meaning is attested only within the Philippine subgroup, that the Greater Central Philippine languages of Sulawesi reflect it in other meanings, as ‘palace’ (Mongondow), or ‘boat house’ (Sangir, where, however, *R is reflected as /r/ instead of expected /h/), and that in some of the languages of northern Luzon, as Kankanaey, kamálig describes a sleeping place used “mostly in the daytime.”

In conclusion, the great semantic diversity of reflexes makes it difficult to confidently reconstruct a gloss for PMP *kamaliR, but ‘men’s house’ seems by far the most plausible alternative, as special structures that serves both as dormitories for unmarried men and as men’s clubhouses are widely attested in traditional Austronesian-speaking societies, and POc *kamaliR could have had no other meaning.

31726

*kamandag venom of a poisonous snake or insect

9893

PPh     *kamandag venom of a poisonous snake or insect

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kamándagpoison (of a centipede, poisonous snakes, the atang-atang crab, the hahong fish, etc.)
Tagalog kamandágvenom; the poison of snakes, spiders, etc.
  ma-kamandágpoisonous, venomous
Bikol kamandágvenom
  ma-kamandag-ánto be poisoned by venom (as from a snake bite)
Cebuano kamandágpoison venom

31654

*kamantigi a plant: Impatiens balsamina

9810

PPh     *kamantigi a plant: Impatiens balsamina

WMP
Ilokano kamantígiImpatiens balsamina, balsam, touch-me-not, used in native medicine against boils
Cebuano kamantígian ornamental annual growing up to two feet high, bearing red, white, and pink flowers, and and fleshy capsules which burst when touched: Impatiens balsamina

Note:   Also Tagalog kamantígiɁ ‘a species of succulent herb’, Cebuano kalamantígi ‘a plant: Impatiens balsamina’. Possibly a loan distribution.

26634

*kamaŋ creep, crawl

3092

PWMP     *kamaŋ creep, crawl

WMP
Kankanaey kámaŋcrawl on all fours
Aklanon kámaŋcrawl on all fours
Cebuano kámaŋcreep, crawl
Lingkabau k<um>amaŋto crawl
Kadazan Dusun kamaŋto crawl
Abai Sembuak ŋgamaŋto crawl
Lun Dayeh kamaŋcreeping, crawling (as a very young child)
Kayan kamaŋcrawl, crawling, advancing on all fours

31949

*kamaŋa kind of useful stone

10167

PPh     *kamaŋa kind of useful stone

WMP
Bontok kamáŋakind of soft red stone; the soil which results from the deterioration of this stone
Aklanon kamáŋa(h)flint, fine stone used for sharpening razor
Maranao kamaŋagrindstone, whetstone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemaŋawhetstone; to whet a knife or other tool

Note:   Also Sangir kamaŋsa ‘whetstone’. Possibly a chance resemblance between Bontok and the other languages, since Greater Central Philippine languages agree in pointing to a whetstone, while the Bontok referent lacks the properties of this type of stone.

26633

*kamaŋi a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L.

3091

PWMP     *kamaŋi a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L.

WMP
Hanunóo kamáŋiplant species, Ocimum sanctum L.. The leaves have some reportedly medicinal value; when dried the herb is placed among clothes to scent them
Cebuano kamaŋy-andried form of the resin obtained from almasiga (Agathis philippinensis) and other forest trees. It is burned over coals for its smoke, which is used in folk medicine and other rituals for magical purposes, and also as a mosquito smudge
Malay medaŋ kemaŋistrongly scented plant the leaves of which are used in native medicine: Cinnamomum parthenoxylon
  selaseh kemaŋibasil: Ocimum canum, used as a seasoning for food
Sasak kemaŋiplant used as a vegetable: Ocimum sanctum L.
Wolio kamaŋikind of plant used for making fragrant face powder: Ocimum basilicum

31966

*kamaRi a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata

10190

POC     *kamaRi a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata

OC
Nali kemeythe rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata
Titan kameythe rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata
Gilbertese kamaa fish, the rainbow runner

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Osmond (2011:72). Until further confirmation can be found it must be considered tentative.

26630

*kamas scratch

3088

PWMP     *kamas scratch

WMP
Maranao kamasscratch
Bare'e kamascratch with the nails, as an itchy spot

32055

*kamatu double-headed parrotfish

10289

POC     *kamatu double-headed parrotfish     [disjunct: *amatu]

OC
Titan kamatudouble-headed parrotfish: Bolbometopon
Seimat amatua large reef fish, probably double-headed parrotfish
Lukep (Pono) kamatularge bottom-feeding reef fish that swims in groups and has a large protrusion on its head

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:96-97).

26632

*kamay hand

3090

PAN     *kamay hand

Formosan
Amis kamay ~ kayamhands, including the arm
WMP
Tagalog kamáyhand
Cebuano kamáysummon by a wave of the hand
Taboyan kamɨyhand
SHWNG
Minyaifuin kamehand
OC
Kokota kame-nahand
Zabana kamehand

26631

*kamaya plant sp.: Diospyros discolor

3089

PAN     *kamaya plant sp.: Diospyros discolor

Formosan
Amis kamayaa bush, the Taiwan Ebony Velvet Apple: Diospyros discolor
Paiwan (Western) kamayamango: Diospyros discolor
WMP
Itbayaten kamayaspecies of plant (Ebenaceae, Diospyros discolor)
Hanunóo kamayáa species of tree (family Ebenaceae)

32011

*kambu lower stomach, bladder

10238

PMP     *kambu lower stomach, bladder

WMP
Makasarese kambuthe innermost part of something; pith of palms
  bone-kambuintestines
  ak-kambuthrust into the body, as a piercing weapon
CMP
Kodi kambubelly
Kambera kambubelly; womb
  ihi kambuwhat is found in the belly: intestines, food
Tetun kabu-nstomach, abdomen (of humans)
  kabu-n morasstomach ache
  kabu-teekpot-bellied (an insult)
  ai-n kabu-ncalf of leg
Galoli abu-rbelly
Watubela kabubelly
Manusela abu-intestines
Proto-Ambon *kabu-guts, belly

26636

*kambur mix

3094

PMP     *kambur mix

WMP
Ilokano kambórmixing
  ag-kambórto mix together (various substances)
Maranao kamborstir, mix
CMP
Ngadha kabhuto mix

Note:   Possibly with root *-buR₁ ‘rice gruel; to mix’, but if so the Maranao form shows an unexplained change *R > r.

26635

*kambuR₁ sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.)

3093

PMP     *kambuR₁ sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.)

WMP
Bare'e kambusprinkle with pounded rice, as the coffin of one who has no surviving siblings
OC
Fijian kabusow or scatter small seeds

Note:   With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.

31784

*kambuR₂ disturbed, of water agitated by fish

9961

PPh     *kambuR₂ disturbed, of water agitated by fish     [disjunct: *kebuR]

WMP
Ilokano ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger)
Maranao kambogto stir
  kambog-awdriving fish into net, trapping fish

31652

*kam(e)qáw kind of urn for storing food

9808

PPh     *kam(e)qáw kind of urn for storing food

WMP
Ilokano kam-ʔáwkind of broad-mouthed jar used for holding lard
Tagalog kam-ʔáw ~ kamáwreddish earthen pan or bowl
Cebuano kam-ʔáwshallow earthen bowl used to hold food; to put in a small earthen bowl

31653

*kamet do with the hand

9809

PPh     *kamet do with the hand

WMP
Itbayaten kametpick up
  ma-ŋametto pick up (by hand)
  kamt-anwhere to hold in picking up (something)
Ibatan kametto grasp something with the tips of the fingers, especially cooked rice
Kankanaey ma-kámetdiligent; active; assiduous; sedulous; laborious; industrious
Casiguran Dumagat kaməthand, arm (exclusive of the fingers)
Bikol kamóthand
  ma-kamt-ánto acquire, get, possess
  kamot-ónto handle
Cebuano kamúthand; do with the hand; be obtained, achieved
  k<in>amútdo something by hand
Mansaka kamotfinger; claw
Tausug kamuta handful
  k<um>amutto scoop (something) with the hand

Note:   Also Pangasinan kámot ‘raise food to the mouth; eat with the hands’, Kapampangan gamát ‘hand (sometimes used to mean lower arm in general)’, Proto-Sangiric *kamet ‘to signal with the hand’.

31655

*kamiá ginger plant with fragrant white flower

9811

PPh     *kamiá ginger plant with fragrant white flower

WMP
Ilokano kamiáspecies of fragrant white flower
Tagalog kamyáspecies of herb which bears fragrant flowers
Bikol kámyasweet-scented white lily: Hedychium coronarium
Aklanon kámyawhite flower, camia
Cebuano kamyákind of ornamental ginger producing good-sized, white, fragrant flowers; the rhizomes are used medicinally: Hedychium coronarium

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.

31623

*kamiri the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana

9775

PMP     *kamiri the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana

WMP
Hanunóo kamiriAleurites moluccana Linn. (Madulid 2001)
Iban kemiritree bearing hard nuts, candle nut, Aleurites triloba Forst.
Malay buah kəmiricandle-nut
Sundanese kamiria tree with a nut similar in shape to a walnut which yields an oil, and can be used in a game like marbles
Old Javanese kamiri ~ kamerithe candle-nut tree: Aleurites triloba
Javanese kemiricandlenut; candlenut tree
CMP
Tetun kamiia tree with oily fruit, the candlenut: Aleurites Moluccana

Note:   Also Asilulu kamiri ‘kind of spice, candlenut, Aleurites moluccana’ (said to be from Malay). Although the Asilulu term may be a Malay loan, this is much harder to argue for Hanunóo, since the term is unknown in many Philippine languages that have borrowed much more heavily from Malay.

32012

*kamisu spittle; to spit

10239

POC     *kamisu spittle; to spit     [doublet: *kanisu]

OC
Lihir kamicspittle
Banoni kamisuto spit
Mono-Alu amisuto spit
Owa misuto spit (loss of CV- unexplained)

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016:280).

26637

*kamit scratch

3095

PMP     *kamit scratch

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) kamitscratched
OC
Tolai kamitscratch, catch, as a thorn in the clothes

31637

*kamkam to seize, take by force

9790

PWMP     *kamkam to seize, take by force

WMP
Ilokano kamkámgreedy
Casiguran Dumagat kamkamto appropriate the land of a neighbor (illegally)
Tagalog kamkámappropriation of things for self; usurpation; claiming or taking something without right
Bikol mag-kamkámto appropriate someone else’s property
Cebuano kamkámtouch with the fingers; take something that is not one’s own (as in embezzling funds)
Toba Batak maŋ-haŋkamseize for oneself

9791

PPh     *kamkam-en to appropriate to oneself illegally

WMP
Ilokano kamkam-énto acquire unjustly or illegally
Kankanaey kamkám-ento take up, to gather up, to pick up with both hands; to take (etc.) everything, all the whole
Tagalog kamkam-ínto take for oneself, excluding others; to claim or take without right
Bikol kamkam-ónto appropriate someone else’s property

Note:   Samoan ɁaɁa-mi ‘to fetch’ may also be connected.

31699

*kampi to defend

9864

PPh     *kampi to defend

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kámpito take the side of someone in a conflict; to be partial to someone; to take sides, favor
  kámpi-kámpito stay with one’s own kind (as for girls to stay with girls, and boys with boys); to be loyal to one’s own kind (e.g. relatives); to stick together
Tagalog kampítaking the side of someone in a conflict; biased; favoring one side too much
  ka-kampially; one who cheers for a team, etc., rooter, fan
  maki-kampíto join an alliance
  kampih-analliance
  kampí-kampíbeing on the same side in a conflict, etc.
Bikol kámpiside, faction, part; referring to a transaction in which the buyer receives one part more than he gives, such as exchanging four parts of rice for five parts of coconut wine
  ka-kampí sato be biased in favor of; to be partial to; to be onesided in someone’s favor
Cebuano kampítake sides with
Mansaka kampito defend (as a person in a conflict)

9865

PPh     *k<um>ampi to join, unite with in taking sides

WMP
Ilokano k<um>ampíto join, offer allegiance to
Tagalog k<um>ampíto ally; to unite or join by alliance; to follow; to cheer for; to take the side of

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

31752

*kampil plaited palm leaf bag or pouch

9921

PWMP     *kampil plaited palm leaf bag or pouch

WMP
Maranao kampil-oʔsatchel, basket
Tausug kampila woven container of coconut leaves used for keeping fruit or raw or cooked provisions
Ngaju Dayak kampila pouch woven of leaves and used mostly to carry copper money
Malay kampillarge envelope-shaped matwork bag
Toba Batak hampilcartridge pouch
Old Javanese kampilbag, pouch (for money or valuables)
  ka-kampil-anto put in a bag
  ma-kampilcarrying the treasures (regalia, heirlooms, etc.)
Javanese kampila small purse woven from dried grass
Balinese kampilpurse, bag

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution.

26638

*kampis deflate, shrink

3096

PMP     *kampis deflate, shrink

WMP
Ilokano kápisempty, flat, flat-chested
Maranao kampisdeteriorate, atrophy
Kadazan Dusun kampisflat and thin, flatten
CMP
Manggarai hampésshrunken; empty stomach

Note:   With root *-pis₁ ‘deflate, be empty’.

31166

*kampit to adhere, stick to

9178

PMP     *kampit to adhere, stick to

WMP
Tagalog kápit ~ kapítadhering; sticking; stuck; glued
  i-kápitto stick, paste or glue something onto something else (stress on the object)
  k<um>ápitto adhere or stick
  kapít-anto stick or glue onto something (stress on the place)
Aklanon kápitcling to, adhere to

9179

POC     *kabit₂ to adhere, stick to

OC
Fijian kabito adhere or stick to
  kabi-tato adhere, stick to (trans.); sticky, gluey

Note:   Apparently distinct from *kapit ‘to fasten...’

31810

*kampuŋ abdomen, belly

10000

PCEMP     *kampuŋ abdomen, belly     [doublet: *kempuŋ]

CMP
Kodi kambubelly
Kambera kambubelly; womb
Tetun kabun ~ kabustomach, abdomen (of humans)
  kabu fuanfetus
  ain kabuncalf of leg
Galoli abu-rbelly
Erai kapunbelly
Watubela kabubelly
Kamarian apubelly
Proto-Ambon *kabu-guts, belly
  *kabuguts, belly
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai ambunabdomen

10021

POC     *kabuŋ stomach of an animal

OC
Nauna kahu-nstomach of a person, fish or animal
Baluan kapu-nstomach of an animal
Penchal kahu-nstomach of an animal

Note:   Also Lou kou-n ‘stomach of an animal’, Tongan kōpū ‘gullet of a fish’, Futunan kopū ‘swim bladder of a fish’, Hawaiian Ɂōpū ‘belly, stomach, abdomen, tripe, giblet, gizzard, bladder, crop of a bird’.

