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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*N   

Na    Ne    Ni    Nu    

Na

Na

Nabek

NaCeŋ

Nali

Naŋuy

Nasu

NataD

27181

*Na conjunction: and

3652

PAN     *Na conjunction: and

Formosan
Tsou hoand
Saaroa ɬaand (things, but not people)
Proto-Rukai *laand
WMP
Tboli neand
Maloh na-naand
Tae' naand (iko na aku ‘you and I/me’)
Buginese naand
Makasarese naand
CMP
Leti naand
OC
Tubetube naand, so, but
Babatana (Avasö) naand
Sengga naand
'Āre'āre naand
Sa'a nacopulative, and

8755

PMP     *na₅ conjunction: and

Note:   Cf. Tsuchida (1976:11) Proto-Rukai-Tsouic *ɬa ‘and’. Mills (1975:784) proposes PAn *(n)a, but cites forms only from Sulawesi. Given the brevity of this form, as well as other CV competitors for this meaning that are nearly as well-attested, the similarity of forms outside the Tsouic subgroup may be a product of chance.

27170

*Nabek breakers, surf, waves

3639

PAN     *Nabek breakers, surf, waves

Formosan
Paiwan lʸaveksea, ocean
WMP
Subanon nabokwave at sea, breaker on shore
Palauan lábəktime of large ocean swells and strong current; large ocean swells accompanied by strong current
Chamorro napuwave, rough water, surf
CMP
Hawu nawasurf, wave of sea
Selaru nahato flow
OC
Lau nafosurf, wave of sea
Sa'a nahosurf, wave
Arosi nahosurf, waves on the beach
Gilbertese naowaves, billows, breakers
Puluwat wave, to be many waves, as in a strong sea
Raga nafowave

Note:   Also Rotinese nafa (expected **nafe) ‘wave, waves’.

30319

*NaCeŋ vegetables

7284

PAN     *NaCeŋ vegetables

Formosan
Amis dateŋgeneric term for vegetables; any kind of cooked food served except rice
  pisa-dateŋ-anvegetable garden
Kanakanabu natə́ŋəvegetables
Saaroa lhatəŋəvegetables
Rukai (Budai) ɭacəŋəvegetables
Rukai (Mantauran) ɭacəŋəa vegetable: Solanum nigrum
Paiwan lʸatseŋvegetables, non-staple vegetal foods (cultigens or wild)
  lʸ<m>atseŋto prepare vegetable foods
  ki-lʸatseŋto pick plants for vegetables; to buy vegetables

7285

PMP     *nateŋ vegetables

WMP
Itbayaten nateŋgathered vegetables
Ilokano natéŋvegetable
Agta (Dupaningan) nataŋvegetable
  i-nataŋcook vegetables
Ibaloy nateŋvegetables (said to be from Ilokano)
  nat-nateŋvegetables
Bikol natóŋtaro leaves; taro

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:150).

27174

*Nali cicada

3644

PAN     *Nali cicada

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *la-laLicicada
WMP
Maranao lalicicada

Note:   Although initial *N is rare, and there is thus little evidence to decide the matter, it appears that *N normally merged with *n in PMP. If so, Maranao lali is assumed to show a sporadic assimilation of the first consonant to the second.

30739

*Naŋuy to swim

8380

PAN     *Naŋuy to swim

Formosan
Basai nanuyto swim
Trobiawan naŋuyto swim
Kavalan naŋuyto swim
Saisiyat laŋoyswim
Pazeh saa-laŋuybuoy; fins
Amis (Kiwit) mi-ɬaŋuyto swim
Tsou ruu-hŋuzuto swim
Kanakanabu m-aka-naŋúluto swim
Saaroa maka-ɬaŋoloto swim
Proto-Rukai *laŋoyswim
Puyuma laŋuyswim (according to some informants it is breaststroke)
  pa-la-laŋuymake something swim, let something swim
  ta-laŋuy-anraft
Paiwan ɬaŋuyto swim; to immerse one’s body in water (as to bathe)
  pa-ɬaŋuyto cause swimming or immersion

