Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*ŋ   

ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋu    

ŋa

ŋa

ŋabŋab

ŋadaq

ŋadas

ŋajan

ŋajay

ŋak

ŋakŋak

ŋali-ŋali

ŋalŋal

ŋalu

ŋani

ŋaniq

ŋaŋ

ŋaŋa₁

ŋaŋa₂

ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

ŋapa

ŋaqŋaq

ŋara

ŋarŋar

ŋaRaq

ŋasŋas

ŋata

ŋatŋat

ŋatu

ŋau₁

ŋau₂

ŋawŋaw

ŋayaw

ŋazel

30813

*ŋa linker for multiples of ten

8563

PMP     *ŋa linker for multiples of ten

WMP
Ilokano sa-ŋa-púloten
Isneg sa-ŋa-púloten
Itneg (Binongan) sa-ŋa-póloten
Ibaloy showa-n poloten
Kapampangan a-dwa-ŋ-pulutwenty
Sinauna sá-ŋ-pu ʔten
Kalamian Tagbanwa du-rua-ŋ-puluktwenty
Palawan Batak sa-ŋ-púlokten
Palawano sä-ŋ-ribu1,000
Aborlan Tagbanwa sa-ŋ-puluten
Tausug ha-ŋ-puʔten
Sama (Pangutaran) sa-ŋ-puʔten
Kadazan Dusun duvo ŋo-opodtwenty
Murut (Timugon) ruo ŋo-oportwenty
Tinggalan duo-ŋa-puluhtwenty
Kelabit duəh ŋəh puluʔtwenty
Simalur ənəmə ŋa ulusixty
Nias ŋa-fuluten
Mentawai ŋa‘suffix’ for numerals
Enggano hanumeral ligature
Old Javanese rwa-ŋ-puluhtwenty
Madurese pittu-ŋ-puluseventy
Balinese dwa-ŋ-dasatwenty
  za-ŋa-vulukuten
Tondano rua ŋa-puluʔtwenty
Tontemboan sa-ŋa-puluʔten
Banggai so-ŋ-uloten
Tae' sa-ŋ-puloten
Mandar dua-ŋ-atus200
CMP
Kambera ha-ŋa-huhundred
Hawu he-ŋ-uruten
Dhao/Ndao ca-ŋ-uruten
OC
Lou sa-ŋa-ulten
  so-ŋ-ot100
Penchal sa-ŋa-hulten
  sa-ŋ-ɨt100
Loniu (ma-)-so-ŋ-onten
  (ma)-sa-ŋ-at100
Nali (ma-)-so-ŋ-uyten
  (ma)-sa-ŋ-at100
Bipi sa-ŋ-onten
  sa-ŋ-ak100
Mussau sa-ŋa-uluten
Lavongai sa-ŋa-uliten
Tigak sa-ŋa-ulu-ŋten
Nalik sa-ŋa-fluten
Mendak sa-ŋa-unten
Pala sa-ŋa-hulten
Label sa-ŋa-huluten
Vitu za-ŋa-vuluten
Arop-Lukep sa-ŋa-ulten
Lusi sa-ŋa-oluten
Motu a-huiten
Gabadi rua a-vuitwenty
Hoava tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty
Roviana tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty
Bugotu ha-ŋa-vuluten
Nggela ha-ŋa-vuluten
Ghari sa-ŋa-vuluten
Longgu ta-ŋa-vuluten
Lau ta-ŋa-fuluten
Arosi ta-ŋa-huruten
Proto-Micronesian *-ŋawuluunit of ten, in counting
Gilbertese ŋa-unten; tens
Kosraean lo-ŋo-ultwenty
Woleaian se-ŋa-ul shoten groups of copra
Utupua/Tanimbili a-ŋa-ruten
Vanikoro te-ŋa-uluten
Buma sa-ŋa-uluten
Mota sa-ŋa-vulten
Tur sa-ŋa-fulten
Araki sa-ŋa-vuluten
Central Maewo sa-ŋa-vuluten
Raga ha-ŋ-vuluten
Naman sa-ŋa-vəlten
North Ambrym sa-ŋ-ulten
Rotuman sa-ŋ-huluten
Fijian sa-ŋa-vuluten
Tongan ho-ŋo-fuluten
Nukuoro mada-a-ŋa-huluten
Rennellese aŋa-huguten
Maori ŋa-huruten
Rapanui e/a-ŋa-huruten

Note:   For Palawano Revel-Macdonald (1979:178) gives forms of ‘one-LIG’ with nasal place assimilation before an initial obstruent, but with unambiguous velar nasal before sonorant consonants (sä-m-puluq ‘10’, sä-ŋ-gatus ‘100’, but sä-ŋ-ribu ‘1,000’, sä-ŋ-laksaq ‘1,000,000’. According to Kähler (1961), Simalur uses the ligature ŋa only when multiplying 6, 7 or 8 times a power of ten; when other numerals serve as the multiplier there is zero linkage. For Nias Sundermann (1905) gives fulu ‘10’ (in plural: ŋa-fulu). This somewhat obscure remark is clarified by dua ŋa otu ‘200’, where Nias ŋa is clearly the multiplicative ligature.

According to Stevens (1968), Madurese reflects *ŋa only in 7-9 x 10n (70, 80, 90, 700, 800, 900, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000, etc.). Sneddon (1975:108) notes that in Tondano ‘10’, ‘100’, and ‘1,000’ all take the prefix ma- (ma-puluʔ, ma-atus, ma-riwu) but that higher multiples of ‘10’, ‘100’, and ‘1,000’ take the multiplicative ligature ŋa (rua ŋa-puluʔ, təlu ŋa-atus ‘300’, siow ŋa-riwu ‘900’, etc.). For Motu Lister-Turner and Clark (1954) give ahui ‘ten. Used in counting after the first ten, as rua ahui, twenty’. Motu regularly loses *ŋ (*haŋin > lai ‘wind’, *taŋis > tai ‘cry, howl’, etc.), as does Gabadi/Abadi. For further discussion of this grammatical morpheme see Blust (2012).

28810

*ŋabŋab bite off the surface of something

6040

PAN     *ŋabŋab bite off the surface of something

Formosan
Amis ŋafŋafeat grass, as a cow does
WMP
Ilokano ŋabŋábto devour foods noisily (pigs)
Agta (Eastern) ŋábŋabcrunching sound of chewing on something hard
Bontok ŋabŋabeat corn on the cob
Kankanaey ŋabŋábbite from, take a bite from
Ifugaw ŋabŋábbite off a mouthful out of something edible, e.g. a piece of meat, a cake
Ibaloy ŋabŋab-anto bite off the surface of something (as skin of guava, dog’s bite that takes a little skin, bulldozer skims only surface)
Tagalog ŋabŋábbite off (meat from bones)
Minangkabau ŋaŋapsnap at flies, of a dog

Note:   Minangkabau ŋaŋap is assigned to a root *-ŋap ‘open, of the mouth’ in Blust (1988).

30804

*ŋadaq look upward

8552

PWMP     *ŋadaq look upward     [doublet: *tiŋadaq]

WMP
Malay ŋadahlooking upwards
Chamorro ŋahaʔlook up, with head tilted back

30800

*ŋadas palate

8544

PWMP     *ŋadas palate

WMP
Ilokano ŋádaspalate, roof of the mouth; the rice that cleaves to the upper half of the jar in which it is cooked; the concave side of a jar or pot
  ag-ŋádasto have a sore palate; to be unable to pronounce (said of dying people)
Agta (Dupaningan) ŋadasgums
Agta (Eastern) ŋadaspalate
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ŋarapalate
Wolio ŋarapalate
Muna ŋarapalate
CMP
Buruese ŋara-nroof of the mouth; throat, larynx; the inside of the mouth and throat

8545

POC     *ŋadasₐ gums

OC
Arosi ŋadathe gums

Note:   Also Pazeh ŋaras (< *ŋalaS), Hanunóo ŋárus ‘palate’. This term evidently coexisted with the more metaphorical *laŋit laŋit (< *laŋit ‘sky’). Ilokano ŋádas and Agta (Dupaningan), Agta (Eastern) ŋadas are ambiguous for *ŋa(dz)as, and Wolio ŋara is ambiguous for *ŋa(djz)as, but Muna ŋara disambiguates this form as *ŋadas, since *j produced /y/ (or *aj > e), and *z produced /s/. Despite its straightforward appearance, Arosi ŋada may be a convergent development, given the pervasive use of the phonestheme *ŋ- in Austronesian languages for words relating to the oral-nasal areas (Blust 2003a).

30393

*ŋajan name

7493

PAN     *ŋajan name

Formosan
Basai nananname
Kavalan naŋan <Mname
  mnani-naŋanperson with the same name
  pa-si-naŋanto name someone or something, give a name to
  si-naŋanto be named
Amis ŋaŋan <Aname, title, designation; character, reputation
  mili-ŋaŋanto take the name of someone else for oneself; to take land distributed for oneself
Bunun ŋaanname (given name)
Rukai naganəname
Paiwan ŋadána name

7494

PMP     *ŋajan name     [doublet: *ajan]