30168

*kamu₁ sheath of a coconut?

6958

POC     *kamu₁ sheath of a coconut?

OC
Lou kamusheath of coconut flower
Duke of York kamustem of a bunch of coconuts
Sa'a kämu i niufallen sheath of coconut

31688

*kamu₂ chew, move to and fro in the mouth

9852

POC     *kamu₃ chew, move to and fro in the mouth

OC
Gedaged kamu-kamumove something to and fro in the mouth; move the lips when chewing; nibble around a kernel held in the mouth; gnaw at somethting
Cheke Holo gamueat
Tolo kämuto eat the betel mixture (cited in Ivens 1929 as the equivalent of Sa’a dämu)
Lau kamuchew (betel nut)
'Āre'āre kamuchew betelnut
Tahitian ʔamuto eat
Maori kamuto eat; munch, move the mouth as if eating

Note:   This comparison was first proposed in Blust (1978:143-144), and more recently in an extended form by Ross and Osmond (2016:232).

26639

*kamuniŋ a tree: Murraya sp.

3097

PMP     *kamuniŋ a tree: Murraya sp.

WMP
Bikol kamuníŋa tree: Murraya paniculata
Cebuano kamuniŋsmall tree of the secondary forest: Murraya paniculata
Malay kayu kemuniŋbeautiful veined yellow wood: obtained from Murraya exotica and used for making kris-handles and scabbards
Old Javanese kamuniŋkind of tree with yellow wood: Murraya sp.
Sasak kemuniŋtree with yellow wood used for kris handles
CMP
Manggarai kemuniŋa tree: probably Murraya exotica

Note:   Also Old Javanese kumuniŋ ‘kind of tree with yellow wood: Murraya sp.’, Bare'e kamoni ‘a tree, the leaves of which are much used: Clerodendron minahasae’.

31968

*kamwa-kamwa Ficus sp.

10192

POC     *kamwa-kamwa Ficus sp.

OC
Misima ka-kamʷatree with small rounded, light green leathery leaves, white motley-colored bark, and small, fig-shaped fruit
Santa Ana kamʷa-kamʷasandpaper cabbage: Ficus wassa

Note:   A slightly larger version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008b:309). Until further supporting evidence is forthcoming this reconstruction must be considered highly tentative.

31628

*kana- classiifer for edible possession

9780

POC     *kana- classifier for edible possession

OC
Lou ka-marker of edible possession
Seimat an-marker of edible possession
Manam Ɂana-marker of edible possession
Tami ka-marker of edible possession
Dobuan Ɂamarker of edible possession
Nggela ga-makes possessive pronouns with pronouns ŋgu, mu, na: ga-ŋgu, ga- mu, ga-na ‘my, thy, his’, but only with things to eat and drink, and certain other words
Arosi Ɂa-nahis, hers, its; when food, drink, medicine or anything acting on the person is referred to
Pohnpeian kenemarker of edible possession
Woleaian gale-possessive classifier for food
Mota ga-possessive marker of close relationship, generally of food
Araki ha-possessive classifier for food
Raga ga-marker of edible possession

Note:   Also Wayan ke- ‘prenominal particle; food possession-marker, indicating that the possessed thing is eaten, or is considered as food-producing’, Fijian ke ‘possessive noun, used with suffixed pronouns, indicating (1) that the object is to be eaten, (2) concerning a person or thing, (3) expressing certain characteristics of a person or thing’.

The shape of this important grammatical morpheme is debatable. Lichtenberk (1985:117) posited POc *ka-, but this fails to account for the reflex of a nasal in Seimat, Manam, Pohnpeian or Woleaian. In view of POc *kana ‘food’ it seems likely that the possessive classifier was itself a possessed noun, hence Nggela ga-ŋgu vundi ‘my banana’ (to eat) < POc *kana-gu pudi ‘my food (which is a) banana’. Like many grammatical morphemes that have high text frequency, *kana in possessive constructions was shortened to ka- in most languages. This word is ultimately related to a suffixed form of PAn *kaen ‘to eat’, but its rather independent development in POc merits an independent entry.

31627

*kana₁ food

9779

POC     *kana food₁

OC
Proto-Admiralty *kanafood
Nauna kana-ntaste
Levei kanafood
Likum kana-yfood
Sori ana-yfood
Seimat anfood
Wuvulu an-anato eat
  ana-iaeat it!
Aua anafood
Nggela ganafood
  ga ganaedible
Arosi kana-kanato have a nice taste in the mouth
Proto-Micronesian *kanafood
Gilbertese kanato eat, to devour, to consume, gnaw; deteriorate
Chuukese ana-food to eat; food portion (of cooked starchy food)
Mota ganato eat food
  gana-ganaan eating, meal, feast
Iaai anfood
Fijian kanato eat; a meal
  kā-kanafood

Note:   Also Kairiru ʔanaʔ ‘food’. In some languages reflexes of this form are verbal, but POc *kani is more plausibly reconstrucible as the verb ‘to eat’. Possibly a reflex of PAn *kaen-an ‘place where one eats’, but this remains uncertain.

31830

*kana₂ enemy

10026

POC     *kana₂ enemy

OC
Mono-Alu kana(song word) war
Roviana kanaan enemy, a foe
Bugotu kanaenemy
Nggela kanaan enemy
  kana-hagito be an enmity with

Note:   Possibly identical to *kana ‘food’, although the suffixed Nggela form suggests *kanas. The known reflexes of this form are restricted to languages in the Solomon Islands, and although these fall into different primary branches of Oceanic the possibility of diffusion cannot be completely ruled out.

31689

*kana-kana to think, ponder

9853

POC     *kana-kana to think, ponder

OC
Gedaged kan-kanto think, consider, reflect, muse, cogitate, deliberate, speculate, meditate, imagine, ponder
Bugotu ganato think
Nggeri gana-ganato think, suppose, intend

30169

*kanam sing; song

6959

POC     *kanam sing; song

OC
Gedaged kanama song, hymn
Kwaio ganato sing
Lau kanato hum; to sing old songs
  kana fāfito hum or sing a lullaby to a child
Toqabaqita kanakind of traditional song; to sing (traditional kana or modern songs)
'Āre'āre kanasing, in incantations to a spirit in order to know a cure against a sickness
Sa'a kana ~ kana-kanato sing; a song
Ulawa kana ni henuadance songs
Arosi ganato sing
  idu ganacompose a song (usually in dreams)
  gana-ganato sing
  gana-riaacclaimed in song, sung of

26646

*kanaŋa a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata

3104

PMP     *kanaŋa a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kanaŋatree with fragrant blossoms from which an odorous yellowish oil is extracted
Malay kənaŋaa tree known for its sweet-scented flowers; the dried flowers are used medicinally to mitigate fever
Sundanese kanaŋaname of a tree with yellow, fragrant flowers
Old Javanese kanaŋatree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata
Makasarese kanaŋatree with redolent flowers: Cananga odorata
CMP
Manggarai kenaŋatall, straight tree with yellow, lightweight trunk; its bark is used for walling and flooring
Buruese kanaŋaa tree having fragrant flowers, the “kumbang of Ambon”: Cananga odorata

Note:   Also Tetun kanaŋa ‘a tree of the nutmet family (Myristica), with highly perfumed flowers’ (with irregular velar nasal).

26641

*kanap₁ creep, crawl

3099

PMP     *kanap₁ creep, crawl

WMP
Bikol kanápto creep (on)
Cebuano kánapspread over an area (as measles over the body)
Kayan kanapcrawling, creeping very slowly (of insects, plants)
OC
Lakalai gala, gala galato crawl

31656

*kanap₂ dark, obscure

9812

PPh     *kanap₂ dark, obscure

WMP
Kankanaey naka-kánapdark; obscure
Ifugaw kánapcomplete darkness
Cebuano kanap-kánapblurred, dim eyesight; for the eyesight to become blurred

31772

*kanari tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune

9942

PMP     *kanari tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune     [doublet: *kaŋaRi]

WMP
Malay kənarithe Java almond, a very handsome shade tree planted in avenues in Java; its seeds are rich in oil and its sap produces the elemi (k.o. resin) of our pharmacopeia: Canarium commune
Javanese kənaria certain tree and its pecan-like nuts
Tontemboan kanarithe canarium tree and its nut: Canarium commune
Wolio kanarikind of tree and its fruit, Java almond: Canarium commune
CMP
Bimanese kanaricanarium almond
Solorese kenaricanarium almond
Wetan kənaritree with oleiferous seed
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai anarwalnut
OC
Baluan kanaicanarium almond
Sori kenaicanarium almond

Note:   Citing data from Verheijen (1990) together with Oceanic material, Ross (2008:315) has posited PCEMP *ka(nŋ)aRi ‘canarium almond, Canarium spp.’. However, the Javanese, Tontemboan, Bimanese and Solorese reflexes of *kanari all point to a proto-form with *r, not *R (Malay and Wetan are ambiguous), and although the Sori reflex of *r is h in initial position, its intervocalic reflex is unclear. On balance, then, it seems best at least tentatively to posit PMP *kanari, reflected in WMP and CMP languages, and a doublet *kaŋaRi that co-existed with this form in POc (reduced by loss of the first syllable in some languages).

26642

*kanarum tree sp.

3100

PMP     *kanarum tree sp.

WMP
Hanunóo kanárumtree sp.
Tboli kenaluma tree; black dye for the abaca fiber is obtained by boiling its leaves
OC
Arosi ʔanaru, kanarutree sp. with large leaves

26645

*kanawa a tree: Cordia spp.

3103

PMP     *kanawa a tree: Cordia spp.

WMP
Iban kenawapalm yielding a large areca nut, sp. unident.
Makasarese kanawakind of tree
Palauan kəláugeiger tree: Cordia sebestena L.
OC
Gilbertese kanawaa tree: Cordia subcordata
Nukuoro ganavatree sp.: Cordia subcordata Lam.

26644

*kanaway kind of white bird: probably gull sp.

3102

PMP     *kanaway kind of white bird: probably gull sp.

WMP
Ilokano kannáwayheron with white plumage, living in the vicinity of rivers and brooks
Isneg kanáwaykind of heron with white plumage
Cebuano kanáwaywhite sea bird, some 6 inches long and 4 inches high, found perched on driftwood or on sea corals
Murut (Timugon) kanawaywhite cattle egret
Malay (Brunei) kenawailarge white Borneo bird
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai anawacommon tern

6452

POC     *kanawe kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp.

OC
Lou kanaseagull
Loniu kanawblack bird similar to sea gull
Titan kanawseagull
Nggela ganaeseagull
Kwaio ʔanakwegull variety
Arosi ʔanawewhite; Tropic Boatswain bird: Phaeton aethurus
Bauro ganawewhite, of birds only

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun kandavai ‘a white heron that often perches on buffaloes’. PMP *kanaway probably designated the white cattle egret or a similar heron, but in POc the word evidently was transferred to some type of gull.

In spite of problems with the comparative phonology, Milke (1968) assigned Nggela ganae, and such forms as Mailu anawe ‘small seagull’, Siâ ka-na-nawe ‘seagull’ to POc *(ŋ)gana(g)e ‘seagull’. It now seems likely that these forms belong with the present cognate set. Sangir manu kaŋ ‘seagull’, which Milke regarded as external support for his POc reconstruction, appears to be unrelated.

31770

*kandaŋ enclosure, pen for animals

9940

PWMP     *kandaŋ enclosure, pen for animals

WMP
Tombonuwo kandaŋpen for animal
Ngaju Dayak kandaŋa stall, stable, a place that is fenced in
Malay kandaŋfenced enclosure for animals
  kandaŋ ayampoultry-run
  kandaŋ babipig-sty
Toba Batak handaŋfence; enclosure
Old Javanese kanḍaŋpen, cowshed
Javanese kanḍaŋanimal pen
  kanḍaŋ pitikchicken coop

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kanDaŋ ‘enclosure, pen’. Possibly a Malay loan distribution, as cognates are found only within the area where Malay loanwords are common.

26648

*kandiŋ goat

3106

PWMP     *kandiŋ goat     [doublet: *kambiŋ]

WMP
Pangasinan kandíŋgoat
Bikol kandíŋgoat
Kayan (Busang) kadiŋgoat

Note:   Also Yami kagliŋ, Bontok keldiŋ, Kankanaey kaldí ‘goat’.

26647

*kandis a tree: Garcinia sp.

3105

PWMP     *kandis a tree: Garcinia sp.

WMP
Hanunóo kandístree with reddish fruits: Garcinia rubra Merr.
Iban kandisgeneric for trees, Garcinia sp., yielding edible fruit
Malay kandistree yielding an acid fruit: Garcinia atrolineata
Gayō kanisa tree: Garcinia atronileata
Karo Batak kandiskind of tree

30046

*kandoRa cuscus, phalanger

6745

PCEMP     *kandoRa cuscus, phalanger

CMP
Watubela kadolamarsupial
SHWNG
Buli dokind of small marsupial

6746

POC     *kadoRa cuscus, phalanger

OC
Nauna kocaycuscus, phalanger
Penchal kotaycuscus, phalanger
Sori ohaycuscus, phalanger
Seimat koxacuscus, phalanger
Mussau aroacuscus, phalanger
Bali (Uneapa) ghandoracuscus
Vitu hadoracuscus, possum
Manam ʔodoracuscus, phalanger
Kilivila kwadoyacuscus, possum

Note:   All reflexes in languages of the Admiralty Islands (Seimat, Sori, Penchal and Nauna here) show metathesis of the vowels, pointing to Proto-Admiralty *kodaya. Also Nggela kandora ‘cuscus, phalanger’. Osmond and Pawley (2011:225-226), cite a number of other Oceanic reflexes of this form, and note that /r/ for expected /l/ in Nggela and various Southeast Solomonic languages “is consistent with borrowing from Meso-Melanesian neighbors in the western Solomons.”

31615

*kanduŋ womb?

9761

PWMP     *kanduŋ womb?

