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Updated: 1/12/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    




































































*ma-₁ stative prefix


PAN     *ma-₁ stative prefix

Kavalan ma-in the state of (result of a prior action)
Saisiyat ma-stative prefix
Proto-Atayalic *ma-stative prefix
Pazeh ma-stative prefix
Thao ma-stative prefix
Bunun ma-stative prefix
Puyuma ma-stative prefix
Paiwan ma-stative prefix
Yami ma-stative prefix for indicative verbs
Tagalog ma-prefix forming adjectives denoting (a) a certain quality, e.g. magandá ‘beautiful’, (b) having much of something, e.g. mabató ‘stony (full of stones)’; prefix to root word forming verbs denoting capability of doing something voluntarily or intentionally, e.g. makí'a ‘to be able to see something’
Maranao ma-stative prefix
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-stative prefix
Lun Dayeh mə-stative prefix
Toba Batak ma-stative prefix (called ‘qualifying prefix’ in van der Tuuk 1864-1867)
Mongondow mo-stative prefix
Bare'e ma-stative prefix
Tae' ma-stative prefix
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mo-stative prefix
Hawu me-stative prefix
Rotinese ma-stative prefix
Tetun ma-stative prefix (fossilized, as in manas ‘hot’ < *ma-panas), or metan ‘black’ < *ma-qetan)
Asilulu ma-(fossilized in e.g. mataɁu)
Minyaifuin ma-(fossilized in e.g. mtait ‘fear, afraid’)
Wuvulu ma-(fossilized in e.g. maɁau ‘afraid’)
Mussau ma-(fossilized in e.g. ma-matautu ‘afraid’)
Lakalai ma-(fossilized in e.g. matau ‘afraid’)
Molima ma-(fossilized in e.g. matauta ‘afraid’)
Roviana ma-stative prefix (fossilized in manivisi ‘thin’, or matagutu ‘afraid’)
Fijian maa particle compounded with many words, forming adjectives of state or condition
Tongan ma-stative prefix (fossilized in mahaki ‘sick person, patient; sickness, disease’ < PMP *ma-sakit ‘sick, painful’, etc.)
Hawaiian ma-(fossilized in e.g. makaɁu ‘fear, frightened, afraid’)


*ma-₂ future prefix


PAN     *ma-₂ future prefix

Seediq (Truku) ma-frequent prefix carrying the idea of an indeterminate future
Thao ma-prefix marking the future in actor voice verbs


*maCa eye, focal point, center or most prominent part


PAN     *maCa eye, focal point, center or most prominent part

Taokas masaeye
Kavalan mataeye
Saisiyat masaʔeye
Papora masaeye
Sakizaya mataʔeye
Amis mataeye
  ci-mataable to see; to wear glasses
  mili-matato put out someone’s eye
Favorlang/Babuza machaeye
Thao macaeye
Bunun mataeye
Bunun (Isbukun) mataeye
Tsou mcooeye
Proto-Rukai *macaeye
Puyuma maTaeyes
Paiwan matsaeye
  pu-matsato have good eyesight


PMP     *mata eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover

Yami mataeye
Itbayaten mataeye; holes of netting or basket or knitting; small buds at knots of sugarcane; eye of coconut
Ilokano matáeye; knot (of timber)
  ag-matáto be watchful, alert; open one’s eyes; bear fruit; result in, be the result of; be realized
  na-mata-ántraditions, customs in which one is brought up
  mata-mata-ánto stare at
Agta (Dupaningan) matáeye
Isneg matáthe eye; the sun
Itawis matáeye
Bontok matáeye
  ʔin-matáto have sore eyes
Kankanaey mátaeye
Ifugaw matáeye
Ifugaw (Batad) mataeye of a person, animal, insect, living being
Casiguran Dumagat mataeyes; face
Ibaloy mataeye --- the anatomical part
  man-matato have sore, draining eyes
  i-mata-anto see something for oneself, precisely, personally; to recognize something
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) mataeye
Pangasinan matáeye
Kapampangan matáeye; shoot, sprout
  matá kwayanthe spots on the top half of a coconut shell
  tela-taʔu-ŋ matáiris; the colored part of the eye
  maka-matáapproach from afar; discover by sight (Bergaño)
Tagalog matáthe eye; the organ of vision; sight; the power of seeing; sight, meaning here a way of looking or thinking; regard; eye, fig., meaning, core, center
  ipa-matáto open a person’s eyes; to make one see what is really happening
  mag-pa-matáto disabuse; to free from deception; to open the eyes to
  malik-mátaʔmirage; an optical illusion; phantasm; a supposed appearance of an absent person dead or living
  má-mata-ʔánto light upon; to see by chance; to be spotted, meaning to be recognized or seen
Bikol matáeye
  ma-matáto get hit in the eye
  mag-matáto wake up; to awaken, arouse
  maka-matáto look down on, to be patronizing toward
  pa-mata-ónto wake someone up
Buhid matáeye
Hanunóo matáeye; operculum of a snail
Romblomanon matathe eye of a living being; a fishnet mesh; i.e., an opening between the cords of a fishnet
Masbatenyo matáeye; refers only to the eye of an animate being
  pa-mata-hónbe awakened, be roused
Inati meteeye
Aklanon matáeye; to be awake; to wake up, awaken, awake; to observe, raise, rear
Waray-Waray matáeye; organ of vision; ocular perception; sight
Agutaynen mataeye
Hiligaynon matáeye
  mag-matáto awaken
Palawan Batak mátaeye
Cebuano matáeyes; eyeglasses; eyelet in shoes; any growth or structure similar in some way to the eye
  matá sa gábia button-like outgrowth on the flesh of the taro rootstock
  matá sa lubitwo spots on a coconut shell tha resemble human eyes
  matá sa lumbanan eye-like operculum found in turban shells
  matá sa pinyaeyes of a pineapple, the hollow cavity found on the surface of the flesh of the pineapple fruit which contains seeds
Maranao mataeye
  mata aloŋannoble, royalty (‘eye of the day/sun’)
  mata trakheadlight
Binukid mataeye
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mataeye
Mansaka mataeye; to awaken
Tiruray motoeye
Mapun mataeye; the sharp edge or point of anything (as the cutting edge of a machete or knife, the sharp points on a grater, the head of a spear, etc.); anything circular in shape that is essential to that in which it is contained (as a burner on a stove, the core of a boil)
  jama-jama mataone’s reflection in another person’s eye (‘person of the eye’)
  mata asa-anthe top of a whetstone
  mata dallota noose
  mata lambuʔa buttonhole
  mata lilusthe dial or face of a clock or watch
  ka-matah-anto be seen (as proof that something is true or false)
Yakan mataeye
  mata badjaʔplowshare (‘eye of the plow’)
  mata baliyudirection wind comes from
  mata boheʔthe surface of a river
  mata oroʔblade of a knife
  mata pirablade of a bolo
  mata satandirection of sound (wind)
Molbog mataeye
Tboli mataeye
  mata kudaʔankle joint/bone (‘eye of a horse’)
Tausug mataeye (as an organ of sight); anything circular that is essential to that in which it is contained (as a burner of a stove, the heart of a boil); the holes of a sieve
  ikug matathe outer eyelid (‘tail of the eye’)
  ka-mata-hanto see with the eyes
Tombonuwo matoeye
  mato nu uwoswhirlwind (‘eye of the wind’)
Murut (Timugon) matoeye
Ida'an Begak matoeye
  mato bubuncrown of the head
Bisaya (Lotud) matoeye
Bisaya (Limbang) matoeye
Belait mataheye
Kelabit matəheye
Sa'ban atəheye
Berawan (Long Teru) matəheye
Sebop atə-neye
Kenyah mataeye
Murik mataʔeye
Kayan mataʔeye
  mata-n sansteps on a ladder
Wahau mtæneye
Gaai gu-ta-neye (from guə̯ŋ mtan ‘eye place’)
Kelai mtæneye
Mei Lan Modang məteə̯neye
Woq Helaq Modang məteə̯neye
Long Gelat Modang mətiə̯neye
Kayan (Uma Juman) mataʔeye
Kiput matəheye
Bintulu mataeye
Melanau (Mukah) mataeye
Bukat matəeye
Bekatan matoheye
Lahanan mataeye
Ngaju Dayak matæeye
  mata-n kanasspots on a pineapple
Kapuas mataʔeye
Paku matoeye
Taboyan matəʔeye
Dusun Witu mateeye
Delang matoeye
Iban mataeye; eyesight
  oraŋ matapoliceman
  mata dacingraduated marks on balance or weigh-beam (‘eye of scale’)
  mata dukuʔcutting edge of blade (‘eye of knife’)
  mata lalatreef knot (‘eye of housefly’)
  mata manaŋbeads presented to a manang (shaman) to give him keenness of sight
  mata tincinstones set in finger ring
  mata waŋcash (‘eye of money’)
  ŋe-matawatch over, look after, be caretaker or manager of, keep an eye on
Jarai mətaeye
Malay mataeye; focus; center; orifice; eye-like feature; the evil eye; numerical coefficient for things numbered by orifices such as the rungs of a ladder or the meshes of a net; also of the cutting edge of a knife or saw; point of a lance; source of a river; needle of a compass (= the point on which everything turns)
  mata alamatbull’s eye of target (‘eye of sign, portent’)
  mata bajakplough-share
  mata bantalpillow-end of stiff embroidery, etc.
  mata bədilmuzzle of firearm
  mata bəlanakcenter of hairwhorl (‘eye of mullet’)
  mata bəlioŋadze or hatchet blade
  mata bəndavaluables (‘eye of article’)
  mata bukuknot in wood; center of knot (‘eye of knot’)
  mata daciŋmarks on balance scale
  mata kakiankle
  mata kərisblade of a kris
  mata kuliahsubject of study (‘eye of higher study’)
  mata lukaorifice of a wound
  mata pədomancompass needle
  mata pianopiano keys
  mata taŋgarungs of a ladder
  mata uaŋunit of monetary value; currency (‘eye of money’)
Bahasa Indonesia mata guntiŋsharp edge of scissors
  mata hatideep feelings
  mata hurufletter of the alphabet
  mata jalaholes in the mesh of a net
  mata kailpoint of a fishhook
  mata lukaopening of a wound
Acehnese mataeye; germ of a seed kernel; joint, articulation (of stalks like bamboo or sugarcane); gemstones, etc.
  iə matatears
  mata apuythe space above the hearth where foodstuffs are hung in the smoke to preserve them
  mata gōŋboss on a gong
  mata itampupil of the eye
  mata kawethe sharp point of a fishhook
  mata laŋayplowshare
  mata sərampaŋprongs of a harpoon
  mata sikinthe blade of a knife
  mata ueyeholes in a coconut shell
  mata urɔəsun (‘eye of the day’)
  mata ceŋmeasuring marks on a scale
  mata gɨnukuteeth of a coconut rasp
Gayō mataeye
  mata goŋankle
  mata ni jelbaŋblade of a hoe
  mata ni ulenfemale phantom that takes the spectral form of a detached head (‘eye of moon’)
Simalur mataeye; point; shoot, sprout, bud; blade of a knife
  mal-matagerminate, sprout (‘have eyes’)
  mata aeransteps of a ladder
  mata alaustriking end of a pestle
  mata-m bajaʔplowshare
  mata-m biliʔentrance to a room
  mata-m boxulkneecap (‘eye of the knee’)
  mata-n dəlogslope of a mountain
  mata-n oruŋpromontory, cape
  mata-n saʔaheel, hock
  mata-n siʔuelbow
  mata-n soʔudglowing firewood
  mata-n taduʔpoint of a horn
  mata-n toxuʔtip of a lance
Karo Batak mataeye(s); the dots on dice, eye of a needle, mesh of a net, blade of a knife, point of a spear
  mata ranānday when a lawsuit will be heard (‘day of talk’)
  mata kerjathe main day of a feast
  ŋke-matacounting classifier for counting grains of rice
Toba Batak mataeye
  ha-mata-ansingle, individual
  mata ni bulanthe moon, the disc of the moon
  mata ni ari ni totankle (‘sun of the foot’)
  mata ni bodilbarrel of a gun
  mata ni bonaŋend of the thread with which one begins
  mata ni bulupart of the bamboo where the shoots emerge
  mata ni hujurpoint of a lance
  mata intangemstone
  mata ni onanhigh point of a market
  mata ni pestaclimax of a feast
Nias mataeye
Mentawai mataeye, face; open the eyes
  mata läläpwindow, door
  mata-t buk-buŋopening of a quiver
  mata-t pa-jaiteye of a needle
  mata-t pusä-katfriction groove of a fireplow
  mata tot-totnipple of the breast
Rejang mata-ieye
  mata-i taŋənwrist bone
Enggano e-bakaeye, face, front side; most important part
Lampung mataeye
Sundanese mataeye(s)
  ma-mataknot-hole in wood
  sa-mataa piece, one
Old Javanese mataeye; meshes (of a net); stone (set in a ring, etc.)
  ma-matato look at, observe, inspect
  ka-mata-nseen, visible
  pa-mata-nlooks, way of looking, glance
Javanese mataeye (of an animal, crudely of a human being); eye-like part, as knot in wood, center of a pimple, jewel in its setting; spot, pip (on playing-cards, dice); kernel, grain
  ke-mata-nhaving excessively large eyes
  sa-mata-matastriking in appearance; conspicuous
  mata itikbuttonhole
  mata iwakscar from a wound; corn on the toe; duckweek (‘eye of a fish’)
Madurese mataeye
Balinese mataeye
  mata hideŋopening in the top end of a kris sheath
  mata putihthe white of the eye
Sasak mataeye
  mata-n naeankle bone (< *mata-n ae?)
Sangir mataeye; counting classifier used in counting snares and fishhooks
  mata-ŋ lutaŋtouch-hole (as of a cannon; ‘eye of a gun’)
  mata-n somamesh of a net
  mata mituŋkind of shellfish (‘black eye’)
  mata-m puheoperculum of some shells
Mongondow mataeye; blade of a knife, cutting edge; the essence of something; counting classifier for sharp things like swords, knives, lances and nails
  mata im bulanmoon (in songs)
  po-mata-anEast (place of the rising sun)
Gorontalo matoeye; counting classifier for objects that have ‘eyes’
Totoli mataeye
Balaesang mataeye
Ampibabo-Lauje mataeye
Balantak mataeye
Banggai mataeye
  pinsil mata-nopoint of a pencil
Uma mataeye; counting classifier
  ha-mataone (in counting sharp weapons)
  me-matato stand up
Bare'e mataeye
Tae' mataeye; the most important or essential part of something
  mata-itrain the eye on something
  mata-nnamain day of a feast, when most guests arrive
  mata buriaʔopening of a basket
  mata pelekoʔplowshare
  kala-mataplaitwork or weaving with hexagonal openings
  paka-matainflammation of the eyes, conjunctivitis
  wai matatears
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mataeye
Mori Atas mataeye
Wawonii mataeye
Moronene mataeye
Mandar mataeye; point, as of a kris
Buginese mataeye
  mata pasamajor feast day, feast day that is busiest
Makasarese mataeye; also used for anything that resembles an eye, such as: round holes in a rice block; anus; mesh of a net; opening in plaitwork or weaving; coin; blade (of knives and weapons); iron part of a tool; point of a needle; marks on a scale
  mata assuŋround holes in a rice mortar
  mata baraʔprecise direction of the west
  mata pasaraʔchief market day, busiest market day
  mata uaŋsilver, coins that ‘clink’
  tauŋ-tauŋ matareflection of a person in someone’s eye
Wolio mataeye, center, nucleus, source (of a river), mesh (of a net); blade (used for counting all sorts of sharp or pointed objects like knives, creeses, spears and pencils
  mata-na ndamuaxe-head
  mata-na sorumbapoint of a needle
Muna mataeye; o’clock; sharp edge or point (of weapons and utensils); classifier for sharp objects; unit of liquid, cup, glass; the appointed day or time for festivals, the high point
  mata dadusupposition (lit. ‘eyes of dice’)
  mata-no faraluuthe high point of a ceremony or festival
Palauan madeye; face; point; edge; front; area/space (directly) in front of
Chamorro mataeye, eyeball; face; hole for planting
Bimanese madaeye; source
  oi madatears (‘water of the eyes’)
  mada kaleʔa‘eye’ of a coconut
  mada rihacentral part of the hearth (‘eye of the hearth’)
Komodo mataeye
  mata keriwaunhusked rice grain (keriwa = ‘husked rice’)
Manggarai mataeye; hole; sprouting part; husk (in the middle of the rice); blade (of a machete, etc.)
Rembong mataeye
  mata-nspring, source
  mata dalaŋdoor(way)
  mata pusuqheart
Ngadha mataeye; opening, aperture; lid, cover; sprout, bud; numeral classifier
  mata apioffering place in the fields
  mata dalaentrance to a village
  mata lekoopening of a bamboo cane
  mata patewindow opening, smokehole in roof
  mata polowill-o’-the-wisp
  mata tibobanana sprout
  mata tuacut in a lontar palm made to collect the sap for making palm toddy
  mata umaoffering place in the fields
Sika mataeye
  mata laureward
  mata merabush with inedible red fruits
  mata poworsmall shellfish
Solorese mataeye
Kédang mata-neye; tip of a seed from which the sprout emerges
  deséq mata-nlid of a tobacco basket (Barnes 1974:230)
  koŋ mata-nthe rounded bulge in the center of a gong
  lia mata-nthe hearth
  maqur mata-nthe yard in front of the door
  taq mata-nthe base of a coconut where it was attached to the tree and from which the shoot will emerge
  mato uluqpupil of the eye (‘seed of the eye’)
Kodi mataeye
Anakalangu mataeye
Kambera mataeye
  mata bulakind of mollusc
  mata epihearth for the cooking fire
  mata kalílianus (‘eye of buttocks’)
  mata manuthe white spot in an egg yolk
  mata meublue eyes (‘cat eyes’)
  mata mítiŋufavorite, ‘apple of the eye’ (‘black eye’)
Hawu madaeye
  mada ñiueye of a coconut
Rotinese mataeye
  dope mata-nablade of a knife
  fufue deək mata-nadibble holes for planting seeds
  no mata-nasprout of a coconut
  mata-kcountenance, face; appearance; sort, kind
  tatai mata-kmeasuring marks on a scale
Helong mataeye
Atoni mata-feye
Tetun mata-nthe eyes
  mata fatu-ka sea-shell
  kafe mata-n idaa coffee plantation
  oda mata-na door
  sana mata-na pot lid
  ue mata-n musana lid, cover, or cap
Vaikenu mata-feye
Galoli mata-reye
Erai mataeye; numeral classifier with leo ‘day’, as in leo mata hatelu ‘three days’
Kisar makaeye
  na-makaawake; wake up
Roma mat-eye
East Damar mata-eye
Leti mataeye
Wetan mataeye; to rise, get up
Selaru mataeye
Yamdena mata-neye; cutting edge of a knife; kind, type; opening
  mata-n ikurouter corner of the eye (‘tail of the eye’)
  mata-n tomwatepupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)
  mata-n ulu-ninner corner of the eye (‘head of the eye’)
Fordata mataeye; sprout of a banana, etc.
  mata-n tomattapupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)
  sita-na mata-nstone setting in a finger-ring
Kola mataeye
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) mataeye
Masiwang mata-neye
Teluti mata-coloeye
Kamarian mataeye
Gah mata-ninaeye
Alune mataeye
Saparua mataeye
Laha mataeye
Hitu mataeye
Asilulu mataeye; origin, source; numerical connector (for roads, currencies, etc.)
  mata-duathe two lines which connect the uppermost par of the sail
  mata-lumaclan, sub-clan, extended family (luma = ‘house’)
  mata-nuluentrance, portal, doorway
Manipa makaeye
Nusa Laut maʔa-eye
Larike mata-naclassifier for coins, holes, and round or circular objects
Wakasihu mataeye
Batu Merah mata-vaeye
Morella mataeye
Kowiai/Koiwai mata-futeye (fut = ‘grain, seed’)
  mat atemfirst, at first
Taba mtoeye
Gimán mtoeye
Sawai mtɔeye
Buli mtaeye
  labaŋ mtamesh of a net
Mayá ꞌta¹²eye
Minyaifuin ntaeye
Ron makaeye
Numfor mgaeye; countenance
Loniu mata-eye
  mata-nlid, cover
Nali mara-eye
  mara-nlid, cover
Ahus mara-eye
Papitalai mara-eye
Levei moto-eye
  moto siʔikhearth (‘eye of trivet’)
Likum mita-eye
  mita jehhearth (‘eye of fire’)
Ponam mara-eye
Bipi mata-eye
  mara mwanhearth (‘eye of fire’)
Yapese miiteye; front; point; kind of, type of, species of
Mussau mataeye, face; blade; source; sucker of plant
  mata kaalasucker of the kaala taro
  mata kereŋanasharp edge
  mata-ŋ-asisucker of the asi taro
  mata-ŋ-ateiosource of a river (‘eye of water’)
  mata utupride
Tigak mata-eye; entrance
Tanga mataeye; face; the front of anything; the pointed end of anything (as a spear); forehead; leader (of a raiding party); center of an exterior surface, not the interior of anything
Label mata-eye
Tolai mata-eye; face; opening, socket, hole through anything
  mata kilalatdoorway
  mata na keākesun (‘eye of the day’)
  mata na kuloperculum of the seashell known as kul, Turbo marmoratus
  mata na obenemesh of a fishnet
Bali (Uneapa) mataeye
Vitu mataeye; have a tendency to, prone to
Arop mata-eye; sharp (as a knife)
Biliau mala-eye
Amara meteeye
Kove mataeye; face
Bebeli mataeye
Lakalai matato look, to look at; to appear; to turn face or eyes toward; sharp
  la-mataa hole; a channel, passage; a doorway or door; kind, variety
  la-mata-laits eye; the top of it, especially if a cap or something similar; its point; a time for it, its date
  la-mata-la-havishelf above fireplace (‘eye of fire’)
  la-mata-la hulumu‘the door of the men’s house’: circular bottom of frame for ebiribiri mask
  la-mata-la-lumadoorway of the house
  la-mata-la-togthe point of a hook (‘eye of fishhook’)
  e-mata-rikisquare, fine-mesh net for catching small fish
Kaulong mataeye
Mengen mata-eye
Kis mətaeye
Wogeo mataeye
Manam mataeye
  mata otiotito be sharp
Sio matasharp
Takia malaeye
Mbula mataeye, physical organ of sight; face, presence/sight of, appearance, front, color; kind, sort, type; mind; blade, edge, point, end, sharp, powerful, intense
  mata-kiŋadifferent types, different sorts (kiŋa = scattered, dispersed’)
  buza mata-anablade of a knife
  kotiizi mata-anatip of a sago thorn
  mata-anafirst, beginning, leader
Gitua mataeye; sharp edge
Yabem mataeye
Watut mara-eye
Wampar mara-neye
Ubir mata-eye
Suau mata-eye; sharp
Bunama mata-naeye; point; edge
Adzera mara-neye
Motu mataeye; point or tip of anything; mesh; a synonym of death; foremost
  mata hanaisecond sight; to see in a trance; to diagnose, as of doctor (hanai = ‘cross over’)
  mata nadi-nadi-napupil (‘stone of the eye’)
  mata-iin front, first
Pokau makaeye
Gabadi makaeye
Kilivila mataeye
Tawala mataeye; point; source of (river, wind), mouth of bay
  mata babanareason
  mata kwelinacoconut eye
Dobuan mataeye
Molima mata-eye
  mata-dayain front of us, in our presence
  bia mata-nabeer bottle top
  mata gabu-nanipple (gabu-na = ‘a point of land’)
  mata lavi-laviabout 7 PM (‘eye of the evening’)
  mata-nanet gauge
Saliba mataeye; sharp
Sudest maraeye; pointed
Nehan mata-neye, face (takes possessive marker for person and number); natural hole or soft spot in a coconut shell
  mata-iabeautiful, pretty, nice to look at
  mata nahuaplace for canoes to come, haven
  mata nar umwindow
Haku u-mataeye
Piva mata-eye
Uruava mata-eye
Torau mata-laeye
Mono-Alu mata-naeye
Ririo mateye
Hoava mataeye
Roviana mata-nathe eye
Eddystone/Mandegusu mataeye; eye of coconut shell; hook made of turtle shell
Ghove natʰaeye
Bugotu mataeye; face; covering; entry
Nggela mataeye; iris; pupil; in front of, in the presence of; outward appearance; the face
  mata-kenea window (= ‘wind eye’, like English ‘window’)
  mata ni haalanding place
  mata ni indaligroove in stone for breaking nuts
Kwaio maa-naeye; front; opening; mouth (of stream or river); top, lid; face; center
  maa ni eleflame; the biggest taro or yam in the fire; the main log (ele = ‘fireplace’)
  maa ni maeintention to fight (seen in the eyes; mae = ‘die, dead; fight’)
Lau eye, face, aperture, mesh; door, porch, gate, mouth; point, edge, spout of a jug (the part that does the work); point of pen, edge of knife; bow of a ship; operculum of a mollusc; hand, wrist; time, season; to eye, to stare at
  mā-fafoa covering (fafo = ‘on top’)
  mā-lumaa porch (luma = ‘house’)
Toqabaqita maaused with a variety of senses that can be characterized as: focal point, eye, tip, edge; face; opening; mouth of a container, hole; front part of something; lid, that which closes something; door; with some nouns used as a classifier
  maa-na agaaspace, area in front of panpipe musicians/dancers
  maa-na gaagaorathe center of a person’s chest (on the outside)
  maa-na ilaplace on the reef where the waves break
  maa-na kafowater hole, place in a stream where people collect water and bathe; mouth of a river; mouth of a water tap (kafo = ‘fresh water’)
  maa-na kuburuplace, area from which a strong wind is coming (dark area in distance with black clouds)
  maa-na lumafront of a house; area in front of a house; doorway of a house
  maa-na naifacutting edge of a knife
  maa-na qamalilanding place for canoes on the seashore (qamali = ‘sea, ocean’)
  maa-na suatip of a spear
  maa-na ururu-kneecap
  maa-na uusi-amarket place, when there is a market in progress (uusi = ‘buy things, shop for’)
  thalu-na maa-pupil of the eye; term of endearment for one’s child: apple of the eye (thalu = ‘egg’)
  maa-takwalanding place (for canoes, boats, ships or airplanes); harbor; airstrip
'Āre'āre mā-naeye, face, front
  mā-na nimadoorway
  mā-na panonanostril
  mā-na suʔapoint of a spear
  mā-na suuentrance of a bay
Sa'a maa-the eye, not generally used with an article; the face; (with genitive i in Sa’a, ni in Ulawa) hole, mesh, opening, outlet; core of a boil; door, gate; edge, point, blade, brim; front of a house
  i-maaoutside, at the door; a stick, a match; a round thing; article, one
  maa-ito eye,to watch
  maa-i litawaa canoe landing place
  maa-i numehouse door
  maa-i paragate
  maa-na nahithe edge of a sword
  maa-na suʔuthe opening of the bay
  maa taetaheopening in the shore reef
Ulawa maa ni akalothe blind eye of the coconut (akalo = ‘dead person, ghost’)
  maa ni pwelusunostril
Arosi maa-(na)the eye
  maathe face; hole, opening, mesh of a net, gate; edge, point, brim; front of a person or house; numerical unit in counting fish hooks, needles, stakes, flints, fishing rods, houses, traps, slings, armlets and matches; a spot, stain, crystal in rock (as hornblende phanocrystal in dolerite, etc.), a groove for rubbing fire in a soft stick; to look at, stare; a circle; to lead
Gilbertese mataeye, look, figure, face, front, facade, appearance, exterior aspect; opening, needle eye, opening of insects’ nest, etc.; lid, entrace, facade, operculum, mesh of net, core of boil, eyelet hole
  mata-roadoor, entrance
  te toki ni matahorizon
  mata ni wi/mata nu wiedge, border; chief, director, commander
Kosraean mʌtaeye; face
  mʌtʌ-nblade of, tip of, entrance of, front of, beginning period of, open end of
Marshallese māj/meja-eye, face; cutting edge; lid; opening of any container, hole, doorway, or cave, etc.
Pohnpeian maasface; first
  masa-mwahugood-looking, pretty, handsome
Mokilese majeye; face; spearhead
  maj mwehupretty, good-looking
Chuukese maaseye, face (of living creature, and fig. of some things); leading, piercing, working, cutting end or edge (of something); beginning (of day); direction (of wind); front (of a building); means (of money); point (of pencil, needle, etc.)
  mese-n cheewmesh or hole in a net
  mese-n takacoconut eye
Puluwat maaheye, face, point, as of a pencil or spear; end, as of a house; the two smallest eyes of a coconut; canoe end-piece; raised outer border of lee planked platform; to wake up, be awake
Woleaian mateye, face; pointed end prow of a canoe; point, cutting edge, projection; representative; numeral classifier for kinds of things, usually inorganic things
  mate-fascourageous, bold, have courage to confront people
Ulithian mataeye
Carolinian maaseye, face; blade, as of a knife, machete, or axe
Sonsorol-Tobi mata-ieye
Buma mataeye
Vatrata maʔa-eye
Mosina moto-eye
Lakona mata-eye
Piamatsina mata-eye
Nokuku mɛtɔ-eye
Malmariv mata-eye
Lametin mata-eye
Amblong mata-eye
Aore mata-eye
Marino mata-eye
Rano ne-mte-eye
Lingarak ne-mndaeye
Leviamp lə-m̋ata-eye
Avava mata-neye; source (of river)
Southeast Ambrym mætEeye
Paamese mete-neye; lens of camera; head of boil; small stick stuck into yam mound to show where yam has been planted; lid, stopper, bottletop; operculum of shellfish; of the three holes in the top of a coconut, the one which can be opened easily; the chaser in a game of chasey; leaves to cover up top of breadfruit pit; something really tremendous
  mete-n ōnurethral opening in penis (‘eye of penis’)
  mete-tānanus (‘eye of feces’)
Pwele na-mataeye
Efate (South) na-meteye
Sie ni-mto-eye
Rotuman mafaeyes or face; spectacles; hole, opening, aperture --- in certain connections only (a crab’s hole, the ‘eyes’ of a coconut, mesh of a net); sharp edge --- of knife, axe, cut tin, broken glass, etc.; leader, head, ruler (in imitation of Fijian mata, of similar meaning)
  maf ne papula(of taro plant) top, including the stem and a small piece of the tuber
  maf ne pukuletter of the alphabet
Wayan mataeye, organ of sight; face, front of head; front, facing side, face of object with both front and back side; head for, go towards a place; be awake, wake up; group, team or company of people; ahead, before, in front; opening, space or interstices in a surface, as doorway, window, the interstices or mesh of a net, the spaces between the fibers and weave of a cloth
  mata anitua person who often sees spirits in his dreams (anitu = ‘spirit, ghost’)
  mata ni caŋidirection of wind; first gusts of wind
  mata ni ciuciuwindow
  mata ni culaeye of needle
  mata ni Na representative, a person or thing representing N, a group or function
  mata ni sāpoint of a spear
  mata ni silamainsail stay or sheet, rope tying free end of mainsail boom to the stern of a boat (acts as a gear controlling direction of boat sailed into wind or wave)
  mata ni tūtraditionally, a group of vanua (tribes) or avusa (clans) who agree to combine under one chief; a federation of peoples under one rule, a kingdom
  mata ni uvicuttings of yams for planting
  mata-ravufireplace, place where food has been cooked
Fijian matathe eye, the face, the source or front of a thing
  e na mata-nain front of him, in his presence
  matā-dravuhearth, fireplace (dravu = ‘ashes’)
  mata-i-taliŋaa large axe tied with sinnet (‘eye of ears’)
  mata-mata-i-taliŋaa variety of shark, with eyes that look upwards (probably hammerhead)
  mata kaloua seer, one who sees kalou (spirits)
  mata ni bukaa firebrand
  mata ni civathe pearl found in the civa oyster
  mata ni dāthe anus
  mata ni dalotaro stems fit for planting
  mata ni tavutoa hole through a rock, forming a kind of eyelet through which a rope may be threaded to fasten a canoe
  mata ni tūa political federation of vanua; in modern use a kingdom, independent country, government
  mata ni vanuaa chief’s official herald, sometimes simply called a mata; an ambassador
  mataŋgalithe primary local division of Fijian society
Tongan mataeye(s) or face; (of cloth, etc.) right side, outer side; (of leaf) front, top, smooth side; (as preposed noun) front (of house, etc.); point (of spear, needle, etc.); point or prong (of fork); blade or cutting edge; head (of boil, etc.); (of coconut) eye, or end where the eyes are; (of net) mesh; (of wound) mouth, opening. Special uses: (a) feelings, (b) best (of a number of valuable things); to see
  mata falehouse front, front of the house
  mata fasiexact spot where a stick, or a limb, etc. is broken (‘eye of fracture’)
  mata fonuacoast on the front side of an island (the side where the main settlement is)
  mata hokojoint, place where two edges or surfaces join together
  mata kalitribe, clan
  mata kelispot where one first inserts the spade when digging
  mata nifoedge of tooth or teeth; mark caused (actually or apparently) by the bite of a tooth, tooth-mark
  mata pāgate, door, or window ( = ‘fence, wall, enclosure’)
  mata ʔi palauploughshare
  mata ʔi talotaro tops (for planting)
  mata ʔi tohiletter of the alphabet
  mata ʔi ʔuharaindrop
Niue mataeye, face; edge, blade, prong; mesh of a net; headland, point; to look at
  faka-matato whet, to sharpen to a point; to have a certain facial expression, to look
  ma-matato look at, to watch in admiration
  mata alili“cat’s-eye”, operculum of the alili shellfish
  mata atethe core of the heart
  mata fanaan arrow (fana = ‘bow’)
  mata fūbase, stump (of a tree); source, origin
  mata helenoose (hele = ‘to snare, entangle’)
  mata hoecape, point of land; gable of a building, end of a building
  mata kaverays of the sun (kave < *PMP *kaway ‘tentacles of octopus’)
  mata limafinger (lima = ‘hand, arm’)
  mata makaa pinnacle of rock (maka = ‘rock’)
  mata muathe leading person in the front of a battle or a dancing party (mua = ‘front’)
  mata niuthe eye of a coconut
  mata patusource of anything, origin; stem of a plant (patu = ‘chief, head of a family, elder’)
  mata pitonavel (pito = ‘navel’)
  mata tohia letter of the alphabet (tohi = ‘to mark, to write’)
  mata tuliknee (tuli = ‘knee’)
  mata vakathe front man in a four man canoe (vaka = ‘canoe’)
Futunan mataface (plural); eye; numeral classifier for counting fish; have the appearance of, have an air of; cutting edge, blade; front of something, in front
  mata ʔi laŋihorizon
  mata ʔi taliŋahammerhead shark
  mata ʔonebeach (‘eye of sand’)
Samoan mataeye; face; point; cutting edge, blade; spring (of water); mesh (in a net); glasses, goggles; name given to certain styles of communal fishing (some of which involve diving with goggles); look (like); look (have the appearance of being)
  faʔa-matalook like, be likely that; think, have an opinion; sharpen
  mata-afigroove along which the pointed stick (used in the ‘fire-plough’ method of making fire) is run to and fro
  matāextended family under the headship of a matai
  matā fale‘gable’ of a house
  matā faŋabeach, shore
  matā-talocrown of taro plant (when cut off for replanting)
  matā-ʔupeŋamesh of a net
Tuvaluan mataface; eye; edge, point, blade; net mesh
  mata i taliŋahammerhead shark
  mata kaigluttonous (kai = ‘eat’); sharp (of blade or voice)
  mata-ŋalibeautiful (of people)
Kapingamarangi madato see, to look (used only in compounds)
  mada-a-halethe end of the house (front or back)
  mada-a-haŋaentrance funnel of the fish trap (made of peeled coconut root)
  mada-ahismall flame (obtained from a fire)
  mada haanaua family; a group of people descended from the same ancestor (often holding land jointly)
  mada-waelerays (of the sun); prongs of the boom (on a canoe)
Nukuoro madafront part of, face, beginning (of a thing); tip of; point, blade; common antecedents who are daina (sibling, cousin) or other connecting links of kin relationship
  mada-a moniprow of a canoe
  mada-a uadrop (of liquid or rain)
  mada nnuihaving big holes (or entrances, etc.)
  mada uduathe point of a promontory or peninsula (especially if large)
  mada umaŋathe bud of a Cyrtosperma taro corm
Rennellese mataeye, face (with pl.); tears (poetic); to look at, watch, spy on; tiny aperture or hole, as in the top of a can; coconut eye or end of coconut containing eyes; ‘closure’ or lid of a shell; mesh; drop, as of rain; head of a boil; lid, top, as of a bottle; sharp point, as on a rock; blade, as of adze or axe; top or cap, as of a tuber (taro, giant taro)
  mata-a-poloend of a coconut with the eyes
  mata-a tokiadze blade; mark made by cutting with an adze
  mata haʔoopenings along canoe gunwales through which thwarts and gunwale poles are lashed
  mata ʔagigiclosure of an ʔagigi shell, cat’s eye
  mata ʔi tagiŋahammerhead shark (‘eye of ears’)
  mata ʔuaraindrop
  haka-matato look at, visualize
  tuʔu matato stand close to a person, as in defiance (tuʔu = ‘stand’)
Anuta mataeye (including the immediate surrounding area); face (has this meaning when used in plural); front end of an object
  mata putinew shoot springing from old banana plant (‘eye of banana’)
  mata taua line of men in battle formation
Rarotongan matathe eye or eyes of human beings, animals, birds and insects; the face of a human being or an animal; used to denote the presence (before the face of); the edge of a blade, tool or weapon; the eye of a needle; the point of a needle or other sharp instrument
  mata ioa fishhook
  mata kailiterally means the principal food; denotes food offering
  mata kitea witness, the eyes that saw; one who has seen or did actually see an offense committed; to divine, foresee, foretell; be on the lookout, beware, be watchful
  mata kokethe cutting edge of a sword
  mata nuthe eye of the coconut; the small opening at the base end of the coconut which is pierced in order to drink the fluid
  mata tapuaa director or a supervisor or a chief fisherman: one who directs fishing operations, more especially in regard to fishing with a net or nets; the main or leading end of a fishing net
  mata taupothe core or head of a carbuncle
  mata tipithe cutting edge of a knife
  mata tokithe cutting edge of an axe
  mata urathe leading row of dancers, the leaders of a dance
Maori mataface; surface; eye; edge; point; headland; mesh of a net
  mata-ahispit for roasting; food prepared on a spit
  mata-arato watch, keep awake
  mata-eonorthwest wind
  mata-kiteseer, one who foresees an event; to practice divination
Hawaiian makaeye; eye of a needle; face, countenance; presence; sight, view; beloved one, favorite person; point; bud, protuberance; center of a flower, including usually both the stamens and pistils; nipple, teat; sharp edge or blade of an instrument; point of a fishhook; beginning, source; fig., descendant; mesh of a net, mesh in plaiting; stitch in sewing