8381

PMP     *naŋuy to swim

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-naŋoyto swim
Casiguran Dumagat naŋóyto swim
Ibaloy naŋoyswimming
  ma-neŋoygood swimmer
  man-naŋoyto swim
  naŋoy-anplace for swimming
  naŋoy-ento swim across something (as a river)
Moken naŋoyto swim
Dampelas naŋi-naŋito swim
Bare'e mo-naŋuto swim
  po-naŋuswimming place, manner of swimming
Mori Atas mo-naŋoito swim
Moronene no-naŋito swim
Buginese naŋeto swim
Chamorro næŋuto swim
CMP
Ngadha naŋuto swim
  naŋu tuato drink palm wine
Keo naŋuto swim
Palu'e naŋuto swim
Li'o naŋuto swim
Sika nanito swim, of people and animals; to drift, of objects
Lamaholot naŋeto swim
Kédang naŋito swim
Kodi ŋani <Mto swim
Waiyewa naŋito swim
Lamboya naŋito swim
Anakalangu ŋani <Mto swim
Kambera ŋeni <Mto swim
Hawu naŋi ~ naŋeto swim
Tetun nanito swim; to climb (of plants)
Erai nanito swim
Tugun nanito swim
Leti nanito swim
Wetan (ka)-nanito swim
Selaru r-nauto swim
Fordata r-naŋuto swim
Kei naŋto swim
Ujir ai nento swim
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) neŋto swim
Proto-Ambon *naŋuto swim
Asilulu nanuto swim and dive around in fairly shallow water
  nanu-nanuto swim for some time
Buruese naŋoto swim

8382

PAN     *N<um>aŋuy to swim

Formosan
Kavalan m-naŋuyto swim
Saisiyat l<om>aŋoyto swim
Atayal (Mayrinax) l<um>aŋuyto swim
Proto-Atayalic *l<um>aŋuyto swim
Pazeh mu-laŋuyto swim
Siraya l<m>aŋoyto swim
Puyuma mə- laŋuyto swim
Paiwan ɬ<m>aŋuyto swim, bathe

Note:   Also Moken maŋoy, Chamorro ñæŋu ‘to swim’.

30629

*Nasu cook by boiling

8110

PAN     *Nasu cook by boiling     [doublet: *nasuk]

Formosan
Paiwan lʸ-m-atuto boil (meat)
  ma-lʸatubecome boiled (meat)
  se-pa-lyatuto be boiled accidentally along with meat

8111

PMP     *nasu cook by boiling     [doublet: *nasuk]

WMP
Uma -nahucook (in water)
Tae' nasucook, cooked
Buginese nasucooked
  man-nasuto cook
CMP
Kambera ma-nahuto cook, boil (meat, rice, lontar sap)
Rotinese nasuboil in water, cook
Tetun nasucooking of meat, vegetables, etc.
Leti nasuto cook
Dobel ʔa-nayto boil, cook by boiling
OC
Motu nadu-acook by boiling
Halia nasto cook
Selau nascook

Note:   Given the Paiwan distinction between ly<m>atu ‘to boil (meat)’ and pi-natuk ‘to boil’, it is possible that PAn *Nasu referred specifically to the boiling of meat and that the doublet *nasuk referred to boiling of vegetables, or to boiling of food in general. Mills (1981) suggests ‘Proto-Indonesian’ *nasu( ) ‘to cook’, but cites no Formosan cognates.

30320

*NataD outside

7286

PAN     *NataD outside

Formosan
Saisiyat lataroutside
Rukai (Budai) látaɖəoutside
Rukai (Tanan) latáɖəoutside
Proto-Rukai *lataɖəoutside

7287

PMP     *natad cleared area around house, cleared ground in village

WMP
Bikol nátadthe front yard of a house
  ka-nátada neighbor
  mag-nátadto be neighbors
Masbatenyo nátadyard, courtyard, patio
Cebuano nátadyard of a house or building; sphere of work or activity
Kadazan Dusun natadcourtyard, house compound
Tombonuwo natadyard
Ida'an Begak natadyard
Lun Dayeh natada field; a resting place made along a jungle trek; weed or clear grass before planting
  natad rumaʔthe lawn or cleared area around a house
Kelabit natadopen ground near the longhouse where children like to play spinning tops
Toba Batak nataropen, clear, visible
Rejang nateutthe village square, an open space in the center of the village
Old Javanese natargrounds, yard (in front or around a building, house, temple, etc.); ground, surface of a piece of cloth on which the pattern is painted
Balinese natahthe complex surrounded by a wall, within which are the buildings constituting the family home; also the yard among the buildings
CMP
Rembong natarvillage; yard around a house; field
Kambera natarufront yard of a house, village square
Tetun natarrice paddy, a field (usually covered with water)
Yamdena natardance and gathering place, village square
Kei natatyard; bald part

9542

POC     *natar space outside the village

OC
Dobuan natalalarge uninhabited space between two villages

Note:   Also Malay latar ‘surface, background; prevailing color’ (< Javanese), Javanese latar ‘yard or grounds around a building; background color, field’. Balinese natah probably is a loan from Javanese that underwent subsequent sound change. This leaves only Toba Batak natar as possibly pointing to *nataD rather than *natad. The basic meaning of this term evidently was ‘cleared land in a village’ (as opposed to jungle/bush), with specific reference to the cleared area around a house, or the village square used as a meeting place. From that basic sense it evolved in some languages into terms referring cleared agricultural land (Tetun), or baldness (Kei). I assume that the gloss for Saisiyat latar is underspecified.