WMP
Tagalog kandóŋheld on the lap (as a mother holding her child)
  kanduŋ-anlap
Iban kandoŋwomb, foetus; (of padi, fruit) in bearing, fruiting, having fruit set and swelling; (of women) pregnant, conceive
Malay kandoŋcarrying in an enclosed space, of pocketing, being with child
Bahasa Indonesia kanduŋpocket, pouch; womb
Minangkabau padi mə-ŋandoŋrice in the ear

31740

*kaniá own, one’s own; self

9908

PPh     *kaniá own, one’s own; self

WMP
Ilokano kaniá ~ kanyácombines with -ko pronouns to form the obliques
  kaniá-kto me
  kaniá-mto you (sg., informal)
  kaniá-nato him, her, it
Casiguran Dumagat kániyaown
  kani-kániya a bileone’s own house
Tagalog kaniyá ~ kanyáhis; her; hers
  kaniyah-ínto appropriate something for himself or herself
  kani-kaniyá, kanyá-kanyáeach his own
Bikol kanyáto each his own; every man for himself
  kanyá-kanyáŋ bayadDutch treat

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

30869

*kani-kani scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs

8694

POC     *kani-kani scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs

OC
Vitu hani-haniget infected
Motu kani-kanifull of dirt, weeds or mud (metaphor of infectious diseases, wars, raids or killing)
Nggela kani-kania skin disease which leaves white scars or patches on the skin, different from taeniaho (‘showing first patches of leprosy, whiter than kani’)
'Āre'āre kania skin disease, white spots
Wayan kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; (of skin) be flaky, scaly, as patches of skin in a habitual kava drinker
Fijian kaniscales and roughness of the skin caused by excessive drinking of yaqona (kava); also the dregs of yaqona in the cup or bowl

Note:   Pawley and Sayaba (2003) associate Wayan kani-kani with the unreduplicated base kani ‘eat, consume food’, and a similar idea appears in Vitu hani-hani ‘eat; get infected’, where the extension of the basic sense of ‘eat’ is quite transparent. However, reflexes in other languages, as Motu, Nggela or 'Āre'āre suggest that *kani-kani may have been a distinct form that overlapped phonetically with the reduplicated form of *kani ‘eat’, and was semantically close enough that speakers in several language traditions drew a connection between cutaneous scruffiness and an infection that was ‘eating’ the skin.

30669

*kanisu to spit at (as an insult?)

8206

PEMP     *kanisu to spit at (as an insult?)     [doublet: *kanus, *qanus]

SHWNG
Wandamen kanisusaliva
Marau nisuto spit
Serui-Laut kunuisaliva
Kurudu kenisasaliva
OC
Pak kanuhsaliva; to spit
Seimat kan i anuhu-saliva
Mussau kanusuto spit
Kairiru qVnsspit out at
Motu kanudito spit; spittle
  kanudi-ato spit on
Samasodu ki-knisuto spit

Note:   Also Tanga kamus, Wogeo kusu ‘to spit’, Takia lusu ‘saliva’, ulusu ‘to spit’, Mbula kauzi ‘spittle, saliva (white or red)’, Tubetube kaiso ‘to spit out, as betel nut or bad food’, Gapapaiwa kanu, Mono-Alu amisu, Selau kimsə, Mbareke kamisu ‘to spit’. The Kairiru form is said to have a first-syllable vowel that varies with the vowel of the proclitic subject pronoun. This comparison is frustrating in that most forms are irregular in some way. However, its doublet POc *qanusi appears to be more amenable to systematic treatment, and between the two forms it seems far more likely that we are dealing with a set of historically related forms rather than a collection of similarities produced by chance.

32013

*kanoŋ flesh, meat, coconut flesh

10240

POC     *kanoŋ flesh, meat, coconut flesh

OC
Lukep (Pono) kano-fruit (of, e.g.., breadfruit), inner substance
Mutu anoŋ-aseed, fruit
Arosi ʔanobulb, tuber, part of a tree below the ground
Tongan kanoflesh or substance (generally used instead of kakano in genitive constructions and compounds)
  ka-kanoflesh; lean (as opposed to fat); muscle
Samoan ʔa-ʔano[gloss]
Rennellese kano[gloss]
  ʔanokind, nature, character, type, likeness, resemblance, image, color, moral quality, meaning

10241

POC     *kanoŋ qi mata eyeball

OC
Numbami mat-anoeyeball
Wedau mata ano-naeyeball
Tongan kano ʔi mataeyeball

Note:   Osmond and Ross (2016:121) argue that the word for ‘eyeball’ is a compound formed from *kanoŋ ‘flesh, meat’, a genitive marker, and the word ‘eye’. As further support for their analysis they cite a number of compounds of similar semantic composition that use unrelated morphemes meaning ‘sprout’, ‘seed’, ‘fruit’, ‘egg’ and the like.

26649

*kantuk nod the head in drowsiness

3107

PWMP     *kantuk nod the head in drowsiness     [disjunct: *qantuk]

WMP
Tboli kotuknod (the head)
Ngaju Dayak kantoksleep; exhaustion
Bahasa Indonesia kantuksleepiness

31753

*kanúmay kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp.

9922

PPh     *kanúmay kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp.

WMP
Ilokano kanúmaya tree: Diospyros multiflora
Isneg kanúmaya kind of ebony; its timber is used in the manufacture of pestles, shafts of spears and helves of axes and hatchets; its crushed fruits are used for poisonng fish
Hanunóo kanúmaya tree, possibly Diospyros maritima Blm.; the fruits are pounded and pulverized for use as a stupefier or poison for eels and shrimp
Sangir kanumea tree belonging to the Anacardiaceae with black outer bark and yellow inner bast; the base is poisonous and so is not used in burning lime: Semecarpus heterophylla

26650

*kanuqus squid, cuttlefish

3108

PWMP     *kanuqus squid, cuttlefish     [doublet: *aRud 'scrape, shave (as rattan)']

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kanóssquid, cuttlefish, Sepia sp.
Bikol kanóʔossquid
Maranao kanoʔossquid
Tiruray kenuwessquid
  kenuwes-ona place where squids may be found, hence used to mean very far out to sea, over very deep water
Mapun kanuussquid
Yakan kenuʔuslarge variety of squid
Tausug kanuusa large squid
Balinese kenuscuttlefish, ink-fish

Note:   Also Mongondow kandut ‘kind of cephalopod found in estuaries’, Totoli kanduus ‘squid’, Sasak kenaus ‘octopus, squid’. For further discussion, cf. Blust (1978:147).

30191

*kanus spittle; to spit (intr.)

7014

PEMP     *kanus spittle; to spit (intr.)     [doublet: *kanisu, *qanus₂]

OC
Mussau kanusuto spit
Gapapaiwa kanuto spit

7015

PEMP     *kanus-i to spit (trans.)

SHWNG
Wandamen kanisu <Msaliva
Serui-Laut kunui <Asaliva
OC
Pak kanuhsaliva
Motu kanudito spit; spittle
  kanudi-ato spit on

Note:   Also Mbula kauzi ‘spit, spittle (white or red)’. This comparison, the essential core of which was first noted by Milke (1968), is problematic in several ways. First, the data leaves no real choice except to reconstruct doublets *kanus and *qanus. The first of these is attested only in Oceanic languages, yet an apparent suffixed form *kanus-i can be assigned to Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, forcing the conclusion that *kanus was also present in Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, even though direct evidence for this is absent. Second, a parallel problem arises with *qanus, where reflexes of the simple base are known only in Polynesian languages, but reflexes of the suffixed form have a wider distribution, implying that both *qanus and *qanus-i were found in POc, even though no direct evidence is known for the former.

26643

*kaNasay a fish: the mullet

3101

PAN     *kaNasay a fish: the mullet

Formosan
Amis keɫatsaygray mullet
WMP
Yami aknasay <Mkind of fish: mullet
Ivatan aknasaya fish: mullet
Mentawai kanashaikind of fish
Palauan kəlátkind of fish
CMP
Fordata anahakind of fish
Proto-Aru *kanasaa fish: the mullet
OC
Lou kanaskind of fish
Loniu kanaskind of fish
Ahus kanasmullet
Fijian kanacekind of fish
Tongan kanahemullet

31869

*kañu-kañu to shake, as a house in an earthquake

10076

POC     *kañu-kañu to shake, as a house in an earthquake

OC
Roviana kanu-kanuto shake, as water in a vessel or bottle
Bugotu kañuto shake, of earthquake; to shake off
Nggela kanu-kanuto shake, as a bottle
  kanu-lito shake and make rattle
Arosi ʔonu-ʔonuto shake, as tree in wind, house in earthquake
  ʔonu-hito shake (something)

Note:   Also Bugotu añu ‘to shake, of earthquake’. Although this comparison contains languages that are generally assumed to belong to different primary branches of the Oceanic group (Ross 1988), they all are found within the Solomon islands archipelago, and the possibility that this is a loan distribution therefore cannot be completely ruled out.

30414

*kañul to shake, as the earth in an earthquake

7547

POC     *kañul to shake, as the earth in an earthquake

OC
Manam kanul-akito shake
Bugotu kañuto shake, of earthquake; to shake off
Vaturanga ka-kanuto shake

26693

*kaŋ animal sound

3153

PMP     *kaŋ animal sound     [doublet: *kaŋkaŋ 'resounding sound']

WMP
Isneg kāŋ (length unexplained)onom. for the chirping of aŋká insects (green insect that resembles, but is larger than the locust)
Kankanaey kaŋclang, clank, clink
Maranao kaŋowl (but see note to kekuŋ 'owl')
Iban kaŋkind of frog
Sangir manu kaŋseagull
Bare'e kaalong protracted sound of calling, singing or weeping
Tae' kaŋbark of a dog
CMP
Manggarai kaŋmake a sound
  ŋ-kaŋto bark, of a dog
Rembong kaŋsound of a dog in pain
Sika kaŋa crow
OC
Motu kato bang (of a moving thing)
Sa'a kaabang, bash, fall with a bang

26688

*kaŋa be open, as the mouth

3148

PMP     *kaŋa be open, as the mouth

WMP
Tboli kaŋatoothless; gaps, as when several teeth are missing
Ngaju Dayak kaŋabe open (mouth, shellfish)
CMP
Manggarai kaŋabe open (mouth)
OC
Nggela kaŋadrink by pouring down the throat (usual Melanesian method)

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.

31773

*kaŋaRi tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune

9943

POC     *kaŋaRi tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune     [doublet: *kanari]

OC
Titan aŋeialmond
Patpatar ŋarcanarium almond: Canarium indicum
Kove aŋahicanarium almond
Manam kaŋaricanarium almond
Gedaged kaŋazthe various species of the genus Canarium; also the mature seed, which is edible
Takia aŋarcanarium almond
Nggela ŋalicanarium almond
Mota ŋaicanarium almond
Sakao aŋaCanarium almond
Raga aŋainative almond; kidney
Nakanamanga na-ŋaicanarium almond
Sye n/aŋaiCanarium sp.
Anejom na-ŋaicanarium almond

Note:   This comparison was proposed in a fuller form by Ross (2008:315-316).

26689

*kaŋeqa fissured, slightly cracked

3149

PMP     *kaŋeqa fissured, slightly cracked

WMP
Cebuano kaŋʔaslightly open, having come off, having a long crack
Beta kaŋaopen
CMP
Manggarai kaŋaopen, of the mouth

31104

*kaŋkaŋ₁ spread the legs wide

9078

PWMP     *kaŋkaŋ₁ spread the legs wide

WMP
Bikol mag-kaŋkáŋto walk with the legs spread apart; to walk with the arms out, as if something is tucked under the armpits
Aklanon káŋkaŋto stretch or spread out one’s feet
Cebuano kaŋkáŋfor two or more things which are joined at the base to spread apart (as leaves of a book, legs wide open)
Malay kaŋkaŋstraddling wide
  buroŋ kaŋkaŋ katupa long-legged, wide-striding waterbird
  mə-ŋaŋkaŋto walk with the legs wide apart, or with long strides
  tər-kaŋkaŋwith legs flung wide apart --- of dead bodies on a battlefield; of a door, to be ajar at a wide angle
Karo Batak kaŋkaŋto walk or sit with legs wide apart
Toba Batak par-h<al>aŋkaŋ-anspace between the upper thighs, the crotch
Javanese kaŋkaŋto sit with the legs spread apart; a certain large crab (from the way it holds its pincers wide apart?)
Pendau ter-kaŋkaŋspreading open the legs or feet

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

31105

*kaŋkaŋ₂ resounding sound

9079

PAN     *kaŋkaŋ₂ resounding sound

Formosan
Puyuma kaŋkaŋnoisy
WMP
Kankanaey kaŋkáŋto ring; to cause to sound; to clank; to clang; striking a sonorous body
Ifugaw (Batad) kaŋkáŋthe whine of a dog in fear; to whine in fear (of a dog)
Tagalog kaŋkáŋprolonged yelping of dogs, crying of babies or loud gossiping of people
Ngaju Dayak kaŋkaŋrepeated barking of a young dog
OC
Gedaged kaŋkaŋthe sound made by a ripe coconut (timber) when it is snapped with the finger
Gitua kaŋkaŋkind of sound

Note:   With (onomatopoetic) root *-kaŋ₂ ‘bark, croak’. Some of these forms may be products of convergence.

31106

*kaŋkaŋ₃ cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis

9080

PMP     *kaŋkaŋ₃ cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis

WMP
Isneg kaŋkáŋkind of cramp that affects the whole body, but more especially the fingers and toes, and ends in death; a spirit who causes the kaŋkáŋ cramp
Kayan kakaŋstiffened (as the arms); rigid; in convulsions; cramps
Iban te-kaŋkaŋstiff with cold, wet and chilled, terror-struck (as of someone paralyzed with fear of thunder); stiff (as the corpse of a dog)
Bare'e kaŋkaŋ-istiff, rigid; stiffened
Muna kaŋkastiff (as one’s arms)
CMP
Manggarai kaŋgaŋstiff (of a corpse); dead; dessicated (of the body, wood); stiff, of clothes that have been ironed

Note:   Also Malay (Kedah) cekaŋ ‘taut, astretch’, Manggarai keŋgaŋ ‘stiff (of a corpse)’. The voiced onset of the second syllable of Manggarai kaŋgaŋ is unexplained. With root *-kaŋ₃ ‘stiff, rigid; cramps’.

