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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*r   

ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

ra

ra(m)bek

ra(m)bit

ra(m)buk

rabut

radam

ragecik

ragepak

rajup

rakaq

rakat

raket

raki

ra(ŋ)kup

rambayuŋ

ramig

ranebut

raŋ

raŋaq

raŋ(e)pas

raŋgut

raŋkaŋ

raŋkeb

raŋkep₁

raŋkep₂

rara

ra(ŋ)suk

ra(n)tas

rato

rauC

rauŋ

rawan

rawaŋ

rawaq

rawraw

27965

*ra(m)bek strike, break

4850

PMP     *ra(m)bek strike, break

WMP
Sasak rabekhit, strike
OC
Nggela rambobreak, smash

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.

27966

*ra(m)bit hook together

4851

PWMP     *ra(m)bit hook together

WMP
Isneg rabítcaught, hooked with a fishhook
Maranao rambitcarry with the hand; handgrip, as of a bag
Malagasy rávitramade to hold together, as the leaves of a book, a chaplet, etc.

Note:   With root *-bit₁ ‘hook; grasp with fingers’.

27967

*ra(m)buk knock, pound, beat

4852

PMP     *ra(m)buk knock, pound, beat     [doublet: *lambuk]

WMP
Malagasy rávokapound rice
OC
Lau rabubeat, hit, flog
Arosi rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.

27924

*rabut struggle in rage

4807

PWMP     *rabut struggle in rage

WMP
Maranao rabotanger, rage
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ravutof an angry person, to struggle to fight or hit someone
Malay rabuttearing at, grabbing, and pulling (as someone's hair)

27926

*radam poor, of vision

4809

PWMP     *radam poor, of vision

WMP
Isneg rádammyopia or nearsightedness; hypermetropia or farsightedness; presbyopia
Malay buta radamblind with no sign of blindness; blind when one refuses to see

32748

*ragecik splash, spatter

11184

PWMP     *ragecik splash, spatter     [disjunct: *lagecik]

WMP
Cebuano lágsikfor small things to fly off, splatter
Malay rəcekfine speckles, very small spots, of being sprinkled with rosewater, cloth speckled with gold, garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc.

Note:   With root *-cik ‘fly out, splash, spatter’.

32750

*ragepak slap, sound of collision

11186

PWMP     *ragepak slap, sound of collision     [disjunct: *lagepak]

WMP
Cebuano lágpakslap, strike a part of one’s body with the hand, or with something flat
Malay rəpakslap, whack; flap

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

27928

*rajup stitch, join

4811

PWMP     *rajup stitch, join

WMP
Ilokano i-ragúpjoin, untie, connect one thing to or with another
Malay (Kedah) radupplain hemstitch

27929

*rakaq open

4812

PMP     *rakaq open

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ma-rakahto open (flowers, buds)
OC
Arosi ragaopen with unfolding motion

Note:   With root *-kaq₁ ‘open forcibly’.

27930

*rakat walk

4813

PAN     *rakat walk

Formosan
Amis rakatmovement; walk
WMP
Cebuano lakátwalk
OC
Mussau laago, walk
Motu rakastep, walk, go
Tongan lakago, walk, step

Note:   Possibly *dakat. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Tongan laka to *laŋkaq ‘step, stride’.

27931

*raket sticky, adhesive

4814

PMP     *raket sticky, adhesive

WMP
Sundanese raketadhere, stick to; attach oneself to, be attached to
Old Javanese raketadhering, sticking, clinging, being attached (to)
Javanese raketclose, intimate; to attach firmly
CMP
Manggarai raketstick, adhere

Note:   With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.

30802

*raki wind from the northeast (?)

8547

PCEMP     *raki wind from the northeast (?)

CMP
Leti rainorth
  anni rainorth wind
OC
Bali (Uneapa) raghidry season
Vitu rahiwindy dry season (southeastern winds, sea is rough)
Mbula resoutheast monsoon season, wind that blows very strongly from a southeasterly direction during June-September, a rainy time in which sea travel is difficult due to the roughness of the sea, a time for harvesting yams, collecting sago, galip nuts, and talis nuts
Gitua rakeasterly wind, blows daily and forcefully from July into November
Fijian drakiweather; term used in speaking of weather
  draki cabad weather
  draki vinakagood weather
Niue lakiwest
Samoan laʔiwesterly wind blowing from southwest through west to northwest with varying force; if strong it brings rain and heavy squalls
Rennellese gakithe west or southwest wind; to blow, of this wind
Anuta rakinorthwest; wind coming from northwest; season during which winds from this direction predominate (i.e. monsoon season)