TOP      Na    Ne    Ni    Nu    

Ne

Neŋ

NeŋNeŋ

27193

*Neŋ look, see

3666

PAN     *Neŋ look, see

Formosan
Paiwan lʸeŋlook at
WMP
Maranao neŋobserve by sight; sight
Murik neŋface
Kayan i-neŋsee, look; face

27191

*NeŋNeŋ stare, look fixedly

3664

PAN     *NeŋNeŋ stare, look fixedly     [doublet: *teŋteŋ 'stare, look fixedly']

Formosan
Amis neŋneŋto look, see
  neŋneŋ-enlook at someone or something
  ta-neŋneŋ-ansomething to look at and get an idea from
Paiwan lʸ-em-eŋlʸeŋto see
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat neŋneŋto stare (of the staring of an infant at what is before it)
Pangasinan neŋneŋlook at, see
Maranao neneŋsee, discern with the eye
Lundu nanaŋsee
Balinese neŋneŋgaze, stare at

Note:   With root *-Neŋ ‘ stare, look fixedly.’

TOP      Na    Ne    Ni    Nu    

Ni

Nipis

NiSawa

Niteq

Niwaŋ

30856

*Nipis thinness (of materials)

8860

PAN     *Nipis thinness (of materials)

Formosan
Tsou hipsithin, flat

8672

PMP     *nipis thinness (of materials)

WMP
Tagalog nipísthinness (as of a slice of cheese)
Hanunóo nipísthinness, referring to
Romblomanon ka-nipisthin (as the shell of a mollusk)
  ka-nipis-nīpisvery thin (as the shell of a mollusk)
Masbatenyo mag-nipísbecome thin (as overused cloth)
  pa-nipis-ánbe thinned (as lumber that is trimmed down for some purpose)
Aklanon nipísto become thin(ner), less thick
  pa-nípisto have a very close call (danger, death); to pass through a crowd or crowded area with great difficulty
Agutaynen nipitthin
  pa-nipit-ento make something thin (as cloth when weaving)
Hiligaynon mag-nipísto be thinner, to reduce in volume or thickness
  nipis-únto be thinner, to reduce in volume or thickness
Cebuano nipísthin, not thick (as the pages of a Bible); thin, scanty; become, make thin; do something on a scanty scale, thin something out (as hair)
  pa-nipíscome too close to another vehicle
  tag-nipísname given to various kinds of long and slender sardines and herrings
Maranao nipisthinness
  nipis-iflatten; to make thin (as wood by whittling)
Binukid nipis-acut it thin! (as in slicing meat)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) nipisof flat objects, thin
Tiruray nifisthin, as paper
Mapun nipisthinness; slenderness (as of cloth, paper, human body)
  nipis-unto make something thin, make something thinner
Tausug nipisthinness, flimsiness, sleaziness
  mag-nipisto become thin or thinner
  n<um>ipisto become thin or thinner
  nipis-anto make (something) thinner, take away some thickness
Samal nipisthin
Tombonuwo o-nipisthin
  po-nipis-onto flatten, make thin
Kelabit nipithin, of materials
Kayan ñipihthin (of an object), not of man or animals
Kayan (Uma Juman) ñipithin, of things
Ngaju Dayak ka-nipisthinness
  mampa-nipismake something thin(ner)
Malay nipisthin; tenuous (skin of fruits, lips, paper)
  limau nipisthe common thin-skinned lime fruit, Citrus aurantiaca
Talaud nipithin
Gayō nipisthin (of materials)
Toba Batak nipisthin
  mar-nipisbecome progressively thinner
  pa-nipis-honmake something thin
Nias a-nifithin, flat; to ameliorate, as a debt
Sundanese nipisthinly, poorly; become scanty or trifling
  nipis-aketo make thinner
Old Javanese a-nipisthin, weak; lithe, lissom, supple
Javanese jeruk nipissweet lime (from its thin skin)
Sasak nipisthin
Sangir nipiʔthin, flat, scarce, scanty
Bantik nípisiʔthin
Tonsea nipisthin
Tombulu nipisthin
Tontemboan nimpisthin
  n<um>impismake something thin
Mongondow i-nipit-aimake it thinner!
Totoli nipisthin (object)
Boano nipisthin (object)
Dampelas nimpisthin (object)
Balaesang nimpisthin (object)
Banggai ka-nipithinness
  maŋ-ka-nipimake something thin
Bare'e ka-nipithinness, flatness, fineness
Tae' nipiʔthin, flat
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *nipiQthin (objects)
Buginese nipiʔthin (as cloth)
Makasarese nipisiʔthin, of flat objects; light, in the sense of not being of a serious nature
Wolio makolona nipilime (fruit; with thin skin)
Muna nifithin (as sarong cloth)
Chamorro ka-nifesthin, flimsy, not thick, sheer
CMP
Bimanese nipithin
Komodo nipihthin (of boards, membranes)
Rembong nipisthin
Ngadha nipithin
  pipi nipithin cheeks
  nipi fécidelicate, thin, fine, beautiful
Rotinese niithin, fine, sheer, small; often a predicate of cloth
Helong nihisthin
Tugun nisthin
Asilulu maʔusi nipiskind of lime