WMP
Yami ŋaranname
Itbayaten ŋaranname
  mi-ñaranto have the name of
Ilokano náganname; term; appellation
  nagán-ento name, mention by name, designate
Ibanag ŋáganname
Atta ŋáganname
Itawis náhanname
Arta ŋadinname
Bontok ŋádanname
Kankanaey ŋádanname; appelation, denomination, title
Ifugaw ŋádanproper name of a person, also the particular name of a village, a mountain, a forest, a group of rice terraces, and so forth
  ma-ŋádanto be named
Ifugaw (Batad) ŋādana name by which something or someone is identified (people, spirits, geographical divisions, flora and fauna); what?, when?, where?, who?
Yogad ŋáganname
Gaddang ŋáanname
Casiguran Dumagat ŋahenname
Ibaloy ŋaranname (as of person, town); also, what a thing is called
Pangasinan ŋaránname
Tagalog ŋálanname; reputation; denomination, a name, especially for a class of things
Bikol ŋárana name, title; noun
Hanunóo ŋáranname
Masbatenyo ŋáranname
Aklanon ŋáeanname (one’s personal name); give a name to
  hi-ŋáeanto pronounce, say, name
Waray-Waray ŋáranname
Hiligaynon ŋálanname
Maranao ŋaranname
Binukid ŋaranname; to give a name to someone or something; to call someone by a specified name
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ŋazana name; to name something or use someone’s name
Mansaka ŋaranname
  paga-ŋaran-anto call someone something
Tausug ŋāna name (of something)
Kadazan Dusun ŋaanname; reputation
Tombonuwo ŋaranreputation
Bisaya (Limbang) ŋaranname
Kelabit ŋadanname
  te-ŋadanbe given a name
  pe-te-ŋadanname-calling
Berawan (Long Terawan) (ŋ)aranname
Sebop ŋaranname
Kenyah (Long Anap) ŋadanname
Melanau (Balingian) ŋaranname
Melanau (Mukah) ŋadanname
Katingan ŋaranname
Ma'anyan ŋaranname
Malagasy a- nárananame, appellation, honor; rank, position
Mentawai ŋaganname
Sundanese ŋaranname; also, to name, call the name of
Old Javanese ŋaranname
  maka-ŋaranwith the name, called
Balinese ŋadanto name, give a name to
  ŋadan-into call by name; regard someone as being; accuse someone of
Tontemboan ŋaranname; position, function
  ŋ<um>arangive a name to someone
  mapa-ŋaranbe given a name
Totoli ŋalanname
Boano laŋan <Mname
Balantak naanname
Bare'e ŋayakind, type, sort
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ŋeaNname
Muna neaname
Palauan ŋaklname
Chamorro naʔanname
CMP
Bimanese ŋaraname
Komodo ŋaraŋa name; to name
Manggarai ŋasaŋa name; to name; named; kind, type
Ngadha ŋazaname; reputation; fame, renown
Ende ŋaraname
Palu'e ŋaraname
Lamaholot narãname
Kédang nayaname
Kodi ŋaraname
Lamboya ŋaraname
Anakalangu ŋaraname
Hawu ŋaraname
Tetun naranname
  naran idawhoever
  naran buatanyone
Erai neanname; named, be named
  na-neanwhose name is, named
Tugun neanname
Kisar naranname
Damar (West) nononame
Leti nānaname
Yamdena ŋarename; namesake
Ujir ŋeenname
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) ŋarinname
Kamarian nalaname
Paulohi nalaname
Asilulu nala-name
Soboyo ŋaañname
SHWNG
Buli ŋasanname; rank; occupation; function
Moor nàtananame
Numfor nasantitle; office
Waropen nasanoname

7495

POC     *ŋacan name

OC
Lou ŋara-nhis/her name
Lenkau ŋaha-name
Loniu ŋaʔa-nhis/her name
Nali ŋala-nhis/her name
Ere ŋira-nhis/her name
Leipon ŋidre-nhis/her name
Ahus laŋa-n <Mhis/her name
  laŋa- <Mname
Sori aha-ŋhis/her name
Bipi kaxa-nhis/her name
Seimat axa-nhis/her name
Wuvulu axa-nahis/her name
Keapara araname
Nehan haŋan <Mname

7496

PWMP     *i-ŋajan(-an) to name, give a name to; to call by name

WMP
Ilokano i-nagan-anto nominate, to name, call by name
Ibaloy i-ŋadn-anto call, mention someone’s name
Tagalog i-ŋálanto use a term as name for something
Bikol i-ŋáranto name someone after
Hanunóo pag-i-ŋárn-anto be named or called (something)
Old Javanese i-ŋaran(-an)give a name to, call, give or mention the name of someone; to regard, consider, believe to be

7497

PMP     *i-pa-ŋajan to name, give a name to

WMP
Ilokano ipa-naganto name; give a name to
Tagalog ipa-ŋálanto call, to name, to give a name
Old Javanese pa-ŋaranname, named, called
CMP
Yamdena na-f-ŋaregive a name to


Note:   Old Javanese pa-ŋaran and Yamdena na-f-ŋare may reflext *pa-ŋajan.

7498

PWMP     *ka-ŋajan(-an) namesake (?)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-ŋarannamesake
Ilokano ka-nagan(-an)namesake; birthday
Bontok ka-ŋád-ŋádn-anto have the same name as another
Tagalog ka-ŋálannamesake
Kadazan Dusun ka-ŋaancan name; can be reputed
Old Javanese ka-ŋaran-angive a name to, call, give or mention the name of someone; to regard, consider, believe to be

7499

PWMP     *paŋ-ŋaran name

WMP
Tagalog paŋ-ŋálannoun, substantive, the name of a person or thing
  wala-ŋ-paŋ-ŋálannameless, having no name
Bikol paŋ-ŋárana name
Old Javanese pa-ŋaranname, named, called

7500

PAN     *pu-ŋajan (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan pu-ŋadánto have a name
WMP
Kadazan Dusun pu-ŋaan-anto name


Note:   Possibly a product of convergence.

7501

PWMP     *ŋajan-an to give a name to someone or something

WMP
Yami ŋaran-angive a name to, call by a name
Itbayaten ŋaran-angive a name to
Ifugaw ŋadán-anto give a name to somebody or something
Ifugaw (Batad) ŋatn-anfor someone to name someone or something
Casiguran Dumagat ŋahin-anto name, give the name of something or someone
Ibaloy ŋeshan-anto give someone or a place a name
Tagalog ŋalán-anto name, give someone or something a name
Bikol ŋáran-anto name, christen; to call someone by name
Masbatenyo ŋarán-anbe named
Tausug ŋān-anto name something
Kadazan Dusun ŋaan-anto be named
Sundanese ŋa-ŋaran-angive a name to someone or something

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) haŋan ‘name’, Thao lhanaz (< *ŋaRaj, with metathesis?), Puyuma ŋaɭad (< *ŋalaj?), Ida'an Begak naran, Kenyah (Long Selaaʻn) karan, Narum ñadin,Bintulu ñaran, Simalur kaxan, Mentawai gagan, Bare'e gara, Sika naraŋ, Rotinese nade(k) ‘name, to name, be named’, Atoni kana-k, Kemak galan ‘name’, Kei naram ‘fame, reputation, name’, Cheke Holo nahŋa ‘name’. Seediq (Truku) haŋan may reflect *ŋajan with metathesis, but this is unclear, since *-j- usually became s and occasionally disappeared, possibly through intermediate h (cf. Li 1981). I assume that the initial alveolar nasal in reflexes such as Rukai naganə, Ilokano nágan, Itawis náhan, and possibly Chamorro naʔan is a product of dissimilation between the onset of successive syllables at a time when *j [gʸ] still had a velar place feature.

32603

*ŋajay saliva, drivel

10991

PAN     *ŋajay saliva, drivel

Formosan
Kavalan ŋaŋaysaliva, drivel
  sa-ŋaŋayto drivel, to drool
  tar-ŋaŋayto keep drivelling
Paiwan ŋadjaysaliva, drivel
  pe-ŋadjayto salivate, slobber, drool

Note:   The Kavalan form is assumed to show reshaping from ŋanay, much as Amis ŋaŋan ‘name’ < *ŋajan shows reshaping from ŋanan.

28811

*ŋak raucous sound

6041

PMP     *ŋak raucous sound     [doublet: *ŋakŋak]

WMP
Kankanaey ŋakscreech, shriek, scream
Karo Batak ŋaksmack; make a smacking sound
Javanese ŋakhonking of a goose
CMP
Manggarai ŋakrow, disturbance, argument
OC
Rotuman ŋāsqueal, squawk; neigh
Tongan ŋā(of a small child) to bawl, cry loudly

Note:   Also Balinese ŋaak ‘honking of a goose’.

28812

*ŋakŋak raucous sound

6042

PMP     *ŋakŋak raucous sound

WMP
Bontok ma-ŋakŋákto laugh loudly; the sound of loud laughter
Kankanaey ŋakŋákhowl, yell, as dogs do
Ifugaw ŋakŋákhowling of dogs
Aklanon ŋákŋakbabble, sing or say meaningless syllables
Karo Batak ŋakŋakhowl, set up a wail
Javanese ŋakŋakhonking of geese
OC
Tongan ŋāŋā(of a small child) to bawl, cry loudly
Maori ŋāŋāmake a hoarse, harsh noise, screech, as a bird

Note:   Also Kankanaey ŋáŋak ‘cry, weep (used only in tales)’.

30789

*ŋali-ŋali move about in restless anger

8521

POC     *ŋali-ŋali move about in restless anger

OC
Tolai ŋa-ŋaligesticulate, especially as a result of anger, to stamp the foot
Arosi ŋari-ŋari-amove about, annoy by change of position
  hau-ŋari-ŋariangry
  ma-ŋari-ŋariangry

30918

*ŋalŋal to chew, masticate

8764

PAN     *ŋalŋal to chew, masticate

Formosan
Kavalan ŋaŋŋarmove one’s mouth as one chews
WMP
Ilokano ag-ŋalŋálto chew
  ŋalŋal-ento masticate, chew on
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-ŋalŋalto chew, gnaw
Bontok ŋalŋal-ənto chew meat
Ifugaw ŋalŋálmastication, but not applied to betel nut chewing
Ibaloy ŋalŋalto chew, perhaps especially to chew something for a long time
  ŋalŋal-ento chew on something for a long time, with the jaws working hard and perhaps noisily (as dog chewing on bone)
Pangasinan ŋalŋálcrush something hard or brittle with the teeth; chew

Note:   Also Amis ŋaŋal ‘ulcerated mouth from betel’. Kavalan ŋaŋŋar is assumed to show sporadic assimilation of preconsonantal *l to the following nasal.

30096

*ŋalu wave, breaker (?)

6816

POC     *ŋalu wave, breaker (?)

OC
Vitu ŋalutide
Tongan ŋaluwave (when rolling in), breaker or surf
  ŋa-ŋalu(of the sea) to show a track where a fish has just been swimming near the surface
Samoan ŋaluwave, breaker; (of the sea) be rough
  ŋa-ŋalu(of the sea) be rippled, ruffled
Tuvaluan ŋalua wave; rough (of sea); raised part of canoe foredeck designed to prevent entry of waves
Kapingamarangi ŋolu <Alarge wave
Rennellese ŋaguwave; to form waves
Anuta ŋarubreakers, surf (rarely: wave)
Rarotongan ŋaruwave, ocean swell
Maori ŋaruwave of the sea; corrugation
  ŋaru-ŋarurough with waves
Hawaiian naluwave, surf; full of waves; to form waves; wavy, as wood grain
  nalu-nalurough, of a sea with high waves

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. POc *napok clearly meant ‘surf, breakers’, and *Ruap meant either ‘high tide’ or ‘tide’ in general, leaving the gloss of this form unclear.