31638

*kaŋkaŋ₄ kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk

9792

PWMP     *kaŋkaŋ₄ kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk

WMP
Itbayaten kaŋkaŋbird (general term)
Ibatan kaŋkaŋeagle
Sasak kaŋkaŋkind of sparrow-hawk

31969

*kao heron, probably Egretta sp.

10193

POC     *kao heron, probably Egretta sp.     [doublet: *kaopa]

OC
Yapese k’aaw ~ k’owheron
Sursurunga kautaxon including Zebra heron and Nankeen night heron
Mengen (Poeng) gaoreef heron
Takuu kaosmall thin wading bird resembling a heron
'Āre'āre aothe black heron
  ao ekethe white heron, egret

Note:   A longer version of this comparison which contains a number of phonologically irregular forms was first proposed by Clark (2011:289)

31811

*kapak beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping

10001

PMP     *kapak beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kapakbeating, flapping of wings
Toba Batak hapak-hapaka clapper of bamboo used as a scarecrow
Sasak kapakbeat the wings
Mori moŋ-kapa-kapato flap the wings
  mo-kapa-kapaflap the wings
CMP
Asilulu kapaksound of two slaps (or more)

10002

POC     *kabak beat, flap the wings

OC
'Āre'āre apawing
  apa-ato flap the wings
Samoan ʔapa(of bird’s wing, turtle flipper, etc.) to beat, lash
Nukuoro gabato flap (as wings)
Rarotongan kapato flap, to flutter, as the wings of a bird; to palpitate, to move, as wings

10109

POC     *kaba-kabak flap the wings repeatedly

OC
Sa'a apa-apawing; shoulder
Tongan kapa-kapaside fin; to flap the wings
Niue kapa-kapato flutter, to flap the wings (as a bird)
Samoan ʔapa-ʔapafin; wing of an aircraft
Rennellese kapa-kapaflippers, as of turtle, stingray, whale; base of fish fins
Anuta kapa-kapato flap wings
Rarotongan kapa-kapato flap repeatedly, to flutter repeatedly, as the wings of birds
Maori ka-kapato palpitate; to flutter, quiver
  kapa-kapawing

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

31922

*kapal thick, as a plank

10137

PWMP     *kapal thick, as a plank

WMP
Pangasinan kapálthickness; become thick
Kapampangan kepalthickness
  pa-kapal-anmake something thick
Tagalog kapálthickness; thick, the thickest part; legion, a great many; wealth, riches
Kadazan Dusun kapathick (of flat things)
Bisaya (Limbang) kapalthick
Kelabit kapalthick
Sa'ban apalthick
Berawan (Long Terawan) kapanthick
Narum hapalthick
Sebop kapanthick
Kenyah (Long Anap) kapanthick
Penan (Long Labid) kapanthick
Murik kapanthick
Kayan (Uma Juman) kapalthick, of planks, etc.; having thick flesh around the seeds, of fruit
Kiput kapanthick
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan) kapanthick
Siang kapanthick
Katingan ba-kapalthick
Karo Batak kapalthick, of planks, etc.
  kapal-kapalan oily plant with thick, leathery leaves
Toba Batak hapalthick, of things
  mar-hapal taŋana callused hand
Old Javanese kapa-kapal-əncallused, to develop calluses?
Javanese kapalcallus; callused skin

10138

PWMP     *ma-kapal thick, as a plank

WMP
Pangasinan ma-kapálthick
Kapampangan ma-kapálthick, wide
Bintulu mə-kapanthick
Ma'anyan ma-kapanthick

31923

*kapaq-kapaq to grope, fumble about

10139

PPh     *kapaq-kapaq to grope, fumble about

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kapa-kapáto grope about (unable to see); to feel about (in the dark)
Tagalog kapáʔgroping
  ma-ŋapáʔto grope around
  pa-ŋa-ŋapáʔact of fishing by groping with the bare hands
  k<um>apáʔto search; to explore thoroughly in order to find something concealed
Bikol mag-kapáʔ-kápaʔto flounder; to move clumsily and without proper balance
  kapáʔ-kapáʔ-onto fumble, to muff

31831

*kapas kapas a marine fish, probably the silver bream

10027

PWMP     *kapas kapas a marine fish, probably the silver bream

WMP
Ilokano kapas kapaskind of fish with bony meat
Malay kapas kapasa fish, silver bream: Gerres sp.

31657

*kápaw come to the surface

9813

PPh     *kápaw come to the surface

WMP
Bontok kápəwto find something in water, as to fish out lumps of meat from broth
Kankanaey kápewdrawing out of the water?
  kapéw-ento draw out of the water
Cebuano kápawcome to the surface (as a shark fin breaking the surface of the water); rise up into something; for an emotion to show

31774

*kapay flutter the wings

9944

PMP     *kapay flutter the wings

WMP
Pangasinan kapáymake a stroke in swimming
Tagalog k<al>apáyfin of a fish
Bikol k<al>ápayto row without making a sound
Aklanon kápaypropeller (on ship); to propel, paddle (boat)
Cebuano kapáypectoral fins on a fish; anything analogous that propels: wing, flipper; to swim, fly with flapping motions
  kapay-kápayflap something repeatedly
Maranao kapaybeckon with hand or fingers
Binukid kapayto beckon, summon by a wave of the hand
  kapay-kapayto wave something back and forth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kapeyto beckon for someone to come
Mansaka kapayto signal to by waving hand; to move hands back and forth
Tausug kapaya propeller (of a boat or ship)
  kapay-anto provide a propeller (for a boat or ship)
Malay kapayfumbling with the hands, whether fondling, the movements of a drowning man, or the arm movements of a baby lying on its back; flutter, fluttering (of bird, butterfly; Echols and Shadily 1963)

9945

POC     *kape₁ flutter the wings

OC
Arosi kapeto flutter the wings

Note:   Also Arosi kapi ‘to flutter, flap wings’.

31970

*kape₂ crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae)

10194

POC     *kape₂ crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae)

OC
Sengseng kahecrab
Mengen (Poeng) kapecrab
Nggela gavea species of mottled crab on the reef
Toqabaqita ʔafecrab sp., the Flat crab: Percnon planissimum (?)
Mota gaveseveral species of crab
Raga gavegeneric for marine and land crabs
Rotuman ʔæhekind of reef crab, reddish with very flat back

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:175).

26691

*ka(m)pet plugged, stopped, blocked

3151

PMP     *ka(m)pet plugged, stopped, blocked

WMP
Palauan kauddam; end of menstruation
OC
Arosi ʔapojam tight, be fixed firm, as cork in bottle, arm in cleft
  ʔapoh-iclose tight, block up

Note:   With root *-pet ‘plugged or stopped up’.

30436

*kapet hold onto, cling to

7585

PPh     *kapet hold onto, cling to

WMP
Ilokano kapetto hold, cling to, stick, adhere
  kapt-anto attach something to
  ka-kapt-ana rail of stairs
Tagalog kápithold, grasp; hand-hold
  k<um>ápitto hold on; to cling to
  kapit-ánholder; handle; railing
Bikol mag-kápotto be stuck together; to be tightly wound around one another
Masbatenyo mag-kapótcontrol, take charge
  maka-kapótable to hang onto something
Waray-Waray kapótthe act of holding; to hold; handle; grasp; grip
Hiligaynon mag-kapútto hold onto, to grasp, to clutch
Cebuano káput ~ k<ul>áputtwine around something (as a squash plant that is entwining a papaya tree; cling to something (as a monkey clinging to a branch)
Maranao kapethold; handle; keep; leech
  kapet-aʔhand rail
Proto-Minahasan *kampetgrip, clutch for support (e.g. railing)

7586

PPh     *kapet-en cling to

WMP
Ilokano kapt-ento cling to; to transfer; infect (disease)
Maranao kapet-enleech-infested

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat kápit ‘to hold, to grasp, to hook onto, to join on (as in tying one’s boat to another, or as in nailing a board to something; to influence; to adhere to; to take root’ (< Tagalog?). The close similarity of this form to PMP *kaput ‘tie or clasp together; to button’ sometimes makes it difficult to be sure whether a phonologically ambiguous form should be assigned to one reconstruction or the other. This applies mainly to Central Philippine languages, all of which appear to reflect *kapet rather than *kaput (note the stress contrast in Bikol mag-kapót ‘to hold in the hand’ < *kaput ‘tie or clasp together; to button’, next to mag-kápot ‘to be stuck together; to be tightly wound around one another’.

31616

*kapika the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense

9762

POC     *kapika the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense     [doublet: *kapiku]

OC
Lou keiklarge variety of Malay apple: Syzygium gomata
Seimat ahilong type of Malay apple, red on the outside and white inside
Tami kapigrose apple, Syzygium malaccense
Nggela gavigathe Malay apple
Mota gavigathe Malay apple, Eugenia malaccensis
Wayan kavikatree taxon: Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Malay apple; stout tree common in garden areas, large drooping rounded leaves, red bushy flowers on clusters on branchlets and trunk, fist-sized white to red fruit with crisp insipid flesh; fruit of this tree
Fijian kavikatree and fruit of the Malay apple, Syzygium malaccense, Myrtaceae (red and white varieties)
Tongan fekika <Mthe Malay apple: Eugenia malaccensis, Myrtaceae; its bark is used medicinally
Niue kafikaa tree: Eugenia inophylloides; also a name given to the stocks (an introduced method of punishment abandoned many years ago), because made of kafika timber
Rarotongan kaɁikathe Malay apple: Eugenia malaccensis, an indigenous fruit tree which bears a beautiful purplish colored fruit, when fully ripe, which is very juicy and pleasant to eat

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968); much fuller documentation is given in Ross (2008).

31617

*kapiku the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense

9763

POC     *kapiku the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense     [doublet: *kapika]

OC
Lou kahewlong white Malay apple
Drehet kehipround, red Malay apple
Sori apʷiwkind of Malay apple that is round and white
Lindrou kahewkind of Malay apple with fruit shaped like a sheep bell
Mussau kaviuthe Malay apple, Syzygium samarangense

31971

*kapin extra, surplus, in addition to

10195

PWMP     *kapin extra, surplus, in addition to

WMP
Aklanon kapínmore so, all the more, especially
Hiligaynon kapínmore than, moreover, in addition
Cebuano kapínbe in excess or extra; profit
Tausug kapínremainder, balance, leavings, remnant, ruins, leftovers (as food or clothes)
Makasarese kampiŋextra work, second job, to "moonlight"

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. This comparison was first proposed by Mills (1981:67).

26651

*kapis kind of shell

3109

PWMP     *kapis kind of shell

WMP
Tagalog kapísshells obtained from certain mollusks (Placuna placenta) used for small window panes
Bikol kápistranslucent shell from a species of oyster used in the making of shutter-like windows
Hanunóo kapísspecies of clam averaging the size of one's hand
Malay kapisscallop-shell, Pecten sp.

26652

*kapit fasten together by sewing or tying

8920

PAN     *kapit fasten together by sewing or tying

Formosan
Kavalan kapitsew together accidentally, as the two legs of one’s pants
Pazeh ka-kapita button
  mu-kapitto button

3110

PMP     *kapit pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house

WMP
Ilokano kapit-ento fold; to stack up
Kapampangan kápittogether; type of banana that grows with the fruit bunched together
  kapít-anbe close to someone, especially to one in power
Tagalog kápithold; grasp; hand-hold
  ma-ŋápitto hug; to cling firmly or fondly to
  pa-kapít-into get someone to hold onto someone else or to something
  k<um>ápitto hold on, cling to; to hand on, hold tight
  kapit-ánholder; handle; handlebar; railing
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) kafitsticking on (especially on a wall)
  kafit-kafitsomeone holding onto another
Malay (Trengganu) kapitfasten with slats, as woven grass matting to a frame
Toba Batak maŋ-hapitpinch, press, squeeze
  tar-hapitpressed tightly
  hapit-hapitsnap trap for mice and birds; warp beam (in weaving)
CMP
Buruese kapi-hpinch, squeeze, clamp; bind in a clamping manner (as thatch)
OC
Seimat api-tito pinch
Motu kahifix sticks to keep thatch or walls down; tighten by a wedge
Nggela kapinarrow, enclosed; to hold something tight, between arm and side; to clench; to catch in a trap
Arosi ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splints
Tongan kapi-kapito drive a wedge into; loincloth with flowers, etc. stuck into it for ornamentation; wedge
Niue kapit-ito pick up something with tongs
Rennellese kapit-iato be caught, stuck, enmeshed, as a snake in a tight place; to be pressed close, as in a crowd

Note:   The same as Dempwolff's (1934-38) *ka(m)pit ‘fasten together’, but note the more specific gloss suggested for the PMP form by this comparison. With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

26653

*kapkap feel in the dark, grope

3111

PAN     *kapkap feel in the dark, grope

Formosan
Kavalan k<m>apkapto touch at random (as a cat’s belly, a woman’s breast); to grope for something in a bag, pocket
Amis kapkapreach out and feel with the hands for something you cannot see, grope
WMP
Ilokano ag-kapkápto grope in the dark
  kapkap-ánto frisk
Casiguran Dumagat kapkápto grope with the hands (as in the dark, or for snails in a muddy river)
Ibaloy kapkapto grope, feel for something with the hands without light and without seeing (as in a dark room, in one’s pockets for money, in walking along in the dark; this word has decided sexual connotations without proper context, since the word is used of intimate caressing; method of fishing and gathering shrimp and crabs , i.e. use of the bare hands
  man-kapkapto grope for words
Pangasinan kapkápto feel, touch with the palm of the hand
Tagalog kapkápfeeling or frisking (the pockets)
Bikol kapkápgrope for in the dark, feel for in the dark, fumble
Cebuano kapkápgrope for something; search a body for something; struggle to obtain something; sneak into a house with the intention of having intercourse with a girl
Tausug ma-ŋapkapgrope for a woman in the dark (for illicit sexual intercourse)
Kenyah ŋagapgrope in the dark
Penan (Long Labid) lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking
Kayan kakapgroping about, feeling about with the hands
Kiput kakaapto grope, feel blindly
Malay gagapgroping, feeling one's way
Tae' kakaʔto touch, feel, finger; also to have sexual relations with a woman

Note:   Also Toba Batak man-dadap ‘to grop (as a blind person feeling his way by touch)’. With root *-kap ‘feel, grope’.