8673

PAN     *ma-Nipis thin (of materials)

Formosan
Kanakanabu ma-nípithin (of materials)
Saaroa ma-ɬipiithin (of materials)
WMP
Sambal (Botolan) ma-nipihthin
Tagalog ma-nipísthin (as cloth, clouds in the sky); flimsy; light and thin
  ná-paka-nipísvery thin; sheer; almost transparent
  pa-nipis-ínto cause something to become thin
  n<um>ipísto become thin
  nipis-ánto make something thin
Hanunóo ma-nipísthin
Romblomanon ma-nipisthin (as the shell of a pearl oyster)
Masbatenyo ma-nipísthin, flimsy, sheer (as cloth)
Aklanon ma-nipísthin, narrow, not thick
Kalamian Tagbanwa ma-nipisthin
Agutaynen ma-nipitthin (as cloth)
Hiligaynon ma-nipísthin, reduced in volume
Palawan Batak ma-nipísthin
Maranao ma-nipisthin in dimension
Binukid ma-nipisthin, not thick (flat object)
Mansaka manipisthin (as paper or cloth)
Mapun ma-nipisthin; slender
Tausug ma-nipisthin (as person, book, pad of paper); (of cloth) flimsy, sleazy
Ngaju Dayak ma-nipisthin (as a board)
Malagasy ma-nifithin
Sangir ma-nipiʔthin, flat, scarce, scanty
Tontemboan ma-nimpisbecome thin
Mongondow mo-nipitthin, as the flesh of fruits
Banggai ma-nipithin
Bare'e ma-nipithin, flat, fine
Tae' ma-nipiʔthin, flat
Palauan mə-lilíutthin and flat; slender
CMP
Kambera ma-nipihufine, of plaitwork (as a mat)
Hawu mənifine, thin
Rotinese ma-niibecome thin
Atoni ma-nihisthin
Soboyo manipithin, of flat objects
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai manifi-nthin
OC
Manam manipithin, fine
Nduke manivisithin
Roviana manivisithin in texture
Bugotu manivithin
Arosi manihithin
  haʔa-manihito make thin
  manihis-ito be thin from
Tikopia manifi-fithin
Woleaian malif(i)(to be) thin, lack thickness (as cloth)
Tongan manifithin, --- of board or paper, etc., but not of stick or thread; thin, sparse, --- of mist, forest, etc.
Futunan mānifithin (in thickness)
Samoan manifibe thin (as paper)
  faʔa-manifigrind, sharpen (as an axe); thinly
Tuvaluan manifithin
  maanifithin (emphatic)
Maori mānihinarrow, contract

8674

POC     *manipi-nipis very thin

OC
Arosi manihi-nihithin
Marshallese mānithin, flimsy (as clothing)
Pohnpeian menipi-nipthin, of flat objects as paper
Mokilese minip-nipthin
Woleaian malifi-lif(to be) thin, lack thickness (as cloth)
Carolinian málifi-lifthin, flimsy, flexible
Peterara manif-nifithin
Baetora manif-nifthin
Vinmavis i-malif-a-lifthin
Bonga manivi-nivthin
Tongan manifi-nificomparatively thin, especially thin, quite thin
  manifi-nifiʔaŋaplace or spot where it is thinnest; temples
Samoan mānifi-nifibe thin (as paper)
Tuvaluan manifi-nifithin (of many)
Rennellese manihi-nihitemple (above cheeks)
Anuta manipi-nipithin

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-nipes ‘be thin, as bamboo, paper, cloth)’, Kambera manipa ‘thin (as cloth)’, Fordata nifit ‘thin’. With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, tenuous; fine’. Although this term evidently referred to the thinness of flat objects in general, it is associated particularly often in sentence examples of the primary sources with woven cloth, and it appears likely that it was applied with very high frequency to describing fabric that was thinner than usual.