PMP     *ka-mata (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ka-matakind of eyes (such as round eyes, almond eyes, blue eyes, etc.)
Ilokano ka-matásore eye; eye infection
Ibaloy ka-mataconjunctivitis, sore eyes, “pink eye”
Tagalog ka-matáhaving the same type of eyes; fig., having the same viewpoint; seeing eye-to-eye
Ngaju Dayak ka-matætype, kind of
Iban ke-matawatch, keep an eye on
Javanese ke-mataconspicuous, eye-catching
Uma -ka-matalook toward
Wolio ko-matasit in state, as bride and groom do during feast, held on the fourth day of the wedding ceremonies
Muna ka-matawatch closely, observe (a girl, to find out whether she is a suitable partner)
Wetan ka-matato rise, get up


PPh     *pa-matá (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano pa-matáspectacles
Tagalog pa-matátenants fee paid to a landlord for being allowed to work on first-class land; a form of reproach by demonstration; what is shown to others
Romblomanon pa-matasomething is observed by someone


PWMP     *paR-mata be awake

Masbatenyo pag-mátato wake up, awaken, rouse, get up
Toba Batak par-mataglasses, spectacles; person who is gifted
Wolio po-matabe awake
Chamorro fakmatawake up, get up from sleep (imperative form)
  fákmatalight sleeper


PAN     *m<in>aCa open-eyed (?)

Paiwan m<in>atsaopen-eyed


PMP     *m<in>ata open-eyed (?)

Ilokano m<in>ataopen-worked (woven bamboo); open-worked basket
Kankanaey m<in>atáa kind of tissue with eyelike designs
Old Javanese m<in>ataset with (stones, etc.)


PPh     *mata-an big-eyed

Ilokano mata-ánlarge-eyed; variety of large-eyed fish (club mackerel: Rastrelliger chrysozomus)
Casiguran Dumagat mata-anspecies of ocean fish (probably a mackerel of the genus Rastrelliger)
Tagalog mata-hánbig-eyed
Cebuano matʔ-anhit in the eye; wake up, be awake
Tausug mata-ana group of things having a common source or similar features, family group under one head


PPh     *mata-en observe closely or critically

Ilokano mata-ento observe keenly
Tagalog mata-hínto be critical of; to look at with a critical eye
Bikol mata-ónto get hit in the eye; to look down on, to be patronizing toward
Agutaynen ag-mata-mata-ento see something or visualize something in your mind, such as the face of a dead person


POC     *mata ni cawa channel between islands or islets

Lou mara-sapassage between islands
Titan mata-cawpassage between islands
Gilbertese mata-n-rawa-rawaan opening, channel, gap in the reef
Kapingamarangi mada-awasmall channel


POC     *mata muri (gloss uncertain)

Mbula mata-muriinheritance, legacy, heirloom, memorial
Samoan mata-muli(be) shy, reserved; (be) embarrassed, ashamed


POC     *mata riki fine, of the mesh of a fish net

Lakalai mata-rikiclose, of net mesh (‘small holes’)
Gilbertese mata-riki-rikijunction of ebbing tide and the ocean in beaches of reef; coconut shell with three holes used for drawing water
Tongan mata-likiPleiades
Futunan mata-likiPleiades; small, miniscule (of writing, tattooing)
Samoan mata-li-liʔi(of a net), be fine, have a small mesh; a large, fine-meshed seine net
Tuvaluan mata-likifine-meshed; star name
Rennellese mata-gikiPleiades
Maori mata-rikiPleiades
Hawaiian makaliʔitiny, very small, fine, wee; small-meshed; narrow wefts; Pleaides

Note:   Thanks to Keane Domenguez for drawing my attention to the meaning ‘small-meshed’ in association with Hawaiian makaliʔi.


PMP     *anak nu mata pupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’)

Acehnese anɨʔ matapupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’)
Ngadha ana matafavorite, ‘apple of the eye’
Rotinese mata ana-(n)favorite, ‘apple of the eye’


PAN     *Cau nu maCa pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)

Thao maca wa cawpupil of the eye (lit. ‘person of the eye’)


PMP     *tau nu mata pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)

Cebuano tawu-táwu sa matáthe pupil of the the eyes (‘person of the eye’)
Tae' mata taupupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)
Buginese tau-tau matapupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)

Note:   The agreement of Cebuano and Buginese in containing a reduplicated for of PMP *tau ‘person, human being’ may indicate an alternative construction *tau tau nu mata, in which the reduplication of *tau marks simulative, since the ‘person’ in the eye is an image, not a literal being.


PMP     *mata nu bisul core of a boil

Malay mata bisulhead of a boil
Manggarai mata wiculcore of a boil
[Kédang u mata-na boil (matan is the ring around it from which the pus emerges)]
Rotinese bisu mata-nacore of a boil
['Āre'āre mā ni ʔaʔecore of a boil]


PMP     *mata nu haŋin point of the compass, direction of the wind

Iban mata aŋinmagnetic compass (‘eye of wind’)
Malay mata aŋinpoint of the compass, direction
Makasarese mata aŋiŋfull force of the wind, full wind


POC     *mata ni aŋin point of the compass, direction

[Nggela mata ni guridirection from which wind comes]
Wayan mata ni caŋidirection of the wind; direction of the compass, i.e. cardinal points
Fijian mata ni caŋithe direction of the wind
Tongan mataŋiwind; air
  mataŋi-a(of a boat) to be caught or struck by a strong wind
Niue mataŋiwind
  mata mataŋidirection from which the wind blows
Futunan mataŋiwind
Samoan mataŋiwind; windy, stormy
Tuvaluan mataŋiEast; east side of island; wind, blow (of wind)
Kapingamarangi mataŋiwind, breeze
Nukuoro mataŋiwind, gas, flatus
Rennellese mataŋiEast, eastern; position of the wind, wind, weather
Anuta mataŋiwind; old name for Anuta
Rarotongan mataŋigeneral name for wind, breeze
Maori mataŋiwind, breeze
  mataŋi-ruato use both sail and paddles in a canoe
Hawaiian makaniwind, breeze; gas in the stomach, flatulent wind; to blow; fig., to show anger; ghost, spirit

Note:   This complex term clearly referred to the direction of the wind (in sailing). In Proto-Polynesian the original morpheme boundary was lost and the adjacent low vowels fused into a single short vowel. The unanalyzable morpheme mataŋi then came to refer to the wind in general (although the reflex in Rennellese retains the original sense in addition to the general sense of ‘wind’). Niue mata mataŋi appears to be an attempt to restore the original sense of directionality by repeating mata ‘eye’ as an independent morpheme, since the original morphology has been lost, and with it the specifying property of *mata.


PMP     *mata nu hikan callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’)

Hanunóo mata ʔikána species of insect; the caterpillar form is very long and thin, and causes the skin to itch considerably on contact (from hair secretion)
Malay mata ikancorn on foot; wart (‘eye of fish’)
Sangir mata-ŋ ikaŋkind of toxic toadstool
Muna mata-no kentacorn on foot (‘eye of fish’)
Manggarai mata ikaŋsore on the tip of the finger or on the foot
Rembong mata ikancorn, callus on foot


POC     *mata ni ikan callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’)

Nggela mata ni igasore on the finger (at end)
Gilbertese mata-n-ikaa small hard abscess caused by a prick in the sole of the foot
Fijian mata ni ikaa painful sore on the sole of the foot or in the palm of the hand from yaws
Tongan mata ʔi ikawhitlow
Rarotongan mata ikaa term used to indicate the first victim slain in a fight, meaning the first fish


PMP     *mata nu kahiw knot in wood

Bahasa Indonesia mata kayuhardest part of wood, corewood of tree
Acehnese mata kayεəknot in wood
Balinese mata kayua knot in wood
Muna mata-no sauknot (in wood)
Kédang ai mata-na knot or hole left at the base of a branch, or else the depression in the earth below the trunk of a tree (Barnes 1974:230)


POC     *mata ni kayu (gloss uncertain)

Paamese mete-n āiprow of canoe; stern of canoe


PMP     *mata nu panaq point of an arrow

Malay mata panahpoint of an arrow
Muna mata-no panaarrow point


POC     *mata ni panaq point of an arrow

Samoan matā-vanapoint of a pump-drill (formerly made from the spike of a sea-urchin)


PWMP     *mata nu piRsa core of a boil

Tagalog matá na pigsáthe core of a boil
[Yakan mata keybubuthead of a boil]
Tboli mata hisathe eye of a boil that has to be opened
Iban mata pisaʔ‘head’ of a boil


PWMP     *mata nu pisaw blade of a knife

Malay mata pisawblade of a knife
Tae' mata pisoblade of a knife
Wolio mata-na pisoblade (of knife)


PWMP     *mata nu puket mesh of a net

Maranao mata poketmesh of net
Malay mata pukatmesh of a net
  [mata jalamesh of a net]
Acehnese mata pukatmesh of a net
[Simalur mata-d delamesh of a casting net; kind of weaving design]
[Toba Batak mata ni jalamesh of a net (< Malay)]
[Makasarese mata jalamesh of a net (< Malay)]
[Kambera mata jalamesh of a net (< Malay)]
[Rotinese dala mata-namesh of a net (< Malay)]
[Nggela mata ni atolamesh of a net]
[Niue mata kupeŋamesh of a net]
[Rennellese mata-a kupeŋanet mesh]

Note:   Also Cebuano matá sa báliŋ ‘mesh of a net’, Iban mata jala ‘meshes added when making a cast-net to increase diameter and produce cone shape’, Sangir mata-n soma ‘mesh of a net’. The reconstruction with *puket is supported by comparative evidence, but *mata undoubtedly was used with reference to the mesh of nets in general, an association that is also found in languages that belong to other genetic groupings, as Japanese (ami no me; net GEN eye), and Hebrew (ayin ha rέʃεt). In some cases it is unclear whether the reference is to the holes in the net or to the knots that give it structure.