27972

*ra(ŋ)kup gather in the cupped hands

4858

PMP     *ra(ŋ)kup gather in the cupped hands     [disjunct: *raŋkum]

WMP
Malay raŋkuplaying two things one against the other at an angle (as two playing cards when building card-houses, or the two hands to form a conduit when drinking at a spout
Javanese rakupwith the hands together
Mongondow rakupas much as one can hold with the two hands together
CMP
Rotinese laʔuscoop up with cupped hands
OC
Sa'a raʔugather up with the hand
Arosi raʔutake a handful

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Sa'a raʔu to *raqup ‘gather with the hand’, but was thereby forced to admit a phonological irregularity which is avoided in the present comparison.

27933

*rambayuŋ plant sp.

4816

PWMP     *rambayuŋ plant sp.

WMP
Cebuano lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning-glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pes-caprae
Maranao rambayoŋa creeper: Ipomoea pes-caprae
Malay rembayoŋthe water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes

32370

*ramig cold (of weather)

10692

PAN     *ramig cold (of weather)

Formosan
Pazeh lamikcold (of weather, water)
  tu-lamikaloof
  ka-lamik-ancatarrh, cold, flu
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat me-lamigcold (of an object which feels cold); to become cold
Kalamian Tagbanwa lamigcold (as water)
Palawan Batak ma-ramígcold (as water)

32760

*ranebut pluck out

11199

PWMP     *ranebut pluck out     [disjunct: *Ranebut]

WMP
Tagalog labnótplucked out
Cebuano lábnutpull something with a jerk
Malay rəbutsnatching, tearing at, of people struggling for the possession of anything

Note:   Also Tagalog lábot ‘drawing out of something rooted in soft matter’. With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

27970

*raŋ harsh resonant sound

4856

PWMP     *raŋ harsh resonant sound

WMP
Maranao raŋsound
Ngaju Dayak raŋclashing, clacking (as when a cup breaks or two cups strike together)

27955

*raŋaq important (of people); self-important

4840

PWMP     *raŋaq important (of people); self-important

WMP
Ilokano raŋávenerable, august, worthy of respect
Malay raŋahhaughty
  me-raŋahto swagger

27971

*raŋ(e)pas to plunder, rob

4857

PMP     *raŋ(e)pas to plunder, rob

WMP
Maranao rampasremove, deprive
Tausug laŋpasplunder, rob
Malay rampaslooting; taking by force; confiscating
  rampas-anbooty
Sundanese rampastake for oneself, confiscate; rob
Old Javanese rampasrob something, rob someone of, plunder, sack
Proto-Sangiric *Rampasrob, plunder
Makasarese rampasaʔrob, plunder
CMP
Manggarai rampaswar

Note:   Nothofer (1975:51) associates the Malay, Sundanese, Madurese, and Javanese forms with Tagalog gapás ‘cut or mow (grass, rice stalk, etc.) with a scythe’ (Dempwolff's (1934-38) *Ra(m)pas ‘tear off, separate’), but this etymology is doubtful on semantic grounds.

27958

*raŋgut snatch at, pull with a jerk

4843

PWMP     *raŋgut snatch at, pull with a jerk

WMP
Cebuano laŋgútfor a fish to break a line
Dairi-Pakpak Batak raŋgutseize or grasp someone roughly; snatch something with a jerk

Note:   With root *-gut₂ ‘pull with a jerk’.

27960

*raŋkaŋ forked, as a branch

4845

PWMP     *raŋkaŋ forked, as a branch

WMP
Malay raŋkaŋforking
Minangkabau raŋkaŋa forked branch
Javanese raŋkaŋ(of people) moving on all fours; creep, crawl
Bare'e raŋkabranch broken from a tree, withered branch

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

27961

*raŋkeb unite, do simultaneously

4846

PWMP     *raŋkeb unite, do simultaneously     [doublet: *raŋkap]    [disjunct: *raŋkep₂]

WMP
Cebuano laŋkubcombine several things, ideas, quantities into a group at the same time; include, comprehend
Malay raŋkapdouble, dual
  me-raŋkapserve concurrently

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *raNkeB ‘join; unite’.

27962

*raŋkep₁ crawl

4847

PWMP     *raŋkep₁ crawl

WMP
Tiruray raŋkefcrawl
Iban raŋkap(of creeping plants) to spread and cover

31354

*raŋkep₂ unite, do simultaneously

9436

PMP     *raŋkep₂ unite, do simultaneously

WMP
Maranao raŋkepdo many things simultaneously
Sundanese raŋkepcombine with someone or something so as to form a unity
Old Javanese raŋkepcomplete, equipped with, accompanied or assisted by; complement, match, companion
Javanese raŋkepdoubled
CMP
Manggarai raŋkepcombine, unite

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *raNkeB ‘join; unite’.