Tsuchida (1976) reconstructed PAn *Nix1əpis ‘thin’, adding a syllable to account for the preconsonantal aspirate of Saisiyat lihpih-an ‘thin (as paper)’. However, numerous other words for this meaning contain a reflex of *-pis₂, as Pazeh halipit ‘thin’, Amis (Kiwit) kuhpits ‘thin’, Paiwan ɬusepit ‘be thin (as paper)’, Kavalan inpis ~ impis ‘thin (like paper)’, Yami ma-taripis ‘thin (as a board)’, Isneg iŋpít ‘thin, tenuous (paper, plates, strings, etc.)’, as well as others that mimic the same root, as with Bunun ma-nisbis ‘thin’ (Ferrell 1969), or Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-RipiT ‘thin, as a board or the arm’. Given this rampant variation on a common theme there is no special reason to assume that Saisiyat lihpih-an reflects *Nipis rather than being just another innovation that contains a reflex of the root *-pis₂.

30583

*NiSawa breath; to breathe

7967

PAN     *NiSawa breath; to breathe

Formosan
Kanakanabu ŋisaabreath
Saaroa m-uru-a-nia-niaato breathe
Siraya (Gravius) xinawabreath, inspiration
Siraya (Utrecht ms.) xinawabreath, inspiration

7968

PMP     *nihawa breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break

WMP
Yami inawa-(n)breath
  ŋ-inawa-(ji)to breathe
Itbayaten hinawabreath, respiration
Umiray Dumaget innawebreathe
  paŋ-innawebreath (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Bolinao ináwabreath (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Pangasinan nawáhave sufficient space, time, etc.
  li-náwabreath; to breathe
Sambal (Tina) ina-náwabreath (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Sambal (Botolan) inawá-wənbreath (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Ayta Maganchi is-náwabreath
  maŋ-is-náwato breathe
  maŋ-ina-náwato breathe (Jason Lobel p.c.)
Kapampangan -ináwarest
  paʔ-ináwarest
  is-náwabreath (Bergaño 1860, Jason Lobel p.c.)
Tagalog gi-nháwaease; comfort; prosperity; wealth; freedom from pain, poverty, trouble, etc.; life of ease; convenience; consolation received, rest, respite, quiet; freedom from anything that tires, troubles, disturbs or pains
Bikol gi-nháwabreath, respiration
  mag-gi-nháwato breathe
Romblomanon gi-nhāwasomeone’s physical condition; someone’s breathing
Aklanon gi-nháwabreath, health
  gi-nháwa(h)to breathe
Waray-Waray gi-nháwato breathe
  g<in>i-nhawábreath
  ma-gi-nháwacomfortable, satisfied, contented
  ka-gi-nhawa-anthe act of living an easy or comfortable life
Hiligaynon gi-nháwabreath, respiration
  mag-gi-nháwato breathe, to take in air
Cebuano gi-nháwabreath; appetite for eating; one’s feelings
Maranao g-inawabreath; self
  g-inawa-anwindpipe, trachea, nostril
  g-inawa-ʔifriend, pal, chum
Binukid ga-hinawabreath; emotions; to breathe
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ge-hinawato breathe; breath; center of the emotions; oneself
Mansaka g-inawabreath; self; life
Tiruray fere-nawaa hypostatized life force that causes life, hence breath
  fere-nawa-nanwork that has been interrupted while the worker pauses for a short rest
Mapun ñawaspirit of man or animal; the life principle which comes from God
  ñawa-lihansomething like one’s subconscious that is believed to leave and come back to one’s body while one is sleeping
Yakan niyawasoul, spirit, life principle (all living things --- humans, animals, plants --- are said to have niyawa; if a person is dead his niyawa has left; if sleeping his niyawalihan may wander about)
Tboli nawabreath; spirit; character; feelings
Tausug gi-nhawathe inner part of a person, spirit, the thinking, feeling part of a person (as distinguished from the body); mind, intellect; dignity, self-esteem
  mag-gi-nhawato have or behave with dignity
Kadazan Dusun g-inavoheart, mind, intellect, mood, feelings (seat of affections)
  ko-g-inava-anlove, affection
  g<um>-inavoto love, be fond of
Tombonuwo inawosoul
  mu-inawoto breathe
Bisaya (Limbang) bə-gə-naoto breathe
Iban ñawavoice, sound; mouth; life, existence, breath; hence rest, ‘breather’
Malay ñawalife; soul (in the Moslem sense); life or soul as a term of endearment; life in its association with the breath, and in the narrow sense of not being dead; soul in the sense that it can exist apart from the body
Gayō ñawasoul
Karo Batak nawalife, soul (archaic)
Sundanese ñawasoul; life; also a darling, someone who is adored
  ŋa-ñawaʔ-anto inspire
  ñawaʔ-anto have a soul, be possessed of a soul
Javanese ñawalife force (in living things); soul (immaterial part)
Balinese ñawasoul
Sasak ñawasoul that departs from the body in the afterlife and journeys to Heaven or Hell
Sangir niawasoul; life
Totoli k-inaato breathe
Tialo ñaasoul, spirit (of a living being)
Dampelas ñawasoul, spirit (of a living being)
Bare'e ñawasoul, invisible personality; sometimes also breath as the life-force
Tae' inaaghost; soul; heart; mind
Mandar ñawasoul, spirit, heart
Makasarese ñawabreath, breath of life, life-force; temperament, character; lively, spirited, temperamental (of racing horses)
  aʔ-ñawato breathe, have vitality
Wolio iñawa ~ inawasoul
  sapopenena iñawarespiration, breathing
Muna inawalife-sustaining force, spirit, soul (of people, animals, also maize and rice; when people die this soul leaves the body)

