Updated: 6/9/2011
Reconstructions      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Roots      Sub-Groups      Languages      Words      Proto-forms      
References      Loans      Noise      

Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*n   

ne    ni    nu    

*-na 3p deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that

3655

PAN     *-na 3p deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that, there, then
Formosan
Kanakanabu saː-nathere (yonder)
Amis o-nathis
WMP
Bontok nathis; here; now
Long Wat nahthere
CMP
Ngadha ke-nathat
OC
Wuvulu fe-nathat
Tongan nathat, those, esp. near you
Samoan le-nāthat
Anuta e-nathat, there

3656

PMP     *i-na that, there
WMP
Agta s-inathere (2p)
Ifugaw h-ináthat, there (2p)
Casiguran Dumagat inathat, there (2p)
Bisaya Bukit inothat
  d-inothere
Bario Kelabit inehthat
Long Wat inahthat
Long Anap inathat
  d-inathere (location)
  k-inathere (direction)
Bintulu inehthat (3p)
  d-inehthere (location)
  t-inehthere (direction)
Lampung inothat
CMP
Rembong inathat (2p); then
Li'o inathis
Watubela ine <Athat
Koiwai inathis
OC
Motu inathis
Mbula inathat (anaphoric)
Dobuan n-inathat
Chuukese inathere it is (by you)
Nguna wa-inathat (distant)

3657

PWMP     *sa-na there
WMP
Bontok sánathat one, close to hearer; there, close to hearer
Kankanaey sánathat; there, thither. What is near the person one speaks to; demonstrative and adverb of place
Malay sanayonder; over there; yon

Note:   Also Aklanon ináʔ 'there (2p)', Samihim inaʔ 'this', with presumably secondary final glottal stop.

*-nan that

3646

PWMP     *-nan that
WMP
Murik inanthat one
Sarikei inan idunthere

3647

PWMP     *a-nan that
WMP
Maranao ananthat
Long Atip ananthat

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

ni

*-ni 1pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: this

3677

PAN     *-ni 1pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: this; here; now
Formosan
Taroko niihere, now, this
WMP
Bisaya Bukit nihthat
Long Jegan naythat
Long Terawan nihthat (sp)
Malagasy (Merina) ito-nythis
CMP
Adonara nithis
OC
Duke of York nithis
Tongan nithis, these; now

3678

PAN     *di-ni here
Formosan
Taroko d-niithe group here
Pazeh di-nihere
WMP
Tagalog diníhere
Mamanwa dinihere
Koronadal Bilaan dinihere
Long Anap d-inihere (= 'at here'; cp. k-ini 'to here')

3679

PAN     *i-ni this, here
Formosan
Saisiyat h-inithis, here
Pazeh im-inithis
Rukai (Budai) ku-inithat (near hearer)
Rukai (Tona) ak-inithat (near hearer)
Proto-Puyuma *inithis
Amis inihere, near at hand
WMP
Kapampangan iníthis
Bikol iníthis, these
Palawan Batak inihere
Hiligaynon iníthis
Cebuano (dialectal) ínibe here
Maranao inithis, these
Kalagan inithis, here
Bario Kelabit inihthis
Kenyah inithis
Malagasy (Merina) inythat, this. It is always used of something thoroughly known to both speaker and spoken to
Malay inidemonstrative suggesting precision or nearness
Sundanese inithis
Sasak inithis
Sangir inithis, these
Muna inithis
Chamorro guinihere, in this place
CMP
Fordat inithis; here
OC
Nggela inithese
Sa'a inithat
Arosi inithis; here
Marshallese inthis

3680

PAN     *ia-ni this; here
Formosan
Atayal ianithis; here; now
WMP
Mansaka yanithis
Malagasy (Merina) izanythat; this; these
OC
Nggela ianihere; like this
Anuta ie-nihere, in this place

3681

PWMP     *ka-i-ni now (?)
WMP
Bikol ka-iníthis, these
Cebuano kiníthis
Subanun (Sindangan) k-inithis
Bario Kelabit kinihnow; this way
Kenyah k-iniin this place
Long Anap k-inihere (= 'to here')
Malay kini, ka-inithis; thus; thus far; now

3682

PAN     *qani this; here
Formosan
Atayal qanithis, these; here
WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) anihthis
Malagasy (Merina) ánythere (distant and unseen)