30805

*ŋani indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor

8553

PPh     *ŋani indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ŋaniindeed, precisely, really, truly, actually (used as an interjection expressing the certainty or truthfulness of a statement)
Hanunóo ŋániindeed (asserting validity, as in ‘This is alright, isn’t it? Yes, indeed!’)
Agutaynen ŋaniindeed; really; very
  maŋ-ŋanito definitely, really do something

Note:   Also Aklanon ŋániʔ ‘particle used as an interjection, expressing the certainty or truthfulness of a statement; sometimes it can imply annoyance; indeed, precisely, I know’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ŋaniʔ ‘emphatic particle’. These forms with final glottal stop suggest either that reflexes of *ŋani ‘indeed’ have been contaminated by reflexes of *ŋaniq ‘even’, or that the two comparisons are identical, and that the semantic distinction recognized here is better treated as part of a wider range of meanings than either of these glosses imply.

30806

*ŋaniq even

8554

PPh     *ŋaniq even

WMP
Itbayaten ŋanieven
Ilokano ŋan-ŋaninearly, almost, a little short
Tagalog ŋániáreally; truly; in fact
Hanunóo ŋániindeed
Cebuano ŋániʔeven (as in ‘I don’t even have a peso’)
Binukid ŋániʔused to express an extreme case or an unlikely instance; even, at least
Manobo (Agusan) ŋanieven

Note:   Also Agutaynen ŋani indeed; really; definitely; very, Cebuano gániʔ ‘even’, Binukid gániʔ ‘used to express an extreme case or an unlikely instance; even, at least’.

28819

*ŋaŋ inarticulate sound

6050

PMP     *ŋaŋ inarticulate sound     [doublet: *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ]

WMP
Kankanaey ŋaŋto gnarl, snarl, growl
Javanese ŋaŋwhine of an engine
OC
Tolai ŋagasp, breathe with difficulty
Niue ihu-ŋāone who speaks through the nose
Maori ŋābreathe, take breath
Hawaiian moan, groan, wail

30367

*ŋaŋa₁ bitter, poisonous

7406

POC     *ŋaŋa₁ bitter, poisonous

OC
Gilbertese ŋaŋafood poisoning (esp. by fish); suffer from poisoning
  ka-ŋaŋato poison
Wayan ŋaŋabe poisonous, toxic; bitter or sour in taste, astringent; pungent, hot in taste; poison, toxic quality; bitterness
Fijian ŋaŋabitter, sour, poisonous

30589

*ŋaŋa₂ open the mouth

7984

PAN     *ŋaŋa₂ open the mouth

Formosan
Basai lo-ŋaŋaopen the mouth

7985

PMP     *ŋaŋa₃ open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc.

WMP
Ilokano a-ŋáŋato open the mouth wide
  naka-ŋáŋaagape, unshut
  napa-ŋáŋaamazed, astonished, perplexed
Bontok ŋaŋáto be astounded; to be surprised; to be open-mouthed with surprise
Ifugaw ŋaŋábig fissure in a piece of wood, e.g. in a board, a beam
Isinay ŋaŋáopen-mouthed, gaping
  maŋ-ŋaŋáto open one’s mouth
Pangasinan ŋáŋaopen mouth
Tagalog (pag)-ŋaŋáact of opening the mouth
  i-ŋaŋáto open one’s mouth
  naka-ŋaŋáopen-mouthed; agape, gaping with mouth wide open in wonder or surprise
Bikol ŋáŋaopen (the mouth)
  i-ŋáŋato open the mouth in order to show something inside
  mag-ŋáŋato open the mouth, to gape
  mapa-ŋáŋato gape in bewilderment
Hanunóo ŋáŋaopen-mouthed
  mag-ŋáŋakeep one’s mouth open
  pa-ŋaŋah-ínto get someone to open his mouth
Romblomanon naga-ŋaŋáthe mouth of a mollusk opens
Masbatenyo i-ŋaŋábe opened (as the mouth)
  mag-ŋaŋáto open the mouth
Aklanon ŋáŋa(h)to open up (as the mouth)
Cebuano ŋáŋa ~ ŋaŋáopen the mouth; be unable to speak, usually for not knowing what to say; for things that have edges to gape (as a wound, overfull suitcase)
Mansaka ŋaŋaopen (as mouth); to open (as one’s mouth)
Tboli ŋaŋato open one’s mouth wide
Kelabit ŋaŋəhmouth of a bubuh (bamboo basket trap for fish)
[Melanau Dalat ŋaŋamouth of a bubəw (bamboo basket trap for fish)]
Melanau (Matu) ŋaŋabucktoothed, sticking out, of the teeth
Malagasy nana-nanaa cry, a scream, a shout
Malay ter-ŋaŋaagape
  ŋaŋa-kan mulutto open the mouth wide
  me-ŋaŋa-ŋaŋa-kan parohto keep opening and shutting its beak (of a bird)
Karo Batak ŋaŋawide open, gaping, of a hole or the mouth
Nias mo-ŋaŋato chew betel
Sasak ŋaŋaʔopen the mouth, gape (in astonishment)
Sangir bu-ŋaŋato howl (of a child)
  ŋ<um>aŋaŋato gape, keep the mouth open
Tontemboan ŋaŋaopen, opened, of the mouth; gaping, of living things, of a sack, a basket, etc.
  i-ŋaŋaopen (your mouth)
  ma-ŋaŋato open the mouth (< *maŋ-ŋaŋa)
  maka-ŋaŋastay wide open, as the mouth
  ŋ<um>aŋato open the mouth; open the mouth of a sack
Mongondow ŋaŋaopening or entrance of an elongated object, as a bamboo internode used in cooking, or a long passage; can also be used for opening of the mouth or the entrance to the gullet
Uma ŋaŋamouth
Bare'e ŋaŋamouth cavity; voice
  me-ŋaŋagape, open the mouth wide
Tae' me-ŋaŋaopened, spread apart, of the mouth of an opening
  me-ŋaŋa buŋgaopen-mouthed in wonder or surprise
Makasarese aʔ-ŋaŋawide open; have the mouth wide open; open the mouth, gape
CMP
Manggarai ŋaŋaagape; opened wide (as a gaping wound)
Rembong ŋaŋamouth; chatter
  ata ŋaŋaperson who talks a lot
  ŋaŋa-n waeʔmouth of a river, estuary
Ngadha ŋaŋaopening; open the mouth; open the rim of a container wide in order to insert things
  ŋaŋa bhoaopen the mouth wide; call loud and long (with open mouth)
Kambera ŋaŋaopening of the mouth; also: mouth
  ŋaru ŋaŋawide open mouth
Tetun (ha)-nanato open
OC
Tolai pa-ŋaŋato open one’s mouth, open; yawn; gape
Gitua ŋaŋacarry off in the mouth (as a dog taking food away)

Note:   Also Truku Seediq ŋaŋax ‘idiot’, Tboli naŋa ‘to open one’s mouth wide’, Ngadha naŋa ‘to gape; to howl, cry (vulgar)’. Cebuano ŋaŋhá ‘be openmouthed with sudden surprise’ points to PMP *ŋahŋah, PAn *ŋaSŋaS but this inference is counterindicated by Basai lo-ŋaŋa. The form *ŋaŋa is clearly iconic, since a velar nasal followed by a low vowel is difficult to produce without holding the mouth wide open. The additional syllable in Sangir ŋaŋaŋa may be intended to add emphasis to the durative feature of gaping, an act which is normally involuntary, and of which the actor is unconscious (as shown by the involuntary action prefix ter- in Malay ter-ŋaŋa).

28821

*ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ inarticulate sound

6052

PMP     *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ inarticulate sound

WMP
Kankanaey ŋaŋáŋpronouncing inarticulate sounds, as mute persons
Karo Batak ŋaŋŋaŋsnarl; have a "big mouth", quarrel
Javanese ŋaŋŋaŋwhine of an engine
CMP
Manggarai ŋiŋi-ŋaŋaŋstutter, become confused, be unable to reply
OC
Tolai ŋaŋābreathe heavily, draw a long and deep breath; heave the chest in breathing
Maori ŋaŋābreathe heavily or with difficulty
Hawaiian nanāsnarling

Note:   The length of the last syllable vowel in the Tolai, Maori, and Hawaiian reflexes of *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ is unexplained.

30520

*ŋapa fathom

7762

POC     *ŋapa fathom

OC
Loniu ŋahfathom
  ha-ŋahone fathom
  maʔu-ŋehtwo fathoms
Nali ŋahfathom
  ha-ŋahone fathom
Roviana ŋavafathom
Eddystone/Mandegusu ŋavaa measure of distance, fathom
  ŋava- ŋavaa long distance
Gilbertese ŋaafathom (Bender et al 2003)
Pohnpeian ŋaapfathom, the distance between outstretched arms, approximately six feet
Mokilese ŋaapfathom; to measure with outstretched arms
Chuukese ŋaaffathom (distance from fingertip to fingertip of outstretched hands and arms)
Puluwat ŋaaffathom
  ye-ŋafone fathom
Woleaian ŋaf(a)fathom, the distance from one fingertip to another when the arms are outstretched
Tongan ŋafalength or section of tapa cloth
  ʔeku ŋafafathom, six feet; but ofa is more usual in this sense
Samoan ŋafafathom
  ta-ŋafato measure in fathoms
Tuvaluan ŋafaa fathom; distance encompassed by outstretched arms
Rennellese ŋa-ŋahato measure distance in approximate fathoms (distance between fingertips, arms extended)

32570

*ŋaqŋaq open the mouth, gape

10935

PWMP     *ŋaqŋaq open the mouth, gape

WMP
Lun Dayeh ŋaŋaʔwide open
  te-ŋaŋaʔto open wide (as the mouth, so that all the teeth can be seen)
Chamorro ŋaʔŋaʔopen-mouthed while staring blankly; look up with mouth open; gape

30417

*ŋara complain loudly

7551

POC     *ŋara complain loudly

OC
Tolai ŋa-ŋarato cry, scream, squeal, as a pig (applied to a person who laughs)
Halia ŋalato cry
Bugotu ŋarato rail, shout at, threaten
Lau ŋarato creak, of trees rubbing together
Arosi ŋarato cry
  ŋara-sito cry for
  ŋara-ŋarato cry

28816

*ŋarŋar fragment, split-off piece

6047

PMP     *ŋarŋar fragment, split-off piece

WMP
Toba Batak ŋarŋarfragment, shard
CMP
Manggarai ŋaŋarcrack, split; in pieces, cracked (of soil, earthenware pot, wood)

28815

*ŋaRaq wild duck

6045

PMP     *ŋaRaq wild duck

WMP
Ibaloy ŋalakind of wild duck
Bikol nagáʔwild duck
Sasak ŋaraʔwild duck
Chamorro ŋaŋaʔduck (fowl)
CMP
Bimanese ŋarakind of small duck that lays numerous eggs
Manggarai ŋarawild duck
OC
Kuruti ŋayducklike wildfowl with webbed feet
Wedau naraduck, shag
Roviana ŋarathe wild duck
Arosi ŋara i suʔua duck (suʔu = swamp)
Proto-Micronesian *ŋaa-ŋaasea bird, duck
Fijian ŋāthe grey duck

Note:   Also Sasak ŋaʔ ‘wild duck’, Lau ŋā ‘a duck’. The precise referent of PCEMP *ŋaRa is unclear, though it appears likely that it is the same as PWMP *bariwis (viz. ‘wild duck: Dendrocygna sp.’). Given the zoographical facts (Peterson 1931-1951) a PMP term for Dendrocygna sp. almost certainly existed, but no etymon has yet been inferred. For this reason it is impossible to determine whether one of these terms (*bariwis or *ŋaRa) existed in PMP and was replaced by the other, whether both existed with somewhat different referents, or whether some third term designated Dendrocygna sp. and was replaced both in PWMP and in PCEMP by the terms we reconstruct. The sequence ŋag-, which arose after the change *R > g in languages such as Bikol and Chamorro, evidently presented problems of segmental compatibility, and was modified by dissimilation of ŋ in Bikol and assimilation of g in Chamorro, a pattern of sporadic change that is also seen with reflexes of *ŋajan ‘name’ in some languages.