PAN     *mata nu qalejaw sun (‘eye of the day’)

Basai mata u ziansun (‘eye of the day’)
Mapun mata allawEast; the sun
Yakan mata ellewthe sun, disc of the sun (‘eye of the day’)
Tboli mata kdawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Tombonuwo mato nu runatsun (‘eye of the day’)
Murut (Paluan) mato nu orowsun (‘eye of the day’)
Murut (Timugon) mato ru orowsun (‘eye of the day’)
Ida'an Begak mato dtowsun (‘eye of the day’)
Bisaya (Limbang) mato adawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Kelabit matəh ədʰosun (‘eye of the day’)
Sa'ban atəh siəwsun (‘eye of the day’)
Sebop atə-n laŋitsun (‘eye of the day’)
Kenyah mata tawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Murik mata-n rosun (‘eye of the day’)
Kayan mata-n dawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Kayan (Uma Juman) mata-n dosun (‘eye of the day’)
Kiput matəh raawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Bintulu mata ɗawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Melanau (Mukah) mata lawsun (‘eye of the day’)
[Tunjung ue-n-ausun (‘eye of the day’)]
Ngaju Dayak mata-n andawsun (‘eye of the day’); kind of tree
Kapuas mata-n andawsun (‘eye of the day’)
Taboyan mate-n olosun (‘eye of the day’)
[Iban mata harisun (‘eye of the day’)]
[Malay mata harisun (‘eye of the day’)]
Gayō mata ni losun (‘eye of the day’)
[Simalur mata-m balalsun (‘eye of the day’)]
[Toba Batak mata ni arisun (‘eye of the day’)]
[Lampung mata xanisun (‘eye of the day’)]
[Madurese mata aresun (‘eye of the day’)]
Sangir mata-ŋ-əllosun (‘eye of the day’)
[Mongondow mata in siŋgaisun (‘eye of the day’)]
[Gorontalo mato no dulahusun; East (‘eye of the day’)]
Banggai oloyo mata-nosun (‘eye of the day’)
Tae' mata allosun (‘eye of the day’); place where the sun rises, East
Buginese mata əssosun (‘eye of the day’)
Makasarese mata allosun (‘eye of the day’)
Muna mata gholeoeast (‘eye of the day’)
[Bimanese mada lirosun (‘eye of the day’)]
Komodo mata rosun (‘eye of the day’)
Manggarai mata lesosun (‘eye of the day’)
Rembong mata lezoqsun (‘eye of the day’)
Ngadha mata lezasun (‘eye of the day’)
Kambera mata lodusun (‘eye of the day’)
Rotinese ledo mata-nasun (‘eye of the day’)
Tetun loro mata-nthe disc of the sun (‘eye of the day’)
Lakalai la-mata-la-harosun (‘eye of the day’)
Toqabaqita maa-na thatothe disc of the sun (‘eye of the day’)
[Wayan mata ni siŋasun (‘eye of the day’); sunflower]
[Fijian mata ni siŋathe sun (‘eye of the day’); a string figure]


PMP     *mata nu susu nipple of the breast

Iban mata tusunipple of breast
Malay mata susunipple of the breast
Rejang mata-i susəwnipple of the breast

Note:   Also Simalur mata-n totuʔ ‘nipple of the breast’.


POC     *mata ni susu female breast

Lou mara susu-nipple of the breast
Loniu mata susu-nipple of the breast
Nali mara susu-nipple of the breast
Yapese mitee-thuuthnipple of the breast
Tolai mata na unipple
[Kilivila mata-la nunuone’s nipple]
Dobuan susu mata-nanipple of the breast
Nehan mata nar huhu-nbreast nipple
Eddystone/Mandegusu mata susunipple
Nggela mata ni susunipples
'Āre'āre mā-na susunipple, teat
[Chuukese mese-n owupwnipple (of breast or baby’s bottle)]
Carolinian mesa-n túútnipple of the breast
Fijian mata ni sucuthe nipples
Tongan mata ʔi huhunipple
Niue mata huhunipple of the breast, teat
Samoan matā-susunipple, teat
Kapingamarangi mada-alili-uunipple of breasts
Rennellese mata-a-uunipple, teat


PMP     *mata nu wahiR spring of water, source of a river

Malay mata airspring of water
[Acehnese mata iəspring, well, source of a river]
[Gayō mata térspring, source]
Sasak mata aiʔspring, well
[Pendau mata nu ogospring]
[Tialo mata nu ogospring]
[Banggai paisu mata-nospring, source of water]
Wolio mata-na uwespring, source
Muna mata-no oewell, spring
[Chamorro mata-n hanomspring, source of water]
Bimanese mada oispring, well
[Komodo mata banuspring, source]
Manggarai mata waespring, source (of a river)
Rembong mata waeqspring, source
Ngadha mata vaespring, source
Kambera mata waispring, source
Hawu ei mada raispring, source
Rotinese oe mataspring of water
Tetun ue mata-na spring (of water)
Yamdena weye mata-nspring, source (‘eye of water’)


POC     *mata ni waiR spring of water, source of a river

[Mussau mata ulaulaspring, place where water bubbles up]
[Tolai mata na tāvaspring of water, waterhole, tap of a tank]
'Āre'āre mā ni waimouth of river
Wayan mata ni waiany freshwater source; spring, source of a river, rain clouds; wet ground, ground with natural water source on which taro may be planted; source, origin, start of something, especially if valuable
Fijian mata ni waia spring; sometimes a gully, or low ground, on which taro is planted; in Lau, the uterus
Tongan mata vaispring (of water); source (of a river)
Samoan matā vaispring, source
[Rarotongan mata punasource of a spring of water, the springhead, fountainhead]
[Maori mata-tikispring of water]


PMP     *mata nu zalan middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way

Yakan mata lānmiddle of the road
Bahasa Indonesia mata jalanlookout, scout (‘eye of the path/road’)
Tae' mata lalanmiddle part of a road, most trodden part where no grass grows; also a guide who goes ahead and shows the way to others
Buginese mata laləŋscout, one who points out the way
Makasarese mata lalaŋguide, pilot
Muna mata n-salaguide; spy
Hawu mada ɗyarapath, pathway
Tetun mata dalanto show the way


POC     *mata ni salan (gloss uncertain)

Niue mata halaentrance; beginning of a road
Samoan mata ala(be) watchful, alert; (be) quick, prompt
Rarotongan mata araa path, track, way, road, method, manner, system, manner of how to do or accomplish an end in view


PWMP     *mata nu zaRum eye of a needle

Malay mata jarumeye of a needle
Makasarese mata jaruŋeye of a needle


PMP     *mata-mata spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead

Yami mata-mataeyes
Aklanon matá-matá (h)to look down on, belittle
Cebuano matá-matásee an illusion, mirage
  mata-mátawake up accidentally
Mapun mata-mataa spy (Old Mapun) (< Malay?)
Tausug mata-mataa spy (< Malay?)
Ngaju Dayak matæ-matæremain open, of a wound
Acehnese mata-mataa spy
Karo Batak mata-mataknot in wood; a spy; messenger
Toba Batak mata-mataknothole; custodian, inspector
Rejang mata-mataa spy
Sundanese mata-matasecret agent of the police, spy
Javanese mata-mataspy, secret agent
Madurese ta-mataa spy
Mongondow mata-mataa tree with hard wood like ironwood
Tae' mata-matasubordinate to the village head who manages many tasks for him
Mandar mata-mataa spy
Buginese mata-mataa spy
Makasarese mata-mataa memento, souvenir; a spy
Rembong mata-mataa spy (< Malay?)
Rotinese mata-mata-kof all kinds
Tolai mata-matato have many holes
Roviana mata-mataa leader
Nggela mata-matawild, of domesticated animals only; shy, timid
Gilbertese mata-matato look in order to choose, to make a choice (used esp. when choosing a daughter-in-law)
Pohnpeian masa-masbeloved, favorite
Woleaian mate-matto use as eyes; kind, variety (as different kinds of people)
Sonsorol-Tobi mata-matkind, variety
Wayan mata-matagateway
Fijian mata-mataa gateway; a goal, at football
Tongan mata-matato appear, to look, to seem
Niue mata-matareticulated; appearing like the meshes of a net
Futunan mata-matacontemplate, view, gaze on; source
Samoan mata-mataspy, scout
Rennellese mata-matato look at or for
Rarotongan mata-matathe edge of anything, such as the edge of a cliff, the banks of a stream
Maori mata-matapoint, extremity; top, summit; headland; source; suddenly
Hawaiian maka-makaintimate friend with whom one is on terms of receiving and giving freely; host; fig., anything very helpful, as education

Note:   Also Mailu mata-mata ‘to appear’, presumably a loan from a still unidentified Austronesian source.


PMP     *mata nu qatay mental perception

Malay mata hatimental perception, instinct


POC     *mata qate instinct

Niue mata ase/atethe core of the heart

Note:   As shown in Blust (2009:313-314) reflexes of PAn *maCa are exceptionally rich in their extended meanings. Although its primary sense clearly was ‘eye’, this term, like its semantic equivalents in many of the world’s languages, simultaneously indicated an idea that can be characterized roughly as ‘focal point, most prominent or important part’, a sense that is realized in particular instances as ‘sun’, ‘budding part of a plant’, ‘spring of water’, ‘blade or point of a knife’, and the like.

In many cases the semantic structure of such words persists even when the morphemes that express it are not cognate, as in Tunjung ue ‘eye’, au ‘day’, ue-n-au ‘sun’ (‘eye of the day’), Iban, Malay mata hari ‘sun’ (‘eye of the day’), Toba Batak mata ni ari ‘sun’ (‘eye of the day’), or Simalur mata-m balal ‘sun’ (‘eye of the day’).

In others the semantics are slightly skewed, as in Sebop atə-n ‘eye’, laŋit ‘sky’, atə-n laŋit ‘sun’ (‘eye of the sky’). Some ‘eye’ expressions are extremely widespread in Austronesian languages, as those for ‘sun’, ‘nipple of the breast’, ‘spring of water’, and the like, while others are confined to a single language or discrete subgroup, as with Polynesian forms for ‘raindrop’ that reflect Proto-Polynesian *mata ʔuha. The range of metaphorical or quasi-metaphorical extensions of ‘eye’ given here is no doubt incomplete, but should serve to indicate the exceptional richness of abstract uses for this body-part, a richness that derives universally from the eye as the first part of the human anatomy on which infants focus, and which therefore becomes for all humans a focal point for anything important or essential (Blust 2011).

The use of PMP *nu as the genitive marker in expression such as *mata nu susu ‘nipple of the breast’ or *mata nu wahiR ‘spring of water, source of a river’ might be questioned, since most of the languages for which these expressions have been recorded have no genitive marker, and --- with few exceptions --- those that do have a form of the genitive that is different from *nu. However, other evidence indicates that PMP had three genitive markers: *nu ‘genitive of common nouns’, *ni ‘genitive of singular personal nouns’ and *na ‘genitive of plural personal nouns’, and this would lead us to expect that the marker in ‘eye’ constructions would have been *nu, even if no trace of it is preserved in the languages cited here. Proto-Oceanic, on the other hand, evidently replaced *nu with *ni, as this is consistently reflected in different primary branches of the Oceanic subgroup (Nggela, Kwaio, Ulawa, Gilbertese, Wayan, Fijian).


*mádaŋ a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus


PWMP     *mádaŋ a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus

Ilokano máraŋspecies of tropical fruit with sweet white flesh around thick seeds and surrounded by a spiny covering
Cebuano máraŋkind of large fruit tree, bearing fruit similar to the jackfruit, but smaller and sweeter; not commonly cultivated except in Mindanao: Artocarpus odoratissima
Maranao madaŋsweet fruit of the breadfruit type: Artocarpus odoratissima Blco.
Binukid maraŋkind of large tree or fruit which is similar to jackfruit, but smaller and sweeter
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) maraŋthe maraŋ tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissima
Mapun maraŋa tree that looks like a breadfruit tree; the fruit resembles breadfruit but its seeds and pulp are similar to jackfruit
Ngaju Dayak madaŋa tree with durable wood often used for house posts

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-1938) compared Tagalog máraŋLitsea spp.’ (Madulid 2001), Ngaju Dayak madaŋ ‘a tree with fairly durable wood that is often used for houseposts’, Malagasy mérana ‘a plant used in house-building: Vernonia merana Baker’, Malay mədaŋ ‘generic for many plants of the order Laurinaceae, and for others with a timber of similar appearance’, and Toba Batak modaŋ ‘tree with white wood that is much used in construction’ under a proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *medaŋ ‘name of a tree’. However, under this hypothesis the penultimate vowel of the Tagalog form was irregular. Other Philippine languages now support Tagalog in pointing to *madaŋ rather than *medaŋ, and the Philippine forms appear to be unrelated to those in Indonesia and Madagascar.


*madar ripe, overripe


PCEMP     *madar ripe, overripe

Yamdena madaralmost ripe, of coconuts; half-withered, of leaves
Buli mararipe, cooked
Tolai madarripe, overripe
Nggela mandaripe
Arosi madaripe


*madrali slippery, as wet rocks by the shore


POC     *madrali slippery, as wet rocks by the shore

Yotefa medaritjslippery
Manam malazi <Mslippery
Bugotu madalislippery
Nggela mandalislippery; to moisten
'Āre'āre matarislippery
Arosi madariwet and slippery, as rocks, an oiled stone


*maga stone; slingshot


POC     *maga stone; slingshot

Lakalai la tu-magaa sling
Tongan makastone
  maka-tāa sling; to sling stones, to use a sling (= ‘stone’ + ‘hit’)
Anuta makasling (for hurling stones)
Rarotongan makaa sling: a strap or pocket with a string attached at each end for hurling a stone or other missile; it was usually made from coconut fiber or hibiscus bark

Note:   A somewhat different version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (1998:227).


*mai and


PMP     *mai and     [doublet: *maS, *a₂]

Hanunóo mayand (only when indicating the existence of a numerable entity in excess of what has been enumerated previously)
Abaknon mayand
Kelabit meand
Palauan and
Maleu meand
Lakalai meand
Gedaged maiconjunction: and, also, too, as well as, likewise, moreover
Motu maiand; before a noun is equivalent to “have”
Gabadi maiand
Muyuw mayand
Nggela maiand, with; the pronouns are suffixed with mai-a, mai-ra, mai-gi, used clauses
Talise maiand
Tolo maiand
Chuukese meconjunction: and, or; with, in conjunction with
Puluwat mepreposition: from, all (with numbers), and
Woleaian meconjunction: and, with
Carolinian menoun phrase conjunction: and, or, with
Maskelynes meiand
Efate (South) meand
Iaai meand, with (plus pronominal complement)
Canala mε̃and, with (in the company of)
Dehu meand, with
Maori mewith, denoting concomitance, or concurrence in time; often to be rendered by and
Rapanui meand
Hawaiian meand


*ma-ilah wild, shy, skittish


PWMP     *ma-ilah₂ wild, shy, skittish

Hanunóo ma-ʔilawild, untamed
Aklanon ma-ila(h)wild, untamed
Cebuano ma-ilashy (as chickens)
Bare'e ma-ilawild, skittish (as a horse)

Note:   Also Makasarese ilaʔ-ilaʔ ‘wild (as in playing); headlong, hot-headed (as in riding a horse)’. PAn *ma-Seyaq ‘shy, embarrassed, ashamed’ referred to shyness in humans; *ma-ilah appears to have applied primarily to animals.


*ma-iRaq redness


PMP     *ma-iRaq red

Taboyan méyaʔred
Iban mirahred
Jarai mriahred
Rhade hrahred (note: Rhade c.d. < *siRaq)
Moken mélakpurple, red
Malay mérahred
Karo Batak mirahred (of coloration in fighting cocks)
Toba Batak mirared (of coloration in fighting cocks)
Old Javanese mirahruby; red, ruby-red, blood-red
Balinese mirahruby
Sasak mirahruby
Bonerate mehared
Popalia mehared


PCEMP     *meRaq red

Sika mérared, light red, brown
Hawu méared
Rotinese méared
Tetun méa-krusty, rust-colored, reddish
  méa-nred (all shades)
Erai merared
  ana meralittle children, babies
Talur meared
Tugun ma-merared
Leti mérared
Buruese mihared
  miha-nruddy, blood-red


POC     *meRaq reddish brown

Luangiua meared
Nggela melared spittle from betel nut chewing
Kwaio melabright red
Lau melalight brown, reddish-brown
  tō melaPolynesians
Sa'a melato glow, of fierce heat
Arosi meraspecies of small red fish
Arosi (Eastern) mera-mera-ʔared
Gilbertese meareddish yellow color, rust, grey
Tongan mealight red or light brown, reddish, brownish: esp. in names of plants, fish, etc.
Nukuoro meared
Rennellese meabe red or reddish; be very angry
Maori meared, reddish
Hawaiian meareddish-brown, as water with red earth in it; yellowish-white, of feathers


PCEMP     *meRaq meRaq red, reddish

Leti mér-mérared
Selaru mér-mérred
'Āre'āre mera-merared (of fruit)
Sa'a mela-melato glow, of fierce heat
Mota me-meared
Raga me-meared
Samoan me-meayellowish-brown (with age)
Kapingamarangi mmeered
Nukuoro mmeared
Rennellese me-meato flush, as with anger

Note:   Also Nggela mea-mea ‘yellow, brown’. With root *-Raq ‘red’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Malay mérah and similar forms in other languages with Tagalog igá ‘evaporated, dried by evaporation’, maintaining that the former reflect an affixed base with the stative prefix *ma-. However, since the Tagalog form is both phonologically irregular and semantically deviant it is best discarded.

Although Dempwolff's morphological analysis almost certainly is correct, it is complicated by the virtual absence of known reflexes of the unaffixed base.

Two candidates supporting a bimorphemic analysis are known to me: 1. Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-iRa, i-ka-iRa ‘ashamed’, 2. Hanunóo hígaʔ ‘type of crab having red eyes’. Both of these candidates for the unaffixed base are problematic, the Puyuma form because it contains an unexpected zero reflex of *-q, the Hanunóo form because it is unique in the Philippines. It appears that the vowel sequence *a-i had contracted to *e by POc times. The similar contraction in many of the languages of eastern Indonesia, and in Taboyan and Malay may be independent.


*maja dry up, evaporate


PMP     *maja dry up, evaporate

Ilokano magádry; neat, tidy
  ma-maga-anto dry up
  na-mag-maga-nvery dry, well seasoned (wood)
Isneg na-maxádry, seasoned (timber)
  mag-maxáto dry
Ifugaw magádryness of a land, of vegetation, or what happened to be wet insofar as the dryness is caused by the heat of the sun or the lack of rain
Pangasinan magáto dry, wither
Inati maradry
Maranao maradry (as a riverbed)
  ka-maradry, anhydrous (as land)
Rembong mazadry; already cooked (of rice)
Solorese maradry up
Kédang mayadry; thirsty
Asilulu maladry
Boano₂ maladry
Leipon ce-marto dry up, as rice in a pot that has been boiling too long
Kele sa-marto dry up, as rice in a pot that has been boiling too long
Rano mi-mesdry
Fijian macaempty, dry, of liquids. Used as exclamation when a bowl of yaqona (kava) has been drunk --- the onlookers call out ‘A! Maca!’; to dry or heal up, of a sore
  vaka-maca-takato dry or empty a canoe on shore
  maca-macadry or healed
  i-maca-macaa scar
Tongan maha(of liquid or its container) finished, all gone, dry, empty; (of a battery) completely run down, giving no current at all; (of a cow) dry
Niue mahaempty; calm; to empty (as a coconut when drinking); to be calm, as the sea
Futunan masabe empty (as a bottle), be dry (as a river from which the water has evaporated)
  masa-masato dry up gradually
Samoan masa(of the tide) neap; (of a canoe, boat, etc.) be empty (after bailing out, etc.)
Tuvaluan mahaempty; low, of tide
Rennellese masato be empty or nearly empty of liquid; to be shallow or low, as the tide
  haka-masato dry, as tears, to empty


PMP     *ma-maja dry up

Maranao ma-maradry, dried (as soil that has dried up, or clothes after washing)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-mazadry
Wuvulu ma-maxaevaporate, dry up
Aua ma-maradry up, as rice that is cooking
Kove ma-masadry
Lakalai ma-marato boil away or dry up, of water
  ma-mara-tidammed up, of water; finished, of water in the hollow of a tree; dry, of water; very low tide
Mbula ma-maazadry enough so that water does not drip anymore; dry, as the tongue when saliva stops flowing
Numbami mamasaebbtide, low tide; go dry, dry out
Uruava ma-maadry
'Āre'āre haʔa-mata-ato dry fish or meat over the fire before the final cooking between hot stones
Sa'a ma-matato be high and dry, of a reef, to be dry at low water
Arosi ma-matadry
  haʔa-ma-matato make dry
  haʔa-ma-mata susuthe last born (lit’ ‘to make the breast dry up’)
Kosraean mʷesshallow place in the reef
Pohnpeian madreef; large coral head; to be dry
Mokilese madportion of the reef exposed at low tide
  mad-dato dry up (of the reef)
Chuukese mmatlow tide, be at low tide
Nukuoro mmasato be dry
  haga-mmasato dry something
Maori ma-mahasteam

Note:   Also 'Āre'āre maʔa ‘empty, dried up (of water only)’, haʔa-ma-a ‘to dry coconuts, betelnuts, and other nuts above a fire’. Reflexes of this form in some Oceanic languages are hard to distinguish from *maqati ‘low tide, dry reef’. Dempwolff (1938) cited the Futunan and Samoan forms erroneously as maha.


*maka- verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something


PWMP     *maka- verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something

Itbayaten maka-prefix expressing ability
Ilokano maka-intransitive potentive prefix, corresponding to the transitive ma- indicating potential, abilitative, accidental, or coincidental action
Bontok maka-aptative prefix occurring with non-completive agentive voice affixes
Ibaloy maka-verbal prefix marking ability to do something
Tagalog maka-prefix to root word forming verbs expressing ability to do something
Bikol maka-verbal affix, potential action series, infinitive-command form
Aklanon maka-aptative future verb prefix in actor focus, marking ability to do something
Cebuano maka-potential active verb affix, future
Murut (Timugon) maka-prefix forming abilitative verbs
Malagasy maha-potential prefix; it expresses the ability or power to perform any action, or what makes a thing to be what it is


*makaw walk, go


PWMP     *makaw walk, go     [doublet: *lakaw]

Sambal (Botolan) mákogo
Tboli mógówcome, go
Kiput makaːwwalk
Melanau (Mukah) makawwalk

Note:   Probably from *l-um-akaw, with loss of the initial syllable.