3683

PWMP     *si-ni here
WMP
Aborlan Tagbanwa s-inihere
Kayan (Uma Juman) hini-hhere
Malay sinihere; this way; this place
Sangil s-inihere

Note:   Also Proto-Puyuma *kani 'here', Tsou, Kisar, Nggela eni 'this' (all form *ia-ni with sporadic contraction?), Numfor ine 'these; this', Wuvulu feni 'this'. Chamorro ini 'this (demonstrative pronoun)' appears to reflect *qini, but may show irregular resistance to gw-epenthesis which is motivated by a need to distinguish the demonstrative and adverbial senses of earlier *i-ni. Proto-Puyuma *kani 'here' may reflect *ka-ni, a form that was identical to *ka-i-ni, without the generic locative marker *i, and *si-ni may derive form *sa 'nonfocus marker of location' plus *i-ni.

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

nu

*-nuh marker of uncertainty

3687

PAN     *-nuh marker of uncertainty
Formosan
Seediq ma-nuwhat, which? (much used relative or interrogative pronoun)
Thao mi-nuwhy?
Favorlang sban-nowhen?
Siraya hi-nowhere?
  man-nowhen?
WMP
Itbayaten di-no-hwhere, wherever, at which place?
Agta e-nuwhat?
Ibanag so-nu anniwhen?
Balangao he-nowho?
Bayninan Ifugaw ŋa-nuwhat?
Kapampangan ní-nuwho?
Kalamian Tagbanwa sa-nu pawhen?
  ti-nu pawho?
Palawan Batak saʔ-nuwhen?
  u-nuwhat?
Mamanwa o-no sawhat?
Dibabawon Manobo kaga-nuwhen?
Taosug u-nuhwhat?
  haʔu-nuhwhen?
Banggi o-nuwhat?
Ida'an Begak nuwhat?
  nu kidanwhen (future)?
Dalat Melanau (Kampung Kekan) newwhat?
Kayan (Uma Juman) hi-noʔwhere?
Malay nuthat there; yon (Kedah)
Kaidipang ṛoo-nuwhen?

3688

PMP     *a-nuh thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what?
WMP
Bontok ano-kaan empty form substituting in any form class when the normal form is inappropriate or when it cannot be recalled; what's-it; what-you-may-call-it
Ifugaw a-nu-káthing ... may be used in the sense of adultery in the case that the speaker avoids using the real word
Amganad Ifugaw a-nú-nawhen?
Itneg (Binongan) a-nowhat?
Tagalog a-nówhat?
Bikol a-nówhat
Aklanon a-nó(h)what?; do what? (particle that can be used as any part of speech)
Hiligaynon a-núwhat?
Cebuano (dialectal) a-núwhat?
Aborlan Tagbanwa a-nuwhatchamacallit
Sangil a-nu-iwhatchamacallit
Samal a-nuwhatchamacallit
Kayan a-noʔwhich?; the one that
Murik a-noʔwhich, which one; thing mentioned
Bintulu a-newthing mentioned, whatchamacallit
  a-new inehwhat?
  a-new nasekclothing
Ngaju Dayak a-nua certain (person, etc.)
Malagasy (Merina) á-no-nasuch a one, such a thing, so-and-so
Iban a-nuʔsome(thing), i.e. not specified
Malay a-nuSo-and-So-, such-and-such
Moken a-no-ŋwhat
Acehnese a-nòwhatchamacallit, a certain, someone, something that one does not want to, or cannot name
Karo Batak a-nuindefinite pronoun, a certain; indicating for a person whose name one doesn't know, or doesn't want to say
Sundanese a-nurelative pronoun: this, that, which, that which, what; he/she who
Old Javanese a-nusomeone (something, somewhere) or other, So-and-So, What's the name, you-know-who (-what, -where)
  aŋ-a-nudo something or other, do you-know-what
  a-nu-ŋsomething that ... In practice it is comparable to ikaŋ: who, which; or (a)siŋ: whoever, whatever
Javanese a-nuum, uh (representing a pause to collect one's thoughts); substitution for a word that has slipped the mind; expressing vagueness rather than definiteness; sex organ (euphemistic)
Balinese a-nuone, a certain one'; di dina anu 'on a certain day
  a-nu-n(preceding a personal name) the one belonging to, that of
  uman tyaŋé limaŋ anun i rakathe field of me (is) five (times) that of I Raka
Sasak a-nuʔindefinite pronoun (something); used to form possessive pronouns; used also for the genitalia; do something with someone
Sangir a-nuindefinite pronoun: whatchamacallit, word used to indicate something for which one will not or cannot use the proper name
Tontemboan a-nuword used to indicate something indefinite, used both for persons and for things; thing, whatchamacallit
  u-a-nua demonstrative word, connected with something that has not yet been named, but which presently shall be named, a certain someone, also used to indicate possession
Kaidipang a-nu-kowhat?
Bolaang Mongondow o-nuwhat, which, how?
Uma a-nuwhatchamacallit; possessions
  meʔ-anudo something (unstated)
Bare'e a-nuindefinite pronoun, word used to indicate something for which one will not or cannot use the proper name
Wolio a-nuproperty
Chamorro am-anuwhere, which?
  m-anuwhich, whichever?