28817

*ŋasŋas crush with the teeth

6048

PMP     *ŋasŋas crush with the teeth

WMP
Agta (Eastern) ŋasŋaschew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away)
Kankanaey ŋasŋásto crunch, craunch; sound produced by chewing half-cooked camotes, etc.
Cebuano ŋasŋasdamage by scraping
Karo Batak ŋasŋasof goats, nibble all over the bushes
Nias mo-ŋaŋato chew; chew betel
Chamorro ŋaŋaschew
  ŋaŋaschew, masticate, grind with the teeth
OC
Label ŋaschew
Nggela ŋas-isuck, as sugarcane; bite; husk with the teeth, of coconuts
'Āre'āre nas-ichew, gnaw
Sa'a ŋäs-ito chew
Ulawa ŋaŋas-ito chew, to roll about in the mouth
Arosi ŋaŋato eat
  ŋas-ito chew, as sugarcane

Note:   Originally proposed in Blust (1977a:8), where only one non-Oceanic witness (Chamorro) was cited.

32945

*ŋata hole, hollow

11414

POC     *ŋata hole, hollow

OC
Nali ŋara(a)hole
Woleaian ŋat(a)hole, hollow, concavity

30919

*ŋatŋat to chew off

8765

PWMP     *ŋatŋat to chew off

WMP
Ilokano ŋatŋátto gnaw, tear with the teeth
Agta (Eastern) ŋátŋatchew food, betel nut, gum, etc.
Isneg ŋaŋátto masticate, to chew
Itawis ŋáŋatchewing tobacco
  maŋ-ŋáŋatto chew
Casiguran Dumagat ŋátŋatto chew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away)
Tagalog ŋ<um>atŋátto gnaw; to bite and wear away
Karo Batak ŋatŋatto chew, bite
  ŋatŋat-ichew on something
Toba Batak mar-ŋatŋat-ito gnaw off, gnaw on something that isn’t yet ripe
Nias mo-ŋaŋato chew, as betel

Note:   Also Ilokano ŋatíŋat ‘to chew the cud; to chew betel’.

32591

*ŋatu above, on top

10971

PPh     *ŋatu above, on top

WMP
Yami ŋatoupgrade, on top, above
  ma-ŋatoupper
  tey-ŋatoabove, on top
Ilokano ŋátoheight; upstairs
  ag-pa-ŋátoto ascend; climb up; go up
  na-ŋátohigh (in position, location, social standing)
  pa-ŋatú-ento raise, increase
  ŋ<um>átoto rise; attain a better position; go up
Isneg ŋátoheight
  ka ŋátoabove
Bontok ŋátuabove, up
Ibaloy on-ŋatoto go high --- esp. of a person’s station in life, and prices (said to be from Ilokano)
  pe-ŋatoto raise, cause something to go up, go higher

10972

PPh     *i-ŋatu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Yami i-ŋatoon top
Ilokano i-ŋátoto raise, lift, promote; advance
Isneg i-ŋátoa spirit

30089

*ŋau₁ to chew, chew off

6807

POC     *ŋau₁ to chew, chew off

OC
Gitua ŋaupre-masticate food for an infant
Sa'a ŋäuto eat
  ŋäu-hea feast; food
Arosi ŋauto eat food
  ŋau-ŋau-raagluttonous; a glutton
Gilbertese ŋaugluttony, voracity; gluttonous
Mota ŋaugnaw, champ, bite
Tongan ŋaugnaw, chew, as sugarcane, in order to appropriate the juice only
Niue ŋauto chew, as sugarcane
Samoan ŋauto chew, as sugarcane
Tuvaluan ŋauchew (but not swallow, as of sugarcane)
Kapingamarangi ŋauto chew
Nukuoro ŋauchew (to suck juice out)
Rennellese ŋauto chew, as pandanus, sugarcane, betel husks; to bite
Anuta ŋauto chew
Maori ŋaubite, gnaw
Hawaiian nauchew, munch, masticate; gnash the teeth; grinder, as of a sugar mill

6808

POC     *ŋau-ŋau to chew

OC
Sa'a ŋäu-ŋeuto eat
Arosi ŋau-ŋauto eat; a meal
Gilbertese ŋau-ŋauvery gluttonous; to gulp down, cram, devour
Niue ŋau-ŋauto bite

31135

*ŋau₂ to hit, strike

9119

POC     *ŋau₃ to hit, strike

OC
Tolai ŋaustrike with a stick in the ŋauŋau ceremony
Arosi ŋauto beat, strike

Note:   Possibly a convergent innovation.

30825

*ŋawŋaw sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person

8594

PAN     *ŋawŋaw sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person

Formosan
Pazeh ŋawŋawsound of a bird, insect; voice
  mu-ŋawŋawto chirp (as a bird, insect)
WMP
Itbayaten ŋawŋawcat sound
  mi-ñawŋawto mew
Ilokano ŋawŋawmouth (of a river), gorge; entrance to throat
  ag-ŋawŋawto meow (said of the cat), speak softly, under one’s breath; gossip
Ibaloy on-ŋawŋawto mew---the sound of a cat
Tausug ŋawŋawa muttering, mumbling, grumbling; low unintelligible sound in the throat
  mag-ŋawŋawto utter such a sound, mumble, mutter, grumble

29871

*ŋayaw headhunting

6526

PAN     *ŋayaw headhunting

Formosan
Puyuma ŋayawheadhunting
  ka-ŋayaw-anheadhunting festival (Cauquelin 2011)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma a ŋayaw(of many people) to go headhunting (Tsuchida 1982)

6527

PMP     *kayaw headhunting

WMP
Isneg káyawheadhunting
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kayewbe in readiness to fight
Kenyah kayawa warrior
Kayan kayawwar; headhunting raid; pagan ceremony simulating battle with spirits, performed in old customs by dayuŋ (shaman)
Kayan (Uma Juman) kayopost-harvest ceremony for the ritual purification of weapons
Ngaju Dayak kayawheadhunter
Iban kayawraiding, war, foray because of a feud, headhunting
Maloh kayoto hunt heads
Karo Batak ŋ-kayo-iattack someone, plunder a conquered village
Boano kayoheadhunting

6528

PMP     *ma-ŋáyaw go headhunting

WMP
Isneg maŋáyawgo headhunting
Ifugaw ŋáyo, ŋáyawheadhunting raid, revenge expedition
Ifugaw (Batad) ŋāyawfor a group of men … to go on a headhunting raid (a raiding party traditionally consisted of about five to ten men, usually from a single clan)
  ŋ-um-āyawwaylay an enemy … for the purpose of taking a head in revenge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) meŋayawa raider
Tboli ŋayaw(of people) to raid at night, to kill and take things
Kenyah ŋayawgo headhunting
Kayan ŋayogo headhunting
Ngaju Dayak ma-ŋañawgo headhunting
Iban ŋayawmake war on
Boano maŋayogo headhunting

6529

PWMP     *pa-ŋáyaw headhunting expedition

WMP
Maranao paŋayawengage in piracy
  paŋayaw-anplace where slaves are captured
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peŋayawraid a house or village in order to kill someone
Tiruray feŋayawinvade, attack another tribe or country
Dampelas paŋayawheadhunting

Note:   Also Tboli nayaw ‘(of people) to raid at night, to kill and take things’, Kayan ayaw ‘an enemy in war’. It is unclear whether a separate base *ŋayaw is also justified for PMP. This form is reconstructed for PAn, since the only Formosan language that has a related form is Puyuma , in which the base is ŋayaw. Cognates such as Ifugaw ŋáyo, ŋáyaw and Tboli ŋayaw may be affixed forms of káyaw, or reflexes of a doublet that began with a velar nasal.

30976

*ŋazel dull, blunt

8874

PWMP     *ŋazel dull, blunt

WMP
Ibatan om-ŋare-ŋarehto blunt or dull a blade
Bisaya (Limbang) ŋaloldull, blunt
Lun Dayeh ŋadəblunt
Kelabit ŋadəldull, blunt
Kenyah ŋajənblunt
Kenyah (Long Anap) ŋajəndull, of a blade (not of a point)
Kenyah (Long Dunin) ŋasənblunt
Murik ŋajəndull, blunt

8875

PWMP     *ma-ŋazel dull, blunt

WMP
Itbayaten ma-ŋarexdull (of knife), to be dull
Ibatan ma-ŋarehthe cutting side of a blade is blunt, dull
Lun Dayeh mə-ŋadəlblunt
Bintulu mə-ŋajəndull, blunt

Note:   Also Ilokano ŋudél ‘dullness’, ma-ŋudél ‘dull, blunt’, Atta na-ŋural ‘dull (as a knife)’, Agta (Dupaningan) ma-ŋudal ‘dull’, Casiguran Dumagat ŋudél ‘dull (of a knife, bolo, razor blade, axe’, Mansaka ŋaŋul ‘to be dull (as a blade)’, Sa'ban padəl, Kenyah (Long Wat), Penan (Long Lamai) kajən ‘dull, blunt’, Kayan (Uma Juman) kasəl ‘dull, blunt’, Melanau Dalat ñəl ‘dull, blunt’, Melanau (Matu) tajəl ‘dull, blunt’.