7969

PCEMP     *ñawa breath, breath soul

CMP
Bimanese nawasoul
Manggarai nawasoul
Rembong nawabreath; soul; conscience
Asilulu nawabreath (archaic, in fixed phrases)

7970

PMP     *ma-ñawa to breathe

WMP
Tboli m-nawato breathe
Malay mə-ñawato breathe heavily, as in sleep
Tialo me-ñaato breathe
Ampibabo-Lauje mo-ñavato breathe
CMP
Bobot manowato breathe

7971

POC     *mañawa to breathe; to rest, take a ‘breather’

OC
Wuvulu manawa-nawafontanelle
Wogeo mañawato rest
Manam manawato rest, take a rest, repose
Vaghua manavaliver (= the seat of life)
Arosi manawato breathe, rest; pant
Tikopia manavato breathe
Gilbertese manawapit of the stomach
Marshallese jabjab-menewashort of breath; out of breath
  me-new-newto breathe; heart; respiration; breath
Chuukese manawlife, health; (fig.) salvation; erection (of penis); character; be alive, healthy, recovered (from illness), saved (spiritually); erect (of penis)
Puluwat mánawlife, life span, salvation; to be alive; to function, as a machine; to be saved, cured; to survive, recover, live
  manawe-táto come to life again, resuscitate; to recover, be cured
Woleaian melawto be alive; give birth to a baby
Rotuman fɔt-manavaheart (in the physical sense only)
Tongan manavawomb; heart; bowels (in Old English) as the seat of affections, of courage, etc.; stomach
  mānavabreathe; breathing, breath
  manava-fasisuffering from lack of sufficient nourishment; undernourished
Niue manavastomach, belly, womb; health (occasionally)
  oti manavaoverdone with work
Futunan manavaabdomen, belly
  mānavato breathe; to rest; to catch one’s breath
  manavābe patient; able to endure; marathon (race)
Samoan manavabelly; waist
  mānavato breathe; stand still, break off, stop (for a rest); be relieved (from duty); breath
Tuvaluan manavastomach; feel pain
  manava-navabeat (of the heart); throb
Kapingamarangi manawaheart; predisposed to; disposition; come up to the surface (from diving)
  mana-manawato throb (as pulse or pain)
  manawa babacalmness, tranquility (of a person); freedom from worry (lit. ‘level heart’)
Nukuoro manavabreath; breathe; having a good lung capacity (able to remain under water for a long time)
  manava-navabreathing
Rennellese manabaabdomen, navel, navel cord; breath; fontanel (rare); center of emotions; to breathe; to answer calls of nature; to derive life or substance
  manaba goato hold one’s breath a long time; to hold a breath-holding contest, either on land or under water, as done by children
Anuta manava-navashort of breath
Rarotongan manavamythology: one of the senses of human intelligence, said to be the seat of human emotions, affections, etc., bestowed by the supreme deity I’o on the creation of man; the heart; courage, bravery, spirit, endurance, long-winded, as of a person of exceptional staying power
  manava roalong-lived, full vitality, physical vigor, etc.
Maori manawabelly, bowels; bowels of the earth; heart; breath; patience; mind, spirit
  whaka-manawato encourage, render confident
Hawaiian manawatime, turn, season; chronology; for a short time, infrequent; affections, feelings, disposition; anterior fontanel in the heads of infants; top of the head in adults at position of the fontanel

Note:   Also Ilokano gi-nʔáwa ‘relief, comfort, ease, rest, relaxation’ (< Tagalog?), Pangasinan nawá ‘have sufficient space, time, etc.’, Hanunóo gi-nháwaʔ ‘body, including internal organs, respiratory tract, brain, etc.’, Masbatenyo mag-gi-nháwaʔ ‘breathe, respire, take breaths’, gi-nhawaʔ-án ‘respiratory system’, Acehnese ñawɔŋ ‘the personal soul, life-force’, Mongondow gina ‘breath; mind, heart, nature, disposition, feelings; condition, health; thoughts; meaning’, mo-gina ‘to breathe’, Uma inohaʔ ‘breath’, Buli ñawa ‘soul; life; breath’ (< Malay).