3689

PWMP     *maŋ-anu do such-and-such (action unspecified)
WMP
Malagasy (Merina) man-àno-naliterally to "so-and-so" anything
Old Javanese aŋ-anudo something or other, do you-know-what
Sangir maŋ-anuverb which can be used as an indefinite substitute for any other verb
Bolaang Mongondow moŋ-onuwhat are you doing?; why?

3690

PWMP     *sa-anu (gloss uncertain)
WMP
Old Javanese s-ānubeing connected with something, or in some way possessing something
Tontemboan sa-anuperhaps

3691

PPh     *i-anuh, si-anuh person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so
WMP
Itneg (Binongan) si-anowho?
Malagasy (Merina) i-àno-nawhat's-his-name
Iban s-anuʔSo-and-so
Malay si anuSo-and-So
Karo Batak si anuSo-and-So
Toba Batak si anuSo-and-So, name of someone whom one does not wish to, or cannot name
Balinese i anuSo-and-So, an unknown and unnamed person

3692

POC     *sanu person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so
OC
Roviana sanua term used instead of a particular name--- So-and-so
Cheke Holo hanuword used to replace a taboo word or name
Bugotu hanuthing
  a hanuthe person, he who
Nggela hanuindefinite pronoun. Replaces an unremembered name of a person or thing. Someone, so-and-so; do so and so, thus, in such a way
  a hanuwhat's his name!
  na hanuthe thing whose name I can't remember

3693

PWMP     *in-anu to have had something done with it
WMP
Bikol daʔí in-anóintact, untouched
Old Javanese in-anudo something or other, do you-know-what

3694

PMP     *a-nuh-ku my unnamed thing: mine
WMP
Kayan anu-kmine
Sasak anuʔ kumine
Sangir anu-kumine
  i anu-kumy friend (male or female)
Tontemboan anu-kumine
Wolio o anu-kumine

3695

POC     *anu-ku my unnamed thing: mine
OC
Label anu-kmine

3696

PMP     *a-nuh-mu your unnamed thing: yours
WMP
Kayan anu-myours
Sasak [anuʔ dayours]
Sangir anu-myours
Tontemboan anu-muyours
Wolio o anu-muyours

3697

POC     *anu-mu your unnamed thing: yours
OC
Label anu-mmine

3698

PMP     *a-nuh-ni a his/her unnamed thing: his/hers
WMP
Kayan anu-n naʔhis/hers
Sundanese anu-nahis, hers
Sasak anuʔ niahis/hers
Sangir anu-nehis/hers
Tontemboan anu-nahis/hers
Wolio o anu-nahis/hers/theirs

3699

POC     *anu-ña his/her unnamed thing: his/hers
OC
Label anu-nahis/hers

3700

PAN     *i-nu place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where?
Formosan
Atayal i-nuwhere, anywhere?
Seediq i-nowhere? (especially interrogative)
Saisiyat ha-inowhere?
Paiwan inuwhere?
WMP
Binukid inuwhat, which
Long Anap i-nuwhat?
Mukah Melanau uaʔ i-newwhat?

3701

PAN     *ka-nu interrogative; probably 'when?'
Formosan
Saisiyat ka-nowhat?