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋu    

ŋe

ŋeCŋeC

ŋek

ŋekŋek

ŋeni

ŋeŋ

ŋeŋe

ŋeŋeŋ

ŋerŋer

ŋesŋes

ŋetŋet

30639

*ŋeCŋeC gnash the teeth

8147

PAN     *ŋeCŋeC gnash the teeth

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ŋeTŋeT-ito bite severely
WMP
Itbayaten ŋetŋetidea of mastication
  ŋetŋet-ento gnaw, to chew, to nibble
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-ŋatŋatto chew, gnaw
Itawis ŋáŋatchewing tobacco
Bontok ŋətŋətto rip with the teeth, as tough meat; to chew on, as rats on sugarcane
Kankanaey men-ŋetŋétto grind, to grate, to gnash
Casiguran Dumagat ŋétŋetto chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum)
Tagalog ŋitŋítrage; fury; suppressed rage or fury; intensity
Melanau (Mukah) ŋəŋətchewed up
  ŋuŋətto gnaw, chew on
  ŋiŋətwas gnawed, chewed on
Malay ŋeŋatmoth
Karo Batak ŋetŋetclothes moth; harbor a grudge

8148

POC     *ŋoŋot-i to gnaw, nibble

OC
Nggela ŋot-ignaw, nibble (Blust 1977a:6)

Note:   Also Kankanaey men-ŋét ‘to grate; to creak; to gnash’.

28823

*ŋek grunt

6054

PMP     *ŋek grunt     [doublet: *ŋekŋek 'mumble, etc.']

WMP
Kankanaey ŋekto grunt, as a hog when hungry
CMP
Manggarai ŋuru-ŋekdisturbance, commotion (of piglets)
OC
Niue ŋōnoise, tumult; make a noise, to clamor
Maori ŋōcry, grunt, make any articulate sound

Note:   Also Kankanaey ŋéek ‘to snore’.

28824

*ŋekŋek mumble, etc.

6055

PMP     *ŋekŋek mumble, etc.

WMP
Bontok ŋəkŋəkindicate one's disapproval of what is being said by acting as though one doesn't hear, or by mumbling one's objections
Kankanaey ŋekŋékto resound, clatter, rattle, bang, as when many people cleave wood
OC
Tolai ŋoŋobreathe; difficulty in breathing
Hawaiian nonō (length unexplained)to snore, gurgle

Note:   Also Makasarese ŋeŋe ‘whimper, whine’.

28825

*ŋeni beg, ask for

6056

PMP     *ŋeni beg, ask for

WMP
Maranao ŋenibeg, ask for (as money)
OC
Arosi ŋoniask for, beg

Note:   Milke (1968) reconstructed POc *noŋi ‘beg’. It is unclear whether Arosi ŋoni is an isolated retention of a POc variant, or a product of secondary metathesis which restored the original order of consonants.

28828

*ŋeŋ buzz, hum

6059

PMP     *ŋeŋ buzz, hum     [doublet: *ŋe(ŋ)ŋeŋ]

WMP
Kankanaey ŋeŋhum noisily
Javanese ŋeŋhum, buzz (of gnats, midges, etc.)
CMP
Manggarai ŋeŋhum
Yamdena n-ŋeŋhiss, of a snake

30418

*ŋeŋe to shout, to argue with

7552

POC     *ŋeŋe to shout, to argue with

OC
Tolai ŋeŋeto shout
Kwaio ŋeŋestrongly, argumentatively
  fata ŋeŋespeak strongly, argumentative
  ŋeŋe-ʔato growl, of a dog or stomach
Lau ŋeŋeto dispute, contradict, disobey, argue with; to creak by rubbing against

Note:   Also Tongan ŋā, ŋē, ŋēŋē ‘to pant, to struggle for breath, as a person with asthma does; (of a small child) to bawl, cry loudly’. Possibly a chance resemblance.

28829

*ŋeŋeŋ buzz, hum

6060

PMP     *ŋeŋeŋ buzz, hum

WMP
Kankanaey ŋeŋéŋtalk through the nose
Ibaloy man-ŋeŋŋeŋto speak words that are not distinguishable (as crowd of people all talking, new song being sung, deaf mute talking)
Javanese ŋeŋŋeŋhum, buzz (of gnats, midges, etc.)
OC
Lau ŋoŋō (length unexplained)to hoot, of an owl

30801

*ŋerŋer growl

8546

PAN     *ŋerŋer growl

Formosan
Puyuma ŋerŋergrowl of a dog
  ma-ŋerŋerto growl, of a dog
WMP
Ilokano ŋerŋérgrowling sound; sound of sawing
  ag-ŋerŋérto growl, snarl (dogs)
  ŋerŋer-anto growl at
Maranao ŋeŋergrowl, howl, grunt
Lun Dayeh ŋeŋergrowl, snarl (dog)

Note:   Lun Dayeh ŋeŋer is said to derive from a base eŋer, with active verb-forming prefix ŋ-. Given the comparative data cited here I assume that eŋer is a back-formation from a base with initial velar nasal.

30807

*ŋesŋes to pant, be out of breath

8555

PAN     *ŋesŋes to pant, be out of breath

Formosan
Puyuma ŋəsŋəsbreathless; to pant
  ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath
WMP
Ilokano ŋesŋésto have difficulty when breathing through the nose (as a person with sinusitis)
  ŋesŋes-enbreathe with difficulty
Bontok ŋəsŋə́sto stop in order to get one’s breath; to get relief from panting

Note:   Also Paiwan ŋasŋas ‘to pant’ (< *ŋaSŋaS), Melanau (Mukah) ŋus ‘to exhale’, Rejang ŋas ‘to breathe heavily; out of breath’.

30808

*ŋetŋet gnaw, nibble

8556

PAN     *ŋetŋet gnaw, nibble

Formosan
Puyuma ŋətŋətgnash one’s teeth; bite without letting go
  mə-ŋətŋətto nibble
WMP
Itbayaten ŋetŋetidea of mastication
  m<iñ>ñ<ar>etŋetto gnash one’s teeth (as after tasting a very sour orange, or in sleep, of some persons dreaming)
  ŋetŋet-ento gnaw, to chew, to nibble
Ilokano ŋetŋétto tear with the teeth
  ŋetŋet-ento tear with the teeth; tear off
  ŋetŋet-énto tear with the teeth
Bontok ŋətŋətto rip with the teeth, as tough meat; to chew on, as rats on sugarcane
Casiguran Dumagat ŋətŋətto chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum)
Melanau (Mukah) ŋeŋetchewed up
  ŋuŋetto gnaw, chew on
Malay ŋeŋatmoth
  di-makan ŋeŋatmoth-eaten

8593

POC     *ŋoŋot-(i) to gnaw, nibble

OC
Nggela ŋotito gnaw, nibble

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋu    

ŋi

ŋiak

ŋiaŋ

ŋiCŋiC

ŋidam

ŋidaw

ŋijuŋ

ŋik

ŋikŋik

ŋilu

ŋina

ŋiŋ

ŋiŋi

ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ

ŋipen

ŋiqik

ŋisi

ŋisŋis

ŋitŋit

28831

*ŋiak cry loudly

6062

PWMP     *ŋiak cry loudly     [doublet: *kiqak 'to squawk']

WMP
Kankanaey ŋíakcry, weep loudly
Toba Batak ŋiakgrunt, squeal
Minangkabau ŋéakwhine or cry complainingly -- of a very young child
Javanese ŋèka baby's crying

Note:   Also Javanese ŋiyék ‘to scream (of an animal)’, ŋéyok ‘to scream (in terror, of a victorious cock, etc.)’.

28832

*ŋiaŋ whine

6063

PWMP     *ŋiaŋ whine

WMP
Malay ŋiaŋ(onom.) whine complainingly
Minangkabau si-ŋiaŋ-ŋiaŋwhining ghosts of unwanted children, taking the form of frogs
Mongondow ŋia(ŋ)-ŋiaŋkind of cricket

Note:   Also Manggarai ŋiéŋ ‘shrill sound, cry of a cat’.

30826

*ŋiCŋiC show annoyance or irritation

8595

PAN     *ŋiCŋiC show annoyance or irritation

Formosan
Thao nicnicshow an unhappy face

8596

PMP     *ŋitŋit₂ annoyance, irritation

WMP
Pangasinan ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger)
Tagalog ŋitŋítrage, fury; suppressed rage or fury; intensity
  mag-ŋitŋítto feel anger but to be suppressing it

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.

28833

*ŋidam cravings of a pregnant woman

6064

PWMP     *ŋidam cravings of a pregnant woman     [doublet: *kidam 'miss, crave, long for']

WMP
Bikol ŋídampregnant
Javanese ŋiḍamfeel cravings (of a pregnant woman)

30814

*ŋidaw toothless

8564

PAN     *ŋidaw toothless

Formosan
Kavalan m-ŋizawtoothless due to age
WMP
Uma ŋirotoothless
Bare'e ŋirotoothless (also of things, as a saw that has lost ‘teeth’)

Note:   Given the extremely strong tendency for referents relating to the nasal and oral area in Austronesian languages to be represented by morphemes that begin with a velar nasal (Blust 2003a) this comparison could be a product of convergence. However, given the perfect agreement between these words in both form and meaning it must be assumed provisionally that they are valid cognates.

28834

*ŋijuŋ nose

6065

PMP     *ŋijuŋ nose     [doublet: *ijuŋ]

WMP
Maranao ŋiroŋnose
Mongondow ŋiruŋ, ŋiuŋnose
CMP
Ngadha ŋizunose
Riung ŋizuŋnose
Elat nilunnose

Note:   It is possible that all of these items reflect *ijuŋ ‘nose’, with an initial velar nasal that was acquired either by loss of a morpheme boundary in an earlier affixed form *maŋ-ijuŋ, or by metanalysis in an earlier reduplicated form *ijuŋ-ijuŋ.

28835

*ŋik squeal, screech, shriek, etc.

6066

PMP     *ŋik squeal, screech, shriek, etc.     [doublet: *ŋikŋik]

WMP
Kankanaey ŋikto grunt, as young pigs do
Javanese ŋiksound of labored breathing; bowing of a stringed instrument
OC
Rotuman ŋīwhimper
Fijian ŋīto squeak, as a bat, squeal, as a pig
Tongan ŋīwhimper
Rennellese ŋiito peep, squeak, squeal; be hoarse

28836

*ŋikŋik squeal, screech, shriek, etc.