27945

*rara red

4829

PMP     *rara red

WMP
Hanunóo raráred, redness, quality of being red
Karo Batak raraglowing, of a fire
  rara-icause something to glow red-hot
Toba Batak raráred
CMP
Anakalangu rarared
Kambera rarared, brown

4830

PMP     *ma-rara red     [doublet: *ma-iRaq]

WMP
Hanunóo ma-raráred
Karo Batak me-rarared; glowing, of iron

Note:   Also Maloh (Ray 1913) da-dara, (King 1976) da-daraʔ ‘red’, Karo Batak gara ‘flaming up of the fire’, me-gara ‘red, reddish, brown’.

27974

*ra(ŋ)suk insert, put or drive in

4860

PWMP     *ra(ŋ)suk insert, put or drive in

WMP
Bikol rasókpeg
Tiruray rahukenter an area covered by dense grasses where there is no path; to possess, to dominate someone, as a malignant spirit
Old Javanese raŋsukenter
  rasukdress, attire; mail
Balinese raŋsukenter, put on (clothes)

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’.

27968

*ra(n)tas cut through, tear

4853

PMP     *ra(n)tas cut through, tear     [doublet: *Ratas]

WMP
Maranao rantascut
Tiruray rantascut away wrapped lashings
Malay (Kedah) rantastrace-cutting; cutting a track through the forest
Sundanese rantassnap, break off a piece (as of a chain), break (as a snare)
CMP
Manggarai ratastorn, tattered; to tear

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever, tear’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *raNtas ‘cut, sever’.

30091

*rato small whale sp.

6810

POC     *rato small whale sp.

OC
Nauna latsmall whale a little larger than a dolphin (cp. moluam ‘largest kind of whale known to Nauna people’)
Leipon ratwhale
Mondropolon rat-lolowhale
Likum rakwhale
Wuvulu xaʔowhale
Gilbertese atowhale
Kosraean loatwhale
Marshallese rajwhale
Pohnpeian roahswhale
Mokilese roajwhale, porpoise, dolphin; any sea mammal
Puluwat ŕawwhale; porpoise

Note:   Osmond and Pawley (2011) posit POc(?) *rato ‘whale’, with no further qualification, and note that reflexes of this term are well-represented in Micronesian languages, but are otherwise attested only in Nyindrou and Wuvulu in the Admiralties. However, this word is attested in a number of other languages of the Admiralty Islands, including Likum on the southwest coast, Mondropolon on the north-central coast, Leipon on a separate island off the northeast coast, and Nauna, located some distance from Manus in the southeastern Admiralties. The gloss given for the Nauna form, together with cover terms for ‘whale, dolphin’ in Mokilese and Puluwat indicate that *rato probably referred to one of the smaller common whales, perhaps the pilot whale.

In collecting data from these languages during linguistic fieldwork in 1975 I distinguished whales from dolphins, but did not distinguish types of whales unless this information was spontaneously volunteered. The most commonly elicited form for ‘whale’ was a reflex of Proto-Eastern Admiralty *moluam, but this term designates the largest (and hence psychologically most salient) cetacean, and if a concerted effort had been made to elicit terms for different types of whales I have no doubt that reflexes of POc *rato designating the smaller whale found in the Admiralties would have been much more frequent.

27948

*rauC peel rattan, bamboo

4833

PAN     *rauC peel rattan, bamboo

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) r-m-autsto split wood
WMP
Isneg ráutstrips of rattan or black rachises of líto (schizaeaceous ferns) with which the three strips of rattan are bound to the border of a basket
Bontok láʔuta strip of bíkal bamboo used for tying; to tie something, particularly thatching, using such strips
  laʔút-anreeds used as ties to press down thatching
Kankanaey láotscraped rattan; scraped bamboo
Iban rautpare, peel, scrape; whittle down, sharpen
Malay rautwhittling off asperities
  pisau rautsmall-bladed knife used for this purpose and for rough carving generally
Javanese rot-anrattan

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *raut ‘split off’, but cited no Formosan cognates. See also Zorc (n.d.) PPh *raud ‘slice, pare’.