3702

PMP     *ka-nu when?
WMP
Agta ka-nuwhen?
Ilokano [ka-anówhen?]
Bikol ka-anóánowhat is the relationship to?
Kalagan ka-nuwhen?
  kinu-nuwhen? (future)
Mansaka a-ka-nuwhen? (past)
Sarangani Manobo ka-nowhen?
Samal ka-nuwhen?
Kaidipang [ka-anu-kowhere?]

3703

PAN     *na-nu what(?)
Formosan
Atayal na-nuwhy, anyhow, what, anything, to do what?
Kanakanabu na-nuwhere? (Ferrell 1969)
WMP
Aklanon ná-nowhat (noun form only)
Subanun na-nuwhen?

3704

PPh     *si-nuh person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who?
WMP
Yami si-nuwho?
Itbayaten si-nowho?
Bontok sí-nowho; what?
Kankanaey si-nówho?, which?, what?
Ilokano si-nnówho?
Kalinga (Guinaang) si-nuwho?
Botolan Sambal hi-nowho?
Tagalog sí-nowho?
  sí-no mananyone, whoever
Subanun (Siocon) si-nuwho?

3705

PPh     *anu-en how? In what way?
WMP
Ilokano an-ano-énhow? what is the use of?
Hiligaynon anu-unbecome, do with
Bolaang Mongondow onu-onwhat must be done?

3706

PPh     *anu-anu thing of uncertainty
WMP
Ilokano an-ano-énHow? What is the use of? What can (I, etc.) do with?
Bikol mag-ka-anó-ánobe related to each other in what way?
Malagasy (Merina) ano anopraise, blessing; a guess, anything done at random
Javanese anu anuotherwise; had something happened
Wolio anu anuderide, mock, ridicule

Note:   Also Tsou ánʔo 'where is?', Itbayaten sinoh 'who?', Bontok annoka 'an empty form substituting in any form class when the normal form is inappropriate or when it cannot be recalled; what's-it; what-you-may-call-it', Aklanon kánʔo 'when (in the past)?', Aklanon sínʔo 'who?, whom?', Mamanwa sinʔo 'who?', Western Bukidnon Manobo me-nu 'how? what?', Tontemboan ma-anu 'have sex with a woman'. Philippine forms such as Itbayaten sinoh and Aklanon sinʔuh suggest *-nuh, but the final consonant is not supported by Atayal, Saisiyat or other Formosan languages.

It is unclear whether this morpheme could occur in isolation in PAn, since such reflexes as Dalat Melanau (Kampung Kekan) new 'what?' could be products of secondary reduction. *-nuh was a formative in many interrogative words, but apparently was not an interrogative marker itself, as there is no comparative evidence that it could be used to transform declarative into interrogative expressions. Rather, it is perhaps most accurately characterized as a marker of uncertainty or deliberate obscurity. For the morphological parallel of *maŋ- + 'what?' = 'why?' cp. Bolaang Mongondow moŋ-onu and Malay meŋ-apa 'why?'.

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

na

*na determiner; article

3653

PMP     *na determiner; article
WMP
Malagasy (Merina) nyarticle: the
CMP
Kambera naan article: the, a
OC
Arosi naarticle with common nouns, used with subject rather than object
Fijian nathe common article: the, a

*na linker marking emphatic attribution

3654

PAN     *na linker marking emphatic attribution
Formosan
Thao nalinker between heads and attributes used to signal emphatic attribution (in contrast with a, linker between heads and attributer used to signal neutral or unmarked attribution)
WMP
Tagalog nalinker between heads and attributes: ma-tákaw na táo 'a greedy person' = 'greedy LINK person' (Schachter and Otanes 1972:118)
Bikol nagrammatical linker used in adjectival phrases; grammatical connector equivalent to 'that'
Toba Batak narelative pronoun, often used to give emphasis (van der Tuuk 1971 [1864-1867]:369); attributive preposition linking a nominal head with an attributive adjective, verb, numeral, or a phrase : hau na tibbo tall tree = tree LINK tall, halak na modom the sleeping man = man LINK sleep, dakdanak na dua i the two children = children LINK two DEICTIC, halak na manuhor bukku the man who bought the book = man LINK buy book, jabu na di huta the house in the village = house LINK PREP village (Nababan 1981:81)
OC
Raluana nadefinite and indefinite article, the, a, an: a kat na bul 'a fine child'

Note:   Both *a and *na must be reconstructed as linkers between PAn nominal heads and their lexical or phrasal attributes. The question naturally arises what relationship these forms had. In some attested languages (Tagalog, Bikol) na is one of two phonologically conditioned allomorphs of a single morpheme, and it is conceivable that a similar relationship existed for PAn *a and *na.