6067

PMP     *ŋikŋik squeal, screech, shriek, etc.     [doublet: *ŋik]

WMP
Bontok ŋikŋikto chirrup; the chirruping of rice birds
Kankanaey ŋikŋíkto chirp, screech, shriek, scream, squeal, squeak; creak
Casiguran Dumagat ŋékŋékto cry, to yelp (of the cry of pain or fear of a dog)
Ibaloy man-ŋikŋikto whimper, the beginning of a cry (as child, puppy in the night when cold)
  ma-ŋikŋikcontinually whimpering
Minangkabau ŋéŋékto fret, of little children, whine continuously
OC
Nggela ŋiŋicry quietly
Tongan ŋīŋī (length unexplained)whimper

Note:   Also Kankanaey ŋíŋik ‘to grunt’, ŋikíŋik ‘jabber, chatter, gabble’.

30395

*ŋilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour

7503

PAN     *ŋilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour     [doublet: *ñilu]

Formosan
Paiwan ŋilupain, tartness
  me-ŋiluto cause to smart
WMP
Agta (Eastern) ŋilosensitive teeth
Tagalog pa-ŋi-ŋilóputting the teeth on edge; nerve pain at edge of a tooth
Bikol ŋílodescribing the sensation one gets in the teeth from a screeching noise, or from eating something sour or very cold
Masbatenyo ŋilópainfully sensitive. This usually results from eating something sour or tart, or from a shrill sound
Aklanon ŋiló(h)very sour, acrid, caustic
  maka-ŋi-ŋílo(h)causes one to grimace, sets the teeth on edge (as when eating something very sour or hearing a grating noise)
Waray-Waray ŋilóhaving intense or giggling sensation felt at the tooth edge
Cebuano ŋilúsetting the teeth on edge, causing the spine to tingle (said of eating sour things, as unripe mangoes, shrill noises, having teeth filed)
Maranao ŋilorasping sensation
Binukid ŋilufor sour fruit to cause a tingling sensation in one’s teeth, to set one’s teeth on edge; for a scratching or shrill sound to cause one’s spine to tingle
Tausug ŋiluthe uncomfortable feeling at the edge of one’s teeth felt when hearing a scratchy sound, eating something sour
  ŋ<um>ilu(for one’s teeth) to have such feeling
Kiput ŋilawunbearable feeling, as when hearing someone scratch his fingernails on a blackboard, or a strange sensation in the teeth, as when eating something very sour
Malay ŋilunerve-pain or discomfort (neuralgia, nervous headache, teeth on edge)
Karo Batak ŋilufeel cold ‘in one’s bones’; on edge, of the teeth, as when coming into contact with something very cold
Toba Batak ŋiluon edge, of the teeth when coming into contact with something very sour
Balinese ŋilufeeble, dead; on edge (teeth)
Tontemboan ŋiluon edge, of the teeth; also the unpleasant feeling one gets on hearing a scratching or grating sound
  ka-ŋilu-anto be put on edge, of the teeth (as when eating something very sour)
Padoe ŋilupainful, hurting
Buginese ŋilupainful sensation, as of arthritis in one’s knee
CMP
Komodo ŋilutart, sour
Rotinese ni-nilusour, as a tamarind fruit
Moa nilusour

7504

PWMP     *ka-ŋilu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Masbatenyo ka-ŋilópainful
Bare'e ka-ŋiluthe pain of rheumatism, yaws, or teeth being on edge

7505

PAN     *ma-ŋilu painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour

Formosan
Paiwan ma-ŋiluto have teeth on edge (as from sour pineapple); to ache, sting
WMP
Tagalog ma-ŋilóto feel one’s teeth on edge; to feel a tingling sensation on the edge of one’s teeth while eating green fruit such as mangoes
Masbatenyo ma-ŋilópainfully sensitive
Waray-Waray ma-ŋilóhaving intense or giggling sensation felt at the tooth edge
Bare'e ma-ŋilupainful, of pain in the joints,as produced by rheumatism and yaws; on edge, of the teeth, as when eating something sour
Tolaki mo-ŋiluhave sensitive teeth
Kulisusu mo-ŋilusour
Mandar ma-ŋiluto ache (of the teeth); on edge (Mills 1975)
Buginese ma-ŋilufeel painful sensation, as in the teeth after eating a mango
CMP
Soboyo ma-ŋilu-isour

7506

PWMP     *ŋilu-an have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound

WMP
Bikol ŋilu-anto have the feeling that one gets in the teeth from a screeching noise, or from eating something sour or very cold; to get a shiver down one’s spine
Toba Batak ŋilu-anhave a cold sensation in the teeth, as when hearing a scratching sound

Note:   Also Thao kun-nishir ‘get a sudden, strong sensation of sourness in the teeth, as when eating an acidic fruit’, Hanunóo ŋídlis ‘setting of the teeth on edge’, Malagasy maha-dilo ‘to set the teeth on edge’, ma-dilo ‘the tamarind tree’, Old Javanese ŋelu ‘headache’, a-ŋelu ‘to have a headache’, Manggarai ŋilur ‘set the teeth on edge’, Leti m-li-lilu, nam-lilu ‘sour’. Although the aberrant Manggarai form ŋilur retains the meaning reconstructed for this form in at least PMP, all other reflexes recorded so far in CMP languages mean ‘sour’, suggesting that in the languages of eastern Indonesia the sense had begun to shift from a description of the sensation of the experiencer to a description of the quality of the substance that produced this sensation.

32592

*ŋina price, worth, cost

10973

PPh     *ŋina price, worth, cost

WMP
Yami ŋinaprice, worth
  ŋina-ŋina-enwant to buy
  ŋina-nawadangerous
Itbayaten ka-ñina-ñinacostliness
  ma-ñinadear, costly, expensive
Ibatan ma-ŋinacostly, expensive, valuable
  ka-ŋína-ento increase the price of
Ilokano ŋínaprice; cost; worth; value
  ag-impapa-ŋínato play hard to get; to pretentiously show off material wealth although poor
  ag-pa-ŋínato be vain; conceited; to assume to be more important than one actually is
  i-pa-ŋínato increase the price of
  na-ŋínaexpensive, costly, dear; precious
  pa-ŋiná-anto set a price on; to charge
  tagi-ŋiná-ento consider something expensive
  ŋ<um>ínato go up in price
  ŋiná-anto pay
Bontok na-ŋínato be expensive
  pa-ŋínato raise the price of something
Ifugaw mun-ŋínato buy; to sell (said to be from Ilokano)

28841

*ŋiŋ buzz, hum

6072

PMP     *ŋiŋ buzz, hum     [doublet: *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ]

WMP
Malay ŋuŋ-ŋiŋthe hum of bumble-bees
Karo Batak ŋiŋsound of a mosquito in the ear
Sundanese ŋéŋbuzzing or rushing sound in the ear
OC
Fijian ŋībuzz, as a mosquito

Note:   Also Malay ŋéŋ ‘exclamation for driving away dogs’.

28840

*ŋiŋi grin, show the teeth

6071

PWMP     *ŋiŋi grin, show the teeth     [doublet: *ŋisŋis₁]

WMP
Maranao ŋiŋiangle of the mouth
Toba Batak ŋiŋitooth
Sichule ŋiŋigums

Note:   Also Toba Batak ŋilŋil ‘show the teeth’.

28842

*ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ buzz, hum

6073

PMP     *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ buzz, hum

WMP
Sundanese ŋéŋŋéŋ-anbuzzing or rushing sound in the ear
OC
Nggela ŋiŋibuzz, as a mosquito

30257

*ŋipen tooth

7138

PAN     *ŋipen tooth

Formosan
Sakizaya ŋipentooth
WMP
Yami (Imorod) ŋəpəntooth
Itbayaten ñipentooth
Ilokano ŋipəntooth
Agta (Dupaningan) ŋipantooth
Isneg ŋípantooth
Itawis ŋípantooth
  maŋ-ŋipanto cut a tooth
Gaddang ŋipantooth
Casiguran Dumagat ŋipəntooth
Pangasinan ŋipéntooth
Sambal (Botolan) ŋipɨntooth
Tagalog ŋípintooth
Bikol ŋípontooth, teeth
  ŋí-ŋipón-ondescribing someone with large or prominent teeth
Hanunóo ŋípuntooth, teeth
Masbatenyo ŋípontooth
  mag-ŋíponteething, cutting teeth
Aklanon ŋípontooth, teeth
Waray-Waray ŋípontooth
Hiligaynon ŋípuntooth, teeth
Cebuano ŋípunteeth; teeth of saws, gears, and the like
  ŋípn-anhaving serrations or teeth; litter born with teeth
Maranao ŋipəntooth
Binukid ŋipentooth (of person, animal); tooth of a saw, gear and the like
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ŋipentooth
Mongondow ŋipontooth
Palauan wiŋəl <Mtooth

7139

POC     *ŋipon tooth

OC
Marshallese ŋiytooth
Pohnpeian ŋihtooth
Woleaian ŋiitooth

28837

*ŋiqik to scream, of an animal

6068

PWMP     *ŋiqik to scream, of an animal

WMP
Bontok ŋíʔiksqueal, of a piglet
Javanese ŋiékscream (of an animal)

30238

*ŋisi to grin, show the teeth

7107

PMP     *ŋisi to grin, show the teeth     [doublet: *ŋiŋis₁]

WMP
Tagalog ŋísia grin, snicker, giggle, grimace, snigger, smirk; a broad smile
  pag-ŋísito grin, snicker, giggle, grimace, etc.
Bikol ŋísia laugh, smile
  ma-alsom na ŋísia sneer (lit. ‘sour smile’)
  ma-ŋísito be taken in by someone’s smile
  mag-ŋísito smile at, to laugh or chuckle at
  maka-ŋísiabsurd, amusing, comical, funny
  pa-ŋísihumor
  ŋ<ir>ísi-hanlaughter
Cebuano ŋísito grin
Makasarese ŋísito grin, snigger (in anger, while laughing); lie open, of a wound; to whinny loudly, of a horse (thought of as the raising of the upper lip of a whinnying horse)
CMP
Ngadha ŋísikeep the mouth open showing the teeth, as in laughing

Note:   The basic meaning of this term appears to have been ‘to show the teeth by raising the upper lip’, a gesture characteristic of both joyous and sardonic laughter, and one that is explicitly spelled out in Ngadha, and in Makasarese, where the whinnying of a horse is viewed as the raising of the upper lip before producing sound. Given this interpretation it appears likely that reflexes of *ŋisi ‘tooth’ belong to the same set. Because it contains the phonestheme *ŋ- it is not always easy to distinguish reflexes of this term from other, convergently similar forms (thus Roviana ŋiŋisi ‘to grin’ probably reflects *ŋisŋis (> *ŋiŋis > ŋiŋisi) rather than *ŋisi with CV- reduplication).