31924

*kapuk kapok; silk-cotton tree

10140

PWMP     *kapuk kapok; silk-cotton tree

WMP
Itbayaten kapoka tree
Tagalog kápokkapok; the silky fibers from the seeds of the cotton tree used to fill pillows, mattresses, etc. (said to be from English)
Maranao kapokkapok tree: Ceiba pentandra L.
Mansaka kapokcotton tree (said to be from Tagalog)
Tiruray kafuka silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaerlin
Mapun kapuka cotton tree; cotton from the cotton tree
Tausug kapukCeiba pentandra Tree cotton, kapok
Ngaju Dayak kapoktree cotton, the coarser sort used to stuff pillows, etc., the finer sort which is used in spinning: kapas
Iban kapoksilk cotton or kapok tree, Bombax sp., Ceiba pentandra
Malay kapoktree-cotton
  pohon kapokcotton tree: Eriodendron anfractuosum
Old Javanese kapukkapok
  a-ŋapuklike kapok
Javanese kapukkapok
Balinese kapukthe fibers of the seeds of the kutuh, called by us ‘kapok’
  kapuk-inbe stuffed with kapok
Sasak kapukkapok

Note:   The status of this reconstruction is open to question. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kapuk ‘fibrous plant material, kapok’. However, most varieties of the silk-cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) are said to be native to Mexico, Central America, northern South America, and parts of west Africa, rendering this reconstruction unlikely. Other sources state that the red silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba) is indigenous to insular Southeast Asia, and since no source language has been identified for this morpheme it is assumed tentatively to be a native form. This is supported by Verheijen (1984:48), who states that “The kapok tree is an old cultigen, native of tropical Asia.”

30030

*kapuru soot

6726

POC     *kapuru soot

OC
Roviana kavurudust
Nggela ko-kovuruvery black, as from smoke; soot, as on a tin or saucepan
  kou-kovuruembers
Fijian kavurucrumbled, pounded, powdered; of a yam, very soft, because well-cooked

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance, as --- despite including it as a dictionary entry ---Capell (1968) gives Fijian kavuru as the passive of vuru-ka ‘to crush, crumble in the hands, pulverize’.

31847

*kapuR lime, calcium carbonate

10045

PMP     *kapuR lime, calcium carbonate     [disjunct: *qapuR]

WMP
Iban kapurlime (burned shell or soft limestone), whitewash
Malay kapurcamphor; chalk; lime; lime eaten with sireh-leaf
OC
Nauna kəhlime for betel chew
Lou koplime for betel chew
Penchal kɨplime for betel chew
Lenkau koplime for betel chew
Takia kaulime for betel chew
Mbula koulime powder made by heating up pieces of coral; it is chewed together with betel nut and betel pepper fruits or leaves

Note:   All of the Oceanic forms cited here appear to be ambiguous for *qapuR or *kapuR.

26654

*kaput tie or clasp together; to button

3113

PMP     *kaput₁ tie or clasp together; to button

WMP
Ifugaw káputstring, rope, liana, thong to tie, fasten, bind one thing to another in order to keep either of the two or both in their right place. Thus the two posts of a ladder are said to be nikáput, if liana thongs running from one post to another under each of the rungs, prevent dislocation
Pangasinan kapótto close
Bikol mag-kapótto hold in the hand
Kayan kaputa tie; to tie up, to bind on
Sundanese kaputsewing
  tukaŋ ŋaputtailor; seamstress
  pa-ŋaput-ansewing basket
Balinese kaputfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes
Makasarese kapuʔfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes
CMP
Rembong (Wue) kaputto tie
OC
Motu ahuclosed (used in composition with verbs)

7582

PWMP     *ma-ŋaput to clasp, tie together

WMP
Bikol ma-ŋapótto clasp, clutch, grasp, grip, cling to, latch onto, get ahold of
Sundanese ŋaputto sew
Balinese ŋaputwind round, wrap round
Uma meŋ-kapuʔtie securely

7583

PWMP     *kaput-an a clasp or button, fastening or closing device

WMP
Masbatenyo kaput-ánhold onto something firmly
Ngaju Dayak kaput-anclasp or button with which one fastens a necklace, belt, etc.
Sundanese kaput-anseam, suture
Balinese kaput-ansomething wrapped up; parcel, package

Note:   Mills (1981:73) proposes PAn *kaput ‘to close, cover’, but cites no Philippine cognates, and appears to confound at least two distinct cognate sets.

31925

*kapút to touch or hold

10141

PPh     *kapút to touch or hold

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kapótto touch, to feel, to handle with both hands (as in putting one’s hand on a person’s forehead to feel his fever)
Bikol mag-kapótto hold in the hand
  ka-kapt-ánhandle

31660

*kápuy weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform

9816

PPh     *kápuy weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform

WMP
Ilokano kápuyweakness
  na-kápuyweak, fragile, slow
  k<um>ápuyto become weak
Isneg a-ŋápuya common creeping herb used in black magic to make or keep a person weak
  na-kápuyweak, feeble, frail
Itawis káfiweakness
  na-káfiweak
Ifugaw kápuyweakness, debility (applied to persons)
  k<um>ápuyto become weak
Casiguran Dumagat kapúyto be weak, to be exhausted (due to extreme hunger); to be famished
Ibaloy e-kapoyweak, unable to do a certain job (as bulldozer to remove a boulder, man to do work, medicine to relieve pain)
  k<im>apoybecame weak
Pangasinan kápoyweakness, debility
Bikol maka-kápoyto be wearying, tiring
Masbatenyo kápoytired
  pa-ŋápoytiredness, weariness, fatigue
  kapúy-onbecome tired, become worn out, become wearied, become exhausted, become fatigued
Agutaynen kapoy-onto be overcome, as by sleep or tiredness; become out of breath when doing something
Hiligaynon kápuytiredness, exhaustion
  kapúy-unto be tired, to be exhausted
Cebuano kápuytired, weary, exhausted through exertion; something that is too much trouble, one who is too lazy to do
Mansaka kapoyto fail to do (as in failing to meet a commitment)

9817

PPh     *ma-kápuy weak, feeble, unable to perform

WMP
Pangasinan ma-kápoyweak, ineffectual, inferior, in poor condition
Bikol ma-kápoyto feel weak, weary, tired

30047

*kapwa belly

6747

POC     *kapwa belly

OC
Gitua apwa-belly; pregnant
Sa'a apwa-belly

Note:   Also Sa'a opwa- ‘belly, bowels, stomach’. It is unclear how this form differed in meaning from POc *tian ‘belly’.

26655

*kaq(e)pi brace, splint

3114

PMP     *kaq(e)pi brace, splint     [disjunct: *kapit]

WMP
Chamorro haʔfebrace, put on splint
OC
Arosi ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splint

31668

*kaqiŋ kind of large openwork basket

9825

PPh     *kaqiŋ kind of large openwork basket

WMP
Ilokano káiŋlarge open-worked basket
  i-káiŋto place in the káiŋ basket
Tagalog kaíŋbasket of woven bamboo with wide mouth and two opposite handles, generally used for fruit
Bikol kaʔíŋbushel basket, made of woven bamboo and having a large mouth with handles located on either side
Cebuano kaíŋlarge, cylindrical, rattan basket loosely woven in a hexagonal design, 3’ tall by 2’ across; make into a kaiŋ

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

31608

*kaqis scratch up the ground, as chickens

9751

PWMP     *kaqis scratch up the ground, as chickens

WMP
Bontok káisto scrape off the rough outer surface of bamboo
Kankanaey káisto clean; to remove, to clear away dirt from (a ditch, etc.)
Malay kaisto draw the claws towards the body, esp. of the ways fowls scratch up their food; also of a crow scratching up sesame seed, and of fights with claws
Toba Batak maŋ-haisscratch up the ground, of fowls; to scratch, of dogs
Proto-Minahasan *kaɁisscrape off, scratch away; make streaks
Mongondow kaɁitsweep with a sago palm leaf; scratch up the ground, of fowls

9752

PWMP     *kais-an to scratch up the ground, as chickens

WMP
Kankanaey kaís-anto clean; to remove, to clear away dirt from (a ditch, etc.)
Malay kais-an ayamdescriptive of the way fowls scratch up their food

31812

*kaqit to hold or pull with a hook

10003

PMP     *kaqit to hold or pull with a hook

WMP
Romblomanon kahita fish-trap hook
Iban kaithook
Malay kaitto hook on to; crook-shaped; crook; of putting bait on a hook; a man caught on thorns in the jungle; a lamb in a tiger’s talons; the little finger bent hook-wise
Mongondow kaitto knit; to hook
OC
Tolai kaitto catch, as one’s self or clothes on a thorn or hook; to prick; barb, thorn
  kait-eto catch, as thorns in clothes, etc.

Note:   Also Tetun kaɁit ‘to hold or pull with a hook’. Apparently distinct from *kawit ‘hook’.

31973

*karagwam seaweed, seagrass

10197

POC     *karagwam seaweed, seagrass

OC
Patpatar karaguoseaweed
Motu alagaseaweed-like grass, Fucus sp.
Molima kalagomaa seaweed
Lau ʔalagaseaweed
Toqabaqita ʔalagaspecies of seaweed
Arosi ʔaragaa seaweed; it appears when the yams are planted and grows with them, coming to maturity when they do

Note:   Also Tawala yalegwama ‘seaweed type, brown’. A somewhat longer version of this comparison with several phonologically non-corresponding forms was proposed by Ross (2008d:131), who noted that the reconstruction of POc *gw is problematic.

32014

*karak₁ strong southeast trade wind

10242

POC     *karak₁ strong southeast trade wind

OC
Lukep (Pono) karak-asoutheast trade
Takia karag-araga light southeast wind which appears as part of the initial development of the southeast trade in April
Longgu araa cool, pleasant wind from the southeast
Kwaio alasoutheast wind
Lau ārasoutheast trades, violent wind
Toqabaqita araa fairly strong wind, comes from April to September

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003:133-134).

32015

*karak₂ ringworm

10243

POC     *karak₂ ringworm

OC
Sursurunga kar-karringworm
Lakalai la-kara-kobetinea, ringworm; fish scales
Hote kalakringworm
Tami gala-galringworm
Wayan karadisease, possibly a type of ringworm, in which pale spots appear on the skin (attributed by some to bathing in dirty water)
Fijian karaa kind of ringworm, tinea circinata

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was proposed by Osmond (2016:347-348).

31658

*kara-karawa blue-green

9814

POC     *kara-karawa blue-green

OC
Seimat axaxaw-anblue
Puluwat yaŕawaŕawvarious shades of light green (as grass or the wura parrot fish) or of light blue (as European eyes or the sky)
Sonsorol-Tobi xalawalawablue
Fijian karakarawablue, green, of color
  sa karawa na sē-ni-cōevening shades after sunset

Note:   Also Lau maragwa ~ marakwa ‘light green or blue’, Arosi marawa ‘green, blue (if bright)’, ARE marawa ‘green, unripe’, POc *ta-dawa ‘green’ (Grace 1969). Although all of these forms are clearly related, a specific reconstruction is hard to pin down. The common element is *rawa, but this rarely occurs alone or in combinations that would allow it to be extracted as a morpheme. Rather the reconstruction appears to have been a reduplicated form of *karawa, but whether the reduplication was leftward, as in Fijian kara-karawa, or rightward, as in Sonsorol-Tobi xalawa-lawa, varies from one witness to the next. To further complicate matters Admiralty and Papuan Tip languages support what appears to be a doublet *karawina, since no known morphological process would allow us to derive this form from *karawa.

30045

*karamea tongue

6744

POC     *karamea tongue

OC
Lou karme-tongue
Nali kalame-tongue
Tolai karameatongue
Vaghua kalameatongue
Mota garamea-tongue

Note:   Also Tigak kalama ‘tongue’. Many languages in the Solomons and Vanuatu reflect only the last two syllables of this form, as with Roviana, Toqabaqita, Bauro mea-, Raga mea-, Maskelynes na mea-, Uripiv ne-me- ‘tongue’. It is unclear whether reflexes of the shorter form are products of historically independent shortening of *karamea, or reflect PCEMP *maya ‘tongue’.

31876

*karani near

10083

POC     *karani near     [doublet: *karaŋi]

OC
Bugotu garaninear, near to
Proto-Micronesian *karaninear, close
Gilbertese kaannear, not far from, close to (in time or space)
Pohnpeian kɛrɛnnear, close
Wailengi ŋga-ŋgaraninear

31870

*karanzaŋ rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc.

10077

PWMP     *karanzaŋ rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc.

WMP
Ngaju Dayak karanjaŋa quarangular basket woven of rattan and used to transport fruit
Malay kəranjaŋbasket, hamper or crate of coarse wickerwork, used for packing and storing provisions, carrying fish to market, etc.
Toba Batak haranjaŋwoven basket used to carry tobacco leaves
Tontemboan karajabasket with wide opening woven of rattan and used to wash coffee and transport leafy vegetables and corn
Bare'e karandaround carrying basket made of rattan
Tae' karandaŋcarrying basket made of bamboo, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, used to transport bundles of rice
  pe-karandaŋput in a carrying basket

31871

*karaŋ coral, limestone

10078

PMP     *karaŋ coral, limestone

WMP
Malagasy háranaa rock, a rocky prominence, hill or mountain; also used for shells, coral, coral reefs, etc.
Malay karaŋcoral reef, in contrast to ridge of rocks; edible shellfish picked up on reefs when the tide is out; also used descriptively of fish that haunt coral reefs
  batu karaŋcoral rock
  buŋa karaŋsponge
Toba Batak haraŋcoral; volcanic tuff; cliff; reef
  tar-haraŋrun aground on a reef
Nias karastone, coral
Old Javanese karaŋcoral, coral rock, coral reef; probably also more general: any rock (in the sea or on the sea shore)
  watu karaŋcoral, coral stone, rock
  ma-karaŋwith coral; with rocks
Javanese karaŋcoral; coral reef
Proto-South Sulawesi *karaŋcoral
Makasarese karaŋcoral
  batu karaŋcoral rock
CMP
Sika karaŋcoral, from which the people make black armbands

Note:   Some of the forms cited here may be loanwords from Malay, but this seems unlikely in every case, since many of the speakers of these languages are in contact with the sea, and would have no reason to borrow a word for a feature of the physical environment with which they are intimately familiar. This is particularly true of Sika karaŋ, since the material reportedly was used to make armbands that were part of the traditional culture.