This is a challenging comparison, both formally and semantically. Forms with gi- appear to be a Greater Central Philippine innovation that spread into Ilokano (more recently) and into the languages of Sabah (more anciently). It is unclear whether Pangasinan li-náwa shares the same history (from *Ri-nihawa), or is a product of convergence. If it shares the same history then *Ri-hinawa must be posited for PPh, raising questions about the absence of *Ri- in other non-Greater Central Philippine languages. For this reason I tentatively assume that the li- of Pangasinan li-náwa is unrelated to the gi- of Central Philippine forms such as Tagalog gi-nháwa.

It would be easy to reconstruct PMP *ñawa and ignore the Philippine and Sulawesian forms that point to an original trisyllable, but the highly distinctive semantic agreement of Itbayaten hinawa ‘breath, respiration’, or Tombonuwo inawo ‘soul’ with disyllables such as Malay ñawa ‘life in its association with the breath; soul’ strongly suggests that we are dealing with a single cognate set. Since most AN languages reflect a form in which *i must have followed *n rather than preceding it I reconstruct *nihawa, a trisyllable that is supported by Yakan niyawa, Sangir niawa, and many languages that appear to reflect an original *ñawa. Unless we posit doublets *nihawa, *hinawa this unavoidably implies an independent metathesis in e.g. Itbayaten hinawa, Tombonuwo inawo, Tae' inaa, Muna inawa, and what appears to be a secondary metathesis in Greater Central Philippine forms such as Tagalog gi-nháwa (with syncopated *i in the environment VC__CV).

The reconstruction proposed here differs from that of Tsuchida (1976:229), who posited PAn *ñiSawa with an initial palatal nasal, but also reconstructed *N- in other forms. However, there are problems with this proposal. First, very little evidence has been found to support the claim that PAn *N and *ñ were distinct phonemes. Second, the sound correspondences between Kanakanabu and Saaroa that Tsuchida took to support *ñ are violated by Saaroa in this case (in showing /n/ rather than /ɬ/). Third, most instances of PAn *N clearly became PMP *n, and given a PAn palatal nasal we would expect the Kapampangan form to be **-iñawa, not –inawa (note that the Wolio variant iñawa is also irregular, and is best seen as a sporadic palatalization of n by the preceding high vowel).

Reflexes of PMP *nihawa are particularly interesting in providing one of the rare examples of a phonemic palatal nasal arising from a sequence of *n + ia, much like PAn/PMP *ni-á ‘3sg. genitive’ > POc *-ña ‘3sg possessor’. What is unknown is how many parallel innovations of the form *nihawa > niawa > ñawa must be assumed in order to account for the data in terms that are compatible with currently accepted subgrouping hypotheses. It is clear, for example, that the reanalysis of *nihawa to *-ñawa was already complete in POc *mañawa, parallel to the reanalysis of PMP *ni-á to POc *-ña ‘3sg possessor’, but languages such as Malay evidently developed a palatal nasal in this form through an independent change that followed the same evolutionary path.

Finally, the semantics of *nihawa provide a reminder of the universality of animism, as first clearly stated by Tylor (1871): from the notion ‘breath; to breathe’ there is a link to the ‘breath soul’, and from this to ‘soul; inner self, mind, feelings’, but in another direction to ‘breathe easily, take a break, rest’. Although it may initially appear to be adventitious, the recurrent reference to the fontanel links to the widespread traditional belief that the soul exits the body in dreams or death through the fontanel/top of the head (also clearly linked to the pulsation of breathing in an infant’s still-forming skull).

27201

*Niteq sap of a tree or plant

3674

PAN     *Niteq sap of a tree or plant     [doublet: *liteq]

Formosan
Paiwan lʸitjeqsap
CMP
Rotinese nita-stree with resinous fruit
Soboyo nito-nsap, pith of trees and plants

27202

*Niwaŋ thinness, slenderness

7050

PAN     *Niwaŋ thinness, slenderness

Formosan
Thao ziwanslenderness
  makit-ziwangradually become tall and slender, as a sapling
  pia-ziwanmake something more slender, as by shaving or whittling
  Ziwanmale name (‘Slim’)