What is striking about the distribution of these forms is that outside Taiwan reflexes have never been reported in the same language (thus some languages reflect *a, while others reflect *na). However, in Thao of central Taiwan reflexes of both *a and *na are found as fully functional linkers. While native speakers insist that a and na are 'the same', grammaticality judgements for phrases which contain one or the other particle show that they are not fully interchangeable. In a handful of critical examples it is reasonably clear that a signals what might be called 'neutral' or 'unmarked' attribution (e.g. ma-tubu a saran 'a wet road' = 'wet LINK road', while na signals what might be called 'contrastive' or 'emphatic' attribution (e.g. Q: 'which road did you come on?', A: ma-tubu na saran 'the WET road'). Since van der Tuuk (1971 [1864-1867]) also treats the Toba Batak linker or relativizer na as an 'emphasizer' it appears likely that the situation in Thao is conservative, reflecting a PAn distinction which has been lost in almost all other Austronesian languages.

*nabuq, ka-nabuq to fall

3640

PMP     *nabuq, ka-nabuq to fall [doublet: *dabuq, labuq]
WMP
Kapampangan nabúʔto fall
Kalamansig Cotabato Manobo nabuʔto fall
Uma nawuʔto fall
CMP
Kambera ka-nabuto fall
Kemak me-nahuto fall

*nakaw steal

3643

PMP     *nakaw steal [doublet: *Cakaw]
WMP
Kapampangan nákosteal
Tagalog nákawstolen, pilfered; thing stolen or pilfered
CMP
Ngadha nakasteal; secret, clandestine, illicit, illegal
Li'o nakasteal
Savu naʔosteal
Rotinese nakosteal
Tetun naʔo-ksteal
Proto-Ambon *nakawsteal

*namaw sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove

3645

PMP     *namaw sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat namawcoral reef
Palauan lemáusmall, deep spot within shallow area inside reef
Karo Batak namodeep place in a river, generally where it makes a bend and the water moves slowly (common in place names)
CMP
Tetun namo-nbay, harbor
Yamdena namedeep sea channel in the reef
Buru namalevel stretch in a stream's course; cove, bay, harbor
Proto-Ambon *nama(w)bay, harbor
OC
Ponapean nahmwdeep place within the barrier reef; lagoon
Arosi namoa landlocked, shallow lagoon near the shore
Lau namothe lagoon inside a reef, near the reef (the deep) pools towards the shore
Kwaio namolake, pool, deep place in river
Tongan namolagoon
Niue namolake, pond

Note:   Mills (1981) posits PAn *namaw, but cites only Central Malayo-Polynesian and Oceanic witnesses.

*naŋa₁ estuary, mouth of a river

3658

PMP     *naŋa₁ estuary, mouth of a river [doublet: *minaŋa, binaŋa]
WMP
Ma'anyan naŋeriver mouth
CMP
Manggarai naŋaestuary, coast, beach, anchorage
Ngadha naŋabay, marine estuary, harbor
Buru naŋa-n(esp. a river's) mouth

*naŋa₂ kind of thick rattan

3659

PMP     *naŋa₂ kind of thick rattan
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat naŋaspecies of rattan Calamus usitatus (leaves are used for roofing)
Maranao naŋahard rattan
Tiruray noŋoa rattan: Calamus sp.
Sangir ue naŋarattan sp.
Bolaang Mongondow naŋakind of very thick rattan
CMP
Manggarai naŋakind of large rattan

Note:   Also Kayan naŋaʔ 'wild sago palm'.

*naŋuy to swim

3660

PAN     *naŋuy to swim [doublet: *daŋuy, laŋuy]
Formosan
Kavalan m-naŋuyto swim
CMP
Proto-Ambon *naŋuto swim
Kei naŋto swim

Note:   For the forms that I assign to *laŋuy and to *naŋuy, Dahl (1976:131) proposes a single prototype *ɬaŋuy 'swim'. Next to this etymon he also reconstructs *ɬ[eu]suŋ 'rice mortar'. However, Stresemann (1927) posited Proto-Ambon *lesuŋ, and Sarangani Manobo has lesuŋ 'rice mortar', with different initials in each case than the words for 'swim'. These and other contradictions in Dahl's proposal can be resolved through the reconstruction of variants *daŋuy, *laŋuy, and *naŋuy 'swim'.