*makúpa mountain apple: Eugenia spp.


PPh     *makúpa mountain apple: Eugenia spp.

Ilokano makúpathe mountain apple or Malay apple: Eugenia javanica
Tagalog makópaMalay rose apple tree and its fruit
Bikol makópatree growing up to ten meters and producing a juicy, edible fruit, small, waxy and pear-shaped in appearance, mountain apple, rose apple: Syzygium malaccense
Aklanon makúpaa tree and its fruit: Eugenia aquea
Cebuano makúpaa small tree cultivated for its red, top-shaped fruits, with white, spongy meat and a mild flavor, a large meaty variety of the Syzygium samarangense

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.


*malai withered, faded


POC     *malai withered, faded

Kove malaitired; feeling lazy
Lakalai malaito be withering or drying up, of leaves, fruit, copra (when completely dry = pakuku)
Fijian malaiwithered, faded; to wither, fade

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond (1998:135).


*malala village square; dancing ground


POC     *malala village square; dancing ground

Drehet mwalaŋopen area, clearing
Yapese malaaldancing place, public open place in village, village square
Vitu malalavillage; island
Lakalai malaladancing ground; garden cleared but not planted
Manam malalamarket place, assembly place
Nakanamanga mʷalaladancing place
Wayan ŋʷalalabe vacant, unoccupied, empty, free (of a place); be free, at liberty, without restrictions (of a person);

Note:   Also Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka (Young 1979) melala ‘village’.


*malaw paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material


PCEMP     *malaw paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material

Selaru malloincloth
Asilulu mala aikind of tree the bark of which was formerly used to make loincloths
Buli mālpounded tree bark; clothing of same
Numfor mārloincloth (originally of pounded tree bark)
Tanga malbark cloth, and especially the inner bark of the breadfruit tree, beaten and used as cloth, although many other species are used; mourning band of bark cloth worn around the neck or on the upper arm by female mourners
  mal-malshoulder sling for carrying a baby, made of bark cloth
Tolai malspecies of small tree, Brousonnetia papyrifera, the bark of which is used for making cloth; native cloth made from this bark; cloth, waist-cloth, loin-cloth, clothing, clothes (in general); to wear cloth or clothes, be dressed
Lusi malogirdle
Kove maloclothing
Kairiru myalloincloth; traditionally used in times of war, now replaced by the laplap
Manam malobark belt
Gedaged mala tree, it bark is used to make G-strings and blankets; loincloth made from the bark of mal
Gitua malomen’s bark loincloth; clothing
Arosi maroa species of tree, paper mulberry; beaten cloth of the maro (the bark was soaked in water an then beaten out, and later painted in gay colors and used as a sling to carry a child, or as a loincloth); a loincloth
Mota maloa tree, probably a mulberry; the girdle of leaves and flowers used by tamate (members of the ‘ghost’ society)
Fijian malothe paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera, hence the native cloth made from it, and the former native male dress, a piece of malo passed between the thighs and fastened with a girdle; if not passed between the legs it is i sulu
Niue malowaist belt or cloth; menstrual cloth; baby’s napkin
  malo tauwar girdle
Futunan malocloth girdle used during ceremonies; menstrual cloth
Samoan maloloincloth
Tuvaluan malobreech cloth of plaited pandanus leaves; menstrual pad
  tau-malostage in boy’s life when malo must be worn; a boy who has reached this stage
Nukuoro maloclothes, cloth
  malo gahushirt
Rennellese magoto put on or wear, as a sarong; sarong
Anuta malomen’s loin garment, made from a strip of bark-cloth
Rarotongan maroa waist girdle, the ancient loincloth or waist wrap; various kinds were used in ancient days
  maro kurathe sacred crimson girdle, generally worn by the ariki or members of an ariki family
  maro totospecial waist cloth or girdle worn only by women during the period of menses --- a menstrual girdle
Maori maroa sort of kilt or apron worn by males and females; material (moss, lichen, etc.) used by a woman at certain periods; to put on, as a maro
Hawaiian malomale’s loincloth; chant in praise of a chief’s loincloth; leaf sheath that protects the young leaves of the breadfruit tree

Note:   Also Buruese kamaru ~ maru ‘loincloth’, Mbula maana ‘loincloth made of tree bark’, Rotuman mala ‘kind of girdle used by high chiefs; it is dyed red with special dye or paint’. The Kairiru gloss and that in several Polynesian languages suggests that certain types of loincloth were associated with war, as with the Niue malo tau ‘war girdle’, or Maori maro huka or maro tūhou, which were “roughly made of leaves of karamū for certain ceremonies in time of war” (Williams 1971).


*malem night, darkness


PWMP     *malem night, darkness

Ilokano malémafternoon
  ag-malémthe whole day
  ipa-malémto put off until the afternoon
  paŋ-malémafternoon meal
  m<in>alémevery afternoon
Lun Dayeh malemnight
Kelabit malemseveral days ago; dark
Bukat maləmnight
Jarai mlamnight
Rhade mlamnight
Malay malamnight
Moronene malonight

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.


*males become soft or weak (of things or people)


PMP     *males become soft or weak (of things or people)

Malay malasunwilling; idle; lazy
Toba Batak malosto fade, wither; faded, withered
Sundanese maləslazy
Balinese maleslazy
Sasak maləslazy
Manggarai malessoft; lithe
Rotinese maleto wither; become weak, soft, powerless
Yamdena malassoft, supple, as leaves or thread


*mali a plant: Leea spp.


PMP     *mali a plant: Leea spp.

Tagalog malia plant: Leea indica (Madulid 1999)
Malay malismall shrub or weed, Leea spp.
Manggarai (West) malia shrub: Leea rubra


PMP     *mali-mali a plant, Leea spp.

Kapampangan mali-malia plant: Leea aculeata (Madulid 1999)
Bikol ma-malia plant: Leea guineensis (Madulid 1999)
Malay mali berduri, mali-maliLeea sambucina. This latter is associated with a description of a wind violent enough to tear out the very weeds on the lawn
Makasarese mali-malia shrub, Leea aequata
Wuvulu mali-malifish poison and the vine from which it is obtained

Note:   *mali and *mali-mali appear to have distinguished two species or subspecies of the same type of plant. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (n.d.).


*malip laugh, smile


PCEMP     *malip laugh, smile

Hawu marilaugh
  pe-marilaugh, giggle
Atoni manilaugh
Vaikenu manito laugh
Tugun malilaugh
Kisar mali-nohimockery
Roma na-malito laugh
East Damar m-malito laugh
Leti malilaugh
Wetan maligame, joke; to play
Selaru mahis <Mlaugh
Yamdena n-maliplaugh, laugh at
Fordata n-mali-tlaugh, laugh at
Kei en-mali-tlaugh, laugh at
Kola melto smile, laugh
Ujir a-mellaugh
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) mellaugh
Elat mbo-mali-klaugh
Nuaulu ia-u-manilaugh
Alune malilaugh
Buruese malismile, laugh
  mali-h, mali-ksmile at, laugh at
Sekar maniflaugh
Taba amlif <Mto laugh
Gimán mlifto laugh
Buli a-mliflaugh
  a-mlif-alaugh at
Biga mlefto laugh
Minyaifuin mnifto laugh
Numfor mbriflaugh
  mbrifto laugh
Serui-Laut marilaugh
Seimat mallaugh, smile
Chuukese menismile; pleased facial expression
Puluwat mellaugh, giggle a little, smile
Woleaian mmal(i)laugh, smile, grin
Nokuku manto laugh
Axamb -mento laugh
Wayan malilaugh, smile, grin
Fijian malismile


POC     *mali-malip laughing, smiling

Seimat mali-mallaughing, smiling
Label mal-malihlaugh
Chuukese meni-menpleased facial expression(especially a smiling one); smile, smiling


*maliqi pregnant


PAN     *maliqi pregnant

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-riʔipregnant
Kelabit malihpregnant (general term)

Note:   Also Buruese gali ‘pregnant’. This form almost certainly contains the stative prefix *ma-. However, it is unclear whether the PAn base was *aliqi or *liqi.


*maliraŋ sulphur


PMP     *maliraŋ sulphur

Tagalog maliláŋsulphur
Ngaju Dayak mariraŋsulphur (used externally as medicine against scurf and vermin)
Manggarai meliraŋsulphur

Note:   Also Kambera lira ‘sulphur’, tana lira ‘sulphurous earth (used to enhance the lustre of metals)’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baliraŋ ‘sulphur’, but this variant appears to be a western Indonesian innovation which has been widely disseminated through borrowing of either the Malay term (belérang) or its Javanese cognate (walirang). There are indications that sulphur had native medicinal uses, and the abundance of the material on Java would have made this island an important source of sulphur for areas in which it was absent (Borneo) or rare (Sulawesi).

Reflexes of *maliraŋ show a distribution which is difficult to explain as a product of borrowing. I assume, then, that *maliraŋ was found in PMP, and that *baliraŋ was innovated (through a sporadic sound change) in a language ancestral to Malay, Javanese, and some other languages of western Indonesia. Following this innovation Javanese sulphur was disseminated widely through the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders, the Javanese term reaching some languages (Soboyo waliraŋ) and the Malay term others (Buginese beléraŋ, Makasarese baliraŋ, etc.).


*malon core of a breadfruit


POC     *malon core of a breadfruit

Gedaged malonwhite core of the fruit of the breadfruit
Fijian malosoft kernel of the center of the breadfruit
Hawaiian maloleaf sheath that protects the young leaves of the breadfruit tree


*maluRu shade


PEMP     *maluRu shade

Buli ma-maludark, black clouds; shadow of objects (but not of people)
Tolai malurshade; cool, shady, fresh; to shade, stand in the shade
Kwaio malushade, environs of
Lau ma-maluto cast a shadow
'Āre'āre (ma)-marushade, shadow; to shade, overshadow
  maru-anaunder, below
Sa'a mäluto shade, to overshadow
  mälu-sito shade
  i melu-neunder the shadow, the rule of; used in names of chiefs
Arosi marushade; to shade, overshadow; the lee of an island
  maru-ŋito reign over, rule, command
Wayan malube protected or sheltered from the elements; be shaded, in the shade or shadows
  malu-tiput something in the shade, put something out of the sun
  maa-malushade, shadow; shelter, protection
Fijian i-malu-maluthe shade of a roof or tree
Tongan maluto be shaded or sheltered (lit. or fig.); to be safe, secure, watertight or airtight
  maluu(of the wind, or of the sea or the day as affected by the wind) mild, pleasantly calm; (of pain) abated, gone
  malu-ʔito protect or defend; to make or keep safe or secure, to safeguard; to insure, to guarantee
Niue malushade, shadow; protection; shaded, sheltered
Samoan malushelter; take shelter
Tuvaluan malushadow; shade; shelter; protection; power, authority; protect
  ma-malunoble, honorable
  malu afi-afiearly evening
  malu poo-pooevening (7 to 8 PM)
Kapingamarangi malushadow, shade; behind (some protective cover); shelter
Nukuoro malushade (under trees); lee (of wind)
Rennellese magushade, shelter, protection, fine looks, splendor; to shade, shelter, protect, cover
  magu hahinehandsome woman, female beauty
Anuta maru ~ maruuprotected; dry (as the inside of a well-constructed house when it is raining); shady; protector
Rarotongan marushelter, protection; shade
  maru aʔothe shadows of light of day, the faint light of dawn
  maru-matethe shadow of death
Maori marupower, authority; shadow, shelter; shield, safeguard; a glow in the heavens; shaded, sheltered; attended by an escort; proof against rain
Hawaiian malushade, shelter, protection, peace, control, strength; shaded, peaceful, quiet; under taboo; reserved, held apart; taboo; the stillness and awe of taboo


POC     *paka-maluRu to shelter, give shelter to

Arosi haʔa-maru-ato put in the shade, out of the sun
Wayan vaka-malutake shelter, seek shade or protection
  i-vaka-maluanything that gives shade or shelter, e.g. a temporary shelter, umbrella
Niue faka-maluto overshadow; protect, shelter
  faka-malu-aŋaa porch, a shelter
Samoan faʔa-maluput a cover on, shield against
Tuvaluan faka-maluumbrella; make a shelter; offer gifts to another family to restore friendly relations
  faka-ma-malushow respect
Rennellese haka-magushelter, protector, protection, cover; to find shelter; to cover, as a canoe, to protect from the sun
Hawaiian hoʔo-maluto bring under the care and protection of, to protect; to keep quiet, still, as during taboo


POC     *maluRu maluRu shady, shaded, sheltered (?)

Tolai mal-malurushady
'Āre'āre maru-marutime between three and six in the afternoon
Sa'a mälu-meluto shade, to overshadow
Arosi maru-marushade
Wayan malu-malube shady, well-shaded, well sheltered from the elements
Fijian malu-malushady, sheltered; the shade of a roof or tree
Tongan malu-malushady, affording shade
  malu-malu-abe shaded by something
Niue malu-malushady; lowering (of the sky)
Nukuoro malu-malu de mecloudy day (not bright)
Anuta maru-marushady; dry (as a result of being protected from the rain)
Rarotongan maru-marushady, sheltered from light or heat
Maori maru-marushaded, sheltered
  whaka-maru-maruto shade, shelter, protect; protector, chief
Hawaiian malu-malushelter or protection of any kind, often humble
  hoʔo-malu-maluto overshadow, shade, darken, as by a cloud

Note:   The semantic evolution of this word is particularly interesting. Its original reference, insofar as it can be inferred from the available data, was to the shade or shadow produced by objects, particularly those that gave shelter or protection from the sun, as trees or buildings. Over time this evolved in some of the Polynesian languages into a more abstract sense of protection, which ultimately could be applied to the social protection provided by persons of power or authority within the community, and even to the individual who provided such protection, as with Maori whaka-maru-maru ‘protector, chief’. If its original sense included not only protection from the sun, but also protection from wind and rain the meaning ‘lee of an island’, which is attested both in Arosi of the southeast Solomons, and in Nukuoro may also have been associated with this form in POc.


*mamah father’s brother


PAN     *mamah father’s brother

Atayal mamauncle, brother of father or mother
Pazeh mamaholder brother of a man or woman, wife’s elder brother
Rukai (Maga) mamafather (Tsuchida n.d.)


PMP     *mama parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama

Umiray Dumaget mamauncle younger than Ego’s parent (Elkins and Hendrickson 1984)
Tagalog máma-ʔterm used in referring to, or in addressing a man unknown to the speaker
Aklanon mamáhgreat grandfather
Agutaynen mamagrandfather
Binukid mamaterm of address for male much younger than the speaker
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mamaterm of respect used by males and females to address a male of equal age or younger than the one speaking
Miri mama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother
Bintulu kə-mamauncle (mother’s brother, father’s brother)
Bekatan mamefather’s brother
Dohoi mama-ʔparents’ brother
Ngaju Dayak mamauncle (of someone else; for one’s own uncle the term is ama)
Kapuas mama-ʔparents’ sister’s husband
  mama-ʔ busuparents’ younger brother
Dusun Deyah mama-ʔparents’ younger brother, parents’ younger sister’s husband
Ma'anyan mama-ʔparents’ brother, parents’ sister’s husband
Samihim mama-ʔparents’ brother, parents’ sister’s husband
Malay mama-kmaternal uncle; (loosely) any uncle
Simalur mamaʔmaternal uncle
Karo Batak mamamother’s brother, uncle, thus also father-in-law of a man
Rejang mamafather’s elder brother, mother’s elder brother
  mama-ŋfather’s younger brother; mother’s younger brother
Sundanese mamafather; uncle
Sasak mamamale, male animal
  mama toaʔold man
  sə-mamahusband, spouse
  bə-sə-mamamarried (of a woman)
Tontemboan mama-ʔfather; vocative of ama-ʔ
Mongondow mama-ʔfather (used by children)
Uma mamafather
Manggarai mamauncle, mother’s brother
Rembong mamahusband’s father, wife’s father; mother’s brother; father’s sister’s husband
Ngadha mamauncle (< (mama-y?)
Lamaholot mamãmother’s brother; wife’s father
Kei mamchild’s term of address to his father, from elders to their sons, and in general in intimate contexts between older men and their sons
Gah mamafather
Soboyo mamafather, term of address for older males
Buli mamafather
  mama tawawaiyoungest brother of one’s father
Minyaifuin mamfather
Numfor mamfather


POC     *mama young child’s term for father

Sobei mamfather
Kairiru mam(my) father
Kis mamafather
Ali mamfather
Manam mamafather
Gedaged mama reciprocal classificatory kinship term; male speaking: father’s brother, mother’s sister’s husband, father’s mother’s brother’s or sister’s son, father’s father’s brother’s or sister’s son; father; son; female speaking: father and his brothers; son; mother’s sister’s husband; father’s father’s brother’s or sister’s son; mother’s mother’s brother’s or sister’s son; an honorary title for older persons, those in a higher position, as teachers, missinaries, God
Gitua mamafather (vocative)
Numbami mamafather, uncle
Motu mamaa child’s term of address to his father
Cheke Holo mamafather, elder male kin of first ascending generation; father-in-law (vocative)
Roviana mamaa childish word for father
Bugotu mamavocative; father, sir
Nggela mamafather, in direct address, replacing tama; also in general sense, na mama
Toqabaqita mamafather; used mainly by and to children
Mota mamafather, in addressing him; also in speaking of him, less properly; to call one’s father
Lingarak mamafather

Note:   Also Proto-Ambon *měmě ‘mother’s brother’ (Stresemann 1927:197), SA’A mamaʔa ‘vocative, father’.


*mamaq chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food


PMP     *mamaq chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food

Itbayaten mamaidea of chewing betel nut
  man-mamato chew betel nut
  mama-ento chew; something to chew
Ilokano mamáa concoction for chewing made of betel leaf, betel nut and lime; areca nut, tobacco, lime and betel leaves
  ag-mamáto chew betel
  pag-mama-áncontainer for betel
Ibaloy mamathe betel nut chew
  man-mamato engage in betel chewing
  mama-anto spit red betel juice on something
Tagalog mag-mamáʔto chew betel nut
Bikol mamáʔa mixture of betel nut, búyo’ leaf and lime
Hanunóo mámaʔchewing of betel leaf, areca nut chew
  mamʔ-ínbetel leaf for chewing; areca nut chew (< Tagalog?)
Romblomanon mamaʔa betel nut masticatory; betel nut chewing is restricted to herbalists and older people
Masbatenyo mamáʔbetel nut chew (refers to a chew consisting of betel nut, buyo leaves, lime and tobacco)
Aklanon mamáʔto chew (tobacco, betel nut)
Kalamian Tagbanwa mamakchewed betel nut
Cebuano mámaʔchew of betel nut (búnga) and piper betel leaves (búyù) with lime (ápug), and optionally tobacco; action of chewing; to chew betel nut
  m<al>amaʔ-ancontainer for the lime, betel nut, and betel leaf
Binukid mamaʔbetel nut chew; to chew betel nut
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mamaʔto chew betel nut
  memaʔ-anbetel palm, Areca catechu
Mansaka mamaʔto use in making a betel nut chew
  mamaʔ-ancontainer for items for a betel nut chew
Mapun mamaʔa prepared betel nut chew; to chew betel nut
  mamaʔ-ana container for the ingredients of the betel nut chew (often brass or bronze)
Tboli amaka masticatory composed of betel nut or tree bark mixed with lime and wrapped in ikô [Piper betle] leaves; to chew betel nut
Tausug mamaʔa prepared betel nut chew
Jarai (mə)mahto chew
Rhade məmahto chew
Malay mamahmaceration in the closed mouth, of the way animals chew
  pe-mamah biakruminant
Karo Batak er-mamahto feed, as birds feed their young
  mamah-ifeed a young child by premasticating the food and then ejecting it from the mouth into the open lips
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mamahchew food to give to an infant; food that is regurgitated by a bird for its young
Sundanese mamahword used to order a child to eat; also the usual word for ‘to eat’ of a small child
Javanese mamahto chew; to argue with; to do without difficulty
  mamah-anhaving been chewed
Sangir mə-mamato chew betel
Mongondow mo-mamaʔto chew; to chew betel
  po-mamaʔbetel kit, the full set of accessories for chewing betel nut
  po-mamaʔ-anbetel box, betel case
Gorontalo mo-mamato chew betel
Bare'e mamato chew
Makasarese mamaa betel chew, betel quid
Wolio mamato chew on, masticate
Muna mamato chew (trans.)
  ka-mamasomething chewed (as chewed maize for an infant); to chew on (trans.)
  ka-mama-ghitobacco quid, often mixed with betel
  mama-ghichew a tobacco quid; chew, gnaw
Palauan m<əl>áməʔto chew betel nut; to smoke tobacco (< *m>in>amaq)
Chamorro mamaʔchew betel nut mixed with lime, pepper leaf and tobacco
Bimanese mamato chew betel
Komodo mamato chew; betelnut quid
Manggarai mamato chew
  mama-ŋto premasticate food to feed to a baby
Rembong mamaʔto chew
  mamaʔ-ŋto premasticate food to feed to a baby
Ngadha mamachew food for elderly people who have no more teeth or for young children
Sika mamato chew, of people
Hawu mamato chew
  mama kenanato chew betel
Rotinese mamato chew, especially to chew betel nut
Tetun mamaa wad of bua (betel nut, betel pepper, and lime) which is put in the mouth for chewing
Erai mamato chew betel
Kisar mamato chew betel
Fordata n-mamato chew betel
Kei mamto chew betelnut
Masiwang mamato chew
Hitu mamato chew
Asilulu mamato chew on (as guava leaves to relieve a sore throat)
Buruese mama-hto chew (trans.)
  mama-kto chew (intr.); hold with the teeth
Kowiai/Koiwai na-mamato chew
Label mama-ito chew betel
Vitu mamato chew betelnut
  mama-hiato chew betelnut
Lakalai mamato chew betel
Gedaged mamto chew, to crunch, to masticate (especially betel nuts, but also food)
Motu mamaa mouthful of chewed food, such as babies are fed with
  mama-iato chew the food
Uruava mamato chew
Torau mamato chew
Nggela mamato chew fine; to feed a baby with pap
Gilbertese mamafood chewed for babies or for chiefs formerly, for betrothed (sign of great esteem, veneration); to chew, to masticate
  ka-mamato chew bait and give it to fish
Rotuman mamato chew; chewed food
Wayan mamato chew, masticate (contrasting with kani, which refers to the consumption of food rather than to the manner of eating it)
  lei-mamabe chewed up, eaten up
  mama aŋgonato chew kava; in earlier times the green root was chewed before being brewed and strained
Tongan mamato chew: especially kava (in former times), or candlenuts preparatory to using them as soap, or food which, after being chewed, is to be fed to a baby; food which has been chewed in this way
Niue mamaa mouthful; that which is chewed; the cud (modern)
Futunan mamato chew (fruits); mouthful of premasticated food for a mother to give her infant
  mama-ʔianourish an infant at the time of weaning
Samoan mama(of food for a baby, or, formerly, of kava) masticate; chew; bolus of premasticated food for a baby
Tuvaluan mamato chew
  mama-mamato chew thoroughly
  mama-tamalikisoften food for baby by chewing; such food
Kapingamarangi mamato chew, to masticate (soft foods); premasticated food (for infants)
Rennellese mamato chew without swallowing, as mothers do for infants; matter so masticated, as betel; to be soft, as wood
Anuta mamato prepare food to be fed, usually to an infant, by chewing; may also be used as a generic term for chewing, but the usual word in that case would be kamu
Rarotongan mamato prepare, as kava, by chewing
Hawaiian mamato chew, masticate (but not swallow), as kava


PWMP     *mamaq-en to chew a betel quid

Bikol mamaʔ-ónto chew a betel quid
Tausug mamaʔ-unto chew betel nut
Chamorro mamaʔ-onbetel nut mixed with lime, pepper leaf and tobacco

Note:   Also Toba Batak meme ‘chewed food’, Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mamak-i ‘chew’, Nehan mem ‘chewed betel nut’, Fijian mamā ‘to chew and spit out again, chiefly of yaqona [kava]’.