28838

*ŋisŋis grin, show the teeth

6069

PMP     *ŋisŋis grin, show the teeth     [doublet: *ŋiŋi, *ŋisi]

WMP
Ilokano ŋisŋíscorner of the mouth
Kapampangan ŋisŋisshow teeth, especially upper teeth
  bala-ŋisŋiskind of bat which has protruding teeth
Tagalog ŋisŋíscontinued opening of the mouth in grinning, showing teeth
Aklanon ŋísŋisto giggle, snicker
Binukid ŋisŋisto have to laugh
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ŋisŋisa person who cannot control his laughter, i.e. he laughs at any provocation; to laugh continually
CMP
Manggarai ŋiŋisgrin, show teeth
Yamdena ŋiŋisgums

8108

POC     *ŋiŋis grin, show the teeth

OC
Kove ŋiŋito laugh

28839

*ŋitŋit gnaw

6070

PAN     *ŋitŋit₁ gnaw     [doublet: *ŋatŋat, *ŋetŋet 'gnash the teeth']

Formosan
Amis ŋitŋitto gnaw (on bones or wood)
Puyuma ŋitŋitbite slowly with the front teeth; gnaw (as rats do)
WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) ŋítŋitfood stuck between the teeth
Ibaloy ŋitŋit-anto nibble at something (as fish to bait, dog eating last scraps on bone); also, to grasp something in the teeth (as in picking up a coin in a contest, or a hangnail)
Pangasinan ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger)
Karo Batak ŋitŋitmoth (that eats holes in clothing)
Toba Batak ŋitŋitmoth

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋu    

ŋu

ŋuda

ŋuk

ŋukŋuk

ŋulŋul₁

ŋulŋul₂

ŋuŋ

ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ

ŋurut

ŋuRuR

ŋusŋus

ŋusuq

ŋuSuR

ŋutŋut

ŋutŋut₁

ŋutŋut₂

ŋutŋut₃

ŋutu

ŋuyaq

ŋuy(e)qa

ŋuyŋuy

28856

*ŋuda young, of plants

6091

PMP     *ŋuda young, of plants     [doublet: *muda]

WMP
Malagasy ta-norayoung, juvenile
Simalur ma-ŋurayoung, virginal
Karo Batak ŋudatender, young
  bapa ŋudafather’s younger brother
Balinese ŋudayoung, youthful, undeveloped, fresh
  ŋuda-hanyounger, too young; premature (of a birth)
Proto-Sangiric *ŋudayoung
Sangir ŋurayoung forest, low scrub
Bare'e ma-ŋurayoung, not yet old; soft to the touch; of colors, light
  yopo ŋurayoung vegetation that sprouts up in cleared land
  tau ma-ŋurayoung person, a youth
CMP
Tetun nura-kyoung, of trees, plants and fruits
Yamdena ŋudeyoung, of children, fruit, wood, bamboo

Note:   Also Malay uda ‘young (in certain expressions only), Toba Batak uda ‘father’s younger brother’, Simalur udo ‘father’s sister’s husband’, Balinese uda ‘young, fresh; naked’, Sasak odaʔ ‘unripe (of fruits), not yet fully developed (bones)’, Tae' ura ‘young’.

Dempwolff (1938) posited *uda, assuming that the forms cited here under *muda and *ŋuda contain fossilized affixes. Although a morphologically complex analysis is possible to maintain in some languages with muda (< *ma-uda?), it is more difficult with *ŋuda, where no appropriate affix of the shape *ŋ is available. To account for the variation in initial consonant across a wide range of languages I prefer to reconstruct doublets, and assume that *ma-ŋuda (with stative prefix *ma-) was reanalyzed in a few languages as a dynamic verb maŋ-uda, thus giving rise to a new base uda, which then underwent a new cycle of affixation with *ma- The motivation for such reanalysis seems fairly transparent, since *ŋ-initial bases are rare, and most of these refer to the oral or nasal region of the face (Blust 2003a).

28857

*ŋuk grunt, moan, etc.

6092

PMP     *ŋuk grunt, moan, etc.     [doublet: *ŋukŋuk]

WMP
Malay (Perak) ŋok-ŋakbabble of noise
OC
Tolai ŋukwhine, murmur, cry
Rotuman ŋūgrumble, complain, grunt
Tongan ŋūgrunt, make a grunting noise
Samoan ŋūgrowl
Hawaiian to cough; to roar, as wind; grunting, as of pigs; cooing, as of doves; patter, as of rain; groaning, deep sighing, moaning

28858

*ŋukŋuk grunt, moan, etc.

6093

PMP     *ŋukŋuk grunt, moan, etc.

WMP
Kankanaey ŋokŋókto bay, bark, of many dogs together
Hanunóo ŋukŋúknoise made by monkeys, often referred to in ambáhan (chanted verse)
Chamorro ŋokŋokunclear speech, sometimes a temporary condition resulting from accident
OC
Gedaged ŋukŋukstutter; catch one's breath (when crying)
Hawaiian nūnū (length unexplained)moaning, groaning, cooing, grunting

28859

*ŋulŋul₁ arthritic or rheumatic pain

6094

PMP     *ŋulŋul₁ arthritic or rheumatic pain     [doublet: *ŋutŋut₂ 'throbbing pain']

WMP
Cebuano ŋulŋuldeep-seated pain over a wide area
OC
Niue ŋuŋurheumatism
Samoan ŋuŋuname given to a number of complaints, including rheumatism, gout, arthritis, etc.

30827

*ŋulŋul₂ to wail, cry out in grief

8597

PWMP     *ŋulŋul₂ to wail, cry out in grief

WMP
Ifugaw ŋulŋúllamentations performed in a more or less chanting tune by one or several women (but not in unison) in front of a dead person sitting on a death chair
Ifugaw (Batad) ŋulŋulfor someone to wail in crying, especially in grief
Tagalog pag-ŋulŋólsulking and grumbling; bursts of loud crying with intermittent gasps for breath
Malay me-ŋoŋolto weep, of a child

28865

*ŋuŋ buzz, hum

6100

PMP     *ŋuŋ buzz, hum     [doublet: *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ]

WMP
Malay ŋuŋ-ŋiŋthe hum of bumble-bees
Karo Batak ŋuŋonomatopoetic for a sound that is deeper and duller than that represented by ŋiŋ
Sundanese ŋuŋsound in the ear (deeper and duller than ŋéŋ)
Javanese ŋuŋwhine of an engine
OC
Lau ŋūhum, chant, sing
Arosi ŋuuhum

28866

*ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ buzz, hum

6101

PMP     *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ buzz, hum

WMP
Javanese ŋuŋŋuŋwhine of an engine
CMP
Buruese ŋuŋu-nbuzz, hum
OC
Tongan ŋūŋūto hum
Rennellese ŋuuŋuu (length unexplained)speak quietly; hum

28860

*ŋurut growl, whine

6095

PMP     *ŋurut growl, whine

WMP
Cebuano ŋulutgrowling in defiance or complaint (of dogs)
Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋurutwhimper constantly, asking for things (of a child)

8756

POC     *ŋuru to growl, as a dog

OC
Mbula ŋurŋurgrowling (of a dog); grunt at, growl at (used of pigs and dogs)
Nggela ŋuruto roar, rumble, as thunder; to growl, as a dog; groan; to grunt in a dance
Sa'a ŋuru ~ ŋu-ŋuruto growl or roar, of animals; to mumble or groan, of persons
Arosi ŋuruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or chorus
Wayan ŋudru(of a pig or dog) growl; make a deep, throaty sound that continues for some seconds
Niue ŋuluto growl (as a dog with a bone)
Samoan ŋulumake a hollow sound
  ta-ŋuluhit, strike with a thud, thump or other hollow sound
  tā-ŋulusnore
Tuvaluan ŋulurhythmic grunting (as of gong-beaters at a dance)
Rarotongan ŋurua murmuring, snarling sound, as of an angry dog or other animal; the rumbling of thunder; a deep moaning sound of distress; a sound showing disapprobation; groaning, as a deep moan of pain; to rumble, snarl, growl

Note:   Also Hanunóo ŋúrub ‘dog’s growl (with the mouth closed)’, Cebuano ŋúlut ‘growling in defiance or complaint (of a dog)’, Lau ŋū ‘to hum, chant, sing; a song, chant, humming’, ŋudu ‘mumble; mew’, ŋunu ‘murmur, whisper’, 'Āre'āre nuu ‘sing, hum; to sing (of birds), whistle, chirp’. An initial velar nasal appears in a number of apparently unrelated words meaning ‘growl, grunt, roar’ and the like. It is possible that either Hanunóo ŋúrub or Cebuano ŋúlut are related to reflexes of POc *ŋuru (as PMP *ŋudub, or *ŋudut) but the presence of multiple possibilities for comparison weakens each comparison individually, and strengthens the hypothesis that some of these forms are products of chance convergence brought about by frequent use of the phonestheme *ŋ (Blust 2003a).