*nara a tree: Pterocarpus indica

3649

PMP     *nara a tree: Pterocarpus indica [doublet: *naRa]
WMP
Ilokano narráleguminous trees with yellow flowers and orbicular pods which yield a valuable timber for construction, etc.: Pterocarpus spp.
Bikol náraa tree: Pterocarpus spp.
Maranao naraa tree: Pterocarpus indica
Tiruray naraa tree: Pterocarpus indica
CMP
Manggarai naraa tree: Pterocarpus indicus
Bimanese naratree from which the aŋsana wood comes (Pterocarpus indicus)
OC
Motu naraa tree: Pterocarpus indicus

*naRa a tree: Pterocarpus indica

3648

PMP     *naRa a tree: Pterocarpus indica [doublet: *nara]
WMP
Tagalog nágaspecies of the narra-tree family
Cebuano nágalarge forest tree yielding a hard, red wood, highly prized for furniture-making: Pterocarpus indicus
Palauan lasa timber tree: Pterocarpus indicus (L.)
CMP
Rotinese natree with red wood: Pterocarpus indica

Note:   Also Tagalog, Cebuano nára same gloss. The reconstruction of *naRa as a doublet rather than as a disjunct of *nara is dependent on the still only weakly supported assumption that Palauan and Rotinese reflect *R differently from *r.

*nasuk, Nasu cook by boiling

3650

PAN     *nasuk, Nasu cook by boiling
Formosan
Paiwan pi-natukto boil
  ł-m-atuto boil (meat)
  ma-łatubecome boiled (meat)
WMP
Bario Kelabit naukbubbling, starting to boil
Uma -nahucook (in water)
Tae' nasucook, cooked
CMP
Rotinese nasuboil in water, cook
Tetun nasucooking of meat, vegetables, etc.
OC
Gedaged naikcooking, boiling
Motu nadu-acook by boiling
Selau nascook

Note:   Mills (1981) suggests 'Proto-Indonesian' *nasu( ) 'to cook'; he cites no Formosan cognates.

*nati young of animals

3651

PMP     *nati young of animals
WMP
Cebuano natiyoung of a pasture animal: calf or kid
Maranao naticalf
Western Bukidnon Manobo natiyoung horse, carabao or cow
OC
Raluana nati-nathe young of animals

Note:   Evidently distinct from PMP *ñatu(q) 'ovary, egg, baby bird'.

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

ne

*neknek gnat, sandfly, fruit fly

3661

PMP     *neknek gnat, sandfly, fruit fly [doublet: *niknik, ñikñik]
WMP
Bikol nuknókgnat, fruit fly
OC
Arosi nonoa fly
  nono iasisandfly, midge
Sa'a nono äsimidge, sandfly
Tongan nonofruit fly
Niue nonosmall beetle
Rennellese nonokind of small fly, as on rotten bananas

*nemnem think

3662

PAN     *nemnem think [doublet: *demdem]
Formosan
Paiwan ki-nemnemthink, cogitate, pay close attention to
WMP
Kankanaey nemnémintellect, intelligence, reason; thought, idea, mind; memory, imagination
Ilokano nemnémdissimulate, dissemble, refrain from divulging one's thoughts, keep silent
  pa-nemnem-énconsider, fix the mind on, think on
Ilongot nɨmnɨmto think (Rosaldo 1980)
OC
Mota nonomto think

Note:   Also Fordat nanaŋ 'remember, remember sadly', Toak nenem-i 'think'. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *nemnem 'think, remember'.

*neŋneŋ stare, look fixedly

3665

PWMP     *neŋneŋ stare, look fixedly [doublet: *teŋteŋ]
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat neŋneŋto stare (of the staring of an infant at what is before it)
Maranao neneŋsee, discern with the eye
Balinese neŋneŋgaze, stare at

Note:   Also Maranao neŋ 'observe by sight; sight'.