The basic sense of this term was clearly ‘to chew something that one does not intend to swallow’. In island Southeast Asia the usual application is to chewing betel nut, but what may be an older usage is widespread in Oceanic languages and appears occasionally farther west, and that is the practice of premasticating food for an infant (sometimes applied to the habit of birds in regurgitating food for nestlings, but more commonly applied to humans). The agreement of Toba Batak meme with Nehan mem would appear to support a PMP doublet *meme, but until more substantial evidence for PMP *e becomes available this comparison will be treated as a product of chance convergence.


*mamin a fish: wrasse spp.


PMP     *mamin a fish: wrasse spp.

Itbayaten maminkind of fish
Samal maminviolet-lined Maori wrasse: Cheilinus diagrammus, C. undulatus
Palauan mamlwrasse (fish): Cheilinus undulatus
Fordata maminkind of fish
Kei maminkind of fish
Asilulu iʔa maminkind of fish, including tripletail Maori wrasse (Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepede), and violet-lined Maori wrasse (Diagrammus Lacepede)
Buli mamiŋkind of fish
Numfor in maminkind of fish (can reach large size)
Tolai mamina fish: Anableps tetrophthalmus
Numbami maminahump-headed wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus)
Motu mamikind of fish
Molima maminaa large fish
Chuukese máám(i)wrasse
Puluwat mámkind of large fish -- perhaps a wrasse
Rotuman mamikind of blue-green fish


*mampus gone, used up


PMP     *mampus gone, used up

Malay mampusto die (expressed vulgarly); be wiped out. Of animals dying, etc.
Manggarai mamposgone, used up (money, etc.)

Note:   With root *-pus ‘end, finish’.


*man particle expressing solidarity, concession, qualification, or emphasis


PPh     *man particle expressing solidarity, concession, qualification, or emphasis

Itbayaten manadverb for emphasis, ever
Ilokano manparticle of entreaty: please; affirms a negative statement; whether or not; may express unexpected information; so what; again
Bontok mana particle which implies solidarity with the addressee
Kankanaey manplease; indeed; then; why! A small particle of very frequent use, mostly mitigating the sentence, although it might reinforce it in several cases; it is used in calling, inviting, wondering, etc.
Ifugaw manadverbial interjection by which one or more words of a given phrase are emphasized
Ifugaw (Batad) manan exclamatory particle expressing strong feeling about a statement being made
Casiguran Dumagat managain (usually followed by the particle dən)
Ayta Abellan manindeed; please, I entreat you
Kapampangan manadjunct used to indicate response
Tagalog manalthough; even if; even though; also; anything, at all; at least
Bikol mantoo, also; also used to soften the impact of negatives and commands
Aklanon mananswer or response particle; it can mean “also” or “too”, but is used far more frequently than those English equivalents
Waray-Waray mantoo, also
Agutaynen manparticle showing concession; whether; even if; no matter what
Hiligaynon manalso, too; fine
Cebuano manbecause; particle used after an interrogative to make the question not abrupt; particle with a statement contradicting a previous statement or presumption; particle with a statement giving information
Central Tagbanwa manadds emphasis
Maranao manas if; then; like; pretend; emphasis
Binukid manused to indicate emphasis
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) manemphatic particle
Tiruray mana particle with the meaning “again”
Tboli man-tageven if, even so, even then, even when
Sangir maŋan adverb: merely, only, but; as a marker of emphasis: still, yet, nevertheless


*mana conjunction: and


POC     *mana conjunction: and

Varisi manaand
Babatana manaand
Ghari manaand
Lengo manaand
Talise manaand
Tolo manaand
Arosi manaand, but; much used in narrative (not ma, na, as it is used with na, i articles)
Ngwatua manaand
Baetora minaand
Lenakel məneand
Southwest Tanna mənaand

Note:   A surprisingly large number of conjunctions that correspond semantically to English ‘and’ can be posited for POc, including at least *ka, *ma, *mai, and *mana. It is not clear that all of these are valid reconstructions rather than products of convergence, and if they are assigned to POc the syntactic differences that distinguished their coordinating functions remain unclear. This comparison is attested to date only from the western Solomons to southern Vanuatu, but this is a distribution that is commonly accepted for forms assigned to POc.


*mana₁ inherit, inheritance


PWMP     *mana₁ inherit, inheritance     [disjunct: *maña]

Casiguran Dumagat mánaheir, inheritance; to will, leave, give property to someone
Kapampangan mánainherit, inheritance
Tagalog mánaheritage, inheritance
Bikol mag-mánato inherit
  ipa-mánato bequeath
  pa-mánabequest, inheritance; heritage
  an m<in>anaan heirloom
Hanunóo pa-mánainheritance
Bare'e manainheritance, heritage


*mana₂ power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind


POC     *mana₂ power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind

Suau manawind
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka malawind, weather, time of day (often with a notion of a supernatural force that manifests itself in the weather)
Dobuan mana sinabwanastorm (‘big wind’)
Saliba manawind
Tubetube mana kaliyateday wind (kaliyate = ‘day’)
Panayati manawind
Misima manawind
Takuu manacrisp sounding thunder (as in an electrical storm)
Varisi manapower; good fortune, success
Roviana manapotent, effectual
Eddystone/Mandegusu manapowerful, potent, effective; gracious; true; come to pass; to grant, be favorable; power
Bugotu manaspiritual or magical power, enchantment, power, ability
  mana-ŋito empower
Nggela manaworthy, fit, suitable, sufficient; efficacious from spiritual power, obtained from charms, prayers, intercourse with tindalo (souls of the dead) or vigona (a spirit of the weather, fertility, and natural forces – usually female)
Lau ma-manaefficacious (of medicine), spiritually or magically powerful; grow well, of trees; good, of news; be prosperous, lucky, in good health; be true, come true, be fulfilled; to impart spiritual or magical power
  ma-mana-latruly, really
'Āre'āre na-nama <Mstrong, powerful, in a metaphysical sense; something extraordinary, effected by a spiritual power
Sa'a na-nama <Mto be powerful, to exercise force … Ulawa speaks of ghosts as being na-nama ‘spiritually powerful’
  na-nama-ŋapower, force
Arosi managhostly power (in a few phrases)
Sikaiana manathunder
Tikopia manathunder
Kosraean mʷenmʷenmiracle, magic; magical
  mʷenmʷen-Iperform magic, cast a spell on
Marshallese maņmaņhaunted; having supernatural powers; taboo
Pohnpeian mantake hold, stick, be effective
Mokilese man-manspiritually powerful, able to do magic without artifice; magic, spiritual power
Chuukese man(a)have divine, magical, or supernatural power (a quality of being, not a form of knowledge); be miraculous, magically powerful
Woleaian kemal (ka-mala)miracle, power; be powerful (as a ghost)
Mota manaan invisible spiritual force or influence; to influence, work upon with mana; to have mana; a charm, sung with mana, to pass it
Wayan manabe able to make things happen, be effective, have creative power; come true, happen, be realized, come about, be effected; power to make things happen, creative power, effectiveness
  caka-manasomething done by magic or supernatural force; a miracle, magic
Fijian manasupernatural power; a sign, an omen, a token; possessing supernatural qualities
  mana-tato be affected by, of a disease
Tongan manasupernatural; superhuman; miraculous; attended or accompanied by supernatural or apparently supernatural happenings; to thunder
Niue manapower; authority (supernatural); miracle; powerful
Futunan manathunder, thunderbolt
Samoan mana(supernatural) power
  ma-manabe powerful, compelling; be all-powerful, almighty
Tuvaluan manamagical power (of person, potion, etc.); thunder; Holy Spirit
  ma-manapossessed of mana; powerful; authority
Nukuoro manasupernatural power
Rennellese manato thunder (poetic)
Anuta manapower; almighty
Rarotongan manapower, might, authority, influence, sanctification, infused with magic, potency, control, prestige; effectual, binding, authoritative; having influence or power
Maori manaauthority; control; influence, prestige, power; psychic force; effectual, binding, authoritative; having influence or power; be effectual, take effect; be avenged
  whaka-managive effect to; give prestige to; make effective, rectify
Hawaiian manasupernatural or divine power; give mana to, make powerful; have mana


POC     *mana-mana to have spiritual power

Pohnpeian manamanmagical, mysterious, spiritual; official; magic, mysterious or spiritual power; miracle; authority
Chuukese manamandivine, magical, or supernatural power (as distinct from knowledge); have divine, magical, or supernatural power
Puluwat manamandivine, supernatural, or miraculous power; to have such
Satawal manamantyphoon
Carolinian lemelem ~ nemenembe in authority, be responsible, have power or control
Wayan mana-manabe wishful, desire or wish something to happen that one has worked for, predicted, etc.
Rarotongan mana-manapowerful, having great power, might; having extensive authority or influence or prestige; to be possesses of great magical powers, etc.

Note:   Also Arosi mena ‘spiritual power in adaro (ghost, corpse), haiaru (charm or spell), or anything holy; containing spiritual power’. Hiw mon, Mota manu, Central Maewo man-fara, and similar forms meaning ‘thunder’ in other languages of northern Vanuatu were treated as reflexes of *mana in Blust (2007:419-420), but appear to reflect *manu. It is unclear whether these forms are unrelated, or are cognates concealed by a sporadic change intended to distinguish two senses of supernatural power that were becoming distinct in the minds of speakers as the notion of a power inherent in natural phenomena was increasingly conceptualized as one inherent in exceptional humans.


*manoŋi fragrant, sweet-smelling


POC     *manoŋi fragrant, sweet-smelling

Motu manoia tree with scented bark, like cinnamon
'Āre'āre manōniaromatic, having a pleasant smell
Arosi manoŋisavory, of smell or taste
Tongan manoŋigive off a pleasant odor
  manoŋi-siafragrant with the odor of flowers, etc.
Niue manoŋisweet-smelling; to give out fragrance (a favorite name for girls)
  faka-manoŋito give flavor to, to sweeten
Samoan manoŋismell (sweetly), as coconut ointment; have a good flavor; have a bad odor, stench; scent, smell
Tuvaluan manoŋismell (to give off an odor)
Rennellese manoŋiyoung edible ghaapoli (Ficus) shoots

Note:   Also Fijian manui ‘a tree: Pleiogynium solandri, Anacardiaceae, timber used for canoes’, Tongan monoi ‘kind of tree’. Milke (1968) assigned Motu manoi to POc *ma(sz)og(iu) ‘cinnamon tree’, but under his hypothesis the sound correspondence are irregular, since his *s and *z would both yield Motu d.


*mansar bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’


PCEMP     *mansar bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’     [doublet: *mansər]

East Damar madarbandicoot
Leti madabandicoot


POC     *mwajar bandicoot

Nauna mʷacbandicoot
Lou mʷasbandicoot
Wogeo mʷajabandicoot
Takia madalbandicoot
Motu madabandicoot, Perameles sp.
Fijian (Namosi) ŋwacalarge rat

Note:   Also Elpaputi makele ‘marsupial sp.’. Nothofer (1992) compares this set with Manggarai mandar ‘egret’, Malay (Jakarta) buruŋ mandar ‘bird sp., unident.’, connecting marsupial mammals and birds through their common presence in trees. Although the cuscus is arboreal the bandicoot is not, and the association of these faunal taxa remains highly speculative. Schapper (2011) has argued that *mansər/mansar meant ‘cuscus’, but this semantic attribution is based largely on non-specific glosses in languages of eastern Indonesia, and conflicts with the evidence of Oceanic reflexes which clearly reflect this term in the meaning ‘bandicoot’.


*mansər bandicoot, marsupial 'rat'


PCEMP     *mansər bandicoot, marsupial 'rat'     [doublet: *mansar]

Leti madebandicoot
Moa mada ~ madebandicoot
Yamdena mandecuscus, opossum
Kei medaropossum, cuscus
Ujir məday <Mbandicoot
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) mədar <Mbandicoot
Elat məndərcuscus
Kamarian makerbandicoot
Asilulu marəl <Mphalanger, including Phalanger orientalis orientalis Pallas
Amblau mate <Mcuscus


POC     *mwajor bandicoot

Fijian (Naitāsiri) ŋwacolarge rat
Fijian (Waidina) ŋwacolarge rat


*mantalaq the morning (evening) star: Venus


PMP     *mantalaq the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *talaq]

Nias madalaevening star, morning star
'Āre'āre matara ni tanimorning star’ (tani = ‘daylight’)
Sa'a madalamorning star
Arosi madaramorning star


*manu interrogative marker: which?


PAN     *manu interrogative marker: which?

Seediq manuʔwhat?
Chamorro manuwhich, whichever -- interrogative


*manuk chicken


PAN     *manuk chicken

Basai manuk(ə)bird
Trobiawan manukkabird


PMP     *manuk chicken

Yami manokchicken
Itbayaten manokchicken
Ivatan manukchicken
Ilokano manókchicken, poultry
Ibanag manuʔchicken
Agta (Dupaningan) manokbird, chicken
Agta (Central Cagayan) manukchicken
Itawis manúkchicken
  mam-manúkto raise chickens
Arta manubird
Bontok manúkchicken, fowl
  manuk-ənany chicken sacrifice; to perform a chicken sacrifice
Kankanaey manókchicken
Ifugaw manókgeneral term for chicken
Ifugaw (Batad) manuʔa domestic or wild chicken
Gaddang manokchicken
Casiguran Dumagat manókbird; domestic chicken
Ibaloy manókchicken
Pangasinan manókbird, fowl, chicken
Sambal (Botolan) manukchicken
Kapampangan manúkchicken
Tagalog manókfowl, chicken
Bikol manókchicken, fowl; (fig.) protégé, a person who receives the support of others, commonly used in a political context
Buhid manókbird
Hanunóo manúka generic term for bird; specifically, in certain combinations, chicken
  tálun manúkwild jungle fowl, wild chicken: Gallus gallus gallus(Linn.)
Masbatenyo manókchicken (refers to hens and roosters, but not chicks)
Aklanon manókchicken
Waray-Waray manókchicken
Kalamian Tagbanwa manukchicken
Hiligaynon manúkchicken
Palawan Batak manókchicken, fowl
Cebuano manúkchicken; gamecock
Mamanwa manokchicken
Maranao manokchicken
Manobo (Ata) manokchicken
Subanen/Subanun manukchicken
Binukid manukchicken
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) manukchicken
Mansaka manokchicken
Tiruray manuka subdivision of the animal world that includes those that are warm-blooded and fly; chicken: Gallus gallus Linn.
Mapun manukdomestic chicken (rooster or hen)
  manuk tauna wild chicken
Yakan manukchicken, domestic fowl
  manuk talunjungle fowl: Gallus gallus
Tboli onukchicken, fowl; bird
  m-onukto have many chickens
Tausug manukdomestic chicken
Bisaya (Lotud) manukchicken
Kadazan Dusun manukhen, cock, fowl
  manuk tahunwild fowl
Abai Sembuak manukchicken
Ida'an Begak manukchicken
Murut (Tagol) manukchicken
Bisaya (Lotud) manukchicken
Kelabit manukbird
  manuk eluŋjungle fowl
Berawan (Long Terawan) manoʔbird
Narum manaukbird
Kayan manukbirds of the forest, particularly omen birds
Kiput manoəʔbird
Bintulu manukbird
Melanau (Mukah) manuəʔbird
Lahanan manokbird
Dusun Witu manuʔchicken
Iban manokdomestic fowl, Gallus sp.
Jarai mənuʔchicken
  mənuʔ glaijungle fowl
Malay manokbird; fowl; a word of wide Indonesian range, but met with rarely among Malays except in Borneo
Acehnese manoʔchicken, fowl; hen
  manoʔ uteuënjungle fowl
Gayō manukbird
Simalur manoʔchicken
Karo Batak manukchicken, fowl
Nias manuchicken; suckling pig given as a gift, as to newlyweds
Mentawai manuchicken
Lampung manuʔchicken
Sundanese manukbird
  jalma manukperson with no fixed abode, wanderer (lit. ‘bird person’)
  manuk-manuk-animitation bird, toy bird
Old Javanese manukbird
Javanese manukbird; (euphemism) penis
  manuk-manuk-animitation bird, toy bird
Madurese manoʔbird
Balinese manukcock, fowl; bird
  kupu manukgiant butterfly
Sangir manuʔbird (generic)
  manuʔ u aluŋchicken (bird that lives under the house)
Buol manukchicken
Totoli manukchicken
Boano manukchicken
Banggai manukchicken
Tae' manukchicken
Tolaki manuchicken
Kulisusu manuchicken
Buginese manukchicken
Wolio manukchicken
Muna manukchicken
Palauan malkchicken; person who reaches sexual climax rapidly
Komodo manuʔchicken, fowl
Manggarai manukchicken, fowl
Ngadha manuchicken
Sika manuchicken
Lamaholot manukchicken, poultry; bird
Solorese manukchicken
Kédang manuʔchicken; bird
Dhao/Ndao manu-buibird
Helong manubird
Tetun manubird, fowl (of any kind)
Vaikenu manubird
Galoli manubird
Erai manubird; fowl
Talur manubird
Tugun manubird
Kisar manuchicken; bird
Roma manubird
East Damar manukbird
West Damar munwobird
Fordata manu-tbird, and more particularly chicken
Kei man ~ manu-tbird, chicken
Kola manbird
Dobel manbird
Watubela manukfowl
Teluti manuofowl
Kamarian manubird, chicken
  manu apawild duck
Paulohi manu-ebird
Gah manokbird
Alune manuebird
Wahai malokbird
Saparua manobird
Laha manuchicken
  manu ei-ŋoutrigger fastening (lit. ‘its chicken foot’)
Hitu manubird
Asilulu manuchicken (Gallus spp.); bird (with qualifying term)
Larike manuachicken
Wakasihu manubird
Batu Merah manofowl
Morella manobird
Kayeli manuebird
Soboyo manuʔbird, chicken
Onin manibird
Kowiai/Koiwai manuʔbird
Taba manikchicken
Gimán manikbird
Sawai manɛchicken, bird
Buli manibird
Mayá ꞌmini¹²bird
Biga minibird
As manibird
Minyaifuin manibird
Irarutu manbird
Arguni manibird
Dusner manbird
Moor manubird
Ron manbird
Numfor manbird


POC     *manuk bird; any flying creature

Kalinga (Guinaang) manúkchicken
Kaniet manubird
Tigak manu-ibird
Tanga mangeneric term for all species of birds; totem species, either bird or animal
Bali (Uneapa) manukubird
Vitu manubird
Arop manbird
Biliau manbird
Amara emekbird
Lusi manubird
Kove manubird
Lakalai la-malubird (general term); insect, butterfly (rare)
Kaulong ɛ-monbird
Mengen manubird
Kis manbird
Ali miəŋbird
Wogeo manbird
Manam maŋbird; fowl
Mbula manbird (general term, also includes bats and other flying creatures with bones)
Wedau manubird (not used singly)
  manu badafish-hawk (bada = ‘chief’)
Suau manubird
Motu manubirds
Kilivila mauna (< met.)animal, bird, insect
Tawala manuwabird
Dobuan manuabird
Molima manubird; childhood disease thought to be caused by a bird in the body
  eda manubird taboo to our descent group
Saliba manuabird
Tubetube manbird (generic); clan (generic)
Sudest mabird
Piva manughubird
Luangiua manubird
Lungga manuγubird
Bugotu manubird; a fishing kite
Nggela manua flying creature, bird, insect; species of freshwater fish
  manu-mateepilepsy, spasms (MORE?)
Kwaio manubird (taboo, rare at Sinalagu)
Marau₂ manubird
Lau manua bird, any creature that flies (bee, beetle, etc.)
Toqabaqita manubird
Sa'a mänubird, insect
Arosi manua creature that flies, insect, bird, angel, etc., a winged creature
Gilbertese mananimal, beast, insect, etc.
Pohnpeian mahnanimal, insect
  mennumeral classifier used in counting animate beings
Mokilese mahnanimal
  mahn-saŋbird (‘flying animal’)
  manukind of insect
Chuukese maanliving creature of land or air (other than human)
Puluwat maancreature, being, animal, insect, bird, person
Woleaian malanimal, bird, animate object
  maliugachicken, hen, rooster
Haununu manubird
Vano menukabird
Mota manubird, flying creature, beetle, bat
Mosina mʷonbird
Piamatsina mʷanubird
Nokuku manbird
Malmariv manobird
Araki m̈anukind of black and white flying-fox
Marino manubird
Apma manubird
Atchin ni-manbird
Rano ne-menbird
Lingarak ne-manbird
Leviamp manuxbird
Avava a-manbird
Axamb nə-mænbird
Pwele manubird
Efate (South) manbird
Sie menukbird
Tongan manuanimal, esp. bird, but applied also to quadrupeds, reptiles, insects, etc., but not to fish, shell-fish, etc.
Niue manuanimal, bird, living creature
Samoan manubird (in names of various birds); animal, cattle; horse
Rarotongan manugeneral name for any living thing living on the earth or through the air; the term is frequently applied to human beings in a figurative sense
Maori manubird; kite for flying
Hawaiian manubird; any winged creature; wing of a kite; person (fig.); ornamental elliptical expansions at the upper ends of the bow and stern endpieces of a canoe

Note:   Also Gitua manum ‘bird’.