30145

*ŋuRuR to moan, groan, grunt

6889

POC     *ŋuRuR to moan, groan, grunt

OC
Gedaged ŋuzuzto grumble (in discontent)
Nggela ŋuludeath rattle in throat
'Āre'āre nurumurmur, growl, mumble, groan
Sa'a ŋuluto roar, of surf
Arosi ŋuruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or
Tongan ŋūto grunt, make a grunting noise
Niue ŋūto moan, grunt, roar
Futunan ŋūto speak
Samoan ŋūto growl, as a dog
Tuvaluan ŋūgrunt, coo
Kapingamarangi ŋū-ŋūto mumble, mutter, talk softly (in a low voice)
Nukuoro ŋuua faint sound, like humming
Rennellese ŋū-ŋūspeak quietly, hum
Anuta ŋuua hum or soft groan; to utter such a sound
Maori ŋūmoan, groan
Hawaiian to cough; to roar, as wind; grunting, as of pigs; cooing, as of doves; patter, as of rain; groaning, deep sighing, moaning

30828

*ŋusŋus to snore, growl, grunt

8598

PAN     *ŋusŋus to snore, growl, grunt

Formosan
Tsou rongo-sngusnguto snore
WMP
Ilokano ŋusúŋosto growl (said of animals whose food is being taken away)
Bikol mag-ŋusŋósto whine (a dog)
Toba Batak mar-ŋuŋusto grunt, of pigs

30419

*ŋusuq nasal area; snout

7553

PAN     *ŋusuq nasal area; snout

Formosan
Amis ŋosoʔnose
Saaroa ŋusomouth, lips
WMP
Yami ŋosomouth
Itbayaten ŋosobad smell of the mouth; inner part of the mouth
Kapampangan ŋusúʔupper lip
  ŋusw-ánstick upper lip out at someone
Tagalog ŋúsoʔthe snout of animals; muzzle; the nose, mouth and jaws of an animal; the trunk of an elephant; the snout of a pig; by extension, the part that stands out, especially the bow of a ship or boat
  ŋusúʔ-anto express dislike of someone by pursing the lips
Bikol ŋúsoʔmouth
  ma-ŋúsoʔtalkative
  mag-ŋúsoʔto reproach, admonish
  ŋu-ŋusóʔ-ondescribing someone with a large mouth
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ŋususnout
Mori Bawah ŋusuexterior mouth area, snout (Mbib>Mead 1998)
Tolaki ŋusuphlegm (Mead 1998)
Kulisusu me-ŋunsuto sniff (Mead 1998)
OC
Lou ŋusu-lips
Loniu ŋusu-lips
Nali ŋusu-lips
Mussau ŋusunose
Tabar ŋuju-mouth
Mendak e-ŋusmouth
Takia ŋudu-nose
Motu udumouth; nose; beak
Hoava ŋuzumouth
Roviana ŋuzumouth
Wayan ŋusumouth of an animal; external mouth or lips of a person, fish, etc, beak (of bird or turtle); snout or muzzle of a dog, pig, etc.; entrance or opening to certain objects with cylindrical or long narrow passage behind (bottle, kettle, teapot, river; spout or nozzle of pipe, hose, etc.; spokesman or voice
  vaka-ŋusuhave a mouth, beak, snout, spout, etc.
Fijian ŋusu-the mouth
  ŋusu ni maŋanathe labia pudenda
  ŋusu-ŋusu cāfoul-mouthed
Tongan ŋutumouth (but the mouth of a river is its muivai); beak; orifice; mouthpiece; brim; opening or hollow (of a canoe); mouth (muzzle) or barrel of a gun; orally, by word of mouth
  ŋutu-ŋutu uadouble-tongued
Niue ŋutumouth, entrance (e.g. of cave, channel in reef); beak of pipefish
  ŋutu loalong-tongued person, gossip, busybody
Futunan ŋutumouth, beak, muzzle; orifice, neck (of a bottle)
Samoan ŋutumouth; beak
  ŋutu-avamouth of a channel or passage in the reef
  ŋutu-valeuse indecent language
Tuvaluan ŋutumouth; beak
  kau ŋutucorners of the mouth
  kau ŋutu avamouth of reef channel
  lau ŋutulip
Kapingamarangi ŋudumouth
  ŋudu daalospear foreshaft
  ŋudu di wagaprow of canoe
Nukuoro ŋudumouth; mouth of, rim of
  ŋudu aiact as an interpreter
Rennellese ŋutumouth, beak, breath
  haka-ŋututo eat a great deal, overeat
  ŋutu-ato be heard of; to spread, as news or fame
  ŋutu agaside of a trail, roadside
Anuta ŋutumouth; cutting edge (of knife, scissors, axe, adze, etc.) or the striking edge of a club or point of a spear
  ŋutu korekoreto curse someone or shout in anger
Rarotongan ŋutulip, rim, edge, entrance, orifice
  ŋutu area household, members of a family; a doorway
  ŋutu avathe entrace of a harbor
  ŋutu pāa door, the entrance to a house, gateway
  ŋutu roasymbolically, the turtle; in the ancient chants the turtle was seldom referred to or spoken of as ‘onu, but as ŋutu roa
Maori ŋutulip; beak; rim of a vessel, mouthpiece of a calabash; mouth, entrance, of a cave, river, etc.; talk, gossip
  ŋutu roaa name for the kiwi
Hawaiian nukubeak, snout, tip, end; spout, beaker of a pitcher; mouth or entrace, as of a harbor, river, or mountain pass; scolding, raving, ranting, grumbling
  nuku-kaua variety of taro
  nuku-manua variety of taro; the corm is pointed like a bird’s beak (Kauaʻi only)
  nuku waistream mouth

Note:   Also Atayal (Squliq) ŋuhuu ‘nose’, Kankanaey ŋosʔó ‘projecting, shooting forward (applied to the lips)’, Rejang ŋus ‘mouth’, Balaesang ŋudu, Dampelas ŋuju, Pendau ŋunju ‘mouth’, Bare'e ŋuju ‘external mouth; snout (as of a pig); beak of a bird’, Leti nursu ‘snot, nasal mucus’, Nauna kuc, Pak musu-, Likum kusu- ‘lips’.

29985

*ŋuSuR nasal mucus

6674

PAN     *ŋuSuR nasal mucus

Formosan
Seediq ŋusulnasal mucus

7162

PMP     *ŋuhuR nasal mucus

WMP
Itbayaten ŋohoynasal mucus

32593

*ŋutŋut to gnaw

10974

PPh     *ŋutŋut to gnaw

WMP
Yami mi-ŋotŋotto gnaw on bones
  ŋotŋot-anto gnaw on bones
Itbayaten ŋotŋotleftover food, partly-eaten (yams, foodstuffs), by rats, other animal, person
Ibatan ŋotŋotbite and chew on a piece of fruit, corn, etc.
Ilokano ŋutŋótto gnaw at something
Bontok ŋutŋuta corn cob after the kernels have been removed
  ŋutŋut-anto eat corn on the cob; to gnaw, of rats
Tagalog ŋutŋótnoise of gnawing such as that made by mice or rats
Bikol mag-ŋutŋótto chew or gnaw on tough or fibrous things (as a water buffalo chewing on its tethering rope)

10975

PPh     *ŋutŋut-en to chew or gnaw on something

WMP
Ilokano ŋutŋut-énto gnaw at something
Bikol ŋutŋot-ónto chew or gnaw on tough or fibrous things (as a water buffalo chewing on its tethering rope)

28862

*ŋutŋut₁ mumble, whimper

6097

PWMP     *ŋutŋut₁ mumble, whimper

WMP
Tagalog ŋutŋótwhimper
Karo Batak ŋutŋutmumble, murmur

Note:   Iban ŋut ‘pig’, Malay ŋutŋut (secondary reduplication) ‘mumbling (from age)’ may reflect the simple root. Tolai ŋut ‘whine, murmur, cry’ could reflect either the simple or the reduplicated root (cf. Blust 1977a).

30203

*ŋutŋut₂ throbbing pain

7035

PMP     *ŋutŋut₂ throbbing pain     [doublet: *ŋulŋul]

WMP
Waray-Waray ŋotŋótthe act of feeling or suffering from severe, sharp, smarting pain
Cebuano ŋutŋútpulsating, throbbing pain, as of a boil; emotional pain, as when jilted
Iban ŋuŋut(of pain) ‘murmur’ or throb

7036

POC     *ŋuŋut painful; to pain

OC
Tolai (Nodup) ŋuŋutpain; painful; to pain

Note:   Also Iban uŋut ‘(fig., of pain) nagging’

30829

*ŋutŋut₃ to smoulder, of a fire

8599

PWMP     *ŋutŋut₃ to smoulder, of a fire

WMP
Iban ŋuŋutto smoulder, set light to
Karo Batak ŋutŋut apito smoulder, of a fire

Note:   Also Iban uŋut ‘burning slowly, smouldering; (fig.) making slow progress’. I assume that this form is reanalyzed from ŋuŋut on the assumption that the base-initial consonant was an active verb prefix, since the great majority of words that begin with a velar nasal are affixed bases that begin with a vowel.

30462

*ŋutu louse

7654

POC     *ŋutu louse     [doublet: *kutu]

OC
Tigak ŋutlouse
Mendak ŋutkill lice by biting
Ghari ŋutulouse
Talise ŋutulouse

30920

*ŋuyaq to chew, masticate

8766

PWMP     *ŋuyaq to chew, masticate

WMP
Tagalog ŋuyáʔchewing, masticating
  mag-ŋuyáʔto chew; to masticate; to crush or grind with the teeth
  paŋ-ŋuyáʔmolar; suitable for grinding
  ŋuyaʔ-ínto chew, to masticate
Bikol mag-ŋuyáʔto chew, masticate
Kadazan Dusun kuzaʔto chew, masticate
  mo-ŋuzaʔto masticate, chew
  kuza-onto be chewed
Iban kuñahchew
  ŋuñahto chew
Malay kuñahmastication
  me-ŋuñah makanto masticate food

Note:   This is an extremely problematic comparison, and it is difficult to know how to treat it. While the forms cited here clearly suggest a historical connection that is not based on borrowing, none of them agree with regard to recurrent sound correspondences. Kadazan Dusun, Iban and Malay point to initial *k, but Tagalog and Bikol indicate *ŋ-, while Tagalog, Bikol and Kadazan Dusun point to medial *y, while Iban and Malay point instead to a palatal nasal. Tentatively I posit *ŋuyaq and assume that Kadazan Dusun kuzaʔ and Iban and Malay kuñah are back-formation from mo-ŋuyaʔ, with rightward-spreading nasality altering *y to /ñ/ in the latter two languages prior to denasalization of the base, hence *maŋ-ŋuyaq > *maŋ-ŋuñaq (base *ŋuñaq) > *ma-ŋuñaq (reanalyzed base *kuñaq). It may appear equally likely that the Tagalog and Bikol forms are products of metanalysis from earlier *maŋ- + *kuyaq, but given the far greater frequency of homorganic nasal substitution in *k-initial bases than of nasal deletion in *ŋ-initial bases, the psychological precondition for a reanalysis of *ŋ- as k- would appear far stronger than any condition favoring a reanalysis in the opposite direction.

28863

*ŋuy(e)qa vex, torment

6098

PWMP     *ŋuy(e)qa vex, torment

WMP
Ilokano ŋoyʔáagony, death struggle
Javanese ŋuya(-ŋuya)vex, nag, tease, pester

28864

*ŋuyŋuy whine, whimper, as a child

6099

PWMP     *ŋuyŋuy whine, whimper, as a child

WMP
Ilokano ŋoyŋóywhimper importunately (said of children)
Aklanon ŋuyŋuywhimper, cry, simper (in the fashion of a spoiled child trying to get its way)
Cebuano ŋuyŋúy, da-ŋuyŋúywail, cry with deep sorrow
Malay ŋoŋo-ito weep, of a child

Note:   Also Tongan ŋī ‘whimper’. Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *ŋuyŋuy ‘weep’.

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z    a b c C d e g h i j k l m n N ñ ŋ o p q r R s S t u w z


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-ŋ