*neRab yesterday

3663

PMP     *neRab yesterday
WMP
Bantik ka-nehab-aʔyesterday
OC
Selau norwayesterday
Nggela nolayesterday
Sa'a no-nolayesterday
Mota ana-norayesterday
Fijian e na noayesterday

Note:   Also Chamorro nigap, Palauan e-líseb (< earlier *niRab) 'yesterday'. The retention of the final consonant in POc is confirmed by Selau norwa, while Duke of York narap 'before, formerly', Butmas (New Hebrides) narap 'yesterday' suggest a POc doublet *naRap. Bugotu i-ñotha 'yesterday' presumably results from sporadic palatalization.

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

ni

*niket sticky, adhesive

3667

PMP     *niket sticky, adhesive [doublet: *ña(ŋ)ket]
WMP
Isneg níkatresin; a herbaceous vine that grows in forests: its sticky fruits are pounded for birdlime
Kankanaey níketresin
CMP
Manggarai niketmushy (of rice, etc.), thick (of liquids), viscous, sticky (as gruel)

Note:   With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket 'adhesive, sticky'. Casiguran Dumagat niket 'honey (archaic)' can reflect either *ña(ŋ)ket or *niket.

*niknik, ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly

3668

PMP     *niknik, ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly
WMP
Kapampangan nikníka tiny insect (gnat?)
Tagalog nikniktiny blood-sucking insect
Lampung ñeñikmosquito
Balinese ñiñiktiny mosquitoes that fly in swarms
Sasak ñiñiktobacco louse
CMP
Rotinese ninikmosquito
Savu ninivery small kind of midge
Yamdena ninikmidge, mosquito
SHWNG
Waropen ninimidge, mosquito
OC
Seimat ninibee
'Are'are nini-suakind of bee
Sa'a nini-hohornet

Note:   Also Bikol núknúk 'gnat', Bisaya Bukit keliah niniʔ 'sandfly'.

*nilaw bright light

3669

PMP     *nilaw bright light
WMP
Toba Batak niloshine, glitter
CMP
Bimanese lino <Msmooth, shiny
Sika niloto shine, of a lamp, the moon, etc.

Note:   With root *-law 'dazzling light'.

*ninih shake, tremble, rock

3670

PMP     *ninih shake, tremble, rock
WMP
Itbayaten ninihearthquake
CMP
Paulohi ma-ninishudder, shiver
OC
Gedaged niniswing, oscillate, shake, rock
Fijian ninitremble, quake with fear or anger

Note:   Also Sundanese lini 'earthquake', li-lini-ɨn '(of the body) shake, tremble, quake'.

*niniq plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as

3671

PMP     *niniq plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets
WMP
Yami niniDonax cannaeformis (plant used to make karapal, or flat basket) (Kano and Segawa:386)
Itbayaten ninisp. of plant (Marantaceae, Donax cannaeformis Schum.), a sp. of reed family
CMP
Manggarai ninikind of plant material used in basket-making: Donax canniformis
Rembong niniʔa plant: Donax canniformis
OC
Nggela ninisp. of bush used in wristlets
Lau ninisp. of shrub; stems used in thatching

Note:   Verheijen (1984), following an earlier suggestion of mine, gives PCEMP *niniq 'Donax canniformis'. The Philippine forms reported here justify an attribution to PMP. Verheijen (1984) reports Rembong niniʔ, but this form does not appear in Verheijen (1977).

*niŋal echo

3684

PMP     *niŋal echo
WMP
Bikol ani-niŋalecho
Hanunóo a-niŋalecho
CMP
Asilulu niŋalecho

Note:   This word probably took the *qali-, *kali- prefix.

*niŋniŋ clear, of water

3685

PMP     *niŋniŋ clear, of water
WMP
Tagalog niŋníŋbrilliance, sparkle
CMP
Soboyo ma-niniŋclear, of water

Note:   Also Javanese niŋ, beniŋ 'bright, clear', Balinese niŋ 'clear, pure', yēh niŋ 'clear water'.

*nipay snake

3672

PMP     *nipay snake
WMP
Maranao nipaisnake, serpent
Karo Batak nipesnake
CMP
Ngadha nipalarge snake
  nipa téécentipede, millipede
Fordat nifasnake
Yamdena nifekind of large snake
Paulohi nifasnake
  nifa nitucentipede, millipede
Proto-Sub-Ambon *nipa(y)snake

*niRab yesterday

3673

PWMP     *niRab yesterday [doublet: *neRab]
WMP
Kadazan ko-niabyesterday
Limbang Bisaya ke-niab *R > Ø sporadicyesterday
Palauan e-lísebyesterday
Chamorro nigapyesterday

Note:   Also Kavalan siːRab 'yesterday'.