PMP     *manu(k)-manuk bird

Ivatan manu-manukbird
Ilokano man-manókbirds (general term)
Agta (Central Cagayan) ma-manukbird
Itawis mam-mánukbird
Gaddang ma-manokbird
Sambal (Botolan) manuk-manukbird
Bikol manók-mánokflying sparks or cinders
Palawan Batak man-manókbird
Cebuano manúk-mánukwind coming in strong gusts; weather vane
Aborlan Tagbanwa manu-manukbird
Mamanwa manok-manokbird
Manobo (Ata) manok-manokbird
Subanen/Subanun manuk-manukbird
Mapun manuk-manukany kind of bird; any flying insect
Yakan manuk-manukbird (generic)
Tausug manuk-manukbird; flying insect
Bisaya (Lotud) manuk-manukbird
Simalur manoʔ-manoʔbird
Karo Batak manuk-manukbird (generic); the penis of children
Buol manu-manukbird
Totoli ma-manukbird
Boano ma-manukbird
Banggai manu-manuklarger kinds of birds
Tae' manuk-manukbird
Tolaki manu-manubird
Moronene ka-manu-manubird
Buginese manuk-manukbird
Wolio manu-manubird
Muna manu-manubird
Buli mani-maniall sorts of birds
Waropen manibird, chicken


POC     *manu-manuk insect

Nauna mon-monbird
Lou mon-monbird
Penchal mommonbird
Aua manu-manu vilevilugabird
Tigak man-manukanimal
Vitu manu-manupeople
Lakalai la-malu-maluant; insect
Motu manu-manubeetles; insects
Pokau manu-manubird
Dobuan manu-manuainsect
Molima manu-manuwainsects
Bugotu mau-manuinsect
Nggela manu-manuthe handle of the seu cup, (coconut shell used for soup) projecting upright
Rotuman mɔn-mɔnubird, insect, or animal, etc., including all land and air creatures but no sea creatures
Wayan manu-manuanimal, creature, being; normally excludes humans; birds, insects, fish, etc. may be referred to generically as manumanu, or by manumanu + modifier indicating defining characteristics of the class
Fijian manu-manua bird, sometimes also animal or insect, but these are so few that the actual name will generally be used
Rarotongan manu-manuall small insects
Maori manu-manuspecies of ray or skate

Note:   Also Isneg anúʔ ‘the barnyard fowl or chicken’, an-anúʔ ‘a general name for birds’, Malay manok-manok ‘a tree: sp. unident.’, Karo Batak anuk-anuk ‘bird (generic)’, 'Āre'āre mānu ‘bird, insect, said of anything that flies’. This semantic history of this form is discussed in Blust (2002), where it is noted that PMP *manuk clearly meant ‘chicken’, and the generic term for ‘bird’ was formed from it by reduplication as *manuk-manuk, or possibly *manu-manuk. In Proto-Oceanic, however, *manuk had already shifted its sense from ‘chicken’ to ‘bird’, and the reduplicated form came to mean ‘insect, small flying creatures other than birds’. Whether the Basai and Trobiawan terms in Taiwan are native or loans from a Philippine source during the Spanish occupation of northern Taiwan from 1626 to 1642 remains an open question, although the fact that they mean ‘bird’, while nearly all unreduplicated forms in Philippine languages mean ‘chicken’ supports the view that they are native, and that *manuk can thus be assigned to PAn, presumably in the meaning ‘chicken’ (next to *qayam ‘bird’).


PWMP     *maR-manuk raise chickens

Ilokano ag-man-manókto raise chickens
Mapun mag-manukmake a living by raising chickens

Note:   Given its modern implications this form probably is a product of independent development.


PWMP     *manuk-an place where chickens are kept

Tagalog manúk-anpoultry yard
Masbatenyo manúk-anpoultry house
Cebuano manúk-anpoultry business; one who has lots of chickens
Maranao manok-anpoultry
Binukid manuk-anto raise chickens
Javanese manuk-anplace for birds


PPh     *manuk-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano manuk-envote for, bet on, support
Casiguran Dumagat manok-ənomen, for a bird to fly through one’s house (a sign that raiders are coming to attack)
Ibaloy menok-endiscern one’s course of action by the omen given by the gall bladder of a chicken butchered for the purpose
Tagalog manuk-ínsponsor someone in a game or undertaking
Bikol manok-ón an matádescribing eyes that stare somewhat crosseyed
Aklanon manók-manók-onalmondine (said of eye’s shape)
Waray-Waray manok-ónplenty or abundant supply of chickens
Cebuano manuk-unthe cow-nosed ray, so-called because it moves like a bird in the water
Maranao manok-encrosseyed
Tausug manuk-uninduce someone to fight with someone else, stir up, instigate

Note:   An affixed form *manuk-en can be posited for Proto-Philippines, but it is unclear what this word meant. Reflexes in Ilokano, Tagalog and Tausug evidently derive from the sponsorship and betting that typically take place in cockfighting, but the antiquity of cockfighting in the Austronesian world remains uncertain (Blust 2002:96-98). Reflexes in Casiguran Dumagat and Ibaloy suggest what is perhaps an older meaning, namely the taking of omens from the flight of birds or examination of the entrails of chickens. The meaning ‘crosseyed’, which is shared by Bikol and Maranao is distinct from either of these, but is not sufficiently widely attested to attribute to Proto-Philippines.


(Formosan only)

*maNaŋ sharp


PAN     *maNaŋ sharp

Kavalan manaŋsharp (point, blade)
Pazeh ka-malaŋsharp (blade)
  k<in>a-mala-malaŋvery sharp

Note:   Also Kavalan maŋan ‘sharp (point, blade)’, presumably with metathesis.


*maña inherit, inheritance


PWMP     *maña inherit, inheritance     [disjunct: *mana₁]

Casiguran Dumagat mánaheir, inheritance; to will, leave, give property to someone
Tagalog mánaheritage, inheritance
Bikol mag-mánato inherit
  ipa-mánato bequeath
  pa-mánabequest, inheritance; heritage
  an m<in>anaan heirloom
Hanunóo pa-mánainheritance
Bare'e manainheritance, heritage
Chamorro mañacustom, habit, tradition

Note:   Also Malay manah ‘heirloom; survival from the past’, Tae', Buginese manaʔ ‘inheritance’. To explain Malay manah, Toba Batak por-mano-mano-an ‘remembrance gift; used for example of the goods that a girl receives after the death of her father (girls may not inherit)’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *maneq ‘inheritance’. Mills (1975:779) proposes Proto-South Sulawesi *mana(ɣ?) ‘to inherit’ to explain forms which he suggests, however, may have been borrowed from Malay. The reconstruction now seems firmly attributable to PWMP, though not in the shape proposed by Dempwolff. I find the attempts by Adriani (1928), Capell (1938-1939), and van der Veen (1940) to link this term with the well-known Oceanic word mana ‘supernatural power’ unconvincing.


*maŋa prenominal marker of plurality


PMP     *maŋa prenominal marker of plurality

Yami maŋaprenominal plural determiner
Itbayaten maŋa-pluralizing prefix
Ayta Abellan maŋa-plural adjective marker
Tagalog máŋaprenominal plural marker
Bikol máŋaprenominal plural marker
Hanunóo maŋamore than one (a pluralizing indicator)
Tausug maŋaoptional particle used to indicate plurals (with some nouns refers to that one and his associations or companions)
Wolio maŋaplural marker
Wedau magamany
Nakanamanga maaŋaplural marker for nouns


*maŋali sea fish sp.


PWMP     *maŋali sea fish sp.

Samal maŋaligolden trevally
Palauan məŋáisurgeonfish


*maŋan eat


PMP     *maŋan eat     [doublet: *paŋan]

Bontok maŋ-aneat
Samal maŋaneat
Javanese maŋaneat [Ngoko speech level]
Sasak maŋaneat
Arosi maŋato eat; also the bits of food in the crevices of the teeth after eating

Note:   In the available sources Bontok maŋan appears under ekan, and Javanese maŋan appears under paŋan. This undoubtedly is a morphologically complex form of *kaʔen; cf. Reid (1976) sub ekan for a typical morphological paradigm.


*maŋaq slit, crevice


PMP     *maŋaq slit, crevice

Melanau (Mukah) maŋaʔcrevice
Arosi maŋaan opening, mouth
Fijian maŋavagina

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Fijian maŋa to *baŋa ‘to open’.


*maŋaRat a fish: snapper sp.


PPh     *maŋaRat a fish: snapper sp.

Yami maŋalata fish, the porgy: Lethrinus sp.
Cebuano maŋágata fish, the snapper, name given to most species of Lutianus

Note:   PAn *R normally yields Yami y, but in the sequence *aRa it invariably became l: *daRaq > rala ‘blood’, *naRa > mapa-nala ‘to wait’, *paRa > pala ‘storage shelf above the hearth’, *taRaqan > talan ‘squirrelfish’.

Porgies are described as typically high-backed snapper- or grunt-like fishes (


*maŋmaŋ stare, fix the eyes on


PWMP     *maŋmaŋ stare, fix the eyes on

Ifugaw maŋmáŋlook with attention at somebody; conceived of as different from aŋ-áŋ, which not necessarily implies an attentive looking
Malay mamaŋa strong unnoticing stare; the eyes of a man fully awake

Note:   Also Iban mamau ‘forgetful, silly, wandering in mind’, with possible semantic reversal (cf. Blust 1980b).


*maŋsit vile smell


PMP     *maŋsit vile smell

Malay maŋsitsmelling vilely
Arosi masismell of stale fish or urine

Note:   Malay maŋsit was earlier assigned to *baŋsit ‘stench’ (Blust 1970:no.34).


*mapat heavy; weighty, important


POC     *mapat heavy; weighty, important

Sori mapa-ŋheavy
Nggela mavaheavy; important; dignified
  mavat-ibe heavy on; to oppress, weigh down, as thoughts
Wailengi mavaheavy
Lingarak i-mavheavy
Katbol i-mapheavy
Avava mapheavy
Axamb a-mevheavy
Mele-Fila mafaheavy
Samoan ma-mafaheavy; weighty, important
Anuta ma-mapaheavy


*mapo to heal, as a wound


POC     *mapo to heal, as a wound

Wuvulu mafoto heal, as a wound
Aua mafoto heal, dry up, as a wound
Mussau maoto heal, as a wound
Tolai mapto heal, of a wound
Tubetube mauhealing, as a sore
Cheke Holo mafoto heal, be cured, recover from pain, illness or injury
Bugotu mavoto heal up, be healed
Nggela mavoto heal, of a sore; healed, as a cut in a tree, broken shell of mollusk
Lau mafoto be healed
  mafo i kiluincurable
Toqabaqita mafoof a sore: heal, be healed
'Āre'āre mahocured, healed (of wounds)
Arosi mahoto heal, become sound
Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *mavohealed (of sore)
Mota mawoto heal, heal over, as a wound
Paamese mah(of sore) healed
Rotuman maho(of a sore) to heal up
Fijian mavohealed, of a sore
Futunan mafoto scar, heal over

Note:   Also Kwaio nafo ‘healed, of a wound or sore’, Samoan mafu ‘(of a wound) heal, dry up’.


*mapua tomorrow


POC     *mapua tomorrow

Loniu mahutomorrow
Tigak (a)mau(a)tomorrow
Kara (East) mofutomorrow
Halia mahutomorrow

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2003:318), who attempted to link it further with data from Sulawesi languages and Balinese under the etymon *i-puan ‘day after tomorrow, day before yesterday’ proposed by Mead (2001), and hence ultimately to PAn *puSaN ‘twice’, *ma-puSaN ‘twenty’. However, the semantic deviance of these forms and the absence of any clear evidence that the Oceanic forms are synchronically or historically bimorphemic makes it unlikely that these similarities are due to any factor other than chance.


(Formosan only)

*maqaw a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.)


PAN     *maqaw a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.)

Saisiyat maʔawa plant: Litsea cubea
Atayal (Mayrinax) maqawa plant: Litsea cubea
Thao maqawLitsea cubea (Lour.) Pers., fam. Lauraceae, a plant with long branching stems and pale yellow blossoms (Taiwanese ‘sand camphor’, ‘spicy camphor’)
Puyuma (Pinan) maʔawan alder, Alnus formosana
Paiwan maqawan alder, Alnus japonica

Note:   Also Rukai (Mantauran) amaw (with metathesis of the first and second consonants), Amis paqaw ‘black alder’. This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).


*marapu calm, still, windless


POC     *marapu calm, still, windless

Petats marahcalm
Fijian maravucalm, of the sea

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparsion was first proposed by Ross (2003:136) who posited POc *[ma-[d]]rapu. The embedding of material at the beginning of this form reflects the fact that the forms he combined do not always agree. Although trisyllabic adjectives or stative verbs that begin with *ma are prime candidates for bases with the stative prefix *ma-, the Oceanic evidence does not clearly support a morpheme boundary in this form, and I therefore omit it here.


*marau southeast trade winds


POC     *marau southeast trade winds

Vitu maraunorth wind
Kove maraulight wind from the sea
'Āre'āre marāusoutheast trade winds
Sa'a marāusoutheast trade winds
Arosi marāusoutheast trade winds

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2003a:134). The vowel length in Southeast Solomonic languages is unexplained.


*maruŋgay the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera


PPh     *maruŋgay the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera

Itbayaten maroŋgayk.o. tree
Ibatan maroŋgaya kind of drumstick or horseradish tree with edible leaves, pods, and roots: Moringa oleifera
Tagalog maluŋgáyhorseradish tree; a small tree, the leaves and seeds of which are used as a vegetable
Cebuano maluŋgáya small, radidly growing, cultivated tree, with thrice pinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are one of the most popular eaten vegetables in the Visayas: Moringa oleifera

Note:   Also Cebuano kalamuŋgáy ‘a tree: Moringa oleifera’.


*masi sour, rancid


POC     *masi sour, rancid

Nggela mahibody smell, man or pig or fish
  mahi-gamusty, as clothes kept in a box
Arosi masithe smell of stale fish or urine; to smell stale or sour; to be ill from eating stale fish, or fish put in the sun
Tongan mahisour (to the taste), or astringent


*masu smoke


PCMP     *masu smoke

Rotinese masusmoke
Atoni masusmoke
Kemak masusmoke
Mambai masu-nsmoke
Erai ai mahu-nsmoke
Talur ai-mahusmoke
Kisar mahusmoke
Leti mahusmoke
Yamdena masusmoke
Onin masismoke
Sekar masismoke

Note:   Possibly PMP *qasu plus a fossilized affix.


*masuR satiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food


POC     *masuR satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food     [doublet: *besuR]

Munggui mosirsatiated
Wuvulu maxusatiated
Aua auna/marusatiated
Label masursatiated
Tolai maurto be satisfied, have had enough food; enough
  maur-awet, drenched, saturated
Halia masulbe full from eating
Roviana masurufertile, bring forth plentifully
Bugotu mahuto be replete with food, satisfied
Nggela mahuto satisfy with food or drink; replete, satisfied with food or drink
Ulawa masuto vomit, of sucking child
Arosi masuto have had enough, be full, replete, satisfied; with food
Proto-Micronesian *masusated (with food or drink)
Gilbertese mariabundance of harvest, time of abundance
  ka-mari-marihighly productive
Kosraean mətfull, swelling, plenty, abundant
Marshallese matfull after eating; satisfied; satiated
Pohnpeian medto be full, after eating
Mokilese mɔdfat, full (after eating)
Chuukese mét(u)be satisfied, sated (with food or drink)
Puluwat matto be full or satisfied after eating
Woleaian mat(iu)to be full after eating, satiated
Mota masuto fall; abundance of fruit falling; time of abundance
Tongan mahu(of land, soil) productive, producing good crops; (of place or people) to have plenty of food, to be well off for food; (of food) plentiful
Niue mahuto abound in food; abundance of food; plentiful


*maS and


PAN     *maS and     [doublet: *a₂, *may]

Bunun masand (Ferrell 1969)
Rotinese maand
Atoni maand
Wetan maand, but, or
Selaru maand
Yamdena maand
Numfor maand
Waropen maand, so that
Titan maand, with
Likum maand
Wuvulu maand
Yapese maconjunction: then, and, but
Tanga maand, conjunction; sometimes expressed as ‘m’; always used as a substantival connective, never used between verbs
Patpatar maand
Tolai maand, but; with
Kaulong maand
Sengseng maand
Mbula maand (simultaneity or close temporal sequence, often causal, links predications that are components of a single complex event, cosubordinate nexus)
Yabem maand
Wampar maand
Bunama maand; with
Tawala maconjunction: and, with, but, also
Bugotu maconjunction: and; the vowel of ma shifts in agreement with the first vowel of the following word; viz. me, mi, mo, mu. The form mi is often preferred when the following vowel is other than i.
Nggela maand, but; but the vowel changes, agreeing with that of the word following, me te, mu tu, etc.
Lengo maand
Talise maand
Kwaio maand, but
Lau maand
Toqabaqita macoordinator: and (conjoins phrases, clauses and sentences); also used when there is contrast, unexpectedness between two states of affairs
Arosi maand, but; the vowel changes
Proto-Micronesian *maand, with
Nauruan maand
Gilbertese maconjunction: with, and, but
Kosraean maassociate --- and some others
Leviamp m̈aand
  m̋aand; with
Southeast Ambrym mathen, next, in that case
Toak e/maand
Makatea ma/mareand
Nêlêmwa macoordination and inclusive-comitative: and, with, in the company of
Rotuman maand
Tongan conjunction: and (only with numerals)
Niue maconjunction: and (with numerals)
Futunan and; etc. (in counting)
Samoan maand
Nukuoro maand, and so, and thus, and then; with, including
Rennellese macomitative preposition: with, and, for, in behalf of
Rarotongan maconjunction: and: used to connect persons or numerals, and in many instances, place or thing
Maori conjunction: and; used to connect numerals, to connect points of the compass, to express dual relationship caused by marriage of persons belonging to different generations, as in the case of a father and son marrying sisters

Note:   Given the restricted functions of this form in various attested language it is likely that PAn and some later proto-languages had more than one conjunction translatable as ‘and’.


*mataqan kind of marine fish with large eyes


PPh     *mataqan kind of marine fish with large eyes

Yami matana fish: the porgy (Tsuchida, Yamada, and Moriguchi 1987)
Ivatan mata:na fish: the porgy
Ibatan matankind of fish resembling the squirrel fish, but with larger eyes and mouth
Ilokano mataanclub mackerel fish: Rastrelliger chrysozonas
Casiguran Dumagat mataanspecies of ocean fish (probably a mackerel of the genus Rastrelliger)
Cebuano mataankind of fish with huge eyes: Selar crumenophthalmos

Note:   This is clearly a derivative of PAn *maCa ‘eye’, but so far the application to a type of marine fish is known nowhere outside the Philippines.


*matau axe (?)


POC     *matau axe (?)

Loniu motowkind of knife or cutting tool
Patpatar matauaxe?
Tolo mataustone axe
Fijian mataunative adze made of stone
Samoan matauadze, axe
Anuta matautatooing chisel

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Ross (1998:89).


*matay money, payment, medium of commercial exchange


PCEMP     *matay₂ money, payment, medium of commercial exchange

Buruese mata-nmoney
Tolai matechange, exchange, buy
Nggela matethe price of a thing
'Āre'āre pata māevery fine shell money, having great value, used to make necklaces and for buying pigs (pata = 'money')
Arosi maepayment for work done or land bought
Kosraean misacbuy on credit
Hawaiian makeprice, barter, exchange

Note:   Also Malagasy fáty antoka ‘a loss sustained in trade by a bargain or contract’, Balinese bati ‘profit, interest, gain (money); mati ‘produce profit’. In the dictionaries for several languages this item is listed as a subentry of the word meaning ‘dead; die’. It is conceivable that the association of money or payment with death derives from the notion that a payment ‘kills’ the obligation created by purchase (cf. note to *aCay ‘death’), but on present evidence the resemblance between these forms could as easily be attributed to chance.


*-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.


PAN     *-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Bontok mátəkleech
Kankanaey mátekleech
Ifugaw mátokleech, bloodsucker
Ibaloy matekland leech found in moist places
Manggarai mantekjungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.
Rembong matokleech
Ngadha mateleech
Li'o matéleech
Tetun matakleech
Erai makakblood-sucker, leech


PAN     *qaNi-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Kanakanabu ʔanimətək-acreek leech
Proto-Rukai *limatəkəleech
Paiwan lʸimatjekmountain leech


PMP     *qala-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Ngaju Dayak hala-manteksmall black leech that lives on trees
Sangir lamatiʔleech
Laura lamandekaleech
Kambera lamakatu <Mleech
  lamakatu karambuabuffalo leech, Hirudinea


PWMP     *kali-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Bintulu kəmatəkleech
Karo Batak kali-manteksmall jungle leech
Makasarese kali-mataʔkind of leech that enters the nose and ears to drink


PWMP     *qali-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Ilokano alimátekleech (generic)
Bontok mátəkleech
Tagalog limátikleech, blood-sucker
Bikol limátokland leech
  ma-limátokget bitten by a land leech
Hanunóo limátukcommon leech, bloodsucker, found in damp forests; a blood-sucking annelid worm of the class Hirudinea
Cebuano (a)limátukleech
  ka-alimátukcovered with leeches
Maranao limatekleech
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) limatekleech
Tiruray limatekleech
Yakan limatekthin black leech up to 20 cm. long, lives on ground (not in water)
Tboli metek <Aleech
Tausug alimatukleech-like creature that lives on mangrove trees
Kadazan Dusun himatokjungle leech
Kelabit lematekjungle leech
Malagasy dimatysmall leech found in forest
Banjarese halimatakleech
Singhi Land Dayak rimotukleech
Toba Batak limatokkind of small leech
Mongondow olimantokkind of leech with bluish back and yellow underside


PWMP     *sali-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.

Maranao salimatekleech
Melanau (Mukah) sələmatəklarge jungle leech

Note:   Also Tae' lematik ‘land leech’, Rotinese kelumatuk ‘leech, in particular the small jungle leech’. This is an *qali/kali- word, and so the base form *matek occurs with a wide range of prefix variants in different languages. Whether all or many of these were used in a common proto-language or arose through convergent development remains an open question.


*matu dry coconut


PCEMP     *matu dry coconut

Numfor mguhard, as nuts harden when they are ripe
Mailu matuhard, as a dry coconut
Sudest matudry coconut
Lakona matudry coconut
Wailengi matu-idry coconut
Nasarian na-matdry coconut
Southeast Ambrym maturipe coconut
Visina marudry coconut
Iarkei ian matudry coconut

Note:   Also Merlav, Lironesa mato, Futuna-Aniwa niu maro ‘dry coconut’. Mailu is non-Austronesian, but contains a number of apparently early Austronesian loan words, some of which have not yet been found in any Austronesian language of southeast New Guinea. For this reason I assume that Mailu matu is a loan from a Papuan Tip language that may no longer exist.


*mawa a cleft, space between two rocks


PEMP     *mawa a cleft, space between two rocks

Buli mawaroomy, spacious, as a house
Arosi mawaa cleft, a space between two rocks

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance; if not, this item may contain the root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’ (cf. PMP *awaŋ ‘space between earth and sky’, Ilokano rawaŋ ‘a hollow between reefs or rocks’, etc.).


*maya tongue


PCEMP     *maya tongue

Sika ma-ŋtongue
Rotinese ma-ktongue
Atoni ma-ftongue
Selaru tongue
Teluti me-colotongue
Buruese maa-ntongue


POC     *maya tongue

Arop miatongue
Numbami a-malatongue
Watut ma-tongue
Wampar ma-ntongue
Adzera ma-ntongue
Motu malatongue
Pokau maratongue
Dobuan meatongue
Papapana meatongue
Tinputz mè.à-ntongue
Piva mea-tongue
Torau mea-latongue
Hoava meatongue
Roviana meatongue
Marau₂ mea-tongue
Toqabaqita meatongue
Bauro meatongue
Nokuku me-me-tongue
Raga meatongue
Maskelynes na meatongue

Note:   Possibly connected with POc *karamea ‘tongue’, but if so the morphology of the longer form remains obscure.


*máya rice bird, small bird found in rice fields


PPh     *máya rice bird, small bird found in rice fields

Kapampangan máyaa small bird, the rice bird
Tagalog máyageneric for different species of sparrow
Aklanon máyarice bird (destructive of crops)
Agutaynen mayaricebird; sparrow; they are small, brown, or black, or sometimes reddish in with lighter stripes, and can be found in flocks in rice fields, where they eat the rice
Cebuano (dialectal) máyakind of small bird found in rice fields, the chestnut mannikin: Lonchura malacca
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mayarice bird
Mansaka mayaricebird
Mapun mayarice bird
Yakan mayericebird; chestnut mannikin: Lonchura malacca

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.