3676

PMP     *niwaŋ thinness, of people and animals

WMP
Isneg na-níwāŋlean, thin, meager, lank
  mag-níwāŋto become lean, etc.
Itawis níwaŋthinness
  na-níwaŋthin (of persons)
Casiguran Dumagat niwaŋskinny, thin (of animate objects)
Bikol mag-níwaŋbecome thin, lose weight
  mag-pa-níwaŋgo on a diet, deliberately try to lose weight
Hanunóo níwaŋthinness, referring to people
Masbatenyo níwaŋthin (refers only to the thinness of an animate being)
  mag-níwaŋbecome thin
Aklanon níwaŋget thinner, become skinny, lose weight
  ka-níwaŋthinness, skinniness
Agutaynen niwaŋthinness
  mag-níwaŋbecome thin, lose weight (as a domestic pig)
Hiligaynon níwaŋthinness
  mag-níwaŋto reduce in weight, become thinner
Cebuano níwaŋthin, not stout
Maranao niwaŋthinness
Mansaka niwaŋbecome thin, as a pig
Kayan ñiwaŋthin, not fat
Kayan (Uma Juman) ñiwaŋthin, of people and animals
Toba Batak mar-niaŋthin (of persons)

7051

PAN     *ma-Niwaŋ thin, of persons and animals

Formosan
Thao ma-ziwanslender, long and thin (as bamboo)

7052

PMP     *ma-niwaŋ thin, of people and animals

WMP
Bikol ma-níwaŋlean, gaunt, scrawny, skinny, slender, slight, slim, thin (animals, humans)
Hanunóo ma-níwaŋthin, referring to people
Masbatenyo ma-níwaŋthin, as a pig
Aklanon ma-níwaŋskinny, thin
Agutaynen ma-níwaŋthin, skinny
Hiligaynon ma-níwaŋlean, thin, of animals and people
Kayan (Uma Juman) ñiwaŋthin (of people and animals)
CMP
Kaitetu maniwathin
Asilulu maniwathin (of cloth or hair)

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *(n)ihaŋ ‘thin’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ni(w,o)aŋ ‘thin, lean, skinny’.

TOP      Na    Ne    Ni    Nu    

Nu

Nuka

Nusuŋ

27208

*Nuka wound

3707

PAN     *Nuka wound

Formosan
Saisiyat lokathe inflamed corners of the mouth
Amis (Kiwit) ɬukawound, injury
Thao zukapurulent swelling under the skin; boil; wound
  mat-zukawounded; swollen, of a boil or other subcutaneous infection

6435

PMP     *nuka wound

WMP
Cebuano núkasore, infection on the skin, not of great size
Banggai nukaframboesia
CMP
Tetun nukaulcer, atrophic sore (difficult to heal, possibly due to poor nutrition)
Leti nuawound
Selaru nuaframboesia, yaws
Proto-Ambon *nugascab

3708

PAN     *ma-Nuka wounded

Formosan
Amis ma-dokaʔwounded, hurt
OC
Tolai manua-naulcer, sore, wound
Mota manugaulcer, sore
Samoan manuʔawound

6434

PMP     *nuka-en affected by sores, wounded

WMP
Cebuano nuka-uninfested with sores
  núkasore, infection on the skin, not of great size
  nuka-uninfested with sores
Banggai nuka-onhave framboesia
  nukaframboesia
  nuka-onhave framboesia
CMP
Tetun nuakkind of skin eruption
Leti nuawound
Proto-Ambon *nugascab
OC
Tolai manua-naulcer, sore, wound
Mota maniga, manugaulcer, sore
Samoan manuʔawound

Note:   Also Amis dokaʔ ‘wound, sore, cut’, Mota maniga ‘ulcer, sore’. Oceanic reflexes of *ma-Nukaq were erroneously assigned to *suRat ‘wound’ in Blust (1970), a hypothesis that is now abandoned.

27068

*Nusuŋ rice mortar

3539

PAN     *Nusuŋ rice mortar     [doublet: *esuŋ, *li(ŋ)suŋ, *lesuŋ]

Formosan
Saisiyat lœhœŋmortar
Atayal luhuŋmortar
Proto-Atayalic *luhuŋmortar
Pazeh luzuŋmortar
Bunun nusuŋmortar
Tsou luhŋurice mortar
Saaroa ɬuuŋurice mortar
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) lusuŋa deep mortar used for husking rice grains

11037

PMP     *lusuŋ rice mortar     [doublet: *lesuŋ]

WMP
Yami osoŋmortar
Itbayaten xosoŋmortar (pounding tool)
Ivatan hosoŋmortar
Bontok lusuŋmortar, primarily used for pounding rice; to place in a mortar
Kankanaey lusóŋmortar
Kalamian Tagbanwa lusuŋmortar
Agutaynen lotoŋa large wooden mortar used in pounding rice, or grinding or mashing something with a large wooden pestle
Binukid lusuŋlarge mortar (for pounding rice, etc.)
Chamorro lusoŋmortar
CMP
Damar (West) luhñorice mortar
SHWNG
Buli lusiŋmortar

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) duhuŋ ‘mortar’. It is assumed that PAn *Nusuŋ underwent an irregular change to PMP *lusuŋ, since all known Malayo-Polynesian reflexes point to an initial lateral.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-N