*ni(n)tuq a fern: Lygodium spp.

3686

PMP     *ni(n)tuq a fern: Lygodium spp.
WMP
Tagalog nítoʔsp. of forest vine with strong fibers used for hatmaking, basketmaking, etc.
Bikol nítoʔblack fern
Hanunóo nítuʔa climbing fern (Lygodium circinnatum Swartz); the twining, vinelike dark stems are used extensively in basketry overlay work
CMP
Rembong nintuʔkind of fern: Lygodium circinnatum
Ngadha nitutree sp.

Note:   Also Palauan ŋídech 'climbing fern (Lygodium circinnatum (Burm. f.) Sw.); large food basket made from ŋidech plant', Rembong mintuʔ (more common variant of nintuʔ). The core of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).

*niwaŋ, ma-niwaŋ thin, of animate beings

3676

PWMP     *maR-niwang thin, of animate beings
WMP
Isneg na-níwāŋlean, thin, meager, lank
  mag-níwaŋbecome lean, thin, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat niwaŋskinny, thin (of animate beings)
Hanunóo níwaŋthinness, referring to people
  ma-níwaŋthin, referring to people
Kayan (Uma Juman) niwaŋthin (of people and animals)
Toba Batak mar-niaŋthin (of animates)
CMP
Asilulu ma-niwathin
Kaitetu ma-niwathin

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *(n)ihaŋ 'thin'. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ni(w,o)aŋ 'thin, lean, skinny'.

TOP      ne    ni    nu    

nu

*nu conditional, if

3715

PAN     *nu conditional, if
Formosan
Paiwan nuif, when
WMP
Atta nuif
Ilongot nuif
Isneg noif
Botolan Sambal noif
Hanunóo nuif; when, during, in (with forms denoting periods of time)

*nunuk a tree, the banyan

3711

PMP     *nunuk a tree, the banyan
WMP
Aklanon nunóktree -- believed to be bewitched or enchanted
Maranao nonokbanyan tree: Ficus sp.
Tiruray nunukgeneric for the strangler fig: Ficus benjamina L.
Maloh nunukbanyan
Sundanese nunukname of a fruit tree; ghost in the form of a hunchbacked beldam
Sangir nunuʔkind of waringin or banyan
Uma nunuʔkind of waringin or banyan
Bolaang Mongondow nunukkind of waringin or banyan
CMP
Rotinese nunu(k)kind of waringin or banyan
Leti nunubanyan
Proto-Ambon *nunuʔFicus benjamina L
OC
Raluana nunubanyan
Lenkau nunbanyan
Fijian nunufig tree sp.

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *nunuk 'tree: Moraceae Ficus sp.', Mills (1981) Proto-Indonesian *nunuk 'banyan'. In many parts of the Philippines and Indonesia the banyan is believed to house mischievous spirits, hence the secondary meaning of Sundanese nunuk.

*nuŋnuŋ stare, look fixedly

3716

PWMP     *nuŋnuŋ stare, look fixedly [doublet: *neŋneŋ]
WMP
Kankanaey noŋnóŋsee; look at; behold; observe; view
Karo Batak nuŋnuŋmake an examination, try to find out
Malay nonoŋwalk looking fixedly ahead, as a drunkard trying to walk straight

Note:   Also Malay renoŋ 'looking fixedly at anything'.

*nuRuq luck

3712

PMP     *nuRuq luck
WMP
Palauan lúsechluck

3713

PMP     *ma-nuRuq lucky
WMP
Palauan me-lúsechalways lucky
OC
Tongan monūgood luck, good fortune or privilege
Samoan manūgood luck, good fortune

Note:   First proposed in Geraghty n.d., but with a reconstruction only for POc.

*nus squid, cuttlefish

3714

PMP     *nus squid, cuttlefish [doublet: *kanuqus]
WMP
Malay nusgeneric name for cephalopods
CMP
Rotinese nusoctopus, squid
Sika nukind of polyp on the reef

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