This word is in competition with the more widely-distributed PMP *sakaRu ‘coral reef’, and it remains unclear what difference of meaning might have distinguished them. One possibility is that *sakaRu referred to the structure and *karaŋ to the material, since reflexes of *batu karaŋ ‘coral stone’ are found in several languages, but a reflex of *batu with *sakaRu is unknown. Dempwolff included Tongan fatu-kala ‘stone, a variety of makahunu (a hard black stone used in native ovens and in grinding kava)’, and Samoan Ɂalā ‘kind of heavy, smooth volcanic stone (lightly pitted)’, but there is little reason to believe that these are anything more than chance resemblances.

31877

*karaŋi near

10084

POC     *karaŋi near     [doublet: *karani]

OC
Mussau kala-kalaŋi-nanear
Nggela garaŋinear, be near
Talise garaŋinear

Note:   A somewhat longer form of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003c:200-201).

31751

*karasi to scrape off, peel off

9920

POC     *karasi to scrape off, peel off

OC
Mussau kalasito peel, as yams
'Āre'āre ʔarasi-ato scrape, polish, of wooden articles such as combs, bows; to sharpen, point a stick; grate coconuts
Arosi karasito scrape, bruise, take off skin

Note:   Also Tolai kalat ‘to peel, esp. fruit’.

31813

*karat₁ rust

10004

PWMP     *karat₁ rust

WMP
Palawan Batak karatrusty
Malay karatrust; (fig.) corruption; deterioration
  karat gigitartar (on teeth)
Karo Batak karat-karat-ento rust; rusty
Balinese karatrust (refined speech)

Note:   For a careful discussion of this and other terms related to iron cf. Blust (2013).

31974

*karat₂ a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta

10198

POC     *karat₂ a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta

OC
Tolai karastinging nettle species: Dendrocnide sessiflora, Laportea interrupta
Kove galaa stinging plant related to latoDendrocnide latifolia)
Tape nə-xārətstinging nettle
V'ënen Taut n-harətstinging nettle
Namakir karnettle tree
Nakanamanga na-karanettle tree

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Chowning (2001:83), and again by Ross (2008e:233). The reconstruction of the final consonant in this form is critically dependent on witnesses for which the historical phonology is still very poorly known.

31659

*karawina blue-green

9815

POC     *karawina blue-green     [doublet: *kara-karawa]

OC
Lou arawinblue-green
Titan karowinblue-green
Dobuan kara-karawinablue

Note:   Also Ahus aroan ‘blue-green’, Likum ñarawin ‘blue-green’, Lindrou ñarawin ‘blue’, ñorowon ‘green’.

26659

*karis to scratch, scrape

3118

PMP     *karis₁ scratch, scrape

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kahesbark of the sugarcane stalk; to shave the bark off a stalk of sugarcane with a bolo
Bikol mag-káristo shave hair with a razor or knife; to shave the head or face
Kayan karihearth or other substances disturbed by scratching (as by chickens)
  pe-karihto scratch about in earth (as chickens scratching for food)
Malay garisscratch, abrasion; of scratches on the skin; also of striking a match
Proto-Minahasan *karisstripe, streak, scratch
CMP
Manggarai karisscratch mark

10024

POC     *kari to scratch, scrape

OC
Tolai karto scratch
Kove kari-sito scrape, scratch
Nggela karito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut
  kari-karito scratch on the path, as a brush turkey
  kari-sito peel off skin or stem of a plant, or stick; to circumcize
Wayan karibe scraped, scratched with a scraper
Fijian karito scrape, chiefly of coconut

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.

26661

*karkar scratch up the earth, as a fowl

3120

PAN     *karkar scratch up the earth, as a fowl

Formosan
Amis karkardig in the soil
WMP
Tagalog kalkálscratching or scraping off with the fingernails; scraped or scratched off
Maranao karkardig into earth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) karkarto dig or remove earth with a scratching motion of the hands
Proto-Minahasan *karkarscratch, dig out (as a fowl scratching up the ground)

7697

POC     *kakar-i to scratch up the earth, as a fowl

OC
Tolai karto scratch
Nggela kakar-ito eat away land, of waves
  kar-ito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut; to scrape out white of coconut; to scale a fish
Fijian kar-ito scrape, chiefly of coconut

Note:   Also Paiwan kakar-an ‘harrow’, Kayan (Uma Juman) kar ‘to scratch up (as a chicken scratching up the ground in search of food’, Ujir kar ‘scratching up, as a chicken scratching up the soil’.

31672

*karus to scratch, scrape

9829

PWMP     *karus to scratch, scrape     [doublet: *kerus]

WMP
Ilokano kárusscraper
  i-kárusto scrape; (fig.) to insist
  karús-anto card (maguey fibers)
  karús-ento scrape, level with a strickle
Kankanaey kalús-anto scrape
Maranao karosto scratch
  mia-karosbe scratched (as by a cat)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) karusto scratch someone with the fingernails or claws
Wolio karuscratching or scraping sound
  karu-sito scratch, scrape, scratch out, rake out, scrape clean

26665

*karut₁ scrape, rasp

3124

PAN     *karut₁ scrape, rasp

Formosan
Amis karotrake the muddy fields with a buffalo; rake rubbish
Paiwan karutrake
WMP
Isneg kárutsharpen the edge of a tool by means of another blade
Ifugaw (Batad) kalutfor someone to dig or scrape something from something else with the hands, paws, or suitable instrument, as to scrape food remains from a container; for a dog to dig a hole
Cebuano kalútscratch an itch
Malay karutrasp
Proto-Minahasan *karutscrape out, scratch out
OC
Fijian kadruto scratch
  kadru-tato scratch something

31878

*karut₂ coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut

10085

POC     *karut₂ coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut

OC
Hula kaluhalf-ripened coconut
Motu karua young coconut; unformed, unripe
Petats ka-karutcoconut containing liquid before flesh appears
Longgu ʔarua coconut ready to drink and eat
Toqabaqita qaru[gloss]
'Āre'āre arua green coconut, good for drinking

Note:   Also 'Āre'āre aro ‘a green coconut, good for drinking’. A slightly longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Evans (2008:363), who also list 'Āre'āre aru ‘green drinking coconut’, although Geerts (1970) actually gives the phonologically incompatible aro ‘a green coconut, good for drinking’.

31754

*kaRa member of the parrot family

9923

PEMP     *kaRa member of the parrot family

SHWNG
Ansus karacockatoo
Ambai karacockatoo

9924

POC     *kaRa male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus

OC
Lusi karaparrot
Kove kahaparrot
Halia kala-kalaEclectus Parrot
Roviana karathe general name for parrots
Kwaio a-ʔalamale of king parrot (Larius roratus), female is ɁufoɁufo (sexual dimorphism is extreme in this species)
'Āre'āre aralarge green parrot, red under the wings
Arosi karaparrot
Wayan ka-kā(obsolescent) a bird, possibly the Collared Lory, Phygis solitarius, which informants say was present on Waya a generation ago but is no longer there
Fijian parrot
  ka-kāseveral species of parrot: Prospeia splendens
Tongan ka-kāparrot

Note:   Also Proto-Admiralty *kareŋV ‘red parrot’. The Oceanic part of this comparison was first presented in print by Clark (2011:321-322).

30494

*kaRaC to bite

7712

PAN     *kaRaC to bite

Formosan
Kavalan qaRatto bite
Amis mi-kalatto bite; to be burned, as by the sun; to have an allergic reaction
Proto-Rukai *kaʔacəto bite
Puyuma karaTto nibble, bite (insect)
Paiwan katsbite

7713

PMP     *kaRat to bite

WMP
Ifugaw kalátto bite; mostly applied to dogs, seldom to human persons, e.g. when someone bites in a fruit
Casiguran Dumagat məg-kagetto bite
Tagalog kagáta bite; sting, a prick or wound by a bee
  kagat-ánto bite a piece off something
Bikol kagáta bite
  ma-kagátto get bitten
  mag-kagátto bite
  ma-ŋagátto go around biting (as a mad dog)
Masbatenyo kagátto bite, sting, pinch (also refers to the pinch of a crab)
Aklanon kagátclaw, pincher (of crab)
Waray-Waray kagátthe act of biting
Hiligaynon mag-kagátto bite, to snap, to catch between the teeth
Cebuano kagátbite to inflict injury; grab or hold something; catch, snag so as to hold firmly
  k<um>agátready to bite at the least provocation
  kagt-ánadult freshwater shrimp with well-developed pincers
Maranao kagatitch; scratch
Binukid kagatto bite (something or someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaγatof any toothed creature, to bite
Mansaka kagatto bite, to sting
Malay ber-karatfighting with tooth and claw
Karo Batak (Kembaren) ŋ-karatto bite
  ŋ-harat-ito bite on something
Toba Batak maŋ-haratto bite
  maŋ-harat-ito bite to pieces
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kaRato bite
Muna siabite into (as in biting into a banana)
  siat-ito bite many items/many times
CMP
Rotinese kato bite, to chew with the teeth
Yamdena n-karatto bite
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) karato bite
Bobot kasatto bite
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai na-ʔaratto bite, nibble
OC
Tigak kagatto bite
Tabar arat-iato bite
Tolai karatto bite
Lakalai alato bite a thing or animal; by extension, to catch a pig, of a dog or a man hunting with dogs
Mono-Alu ʔa-ʔatato bite
Lungga γaratato bite
Roviana garatato bite
Sa'a alato bite, sting, be sharp-edged
Santa Ana γarato bite

7714

PWMP     *ma-ŋaRat to bite

WMP
Ifugaw ma-ŋalátto bite
Karo Batak ŋ-karatto bite
Toba Batak maŋ-haratto bite
Mongondow mo-ŋaratto bite, to gnaw, of mice, worms, etc.

7715

PPh     *kaRat-en to be bitten

WMP
Isneg kaxat-ánto bite
Tagalog kagat-ínto bite; to seize, cut into or cut off with the teeth
Bikol kagat-ónto bite
Hanunóo kagt-únbe bitten

7716

PAN     *kaRaC-i bite (imperative)

Formosan
Kavalan qaRat-ibite (imper.)

7717

POC     *kaRati to bite

OC
Vitu haratito bite
Gabadi arasibite
Sudest gharȉ-gharȉto bite
Mono-Alu ʔa-ʔatito bite
Roviana garat-iato bite (trans.)
Nggela galatito bite; to hold between the teeth
Talise γalat-iato bite
'Āre'āre ara-iato bite
Fijian katito bite
  kati-ato bite (trans.)
Samoan ʔatito bite; to get into, attack (said of pests, as termites attacking a tree)
Nukuoro gadibite
  gadi-gadiitch
Rarotongan katito bite; to hold or engage, as something that has been fastened to another thing and it does not slip loose; to seize or tear with the teeth
Maori katibite, nip; trap for rats; nip, squeeze
  ka-katisting, bite; eat, gnaw; be clenched, as the teeth; intense; keen, acrid, sour
Hawaiian ʔakito take a nip and let go; to nibble, as fish; to bite off the bark of sugarcane; to heal, as a wound; to scar over; sharp recurring pain, as in head or stomach

7718

PAN     *ma-kaRaC to be bitten

Formosan
Paiwan ma-katsbe(come) bitten

7719

PMP     *ma-kaRat to be bitten

WMP
Tagalog má-kagátto be bitten, to be stung

7720

PAN     *k<um>aRaC to bite

Formosan
Kavalan q<m>aRatto bite; to hold between the teeth; acrid, itchy taste of taro
Saisiyat k<om>aLasto bite
Atayal k<m>atto bite
Bunun kalatto bite (as an animal biting a person)
Tsou borcəto bite
Saaroa um-a-aracəto bite
Puyuma k<əm>araTto bite (as in a dog biting a person)
Paiwan k<m>atsto bite

7721

PMP     *k<um>aRat to bite

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) k<um>agetto bite
Isneg k<um>axātto bite
Ifugaw k<um>alátwill bite
Casiguran Dumagat k<um>agetbig enough to bite (subject must be non-human)
Tagalog k<um>agátto bite; to seize, cut into or cut off with the teeth

7722

PAN     *k<in>aRaC-an the bite of an animal

Formosan
Kavalan q<n>aRat-anthe bite (of a dog, etc.)
Atayal k<n>at-ana bite (dog, snake, etc.)

31701

*kaRadkad sound of grinding or grating

9867

PPh     *kaRadkad sound of grinding or grating

WMP
Ilokano karadákadsound of walking over gravel
Mansaka kagadkadto make a grating sound (as a cart

32016

*kaRaka to crawl

10244

POC     *kaRaka to crawl

OC
Mussau kalaato crawl
Bola karakato crawl
Takia karakto creep, crawl
Tamambo harahato crawl (of child)
Efate (North) karakawalk bent over, hands supporting body (indicates child will soon walk properly)

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2016:396-397).

26656

*kaRakap crab sp.

3115

PMP     *kaRakap crab sp.

WMP
Sangir kahakaʔcrab
Palauan kəsákoland crab
Chamorro hagahafrock crab: Crapsus tenuicrustatus Herbst
OC
Gedaged kazaga crab
Wayan ka-kakakind of land crab
Fijian (Eastern) ŋgakamangrove crab

Note:   This comparison (less the Sangir cognate) was first noted in print by Geraghty (n.d.) who, however, supplies only a POc reconstruction.

31661

*kaRaskas rustling sound

9818

PPh     *kaRaskas rustling sound

WMP
Ilokano karasákasrustling sound; shuffling sound of feet on floor; crumpling sound
  ag-karasákasto make a rustling sound
Bontok kalasákasto produce a rushing, rustling or rattling noise, as the sound of water rushing down a cliff, stones rattling down a slide, the sound made when pushing against the leaves of plants or through tall grass
  kalaskasto push one’s way through bushes, to find one’s way through brush
Cebuano kagaskásrustling sound; to rustle (as dry leaves in the wind)
Mansaka kagaskasto make a rustling sound

Note:   The occasional insertion of a vowel between the consonants of a reduplicated monosyllable, and even the stressing of that inserted vowel has parallels in other forms, as in Ilokano dapádap < PWMP *dapdap₂ ‘to grope’. Note that Bontok has both variants.