*mayaŋ blossom of the areca or coconut palm


PWMP     *mayaŋ blossom of the areca or coconut palm

Mapun mayaŋnew flowers (from betel nut, coconut tree, or corn)
Ngaju Dayak mañaŋblossoms of the coconut and areca palms; considered redolent, and much used in sacrificial ceremonies
Iban mayaŋpalm blossom
Malay mayaŋpalm blossom; properly the young spikelet of the blossom that the sheath or wrapper pushes out; this unfolding blossom is a symbol for curly hair
Karo Batak mayaŋareca palm
  buŋa mayaŋblossom of the areca palm
Toba Batak meaŋfruit cluster of palms and banana trees; curly, of hair
Sundanese mayaŋblossom of the areca palm
Old Javanese mayaŋblossom of the areca palm
  a-mayaŋin blossom
Javanese mayaŋblossom of the areca palm
Sasak mayaŋnewly opened areca blossoms
Proto-South Sulawesi *mayaŋblossom (spadix) of the coconut and other palm species
Mandar mayaŋsugar palm
Buginese majaŋblossom of the areca palm
Makasarese mayaŋspadix of palm trees, out of which the flower cluster emerges

Note:   Dempwolff also included Tagalog mayaŋ ‘spiny leaf’ (Stachelblatt), but I am unable to find this in modern dictionaries.

TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    









me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)


*-meCaq paddy leech


PAN     *-meCaq paddy leech


PAN     *qaNi-meCaq paddy leech

Amis (Kiwit) ɬa-ɬintaqmountain leech
Kanakanabu ni-məcaʔəpaddy leech


PWMP     *qali-metaq paddy leech

Ilokano alintáearthworm; leech
Isneg alimtávery large leech, striped yellow and black; when it clings to the feet it is removed and put into an amulet bottle as an amulet against sickness
Tagalog lintáʔleech; a worm living in ponds or streams that sucks the blood of animals; a bloodsucker, a usurer
Hanunóo lintáʔa carnivorous annelid worm, leech or bloodsucker, found usually in small pools or in bodies of still, fresh water
Palawano limetaʔwater leech
Cebuano lintáʔleech
Malagasy díntaa leech
Singhi Land Dayak rimotahleech
Jarai rətahleech
Malay (ha)lintahleech, generic for slow leeches in contrast to springing leeches; fig. a bloodsucker, blackmailer, or usurer
Karo Batak lintahthe large water leech
Toba Batak lintalarge leech that lives in the water
Nias litaleech
Mongondow lintaʔleech
Bare'e alintajungle leech that moves like an inchworm
Makasarese alintaleech

Note:   For the morphology of this word cf. entries for *kali- and *qali-.


*-medaw dizzy, giddy


PAN     *-medaw dizzy, giddy

Paiwan (quLi)-mezawdizziness, “seeing stars”
Ilokano ali-ndawdizzy, giddy, vertiginous, affected with vertigo

Note:   Also Ilokano tali-múdaw ‘dizzy, giddy, vertiginous’. This form evidently occured with the *qalikali- prefix, attached to referents associated with the spirit world (Blust 2001). However, since the shape of this prefix fails to agree between the cognate bases in Paiwan and Ilokano, a fuller reconstruction is impossible.


*medem dark, obscure


PWMP     *medem dark, obscure

Penan (Long Labid) meremnight; dark
Old Javanese meḍemextinguished, lustreless

Note:   With root *-dem₁ ‘dark, overcast’. Old Javanese meḍem appears under *edem₁.


*mekmek broken to bits


PMP     *mekmek broken to bits

Itbayaten mekmek-enblow or pound into small pieces
Kankanaey mekmékin pieces, fine; chopped
Casiguran Dumagat mekmekbreak into small particles, crush into powder (as an aspirin tablet so a child can swallow it)
Numfor momleftovers from a meal
Motu momorubbish, the placenta
Sa'a momosweepings, rubbish
Arosi momoa bit of food fallen
Fijian momobreak into small pieces
Tongan momoa little bit, crumb, fragment
Samoan momobroken remnants

Note:   Also Ilokano mokmók ‘remnants (of food or feed)’.


*meñak fat, grease; ointment


PMP     *meñak fat, grease; ointment     [doublet: *miñak]

Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan) meñiʔfatty, oily
Bukat mañakfat, grease
Ngaju Dayak meñakbe fat (people, animals, food)
Malagasy menakafat melted down
  mena-draharahaan ointment extracted from the fruit of a certain tree and used as a remedy for scabies
Buli mnatasty, delicious, sweet; fat of animals
Mayá maꞌna³grease


POC     *moñak₂ fat; sweet, tasty

Lakalai mola(mola)sweet
Mengen mon-monaanimal fat
Sobei mano <Mfat, grease
Wogeo moñasweet, tasty, fragrant
Suau mo-monafat, grease
Bunama monapudding boiled in clay pot
Tongan mo-monafat; only of shellfish and crustaceans
Samoan mo-mona(of shell-fish) be meaty
Tuvaluan mo-monafat, and hence good to eat (of birds, fish, crabs, etc.
Rennellese (mo-)monato be fat, as fish or animals; greasy
Anuta mo-monafat, grease; greasy
Tuamotuan mo-monasavory, sweet-tasting
Maori moo-monafat, rich, fertile; appetizing, in good condition; fat, of food; having desire or appetite
Marquesan mo-monafat part of fish
Hawaiian mo-monafat; fertile, rich, as soil; fruitful; sweet


POC     *moña-moñak fat, grease; sweet taste

Lakalai la-mola-molathe fat of an animal
Tawala mona-monafat, grease
Rapanui mona-monasweet (food)

Note:   Also Long San Kenyah, Long Lamai Penan, Murik, Sarikei Melanau ñak, Long Jegan Berawan ñik, Dalat Melanau ñiʔ, Mukah Melanau ñeəʔ ‘fat, oil’, Long Anap Kenyah, Ngaju Dayak eñak ‘fat, grease’, Bugotu muña ‘sweet’.

Vowel-initial forms in Borneo may be products of back-formation from meñak, which was misinterpreted as containing the stative prefix ma- (> m- before vowel-initial bases). Alternatively, it is possible, as suggested by Mills (1975:782) with regard to *miñak, that the base was originally vowel-initial, and that m- is a fossilized stative prefix. The strong cultural association of animal fat with tastiness is evident in a number of the glosses given here.


*mepis thin


PMP     *mepis thin

Salako mepisthin
Kambera màpihuthin, fine

Note:   With root *-pis ‘thin, tenuous, fine’.


*mesmes grasp, grip, squeeze


PMP     *mesmes grasp, grip, squeeze     [doublet: *pespes₁]

Ilokano mesmésgrasp firmly, grip
Kankanaey mesméspress, squeeze (as clothes, cotton)
Bintulu məməssqueeze
Sa'a momosqueeze, press on each side
Arosi momoclasp in hand and squeeze


*me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik) ant sp. with venomous bite


PMP     *me(n)tik ant sp. with venomous bite

Remontado hantíkbig red ant
Bikol ha-ntíklarge black ant which may sting when disturbed
Hanunóo ʔa-mtíkred stinging ant
Maranao la-metiklarge red ant
Mongondow lolo-monsikblack ant with very venomous bite
Kaidipang lu-montikoant sp.
Banggai ku-mosiklarge black forest ant
Bare'e la-motired tree ant with venomous bite
Mori li-montiant sp.
Proto-South Sulawesi *li-ntikant
Manggarai mentikslender-bodied black ant with venomous bite

Note:   Also Wolio kolo-munti ‘kind of big ant whose bite can be painful’.

TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    

















*mi- prefix marking possession of some object


PAN     *mi- prefix marking possession of some object

Trobiawan mi-prefix marking possession of some object (kutu ‘lice’ : mi-kutu ‘to have lice’, vtiqulr ‘stick’ : mi-tikulr ‘have a stick’, vavaŋ ‘land’ : mi-vavaŋ ‘to have land’)
Puyuma mi-prefix marking possession of some object (lemak ‘job’ : mi-lemak ‘have a job’, paysu ‘money’ : mi-paysu ‘have money’, walak ‘child’ : mi-walak ‘have a child’)

Note:   This comparison was brought to my attention by Victoria Yen-hsin Chen (p.c., 1/30/17). Although the agreement is perfect in every respect, given its brevity it may be a product of convergence.


*mikmik morsel, bit, as of food


PPh     *mikmik morsel, bit, as of food     [disjunct: *mekmek]

Pangasinan mikmíkcrumb, morsel
Tagalog mikmíkfinely powdered; very small, tiny


*mimi to urinate; urine


PMP     *mimi to urinate; urine

Ibaloy mimiurine
  i-mimito urinate something (as blood)
  man-mimito urinate
  mimi-anto urinate on something
Seimat mimi-urine
  mimi-mimto urinate
Wuvulu mimito urinate
Aua mimito urinate
Kaniet mimito urinate (Dempwolff)
Nggela mimiurine; to urinate
  mimih-ito urinate on; bladder
Kwaio mimiurine; to urinate
  mimis-iato urinate on
Lau mimito spurt, of blood and liquids; to urinate; pig’s bladder
Fijian mimito run in a small stream; of a boat, to leak
  mimi-cato urinate on (of the place affected)
  vaka-mimito make water run in a small stream
Tongan mimito urinate, pass water
Niue mimiurine; to urinate
Kapingamarangi mimito urinate; urine
  mimi halato urinate in wrong places
Nukuoro mimito urinate
Rennellese mimito urinate, piss
  haa-mimito take to urinate, as a child
Anuta mimiurine; to urinate
Rarotongan mimiurine; to urinate
Maori mimimake water (urinate); urine
Hawaiian mimiurine; to urinate
  hoʔo-mimito cause urination; to help to urinate, as a child

Note:   Also Wayan mīmī ‘to urinate, run or flow out in a stream’, Fijian mi ‘urine’, Samoan mīmī ‘to urinate’. Although a POc reconstruction is well-supported, Dempwolff also included Tagalog halu-migmíg ‘moisture; a slight wetness; humidity’, and Toba Batak mimir ‘gush out; trickle out’, aek mimir ‘small spring, water oozing up from the ground’ under a proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *miRmiR ‘to spray’. However, until a clearer connection can be established between these and the Oceanic forms it appears best to exclude them from the present comparison. Although it is a perfect comparison, in the absence of further non-Oceanic evidence it is possible that the resemblance of Ibaloy mimi to POc *mimi is due to convergence, as child-language forms for ‘urinate’ often are disyllables with identical syllables containing a high front vowel.


*mimis₁ new shoots of cogon grass Imperata cylindrica


PMP     *mimis₁ new shoots of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica)

Bontok mímisthe new growth of cogon grass
Kankanaey mímisyoung leaf of cogon grass
Maranao mímisshoof of plants, especially cogon grass
Binukid mímisshoots (of cogon grass coming out of the ground that are very sharp)
Manggarai mímisshoot, sprouts of Imperata cylindrica
Rembong mímisshoot, sprouts of Imperata cylindrica
Ngadha mimiplant sprout
  mimi kérisprouts of Imperata cylindrica

Note:   Also Buruese mimit ‘sword grass; Imperata cylindrica’.


*mímis₂ type of rice


PPh     *mímis₂ type of rice

Kankanaey mímisa variety of light-colored palay without awns
Cebuano mímisa variety of first-class rice having white, smooth, shiny, slender, and long grains; any first-class white rice
Maranao mimistype of rice


*minaŋa mouth of a river, estuary


PMP     *minaŋa mouth of a river, estuary     [doublet: *naŋa₁, *binaŋa]

Hanunóo mináŋaunion of two near-by bodies, as of rivers; hence, fork of a river, fork or crotch of a tree limb
Maranao minaŋaoutlet, mouth of river or stream
Tiruray minaŋamouth of a river
Bintulu mənaŋadownriver; mouth of a river
Sasak menaŋamouth of a river; small bay
Mongondow minaŋamouth of a river; river
Tae' minaŋamouth of a river
Buginese minaŋamouth of a river, estuary
Hawu menaŋamouth of a river


*minsan at one time


PPh     *minsan at one time     [doublet: *pinsan 'first cousin']

Ilokano ma-minsánonce
  i-pa-minsánto do all at once
  sag-pa-minsánoccasionally, once in awhile
Pangasinan mínsanonce only
Tagalog mínsanonce; on a single occasion; one time; sometimes, at times
Hanunóo mínsanonce, at one time
Maranao minsankinship --- first degree
Tausug minsan(to do something) at one sitting
  maka-minsanone time, one time only

Note:   Possibly connected with *isa ‘one’, although if so the morphology of this form remains unclear.


*miñak fat, grease; ointment


PMP     *miñak fat, grease; ointment     [doublet: *meñak]

Iban miñakoil (in food, on hair)
Malay miñakoil, grease, ointment
Sundanese miñakoil, fat
  miñak-anappear oily; fatty
Old Javanese miñakbutter, especially the butter which is cast as an oblation on the sacrificial fire
Javanese miñakoil; perfume
Sasak miñakoil; coconut oil; oily
Totoli minakoil
Banggai mo-minakfat (of dead matter)
Tae' minnakfat, oil, as coconut oil
Mandar minnaʔoil (for a lamp)
Buginese miññaʔoil
Makasarese miññaʔoil; deliciously fatty, delicious, of feeling and taste
Wolio minaoil (coconut, kerosene, etc.)
Muna minaoil
  mina-minaherbs, oils, perfumery
  mina-no ghaicoconut oil
Bimanese minapetroleum, coconut oil
Manggarai minaktasty, delicious
Rembong minakcoconut oil; tasty, delicious
Ngadha minaoil, fat; coconut oil
Kambera miñakusoft, pleasant; tasty, delicious
Hawu meñifatty, greasy
  ei meñioil
Rotinese minaoil, melted fat; coconut oil; fat, especially of animals (as a pig)
  ma-minafatty, greasy; tasty, delicious
Leti minafat, as from a pig; sweet, tasty
Selaru minfat, thick
Yamdena minakfat, grease
Fordata mina-nfat, greasy
  man-minaksweet, tasty
Kei mina-nfat, lard; marrow
Kamarian minafat; mons veneris
Paulohi minafat
Asilulu minaoily and delicious; to exude delicious oils (as a broiling fish)
  ma-minagreasy and delicious
Uruava minakafat, grease

Note:   Also Mongondow miña ‘oil’, miña bondu ‘perfume’, Mandar miñña-miññaʔ ‘scented oil’, Manggarai mina ‘oil (fuel), coconut oil’, Rembong mina ‘oil (fuel, coconut)’, Kambera mina ‘fat, grease, oil’, Tetun mina ‘oil, fat, grease; petroleum’, Wetan miina ~ mīna ‘fat, sweet, insipid, not pungent’. Some reflexes of *miñak probably are Malay loans, but the decision whether to consider a particular form native or borrowed is often difficult. Van der Veen (1940) describes Tae' minnak as “an um-form of *innak”, but provides no clear support for this statement.


*mipis thin, of materials


PMP     *mipis thin, of materials

Murung mipihthin, of materials
Siang mipihthin, of materials
Dohoi mihpihthin, of materials
Manggarai mipisthin (of cloth, planks, slicing)
  mimpisthin (of cloth, fruit peelings, etc.)
Kédang mipithin
Tetun mihisthin, slender (slices, etc.)

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, of materials’.


*miqmiq urine, urinate


PMP     *miqmiq urine, urinate     [doublet: *miRmiR]

Kallahan (Keleyqiq) mimiʔurine
Ibaloy mimiurine
Chamorro méʔméʔurinate, urine


POC     *mimiq urine; urinate

Nauna mimurinate
Lou mimi-aurine
Lenkau mimiurinate
Pak mi-mimurinate
Loniu mi-mimurine
Sori mi-mimurine, urinate
Lindrou mimurinate
Bipi mimi-nhis/her urine; to urinate
Seimat mimiurine
Wuvulu mimiurine; urinate
Tigak mimikurinate
Mendak mimurinate
Roviana mimiurinate
Eddystone/Mandegusu mimiurine
Bugotu mimiurine, urinate
Tongan mimiurinate, pass water
Hawaiian mimiurine, urinate

Note:   Also Malay keméh ‘pass urine’, Mussau meme ‘urine; urinate’, Fijian mi ‘run in a small stream’, vaka-mimi ‘urinate’. Roviana and Eddystone/Mandegusu mimi cannot reflect POc *mimi(R) (Grace 1969), as final *R normally appears as r in both languages.


*misi make a sucking sound, smack the lips


POC     *misi make a sucking sound, smack the lips     [doublet: *miti]

Kwaio misismack the lips in sucking
Lau misismack the lips; call a dog with sucking sound
Proto-Micronesian *misismack one’s lips
Pohnpeian mihksuck; absorb
Mokilese mihksuck
Chuukese miti-smack with lips or mouth (in compounds only)
Nukuoro misia sound made by sucking through pursed lips (like a stage kiss)
Rennellese misito sip


POC     *misi-misi make a sucking sound, smack the lips     [doublet: *miti-miti]

Nggela misi-misimake sucking sound with teeth
Toqabaqita misi-misisuck one’s teeth (e.g. to dislodge particles of food); smack one’s lips when eating
Chuukese miti-mitmake smacking noises with lips or mouth (as in eating or kissing); smack
Nukuoro misi-misia sound made by sucking through pursed lips (like a stage kiss)

Note:   Also Gedaged musi ‘suck, suckle, kiss, touch with the lips, sip, nibble’, Kwaio midi foka ‘spread the lips in a grimace while making a smacking sound; smack lips in sucking, suck’, midi-a ‘gnaw, nibble at, suck at’. The Polynesian reflexes of this form are contradictory, as some languages reflect PPn *s, while others reflect *t (perhaps as the nasal grade reflex of POc *s). The core of this comparison was first noted by Geraghty (1983:138).


*misik sucking noise made as a signal to another person


PMP     *misik sucking noise made as a signal to another person

Palauan misksound of sucking teeth or clicking lips (to show disapproval)
Suau matausito fear, be afraid
Lau misismack the lips; call a dog with sucking sound
Pohnpeian metik, mitikto kiss
Samoan misimisismack the lips
  mitikind of sucking noise made to draw someone's attention quietly

Note:   Also Gedaged musi ‘suck, suckle, kiss, touch with the lips, sip, nibble’. Palauan misk (expected **mitk) is assumed to have resisted a sound change in order to preserve the iconic force of -s-, a type of resistance comparable to, but distinct from "onomatopoetic retention" (Blust 1979:235). Samoan miti (expected **misi) exhibits the "third palatal reflex" (Blust 1976b).


*mismis₁ dried mucus on the eyelid


PWMP     *mismis₁ dried mucus on the eyelid

Casiguran Dumagat mésméswipe sleep from the eyes with the finger
Cebuano mismisparticles of yellowish substance sticking to the face after sleep; hardened mucus from the eyes or mouth
Toba Batak hali-mismis-onhave a sty on the eye
Angkola-Mandailing Batak hali-mismishave a sty on the eye


*mismis₂ to suck up, suck out


PMP     *mismis₂ to suck up, suck out

Pendau mimis-ito taste
Lauje mo-mimisto suck (not nurse)
Bare'e mo-mimito spew the juice extracted from chewed food into the mouth, as mothers do for infants if they do not have enough breast milk
Makasarese am-miʔmisiʔto suck or slurp out, as marrow from a bone
Tetun hak-mimisto suck up, to imbibe


*miti make a sucking sound, smack the lips


POC     *miti make a sucking sound, smack the lips     [doublet: *misi]

Tolai mitmitmake a sucking noise with the mouth to indicate a longing for food
Tongan misisuck
  mi-misisuck up, suck in, absorb, or exert suction
Niue miti ~ misisuck; absorb
Samoan mitisip, whiff; kind of sucking noise made to draw one’s attention quietly
Tuvaluan mitisip
Anuta mitito suck
Rarotongan mitia sharp sound, as the sound of a kiss
Hawaiian mikito suck in


POC     *miti-miti make a sucking sound, smack the lips     [doublet: *misi-misi]

Tolai mitmitmake a sucking noise with the mouth to indicate a longing for food
Samoan miti-mitisip; suck; smack one’s lips
Anuta miti-mitihard candy or other object to be sucked
Rarotongan miti-mitidenotes the hissing sound made with the lips in making amorous overtures to a woman
Hawaiian miki-mikito suck in

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*molaŋ true, real, genuine


PEMP     *molaŋ true, real, genuine

Buli molaŋcorrect, real, genuine, true
Arosi moraoriginal, true, real; customary


*mona canoe type


POC     *mona canoe type

Penchal monlog canoe without outrigger, used near shore
Ere mondugout canoe without outrigger
Leipon monsmall canoe without outrigger
Seimat mondugout without outrigger, for small boys
Kove mono <Acanoe for one person
Halia monacanoe


*monaki cuttlefish


POC     *monaki cuttlefish

Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka monakicuttlefish
Sa'a monakicuttlefish
Arosi monagicuttlefish
Bauro monakicuttlefish

Note:   Also Motu managi ‘large octopus with shell’.


*mo(nn)o knead, squeeze


POC     *mo(nn)o knead, squeeze

Roviana monosqueeze
Fijian monoturn taro pulp over and make it into a neat lump in preparation for pudding


*mono stay, dwell in a place


POC     *mono stay, dwell in a place

Tolai monostay in a house and keep guard; remain and take care of the home, a boat, etc.
Bugotu monoabide, dwell, stay
Arosi monolive, dwell, reside
Bauro monostay in another village


*monoRe unicorn fish: Naso unicornis


POC     *monoRe unicorn fish: Naso unicornis

Baluan mwaneyunicorn fish
Lou moneunicorn fish
Penchal mwanoyunicorn fish
Loniu monoylong-snouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis
Likum moneyunicorn fish
Lindrou moneyunicorn fish
Nauruan monoyunicorn fish
Marshallese ṃọṇesurgeonfish: Naso unicornis

Note:   On the basis of a partially overlapping set of data Osmond (2011) has proposed POc *m(a,o)nuRVNaso sp., unicornfish’.


*moñak pounded taro with coconut cream


POC     *moñak₁ pounded taro with coconut cream

Mussau monapounded taro with coconut milk
Gitua monasago
Kilivila monapudding made of yams and taro
Nggela monacoconut cream, i.e. shredded coconut and salt water squeezed over food; tender, of food, greasy
Sa'a mona telea dish made from taro

Note:   Probably identical to POc *moñak ‘fat, grease; tasty, greasy’. However, this comparison shows that *moñak referred not just to the general sense of tastiness, but more specifically to a particular dish that apparently was made from pounded taro with coconut cream.


*moñan brain


POC     *moñan brain

Roviana monana-nathe brain; marrow of bone
Wayan moyathe brain; brains as a body part (takes preposed possessive marking, in contrast to brains as food)
Fijian monabrain

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) related Fijian mona to *meñak ‘fat, grease’, but the last consonant of the Roviana base fails to support this derivation.


*motus broken off; islet; detached reef


POC     *motus broken off; islet; detached reef

Manam motuisland
Numbami motureef
Motu motu-motuisland; detached portion of reef
Sa'a moube broken off
  hau mouan isolated rock
  malau mouan islet
Mota vanua mwotisland (lit. ‘land broken off’)
Lenakel tən-murhisland (tən = ‘earth, land’)
Rotuman mofurock in the sea
Fijian (ya)-motusmall detached reef
Tongan motuisland; break, become separated
Niue motuisland
Samoan motuisland; severed
Rennellese motuto break, sever
  motu hatureef rock island (hatu = ‘stone’)
Maori motuisland
Hawaiian mokuisland; to be cut, severed

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Ross, Clark and Osmond (1998:246-247), and Osmond, Pawley and Ross (2003:42-43). The first of these publications suggests that it may reflect a POc form *ma-utus, derived from PMP *utus ‘break under tension, as a rope’ by prefixation with *ma-. However, there is little evidence for a prefix *ma- in this form in any language, and until further support for the bimorphemic analysis is provided it appears best to posit a single morpheme *motus.

TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    









muken (X + muken)



















*-mu 2sg. possessor and agent of passive verb


PMP     *-mu 2sg. possessor and agent of passive verb

Itbayaten -mo2sg. possessor, your
Ilokano -mo2sg. possessor, your
Casiguran Dumagat -mo2sg. possessor, your
Tagalog -mo2sg. possessor, your
Kelabit -muh2sg. agent and possessor, you, your
Malay -mu2sg. possessor, your
Toba Batak -mu2sg. possessor, your
Old Javanese -mu2sg. possessor, your
Mongondow -mu2sg. possessor; agent of passive verb
Bare'e -mu2sg. possessor, your
Muna -mu2sg. possessor; your (also used on passive participles)
Chamorro -mu2sg. possessor, your, yours
Komodo -mu2sg. possessor, your
Kambera mu-2sg. subject pronoun
  -mu2sg. possessor, your
Leti mu-2sg. subject pronoun
  -mu2sg. possessor, your
Asilulu mu-2sg. genitive pronoun for alienable possession, your
  -mu2sg. genitive pronoun for inalienable possession, your
Loniu -m2sg. possessor, your
Seimat -m2sg. possessor, your
Wuvulu -m2sg. possessor, your
Mussau -m2sg. possessor, your
Tigak -m2sg. possessor, your
Tanga -m2sg. possessor, your
  -mu2dl. possessor, the two of your’s
Lusi -mu2sg. possessor, your
Lakalai -muof you, 2sg. possessor, your
Motu -mu2sg. object suffix
Kilivila myour (distant degree of possession)
  -m(-)your (intimate degree of possession)
Eddystone/Mandegusu -mu2sg. possessor, your
Bugotu -mu2sg. possessor, your
Arosi -mu2sg. possessor, your
Proto-Micronesian *-mʷu2sg. possessor, your
Gilbertese -mʷ2sg. possessor, your
Kosraean -m2sg. possessor, your
Chuukese -mʷ2sg. possessor, your
Wayan -mu2sg. possessor, your
Fijian -mu2sg. possessor, your


*mu- movement prefix


PAN     *mu- movement prefix

Thao mu-movement prefix (taipak ‘Taipei’, mu-taipai ‘go to Taipei’, pruq ‘earth; down’, mu-pruq ‘descend, go down’, sazum ‘water’, mu-sazum ‘enter the water’, taun ‘house’, mu-taun ‘enter a house, go home’)
Bunun mu-movement prefix; lumaq ‘house’, mu-lumaq ‘go home’
Rukai mu-movement prefix; latadre ‘outside’, mu-latadre ‘to go outside’, gaku ‘school’, mu-gaku ‘go to school’
Puyuma mu-movement prefix (darəʔ ‘earth, soil’, mu-darəʔ ‘go down, descend’, ənay ‘water’, mu-ənay ‘go to the water’, rumaʔ ‘house’, mu-rumaʔ ‘go home
Cebuano mu-punctual active verbal prefix, future
  mu-grahigo to/toward the garage (grahi = garage)
  mu-lawudgo to/toward the sea (lawud = sea)

Note:   Cebuano mu- has several other functions that are not transparently related to *mu- ‘movement prefix’ in Formosan languages, but its function in constructions such as mu-grahi or mu-lawud is so close to functions typical of mu- in Formosan languages that it must be mentioned. However, to date a similar affix has not been found anywhere else outside Taiwan.


*mu(n)cuŋ mouth (of an animal)


PWMP     *mu(n)cuŋ mouth (of an animal)

Isneg motoŋmouth
Tboli sumuŋ <Mlips
Kayan musuŋtie up the mouth of a bag; muzzle an animal
Iban muncoŋprotruding, sticking out, esp. of jaw or lips
Malay moncoŋsnout
Toba Batak munsuŋbeak, snout
Wolio muncu(outside of the) mouth, beak, snout

Note:   Also Kayan usuŋ ‘beak of a bird’, Mongondow muntoŋ ‘snot, nasal mucus’.


*muda young (of fruits); immature; light (of colors)


PMP     *muda young (of fruits); immature; light (of colors)     [doublet: *ŋuda]

Casiguran Dumagat m-úrayoung coconut; unripe, of any fruit (in neighboring dialects)
Ngaju Dayak mudaunripe (fruit), young wood)
Iban mudayoung, unripe
Malay mudayouth; to be young or immature; to lack depth (of coloring); common in titles in the sense of “junior” or “future”
Selaru murayoung, of fruits


POC     *mura young (of fruits)

Tongan mula(of yam) lower end while still soft and juicy (as it is while the yam is still immature)

Note:   Also Tagalog múraʔ ‘unripe; immature; fresh; young coconut’, ka-muraʔ-an ‘greenness, state of unripeness; immaturity’.


*mudmúd press down hard on something


PPh     *mudmúd press down hard on something

Ilokano i-mudmúdto press down on a surface with the hands; keep down
Tagalog mudmódto press down on a surface with the hands, keep down (data from April Almarines)
Cebuano mudmúdpress or bury one’s face hard against something (as one’s face in a pillow when crying)


*muhmuh crumbs of food, esp. rice


PPh     *muhmuh crumbs of food, esp. rice

Casiguran Dumagat mumócrumbs (esp. rice particles scattered around while eating)
Ayta Abellan momocrumbs that fall when people are eating
Tagalog múmoparticles of cooked rice falling off the plate or table during a meal
Aklanon múhmuhcrumbs of rice, scattered rice droppings
Cebuano mumhulittle particles of cooked rice corn that fall next to the plate when eating


*mujiŋ face (human)


PAN     *mujiŋ face (human)

Pazeh muziŋface
Thao muzinnose
Yami moiŋface
Itbayaten moyiñface (in general)
Ilokano múgiŋforehead; brow; (metaphorical) mind
Isneg múxiŋthe face
Yogad mugiŋface
Pangasinan molíŋforehead


PAN     *mujiŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

Puyuma mudiŋ-anface
Paiwan mudiŋ-anface (a person’s)
Ilokano mugiŋ-anhaving a large forehead (which denotes intelligence in Ilokano culture)

Note:   Also Taroko muxeŋ ‘nose, corner, extremity, end’, Yami moiŋ ‘face, cheek’, Itbayaten moyiñ ‘face (in general)’. The semantic distinction between PAn *daqiS and PAn *mujiŋ remains unclear. Reflexes of both words refer to the face in some languages and the forehead in others, and there appears to be very little basis for favoring one reconstruction for one gloss and the other reconstruction for the other, although some such distinction almost certainly existed. The Yami and Itbayaten words appear to be loans, although the source remains obscure.


*muken (X + muken) omen dove


PMP     *muken omen dove

Cebuano ali-mukunwild dove with white ears and light brown feathers speckled with black; Phapitreron leucotis
Maranao li-mokenwild gray dove
Binukid limukenkind of dove
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) limukenthe omen dove
Mansaka limokonkind of dove
Buruese er-mukendove

Note:   Also Ilokano alimúkeŋ ‘kind of wild gray dove’, Malay limbukan ‘bronzewing dove’, Karo Batak limbuken ‘kind of dove’, Mongondow limbukon ‘kind of wood pigeon that emits a somber, mournful call’. This word clearly contained the *qalikali- prefix that marked lexical items associated with the spirit world (Blust 2001), although on the PMP level it is unclear which variant of this prefix was used.


*mukmuk crumbs that drop when eating rice


PWMP     *mukmuk crumbs that drop when eating rice     [doublet: *muhmuh]

Ilokano mukmókremnants of food
Pangasinan mokomókreduce to powder; gold dust
Bikol mag-mukmókto grind or chop finely
Karo Batak mumukdecayed, mouldering (wood)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mumukbroken; in pieces, as a rope or chain
Nias mumunearly decayed tree trunk
Gorontalo mumuʔocrumb (of bread, etc.)

Note:   With root *-muk ‘crush, pulverize; powder’.


*mula to plant


PAN     *mula to plant

Kavalan m-ruma <Mto plant, to grow, to cultivate
  pa-ruma <Mto plant, to grow, to cultivate
Saisiyat (Taai) ma-moLaʔto plant
Saisiyat (Tungho) ma-mwaʔto plant
Itbayaten moxaplanted plant
  mi-moxato plant
Ivatan (Isamorong) mohato plant
Ilokano múlathe generic name for plant
  i-múlato plant, to sow; to insert, to implant (a new, fresh strip of bamboo, etc. while weaving baskets, etc.); to insert (a tenon into a mortise); to incrust with, to incrustate with, to inlay
Isneg múlaplant, more especially a sapling transplanted for beekeeping
  mag-múla, i-múlato plant
Bontok múlato plant, as sweet potato vines or banana shoots
Subanun (Sindangan) mɨ-mulato plant
Belait mulahto plant
Berawan (Long Terawan) mulehto plant
Kenyah (Long Atun) mulato plant
Mongondow mulato plant
Bare'e mulato plant
Ngadha mulato plant, put, erect
Sika mulathe planting of trees
  mula-lemato plant
Solorese mulato plant

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *mula ‘beginning; to plant, rear’. As mula ‘beginning’ is a known Sanskrit loan in island Southeast Asia (Gonda 1973 [1952]:63) and the similar words meaning ‘to plant’ appear to be native, there would seem to be no justification for uniting them under a single prototype.


*mulmul hold in the mouth and suck


PMP     *mulmul hold in the mouth and suck

Ilokano molmólkeep something in the mouth (candy, one's thumb, etc.) without sucking
Isneg mulmúl-ānput into one's mouth
Bontok mulmulsuck a candy until it is dissolved, especially of a candy on a stick
Pangasinan molmólkeep (sweet, etc.) in the mouth to dissolve; suck thumb or finger
Bikol mag-mulmólto suck the fingers
Rotinese mumuhold in the mouth and suck

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amul ‘suck on something’, Manggarai mumuk ‘hold water in the mouth without swallowing’. Mills (1975:784) compares Isneg mulmúl-ān with reflexes of Proto-South Sulawesi *muqmu(ɣ) ‘rinse the mouth’, but the correspondences are irregular.


*mulmúl parrot fish: Scarus spp.


PPh     *mulmúl parrot fish: Scarus spp.

Ilokano mulmólred and yellow marine fish eaten whole, rainbow-colored parrot fish: Scaridae family
Tagalog mulmólparrot fish
Cebuano mulmulgeneral name given to parrot fish: Scarus spp.


(Formosan only)

*mumu Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe)


PAN     *mumu Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe)

Kavalan mummumole (animal)
Thao mumuFormosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe); a dark grayish to black purblind mammal with projecting snout, strong forelimbs, and atrophied rear limbs that forages for worms by burrowing in the ground with its strong forelimbs
  mia-mumuclose the eyes

Note:   The gemination in Kavalan mummu is unexplained, but this form may reflect earlier *mumumu, with partial reduplication.


*mumuni to hide


POC     *mumuni to hide     [doublet: *buni₂, *sambuni, *tabuni₂]

Sa'a mumunito hide, be hidden; to conceal
Futunan mumunito hide (oneself)

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) assigned these to *buni, despite the phonological irregularities.


*muno caterpillar


POC     *muno caterpillar

Selau mənmənocaterpillar
Cheke Holo munocaterpillar (generic)
Roviana munomunogeneric for caterpillars and grubs
Bugotu munocaterpillar
Lau munocaterpillar
'Āre'āre munocaterpillar
Sa'a munolarva of caterpillar, chrysalis
Chuukese muun, mun-nacaterpillar, insect larva (eats leaves of kká taro)
Puluwat muun, muun-ontwo kinds of caterpillars
Woleaian mwulcaterpillar, silkworm

Note:   Also Lou monmuon ‘caterpillar’, Toqabaqita muna ‘sp. of caterpillar (turns into a butterfly)’. This comparison sat unpublished in my files for over 20 years, and was first noted in print by Osmond (2011:405).


*muntay kind of citrus tree and its fruit


PMP     *muntay kind of citrus tree and its fruit

Maranao montaygrape, lime (fruit), orange
Tiruray munteya kabuyau: Citrus hystrix D.C.
Mentawai mutäi, muntäithe pomelo: Citrus grandis
Mongondow muntoia tree: Cyclostemon macrophyllus
Uma munteorange
Manggarai muntacitrus fruit: Citrus hystrix
Proto-Ambon *muḏecitrus fruit

Note:   Stresemann (1927:38) mentions "MP *munti, but cites no supporting evidence.


*munuŋ upper lip (?)


PWMP     *munuŋ upper lip (?)

Palawan Batak munóŋupper lip
Aborlan Tagbanwa munuŋlip
Bonggi munuŋlip
Rungus Dusun munuŋlip
Murut (Papar) munuŋbeak
Minokok munuŋlip
Bisaya (Sabah) munuŋbeak
Murut (Serudong) munuŋlip
Tidung Sumbol munuŋbeak
Bulusu munuŋlip
Berawan (Long Terawan) munoŋlip
Berawan (Long Teru) munoŋmouth
Narum munauŋmouth
Miri munoŋmouth
Kiput munoəmouth
Iban munoŋchaps of pig, bushy cheek bristles of Bearded Pig


*muqa first, foremost; to precede


POC     *muqa first, foremost; to precede

Mussau muabow of a boat
Kove mughafirst
Watut muŋggo before, go first
Wayan muaend point or tip of a long object
Fijian muathe tip, point, front of a thing
Tongan muʔafront, space or place in front or further forward; earlier time or period, earlier, once upon a time; time to come, time that lies ahead
Samoan muabe first, arrive first
Rennellese muʔafront, before; those before, ancestors, predecessors; first, to be first, ahead; to go ahead or first

Note:   A version of this comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968).


*muqmuq crumbs of food that fall on the table or floor


PWMP     *muqmuq crumbs of food that fall on the table or floor     [doublet: *mukmuk]    [disjunct: *muhmuh]

Casiguran Dumagat mumócrumbs (esp. rice particles that scatter around while eating)
Kadazan Dusun mumuʔcrumb (of rice)


*muquŋ fish sp.


PMP     *muquŋ fish sp.

Cebuano muʔuŋkind of cardinal fish: name given to numerous small, red, lightly scaled fish of the family Apogonidae
Loniu mupearl-spotted spinefoot: Siganus spinus
Gedaged mumarine fish about a foot long, front part yellowish brown, shading off to yellowish toward the rear
Lau species of white reef fish, good eating
Samoan name of certain fishes of the genus Lethrinus when about six inches long
Hawaiian a fish (Monotaxis grandoculis), perhaps porgy or snapper

Note:   Also Rennellese muu ‘large-eyed sea bream: Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskål).’ The lack of agreement in reference between any two non-Polynesian languages makes it impossible on present evidence to reconstruct a precise meaning for this fish name at any level higher than PPn. Nonetheless the number of fish names that point to a reconstruction of the same shape strongly suggests a common origin.


*muRmuR gargle, rinse the mouth


PMP     *muRmuR gargle, rinse the mouth

Ilokano ali-mogmógrinse the mouth, gargle
Cebuano (a)li-mugmugrinse the mouth out
Proto-Minahasan *li-muhmuhrinse out mouth
Mongondow m-oli-mumugto gargle, rinse the mouth
Chamorro mokmokgargle, wash the throat with a liquid
Lamaholot ge-mumurinse the mouth, gargle
Soboyo mumurinse the mouth before eating


PWMP     *kali-muRmuR gargle, rinse the mouth

Yogad kalimúmmuggargle, wash one’s mouth out
Bare'e kali-mumurinse the mouth
Ampana mo-kali-mumurinse the mouth
Makasarese kali-moʔmoroʔrinse the mouth, gargle

Note:   Also Tagalog múmog ‘gargle, a rinsing of the mouth’, Javanese kemu, Manggarai memur, Leti pupru (< earlier *pupur), Yamdena ŋuŋur ‘rinse the mouth’, PPn *pu(u)pu(u) ‘gargle, rinse the mouth’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *-muRmuR ‘gargle; swish in mouth’. This item may have contained the *qalikali- prefix. However, since the form of the prefix agrees only in languages that are closely related, and since the independent root is attested in several widely separated witnesses, the bare stem is posited here.


*musaŋ civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae


PMP     *musaŋ civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae

Ilokano músaŋwild cat, civet cat
Itawis músaŋwildcat
Kankanaey músaŋkind of carnivorous animal resembling a cat
Ibaloy mosaŋwild animal, the exact nature of which is obscure; probably a wild cat or civet cat
Tagalog músaŋa wild cat
Iban munsaŋMalay weasel: Mustela nudipes Cuvier, and other species; generic for palm civets, including otter civets and linsangs
Malay musaŋcivet cat, polecat; in Malaya a general name for Viverridae; the bearcat, Arctictis, is also musaŋ turun, binturun, bənturoŋ; proverbial as wily robbers of henroosts
Gayō musaŋcivet cat: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (a nocturnal predator on domestic fowls)
Karo Batak musaŋthe Indian civet cat: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Schreb.
Manggarai mucaŋlarge male civet cat

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also gives Toba Batak musaŋ ‘fragrant’ (from the odor of civet), but Warneck (1906), which is the more recent of his two sources, lists nothing with this shape.


*muteq gummy secretion of the eyes


PWMP     *muteq gummy secretion of the eyes

Casiguran Dumagat mutásand (in the eyes)
Tagalog mútaʔgummy secretion of the eyes
Hanunóo mútaʔgummy secretion of the eyes
Tboli mutoksolidified matter in the corner of the eyes
Malagasy mótya morsel of dung; the excrement of the eyes
Nias mutõmucus in the corner of the eye

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *muta ‘eye secretion’ (dbl. *buta ‘blind’).


*mutu₁ damsel fish


PMP     *mutu₁ damsel fish

Palauan muddamsel fish
Tongan mutu-mutukind of fish
Samoan mutua fish: Abedefduf sp.
Nukuoro mudu-mududamsel fish
Rennellese mutugeneral name for sergeant majors and pullers (damsel fish), e.g. six-banded sergeant major, Abedefduf curacao (Bloch)


*mutu₂ broken off, cut off


PEMP     *mutu₂ broken off, cut off

Numfor mukbroken; to come to an end, of questions/quarrels
Tolai mutfell trees, cut lumber, esp. to cut out a canoe
Wayan mudube cut off, amputated, severed, cut short; end, cease, conclude
Fijian muducut off, ceased, ended
  mudu ni liŋaman given to a man who has had a finger joint chopped off in mourning for a dead chief (lit. ‘cut off hand’)
Tongan mutucut off, amputate, make shorter by cutting a piece off
Samoan mutube cut off (as tree branches), truncated
Tuvaluan mutuended; incomplete; cut off
Rarotongan mututo be at an end, to be parted, to end suddenly, to conclude or terminate finally, to cut short; to be cut, to be severed; cut off, severed; parted, ended
Maori mutubrought to an end, left off; cropped, having the end cut off, truncated, mutilated; cut short, bring to an end
Hawaiian mukucut short, shortened; amputated; at an end, ceased; anything cut off short; short, brief, quick; broken section of a wave or crest; thirtieth night of the moon, when it has entirely disappeared

Note:   Also Rotuman mutu ‘to cut across, sever, cut off’ (Polynesian loan). Although it is only weakly attested outside the Central Pacific subgroup and therefore remains somewhat tentative, this word appears to have conveyed both physical and figurative senses of breaking or cutting off,

TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    




*mʷaloq submerged rock or coral reef


POC     *mʷaloq submerged rock or coral reef

Lakalai malosubmerged rock or coral reef
Bola malosteep face of reef that goes down into the deep
Takia malreef, a chain of rocks, coral, or a ridge of sand at or near the surface of water
Kwaio maloreef
Lau malocoral reef
'Āre'āre marosubmerged coral reef
Sa'a mwaloa sunken rock, a reef at sea
Arosi (Eastern) mwaroa hidden rock or shoal
Mota mwaloa sunken rock where the sea breaks
  mwalo-ʔawith reefs
Raga maloreef
Tongan ŋaloto sink (e.g. into one’s flesh); so submerge, to disappear or pass completely under the surface (e.g. of a diver or a submarine); to disappear from sight
Hawaiian nalolost, vanished, concealed, forgotten; to pass away, disappear

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond, Pawley and Ross (2003a:108). While POc *sakaRu evidently referred to that part of a reef that is close to or above the surface of the water, *mʷaloq apparently referred to the submerged portion of the reef where it disappears into the depths of the sea.

TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu        mw    







*mwamwaki large cuttlefish and squid


POC     *mwamwaki large cuttlefish and squid

Nauna mwamwaksquid with white shell and two long tentacles
Lau wawakisp. of octopus
Toqabaqita waawakispp. of large cuttlefish and squid
  ʔuŋana waawakiinternal shell of a cuttlefish; cuttlebone

Note:   Also Lindrou momot ‘squid with white shell and two long tentacles’.


*mwanene straight


POC     *mwanene straight

Baluan mwanene-nstraight
Lou mwanini-nstraight
Loniu mwene-nstraight
Likum mwenne-nstraight
Lindrou monnenstraight
Bipi mone-nstraight
Nggela mae-manestraight; correct, just; to straighten, justify one’s conduct

Note:   Ross (2003c:213) has posited POc *mwane-mwane ‘straight, direct; flat, level’, citing the ACD as a prior source. However, at that time the ACD had only POc *wane-wane ‘straight, direct; flat, level’, and his reconstruction fails to account for the additional syllable of a number of Admiralty forms, including at least Baluan, Lou, Likum and Lindrou (the latter two with medial vowel syncope). I therefore reconstruct a trisyllable and assume haplology in some reflexes. The final nasal in Admiralty languages reflects the attributive suffix *-na.


*mwapo taro


POC     *mwapo taro

Proto-Admiralty *mwapVtaro
Loniu mahtaro
Nali mahtaro
Likum mohtaro
Sori mwaptaro
Lindrou mwahtaro
Lakalai la mavotaro (general term; Colocasia esculenta)
Gedaged maotaro, Colocasia esculenta


*mwaRi to roast, burn


POC     *mwaRi to roast, burn

Manam (mʷa)mʷarito roast, to warm, to heat, to set on fire
Gedaged mazito roast, cauterize, toast, bake, parch, sear, burn, incinerate, set fire to, ignite, light (e.g. a cigar)
Takia mariroast on a fire
Ulawa malito be roasted
Gilbertese mʷaicooked, well-done

Note:   A shorter version of this comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968).


*mwata snake


POC     *mwata snake

Nauna mwatsnake
Loniu mwatsnake
Leipon mwatsnake
Marau₂ snake
Sori mwasnake
Bipi mwaksnake
Wuvulu waʔasnake
Tigak muatasnake
Arop motasnake
Kove motasnake
Bebeli mɔtɔsnake
Sobei mato <Msnake
Manam mwatasnake
  mwatasnake, serpent
Sio motasnake
Takia motsnake
Yabem moacsnake
Watut mʷarsnake
Wampar mursnake
Ubir motasnake
Suau motasnake
Dobuan mwatasnake
Molima mwatasnake (generic)
Saliba mwatasnake
Sudest mwatasnake
Bugotu umatasnake
Nggela umatasnake
Lau wā-wāgeneric for all creatures on or in the ground
Proto-Micronesian *mʷataworm
Woleaian mwat(a)underground worm
Haununu mwasnake
Hiw mwatasnake
Lehalurup ŋwatsnake
Mosina mʷatsnake
Lakona mwatsnake
Piamatsina mʷatasnake
Hukua mwatasnake
Amblong matasnake
Aore matasnake
Atchin ni-mwetsnake
Rano ne-mʷetsnake
Lingarak ne-mwatsnake
Leviamp n-matsnake
Avava a-mwatsnake
Axamb na-mwersnake
Tonga ŋatasnake (there are no snakes in Tonga)
Pwele mʷatasnake
Wayan ŋwatasnake
Fijian ŋatasnake
Niue ŋatasnake
Samoan ŋatasnake (rare in Samoa)
Rennellese ŋatageneral name for snakes, loathed and considered the embodiment of non-worshipped deities

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 1/12/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)