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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*o   

oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

27229

*o₁ on, onto, in, into

3730

POC     *o₁ on, onto, in, into

OC
Lakalai o-locative marker (in expressions such as o-ata 'up, on top of', o-hulu 'in the men's house', o-luma 'in the family house', o-mai 'here, hither, toward me', and o-muli 'to the left as one faces inland')
Manam olocative and directional suffix basically corresponding to 'on', 'onto', 'from the surface of' (Lichtenberk 1983:358)
Kilivila oin, into

Note:   Also Tongan ʔo-hake ‘take or send up or along’ (cp. hake ‘up, upwards’), ʔo-hifo ‘take or send down’ (cp. hifo ‘down, downwards’). If cognate, the fossilized Tongan affix conflicts with Lakalai o- in indicating an etymon with *q-. However, as noted by Clark (1976), some instances of initial glottal stop in Tongan grammatical morphemes appear to be historically secondary.

27230

*o₂ possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns

3731

POC     *o₂ possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns

OC
Eddystone/Mandegusu o-muposs. pn. and adj., 2sg., your
  o-naposs. pn. and adj., 3sg., his
Tongan (ʔo)-ʔo-ouobjective pronominal adjective, 2sg., your (thy), yours (thine)
  (ʔo)-ʔo-naobjective pronominal adjective, 3sg., his, her/hers, its
Samoan o-usecond person singular disjunct verbal pronoun (class O), yours
  o-nathird person singular disjunct verbal pronoun (class O): his/hers
Tuvaluan o-ouplural possessed, inalienable possession: your (sg.)
  o-onaplural possessed, inalienable possession: his; hers; its
Nukuoro o-oyour (sg.) several
  o-nahis several, her several, its several
Rennellese o-ʔoupossessive (o-class, redup.), one or some of yours (sg.)
  o-napossessive (o-class, pl. possessed objects), his, her, its
Maori ō-uof thee; plural of definitive tōu, thy
  ō-naplural of definitive tōna: his, her
Hawaiian o-uyour, yours
  o-nahis, her, its

Note:   From the examples given it is clear that Eddystone/Mandegusu (Mandegusu) of the Western Solomons uses a system for marking possessive adjectives, or absolute possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, etc.) which is closely similar to that found in many Polynesian languages. Because the systems are generically similar yet differ in many details this agreement cannot plausibly be attributed to borrowing. Within the Polynesian group the o- element of pronominal adjectives contrasts systematically with a- in the familiar semantic opposition of inalienable vs. alienable. Whether *o played a part in signalling such a contrast prior to PPn remains unclear.

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

oe

oe

27217

*oe interjection or exclamation to call attention

3717

POC     *oe interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call     [doublet: *uy, etc.]

OC
Gedaged oeinterjection used to call a person's attention to something
Mono-Alu oehullo! interjection
Niue oeexclamation, ho! Also, the answer to a call

Note:   Also 'Āre'āre oi ‘exclamation of surprise, oh!’.

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

ok

oka oka

oka₁

oka₂

oke

27218

*oka oka scavenger fish: Lethrinus spp.

3718

POC     *oka oka scavenger fish: Lethrinus spp.

OC
Gilbertese oka-okareef fish, scavenger fish
Kapingamarangi ogo-ogofish sp.: Lethrinus minatus (scavenger fish)

Note:   Also Bare'e oka ‘kind of marine fish while it is still small’, Tolai ok ‘fish sp.’, Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka oka ‘fish sp.’.

27219

*oka₁ fog, mist

3719

POC     *oka₁ fog, mist     [disjunct: *oke]

OC
Molima oka-okaheavy fog on mountain after rain
Kosraean ohkmist, fog, haze
  ohk-ohkblurred, foggy, misty, hazy, nebulous

Note:   Also Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka owa ‘mist, fog’.

27220

*oka₂ house beam

3720

POC     *oka₂ house beam

OC
'Āre'āre okacross beam
Gilbertese okajoint, beam, rafter of house going from tataŋa (large horizontal beam on which rafters are placed) to taubuki (ridge of house roof)
Chuukese woovertical rafter
Tuvaluan okahouse rafters
Kapingamarangi ogorafter
Anuta okatransverse beams supporting roof of house
Maori okarafters for the roof of a kūmara (sweet potato) pit
Hawaiian oʔahouse rafter; timbers in the side of a ship

Note:   Also Fijian i coka ‘the tie beams of a house’, Tongan hoka ‘upright piece(s) of timber in the roof of a Tongan house, supporting the ridge-pole’, Samoan soʔa ‘collar beam’. Together the latter items support a PCPac reconstruction *soka. Gilbertese oka may be a loan from a Polynesian language which regularly lost *s-, but it is difficult to see how 'Āre'āre oka, Chuukese woo can be explained in this way.