30495

*kaRaw₁ to scratch an itch

7723

PAN     *kaRaw₁ to scratch an itch

Formosan
Kavalan qaRawto scratch (with fingernails)
Pazeh ka-kaxawto scratch
WMP
Itbayaten kayawchicken flea
Isneg káxawthe itch mite
Tagalog kágawa mite or very small insect that causes itch
Bikol kágawto scratch a part of the body (as to relieve an itch)
Masbatenyo kágawgerm, microbe, bug, bacteria, virus
Waray-Waray kágawmicrobe, germ
Hiligaynon kágawgerm, microbe
Cebuano kágawgerms; be contaminated with germs
Maranao kagawgerms
Binukid kagawgerms
Mansaka kagawgerms
Tausug kagawsmall vermin found in sores, germs, microbes
Kelabit karothe act of scratching (an itch)
  ŋaroto scratch an itch
Cham (Eastern) karawscratch an itch
Sangir me-kahoto scratch an itch
Balaesang ka-kaoscratch (an itch, the body)
CMP
Bimanese kaoto scratch (as when itchy)
Komodo haoto scratch
Sika garoto scratch
Kédang karoto scratch
OC
Mussau kalo-kalo-ato scratch
Tolai karto scratch
Kove kahoto scratch
Motu γa-γaro-ato scratch
Selau karoto scratch
Kokota γaroto scratch
Lungga γaroto scratch
Arosi ʔaroto itch; to scratch
Santa Ana γa-γaroto scratch
Ngwatua karo-ato scratch
Vartavo kar-karoto scratch
Rotuman ʔaoto scratch, scrape; to scrape or rake together (ashes, rubbish, etc.); to scrape off, scrape or scratch up, etc.

7724

PAN     *k<um>aRaw to scratch an itch

Formosan
Kavalan q<m>aRawto scratch (with fingernails)
Saisiyat (Tungho) k<om>a:-kaawto scratch (with fingernails)
Pazeh mu-kaxawto scratch (oneself)

Note:   Also Thao kulhaw ‘to scratch, as an itchy place’, ka-kulhaw ‘rake or harrow used in agriculture; back-scratcher’, Ilokano kágaw ‘germ; itch mite’, Toba Batak hao ‘scratch (an itch) with one’s hand’.

31700

*kaRaw₂ chicken flea, itch mite

9866

PWMP     *kaRaw₂ chicken flea, itch mite

WMP
Itbayaten kayawchicken flea
Ilokano kágawgerm; itch mite
Bontok kagəwchicken louse
Kankanaey kágewitch mite
Tagalog kágawa mite or very small insect that causes itch; a germ or microbe
Bikol mag-kágawto scratch a part of the body (as to relieve an itch)
Maranao kagawgerms
Rungus Dusun kahawchicken lice
Minokok kaawchicken lice

Note:   Apparently distinct from PAn *kaRaw₁ ‘to scratch’. For reasons that remain unclear Ilokano, Bontok and Kankanaey all show what Conant (1911) called ‘the stereotyped g’ as a reflex of *R.

30031

*kaRem capsize, of a boat; sink

6727

PWMP     *kaRem capsize, of a boat; sink

WMP
Maranao kagemimmerse; capsize; waterlogged, as a boat that has capsized
Ida'an Begak kagomsink
Lun Dayeh karemcapsizing
Kelabit karemcapsize, of a boat
Kenyah (Long Anap) kaamcapsize, of a canoe
Kayan kahemfoundered, of a boat, capsized; collapsed, of house or structure
Kayan (Busang) kahammeet with an accident, go aground, sink; specifically: suffer a shipwreck
Kayan (Uma Juman) kahəmcollapse, as an old house or fieldhut; capsize, as a boat
Ngaju Dayak kahemsink, be demolished, be spoiled or destroyed
Iban karamawash, capsized, wrecked, foundered (strictly, karam applies to boats or anything that floats, and means full of, or covered with water so as to be unmanageable)
Malay karamto founder, be engulfed, of ships being wrecked; (fig.) of disaster generally
Acehnese karamsuffer an accident, sink, shipwreck
Gayō karamcapsize, sink; ruin, spoil; chaotic
  mu-karamcapsize, sink
Simalur karəmannihilate, destroy
Toba Batak haromcapsize, of boats, go down, sink; symbolically used for terrible misfortune
Madurese karemfounder, be engulfed, of ships
Sasak karemto sink

6728

PWMP     *ma-ŋaRem to sink something; to destroy

WMP
Lun Dayeh ŋaremcause a boat to capsize
Ngaju Dayak ma-ŋahemto sink or capsize something; to despoil; destroy, demolish
Simalur ma-ŋarəmannihilate, destroy
  ma-ŋarəm-kəndestroy something
Toba Batak maŋ-harom-honannihilate, destroy

Note:   Also Karo Batak karam ‘meet with an accident; to perish, of a ship’, Sundanese kalem ‘sink, disappear under water’, Old Javanese karem ‘submerge, sink, drown’, Javanese kèlem ~ kèrem ‘sink, become submerged, of a ship’, Balinese keleb ‘sink, go under (in water)’ ~ kelem ‘sink, go under, drown’.

31727

*kaReteŋ marine fish: sea perch

9894

PWMP     *kaReteŋ marine fish: sea perch

WMP
Ilokano kagtéŋkind of striped marine fish larger than the birút (kind of freshwater fish, Eleotris melanosoma)
Malay kərtaŋa fish, the perch: Epinephelus pantherinus

Note:   Also Bikol kugtóŋ ‘kind of large saltwater fish’.

31640

*kaRi₁ word, speech, language

9794

PAN     *kaRi₁ word, speech, language

Formosan
Saisiyat kaLiɁlanguage
Seediq (Truku) kariword, speech, language, voice
Kanakanabu kaárilanguage
Saaroa karilanguage
Paiwan kailanguage, speech, words
  ma-tja-kaito take one’s turn speaking
  ru-kai-kaito chatter, be a chatterbox
WMP
Ilokano karípromise, vow
Isneg kaxíspeech, talk, language
  pag-kag-kaxímeans of saying, of telling, of talking
  kaxi-yánto say, to tell
Itawis ma-kahíto be able to tell
  mak-kahíto say
  kay-ánto tell
Bontok kalíspeech; word; the local dialect, the language of one’s home town or village, particularly the Bontok language; the call of an animal or bird; the sound that something makes
Kankanaey ma-kalíto babble, to prattle; to jabber; to gossip
  men-kalíto speak; to talk; to emit a sound
  kali-énto call
Ifugaw kalíspeech, language, word; to speak, to say, tell something
  pa-ŋalí-nait is his way of speaking
Casiguran Dumagat kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak; to decide; to think
  kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak, to decide, to think
Binukid kagiword; speech
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaǥito say; to speak; to talk

31975

*kaRi₂ bivalve species used as a scraper

10199

POC     *kaRi₂ bivalve species used as a scraper

OC
Nggela galispecies of mollusc, Asaphis deflorata; eaten
Toqabaqita ʔalispecies of bivalve shellfish: its shell is used as a scraper to clean taros, breadfruit, etc. that have been roasted in the fire, to scrape out the flesh of a coconut, and as a spoon
Sa'a alia cockle
Mota gara cockle shell, used to cut yam vines, and to scrape out meat of coconut
Raga garicockle shell; used as a scraper
Fijian kaigeneric name of bivalve shellfish: Lamellibranchiata

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:191).

26660

*kaRiŋ dry

3119

PWMP     *kaRiŋ dry     [doublet: *kaRaŋ]

WMP
Ilokano káriŋdried fish
Kalamian Tagbanwa kagiŋthoroughly dry
Cebuano kagiŋstiff (as jerked meat which has been left out too long)
Mansaka kagiŋto be dried (as smoked fish or sun-dried meat)
Ma'anyan kariŋdry

26658

*kaRiqit sound of scratching

3117

PMP     *kaRiqit sound of scratching

WMP
Cebuano kagíʔitmake a creaking sound
Malay keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw
CMP
Manggarai keritscratch (with hand, comb); scream, shriek

31899

*kaRiskis scrape, scratch

10110

PPh     *kaRiskis scrape, scratch     [doublet: *kaRitkit]

WMP
Ilokano kariskis-ento scrape tree bark; to scrape the outside of a pot
Cebuano kagiskisa shrill, scraping, scratching sound; make a shrill scraping sound

31673

*kaRitkit sound of grating, rain pounding, etc.

9830

PPh     *kaRitkit sound of grating, rain pounding, etc.

WMP
Ilokano karitíkitsound of a running mouse or a shuffling hen; sound of rain; sound of jingling
Cebuano kagitkítgrinding, grating sound; make a grinding, grating sound

31633

*kaRkaR to dry something in the sun

9785

PWMP     *kaRkaR to dry something in the sun     [disjunct: *kagkag]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kagkagto dry something in the sun
  peni-ŋagkagto warm oneself in the sun
Lun Dayeh kakarspreading of grains such as paddy or corn on a mat to dry in the sun

32017

*kaRu to swim

10245

POC     *kaRu to swim

OC
Kwara'ae aruto swim
Sikaiana kauto swim
Mota garuto advance by motion of legs and arms, so to wade and swim, of men
Fortsenal karuto swim
Peterara xa-xaruto swim
Northeast Ambae karuto swim
Raga ga-garuto swim; to float by moving arms and legs; to take a bath
Kwamera aruto swim
Tongan ka-kauto swim, of men and ducks, etc., but not fish
Niue ka-kauto swim
Samoan ʔaʔauto swim
Tuvaluan ka-kauto swim
  kau-kauto bathe, take a bath or shower
Rennellese ka-kauto swim
Rarotongan kauto swim, to float, to paddle, as in the water
  aka-kauto make or cause to swim or float
  kau-kauto swim or float about or around, to bathe or take a bath; swimming, bathing
Maori kau-hoeto swim (hoe = ‘push away with the hand; paddle’)
Rapanui kauto swim
Hawaiian ʔauto swim, travel by sea
  hō-ʔauto teach to swim, learn to swim; to swim with a drowning person

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2016:405-406), who included Tital kaw from the languages of the Admiralties, a form that is unlike any that I elicited for the meaning ‘swim’ when conducting a linguistic survey of the Admiralties in 1975.

26662

*kaRud scrape, grate, rasp

3121

PMP     *kaRud scrape, grate, rasp

WMP
Cebuano kagúdgrind something to shreds by rubbing or scraping it; abrade, wear off
Malay karutrasp
OC
Arosi karuto scratch

26663

*kaRuki sand crab

3122

PMP     *kaRuki sand crab

WMP
Chamorro haguhisand crab
OC
Kosraean kuluk <Asand crab
Marshallese karukwhite sand crab
Puluwat yár'iksmall edible crab

Note:   Also Fijian kauke( -e for expected -i) ‘small whitish land crab found in sandy beaches’.

26666

*kaRuŋkuŋ gullet, throat

3125

PWMP     *kaRuŋkuŋ throat

WMP
Ibaloy KaloŋKoŋgeneral term for both trachea and esophagus – the anatomical part both in humans and animals
Malay keroŋkoŋgullet, uvula

Note:   Also KALL galuŋguŋ ‘throat’, Isinay galuŋguŋ ‘throat’, Malay keleŋkoŋ ‘uvula’, kereŋkoŋ ‘roof of the mouth; gullet; uvula’, roŋkoŋ ‘larynx; gullet’, Toba Batak ruŋkuŋ ‘neck’. Possibly *ka-Ruŋkuŋ.

26664

*kaRus scrape

3123

PAN     *kaRus scrape     [doublet: *garus 'scratch']

Formosan
Paiwan karutrake
WMP
Ilokano kárusscraper; anything that can be used to scrape out the meat of coconuts, or to scrape pawpaws or papayas into shreds for salad; for instance, a potsherd, piece of coconut shell, etc.
Cebuano kágusscrape something that is hard and coarse
Ngaju Dayak karusrustling sound, as in dry leaves
OC
Nggela garu, garus-ito scratch
Arosi karuto scratch

Note:   Tsuchida's (1976:174) proto-Southern-Formosan *kaRus ‘scoop out’ may be related.

32018

*kaRuskus dull rustling sound

10246

PPh     *kaRuskus dull rustling sound

WMP
Pangasinan kaluskusrustling noise
Cebuano kaguskusdull rustling sound

26667

*kasambiʔ a tree: Schleichera trijuga

3126

PMP     *kasambiʔ a tree: Schleichera trijuga

WMP
Malay (Java) kesambia tree: Schleichera trijuga, much used in charcoal-form, the bast in medicine, and the young leaves in cookery
Sasak kesambiʔa tree, Schleichera trijuga, much prized for timber; the bast is used as a substitute for betel nut
CMP
Kambera (Mangili) kahambikind of ironwood tree: Schleichera oleosa

Note:   Also Manggarai cambir, Kambera (Waingapu) kahembi ‘a tree: Schleichera spp.’.

30457

*kasaw₁ rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed

7637

PMP     *kasaw₁ rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed

WMP
Ilokano kásawlayer of nipa leaves used in thatching
  kasaw-ento arrange into rows
Kankanaey kásawbarrier, bar
Ifugaw (Batad) ahawan inside rafter of the roof of a house
Casiguran Dumagat kasawthe cross bamboo sticks on a roof that the nipa shingles are laced to
Maranao kasawrafter, rib of bamboo in a thatch roof
Mansaka kasawrafter
Tiruray kesew <Arafter
Mapun kasawpurlin (crosspiece nailed to rafters used as backing for nailing roofing material to)
  kasaw lakia rafter
Tausug kasawa purlin for a roof, horizontal cross-piece of a roof
Kadazan Dusun kasawa lath, stripping stick laid across purlins for thatching roof of a traditional house
Kiput kasaawrafter
Melanau (Mukah) kasawrafter
Iban kasawrafter, roof timbers
Malay kasawrafter; crossbeam for supporting a roof
  kasaw jantanfront or main rafters (‘male rafters’)
  kasaw betinalesser or lower rafters (‘female rafters’)
Simalur asawrafters
Karo Batak kasorafter
Rejang kaseuwceiling support, beam
Sundanese kaso-kasorafters
Sangir kasorafter
  ma-ŋasoto lay down rafters (in house construction); extend at an oblique angle into the river (of a fishline)
Tontemboan kasorafter, which runs from top to bottom and to which the roof thatch is attached
Mongondow katawrafter
Totoli kasorafter
Boano kasorafter
Tajio asorafter
Banggai kasorafter
Uma kahorafter
Bare'e kasorafter, usually of bamboo, to which the thatch panels of the roof are bound with rattan
Tae' kasorafter, of wood or bamboo
Buginese kasorafter
Makasarese kasorafter
Muna sahorafter (crosspiece to which thatch is attached)
CMP
Watubela kaharafter
Soboyo kasorafter
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai asarafter
Buli asrafter, to which the roof thatch is bound
OC
Lakalai la-arorafter of a house
Manam ʔarotopmost rafters (laid on top of cross sticks that are laid on lower rafters)
Roviana gaso-narafter
Eddystone/Mandegusu qasothe rafters of the roof and alcove or apse of a house, which rest on the beams, and project beyond the ridge
Bugotu gahorafter
  gao-gahoto set up a booth with rafters
Nggela gahorafter
Kwaio ʔatorafter, usually bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed
Lau ʔatorafter
Toqabaqita ʔatorafter
'Āre'āre atoa rafter of wood or bamboo
Sa'a atoa rafter, generally of bamboo
Arosi ʔatorafter of a house
Marshallese kat-talrafters; horizontal
Mokilese kad-dalrafters
Puluwat yóótvertical house rafter
Woleaian gatothatch rafter of a house
Mota gasoa rafter; to put on the rafters of a house
Fijian i kasocrossbeam fastening together the outrigger and the hull of a canoe; the children of an inferior wife, the attendants and slaves of a marama wife
Niue kahoa light rafter in a thatched house
Futunan kasorafter in a house
Samoan ʔasothatch-rafter
Nukuoro gasoroof thatch rafters (of pandanus slats)
Rennellese kasovertical rafters of a house to which thatch panels are bound
Maori kahobatten, laid horizontally on the rafters to carry the several layers of thatch of a house; of these battens the uppermost was considered sacred
Hawaiian ʔahothatch purlin and rafter

Note:   Also Ifugaw kahʔó ‘rafter of an Ifugaw house; outside the Kiangan area a rafter is called bughúl’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gasew, Nias gasõ ‘lath, batten of roof, gasõ matua ‘main house beam’ (‘masculine gasõ’). Dempwolff (1938) posited *kasaw ‘rafters’, but the comparative evidence allows us to propose a more specific gloss than this. Languages reaching from the northern Philippines (Ilokano, Casiguran Dumagat) through central Indonesia (Bare'e, Muna), eastern Indonesia (Buli), Micronesia (Woleaian), Melanesia (Kwaio), and Polynesia (Samoan, Nukuoro, Rennellese, Maori, Hawaiian) specifically indicate that the *kasaw was a bamboo rafter to which the thatch panels of the roof were attached. In addition, there are marginal indications that the main rafters may have been called the ‘male’ rafters, and the secondary rafters the ‘female’ rafters, as shown by the glosses of Malay kasaw jantan and kasaw betina, as well as Mapun kasaw laki, where laki may reflect PMP *laki ‘male’, although Collins, Collins and Hashim (2001) do not list it as part of the contemporary language. Also note that among the Maori the battens were not all equal, since “the uppermost was considered sacred” (cf. Barnes 1974:55 on Kédang laqi, meaning both ‘high’ and ‘male’).

30458

*kasaw₂ kind of reed-like plant (?)

7638

PMP     *kasaw₂ kind of reed-like plant (?)

WMP
Sundanese kasoa tall reed-like plant similar to sugarcane
Uma kahorice straw, rice stalk

7639

POC     *kaso₁ reed

OC
Tongan kahoreeds; a single reed is called a va’a kaho
Rennellese kasokind of reed or small tree, Amaranthus sp.

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

31702

*kasay weakness, as from hunger

9868

PPh     *kasay weakness, as from hunger

WMP
Ilokano kásaydebility due to lack of nourishment
Mansaka kasay-kasayto tremble; to shake (as a dying person)

26668

*kasep plant sp.

3127

PWMP     *kasep plant sp.

WMP
Isneg kassápcommon low herb used in black magic: it causes the ruin of a whole field of rice
Maranao kasepsnake grass: Drymaria cordata L.
  kasep a tawcreeping vine: Oxalis repens Thunb.
Iban medaŋ kasapa tree: Gironniera sp.
Malay empelas kasapa plant (Tetracera assa) of which the leaves are used as sandpaper
  kasapa shrub: Clerodendron villosum

31976

*kasi to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp.

10200

POC     *kasi to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp.

OC
Lakalai kasito scratch
  la-kasimussel or clam; mussel shell used as knife
Tawala kahipearl shell
Tikopia kasibivalve mollusc, Asaphis violascens, and possibly other related bivalves; shell used as cutting or scraping implement
Rotuman ʔɔsicockle shell, much used for scraping
Tongan kahikind of shellfish
Samoan ʔasiedible mollusc (Arca sp.), the shell of which is used as a scraper; shell scraper
Maori kahia freshwater bivalve mollusc: Hyridella menziesi; a saltwater bivalve mollusc: Amphidesma australe

Note:   A slightly longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:191).

31977

*kasika a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp.

10201

POC     *kasika a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp.

OC
Titan kasithe trumpet emperor: Lethrinus miniatus
Motu adiagreen jobfish: Aprion virescens; small-tooth emperor: Lethrinus microdon
Kahua gasigaa fish: Lethrinus elongatus, Lethrinus olivaceus
Wayan kacikaemperor fish: Lethrinella miniata
Fijian kacikaa fish resembling but shorter than the doko-ni-vudi (Sethrinus miniatus)

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:81-82).

31662

*kasíli kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster

9819

PPh     *kasíli kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster

WMP
Ilokano kasílikind of cormorant
Cebuano kasílikind of darter: Anhinga melanogaster

26669

*kaskas₁ loosen, untie

3128

PMP     *kaskas₁ loosen, untie

WMP
Cebuano kaskásuproot vines to clear an area
Maranao kakasuntie
Uma kakaloosen, untie (a rope, hobbled animal, etc.)
Makasarese kakkasaʔshake out, spread out (a towel, mat)
CMP
Buruese kaka-hundo, open

Note:   Also Cebuano kakás ‘detach something that has been stitched or similarly attached; uproof vines in clearing an area’. With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.

31641

*kaskas₂ swift, fast, speedy

9795

PPh     *kaskas₂ swift, fast, speedy

WMP
Ilokano kaskas-eroa habitually fast person; speeder on the freeway
Bikol kaskásfast, rapid, speedy, swift
  k<in>askas-ánpace, rate, velocity
  kaskas-ónto quicken, to increase the speed of; to speed up the pace of
Maranao kaskasrun fast, work fast and hard
Sangir kəɁkasəɁprepare oneself quickly to go somewhere

9796

PPh     *kaskas-án (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano kaskas-ánto do swiftly, do fast
Bikol kaskas-ánto rush or hurry someone up

Note:   Rubino (2000) cites the Ilokano base only with the native suffix -an and the Spanish suffix -ero. With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.

31785

*kaskas₃ scrape, scratch

9962

PMP     *kaskas₃ scrape, scratch

WMP
Tagalog kaskásscraped off, rasped off
  pa-kaskásmolasses candy made from the juice of coconut gratings and packed in buri leaves; sugar from buri palm
  kaskas-into scrape something off (a surface)
Ngaju Dayak kakasscratching, scraping; what is scratched or scraped off (in the earth)
Malay kakasto scratch up, of fowls scratching up food

9963

POC     *kakas scrape, scratch

OC
Motu kakasi-ato scratch, to scrape
Samoan ʔaʔasito scratch deeply
  ʔaʔasi-abe scratched, as one’s arm

Note:   Also Roviana gasi-a ‘to make or scratch a line or mark’. The Oceanic forms appear to have incorporated the transitive suffix -i as part of the base. The Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak forms appears to be related, but the similarity of the Oceanic words to these and to each other may be a product of chance.

30870

*kaso coconut leaf basket

8695

POC     *kaso₂ coconut leaf basket

OC
Label kasbasket
'Āre'āre katococonut leaf basket
Sa'a kaatococonut leaf basket
Tongan katobasket; suitcase; pouch; pocket
Niue katobasket
  kato tupepurse
  kato letasuitcase
  kato tāpulupocket of a garment
Samoan ʔatobasket; luggage, baggage
  ʔato-paʔusuitcase
  ʔato-tupepurse, wallet
Tuvaluan katolidded box

Note:   Also Tuvaluan kete ‘basket’, Kapingamarangi gada ‘basket’, Nukuoro gede ‘basket (the general term)’, Rennellese kete ‘basket, plaited bag, haversack’, Anuta kete ‘a type of deep, narrow coconut leaf basket, constructed in such a way that it can be tied around the waist’, Rarotongan kete ‘a general name for certain patterns of native baskets’, Maori kete ‘basket made of strips of flax, etc.; belly of a net’, Hawaiian ʔeke ‘sack, pocket, bag’. Polynesian languages show the ‘third palatal reflex’ (Blust 1976).

31690

*kasu smoke

9854

POC     *kasu smoke     [doublet: *qasu]

OC
Nauna kasu-n monsmoke (= smoke of a fire)
Lou kosu monsmoke
Penchal kasu-nsmoke
Nali kosu mʷansmoke
Titan kasu mʷansmoke
Sori asu japsmoke
Bipi kasu ŋassmoke
Wuvulu agusmoke
Aua arusmoke
Mussau asusmoke
Vitu kasusmoke
Wogeo kassmoke
Manam ʔasusmoke
Gedaged kasthe tobacco plant; a leaf of tobacco, a cigar
Takia kassmoke
Tongan kohuto smoke, emit smoke, give off smoke or fumes

26670

*kasuli freshwater eel

3129

PWMP     *kasuli freshwater eel

WMP
Palawan Batak kasílieel
Binukid kasiligeneric for eel
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kesilieel
Mansaka kasilieel
Sangil kasílifreshwater eel
Proto-Sangiric *kasilieel
Proto-Minahasan *kasilieel
Gorontalo otilieel
Chamorro (h)asulifreshwater eel: Anguilla marmorata

Note:   With assimilation of *u to the following *i in PPh.

26671

*kaS(e)pal thick, of solid objects

3130

PAN     *kaS(e)pal thick, of solid objects

Formosan
Bunun ma-kaspalthick
WMP
Tagalog kapálthickness
Kelabit kapalthick
Kenyah (Long Anap) kapanthick
Toba Batak hapalthick, strong, of objects
CMP
Ngadha kapathick, massive
Kédang kapalthick

3131

PWMP     *ma-kapal thick, of solid objects

WMP
Tagalog ma-kapálthick
Bintulu mə-kapanthick (of objects)
Karo Batak kapalthick, of planks, etc.
  me-kapalthick, of planks, etc.

30531

*kaSiw wood; tree

7794

PAN     *kaSiw wood; tree

Formosan
Saisiyat kæhœytree, wood
Pazeh kahuytree, wood
Amis kasoyfirewood
  mi-kasoyto hunt for firewood
Amis (Kiwit) kasuytree; firewood
Thao kawiwood, stick; tree; wood stop for a door latch
  tau-kawito carry wood
  pash-kawi-anany place where wood is stored
Siraya kayutree, wood (Ferrell 1969)
Puyuma kawiwood, tree
  pu-kawito put wood (on the fire)
  pa-kawi-an ~ pu-(a)-kawi-anwoodshed
  sa-kawi-anone (a unit for trees)
Paiwan kasiwtree, wood
  s<m>u-kasiwto remove branches (as when tree is too large to be felled)
  ki-kasiwto gather or cut wood
  pu-kasi-kasiv-anplace for storing firewood

7795

PMP     *kahiw wood; tree

WMP
Yami kayowood, tree
Itbayaten kayohtree, wood, firewood; bunch or cluster of fruits (esp. of banana)
  ini-chayohtransferred piled big trees from the field
  saa-kayohone bunch of bananas (generally 10 to 20)
Ilokano káyotree; wood, timber; trunk, stem
  tari-káyolog; timber, lumber
Agta (Dupaningan) kayúliving tree
Isneg káyotree, shrub; wood, timber
Itawis káyutree, wood
  mak-káyuto gather firewood
  kayu-ánto chop wood for firewood
Bontok káʔəwwood, tree, specifically pine tree, Pinus insularis Endl.
Kankanaey káiwwood; timber; tree, shrub
Ifugaw káiw ~ káyutree
Ifugaw (Batad) āyiwa branching tree with a hard bark, or a piece of a tree, such as a stick, log, plank
  i-āyiwto take someone along in gathering firewood, e.g. when men take along women to get firewood during the post-transplanting holiday season
Casiguran Dumagat kayótree, wood, stick
Ibaloy kiyewtree; in some contexts kiyew is generic for all trees, but also kiyew can be specific in contrast with kadasan, non-pine trees; wood; firewood, wood for fuel
Pangasinan kiéwtree, stick, timber
Tagalog kahóywood; lumber
Bikol káhoytree; wood, timber; log; wooden
Hanunóo káyuwood; tree
Masbatenyo káhoywood, timber, tree, log
Aklanon káhoytree (general term); wood, lumber
Hiligaynon káhuytree, wood, timber
Palawan Batak kayówood; tree; stick
  kayo ʔápoyfirewood
Cebuano káhuytree; wood, firewood
  pa-ŋahuy-káhuyfor muscles to get stiff with fatigue
  tig-káhuylog with branches cut off; twigs; gather cut down wood for firewood
  talig-káhuygather logs for a house
Maranao kayotree, wood, lumber, board
  kayo-nwoody
Binukid kayutree; wood, timber, pole; stem, stalk (of plants)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kayutree; wood; a stick; to gather wood
Mansaka kaoytree; wood
Tiruray kayewwood, firewood, a tree
Mapun kayutree; firewood; lumber
  kayuh-anadd some wood to the fire (imper.)
Yakan kayutree (generic); wood (generic); lumber; firewood
Tboli koyutree; wood
Tausug kahuywood, tree, lumber, timber
Kadazan Dusun kazutree; wood
Tombonuwo kayutree
Ida'an Begak kayutree; wood
Bisaya (Limbang) kayuwood; tree
  puun kayubase of a tree; counting classifier for trees
Lun Dayeh kayuhwood
  pun kayuhtree
Kelabit kayuhwood; tree
Sa'ban ayəwwood; tree
Berawan (Long Terawan) kajuhwood; tree
Narum hayewwood; tree
Miri ajuhwood; tree
Kenyah kayua tree; wood
Kenyah (Long Anap) kayuwood; tree
  puʔun kayubase of a tree
Murik kayuʔwood; tree
  puʔun kayuʔbase of a tree
Kayan kayoʔwood; timber; a tree
  kayoʔ tayunfirewood (always kept in place over fireplace)
Kayan (Uma Juman) kayoʔwood; tree
  puʔun kayoʔbase of a tree
Kiput