27221

*oke fog, mist

3721

POC     *oke fog, mist     [disjunct: *oka₁]

OC
Motu oemountain mist, fog; vapor
Kosraean ohkmist, fog, haze
  ohk-ohkblurred, foggy, misty, hazy, nebulous

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

on

ona

one

27222

*ona hit with a spear

3722

POC     *ona₁ hit with a spear

OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka onato spear, throw a spear
Mono-Alu onaget caught
Nggela onastakes or spears fixed for enemy to tread on; sharp pointed stick to probe for enemy through stockade
Kwaio onablack very hard core of 'ea futo, palm variety, used for drilling
  onaf-iahit with a sharp point or edge
Lau onahard part at base of a palm; spines of echinus or crayfish; stake in a hole to impale an enemy
'Āre'āre onaposts, stakes put in a hole -- used as a trap for humans
  ona-onato wound, harm
Sa'a onafreshwater limpet with poisonous spines; stakes of puepue palm or areca palm set in a hole as an enemy trap
  haʔu onashore rocks, rough and spiky

Note:   Ifugaw (Batad) ona ‘catch something by a trap; throw something accurately with the object of hitting a mark, as in throwing a spear, a stone’ appears to reflect *kena ‘strike, be struck by’.

27223

*one mend a net

3724

POC     *one-a mend a net (tran.)

OC
Pohnpeian onemend or repair, used principally with native objects (tran.)
Fijian one-amend nets (tran.)

3725

POC     *one one mend a net (intr.)

OC
Pohnpeian onohnbe mended or repaired, used principally with native objects (intr.)
Fijian oneonemend nets (intr.)

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

op

opi

27224

*opi brood, sit on eggs

3726

POC     *opi brood, sit on eggs

OC
Bugotu ofisit on eggs, hatch (trans.)
Fijian ovito brood, of hens; to cover up the chickens under her wings (trans.)
  i ovi-ovia nest

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

or

ori

oro

31893

*ori to scrape, with motion away from body

10100

POC     *ori to scrape, with motion away from body

OC
Sa'a ori-orito scrape, to scrape the charcoal off yams or taro roasted on the coals; to peel yams with a roa (black lip pearl shell) held between the thumb and index finger, the motion being away from and not towards the body.
Fijian orito slit or cut lengthwise with motion away

27226

*oro mountain, hill

3728

POC     *oro mountain, hill

OC
Manam orogo landwards (away from the sea)
Mailu orohill, mountain
Motu oro-romountain (< oro-oro)
Mono-Alu olohill
Kosraean ohlmountain
Rennellese ogomountain, hill, slope
Hawaiian olohill (obsolete now except in place names)

Note:   Also Molima ʔoya ‘mountain, hill’, Kilivila koya ‘mountain’, Lau olo ‘to land on the shore’.

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

oR

oRo

27225

*oRo to go; to come

3727

POC     *oRo to go; to come

OC
Lau oloto come, go
Arosi orocome or go with a set purpose, e.g. to help, as Christ came to the world
Rotuman ōgo or come
Tongan ōto go; sometimes o mo = go with, be accompanied or combined with, in a figurative or spiritual sense
Niue ōto go, to come. This is the dual and plural form of both fano (to go) and hau (to come)
Samoan ōplural of alu (go, get); go side by side, go together with
Anuta ōto go, to come

TOP      oe    ok    on    op    or    oR    ot    

ot

oto

27227

*oto straight

3729

POC     *oto straight

OC
Tolai otstraight
Nggela otogo directly, straight; set face to do, stare straight at
Kwaio odostraight; correct
Lau odo-odogo in a direct line, straight
'Āre'āre oto-otostraight; correct and proper in conduct
Sa'a odo(odo)be straight, go straight forward; be correct and proper
Arosi odo-odostraight

Note:   Also Lau oto ‘keep straight on’. Tolai ot and Nggela oto point unambiguously to POc *t, but reflexes in the Malaita-Cristobal languages of the Southeast Solomons instead indicate *nt. This item may have referred to linearity of direction rather than physical form.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-o