27949

*rauŋ howl, wail

4834

PWMP     *rauŋ howl, wail     [doublet: *qauŋ]    [disjunct: *lauŋ]

WMP
Ilokano raóŋthe cry of the hungry hog
Kadazan Dusun haughowl
Iban pe-rauŋ, pe-roŋhowling (of dogs)
  rauŋtoad; tree toad (unident.); howl of dogs
Malay rauŋdeep cry, e.g. of pain
Sichule raoŋhowl (said of young dogs)

Note:   Also Malay lauŋ ‘loud voice, loud sound’.

27950

*rawan strong emotion

4835

PMP     *rawan strong emotion

WMP
Hanunóo rawángrudge
Iban rawanexperience emotion, be agitated
Malay rawanemotion, tender feeling; be stirred
Bahasa Indonesia rawananxious; emotion, tenderness
CMP
Manggarai rawaŋsad; anxious

32594

*rawaŋ submarine cave (?)

10976

PPh     *rawaŋ submarine cave (?)

WMP
Itbayaten rawaŋdeep subterranean cave where there are sometimes animals like snakes, etc.; terrrestrial cavity, crack which reaches the sea below
Ilokano rawáŋhollow between rocks
Ibaloy e-dawaŋto be spacious, roomy (as the inside of a house, a field, shoes that’s too big)
  i-dawaŋto make a wide space or passage

Note:   With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.

27951

*rawaq swamp, morass

4836

PWMP     *rawaq swamp, morass

WMP
Tagalog láwaʔpool, lake
Malay rawa(h)morass

27954

*rawraw to rinse

4839

PAN     *rawraw to rinse     [doublet: *NawNaw]

Formosan
Paiwan r-m-awrawto rinse (clothing)
WMP
Tagalog lawláwplay by immersing hands or feet in liquid

TOP      ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

re

rebaq

rebas

rebuk

re(m)but

recik

regaw

re(ŋ)geŋ

re(ŋ)guk

rekaŋ

re(ŋ)kaq

reken

re(ŋ)kik

rekut

remay

rembur

remek

rempun

rendeŋ

reŋat

reŋeC

reŋiC

reŋit

reŋkeg

reŋut

repag

repek

reput

rere₁

rere₂

re(n)tes

retiq

retuk

re(n)zak

27975

*rebaq collapse, fall down, as a house

4861

PWMP     *rebaq collapse, fall down, as a house     [doublet: *rebas, *Rebaq]

WMP
Itbayaten k-arbafall, tumble, upset
  m-arbato crumble by itself
Ilokano rebbáruins
  ag-rebbáto break down, collapse, crumble down
Isneg rabbácollapsed, tumbled down, fallen in
Malay rebahfallen to the ground; laid low (as trees, or other heavy objects)

27976

*rebas collapse, fall into ruin

4862

PWMP     *rebas collapse, fall into ruin     [doublet: *rebaq, *Rebaq]

WMP
Isneg rabbásbreak down, collapse, fall in
Malay rebasfallen into unsightly ruin, of a house

27978

*rebuk dry rot in wood

4864

PMP     *rebuk dry rot in wood

WMP
Old Javanese (h)rebukpollen
Balinese ebukdust, powder
CMP
Manggarai rete-rewukcrushed, smashed up

Note:   Also Malay serbok ‘fine particles; powder; e.g., of sawdust’. With root *-buk₁ ‘decay, crumble; powder’.

28003

*re(m)but confusion

4889

PWMP     *re(m)but confusion

WMP
Maranao rembutconfuse, mix up, confusion
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rebutbustle, confusion, as during a squabble

27979

*recik speckled, stained

4865

PMP     *recik speckled, stained     [disjunct: *ragecik]

WMP
Maranao resikdirty; filthy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) resikspill over or splash out
Tiruray resiktobacco blight that renders the leaves bitter and ill-tasting
Malay recékfine speckles, very small spots -- of being sprinkled with rosewater, cloth speckled with gold, garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc.
Mongondow rosikspot, speck, stain
CMP
Manggarai rocikto spatter

27980

*regaw wander, stray

4866

PWMP     *regaw wander, stray     [disjunct: *legaw]

WMP
Pangasinan legáwgo astray, lose one's way
Tagalog ligáwstrayed, lost
Iban regau-regauwandering, at a loss

Note:   Also Iban segau ‘wandering’. Hendon (1964) assigned Tagalog ligáw together with Old Javanese legö ‘careless, neglectful, lax’, Hiligaynon lígaw ‘transfer or remove to another site, set up somewhere else, especially applied to small native houses’ to *legaw. The Hiligaynon form cannot regularly reflect either reconstruction.

28008

*re(ŋ)geŋ dull resonance

4894

PMP     *re(ŋ)geŋ dull resonance

WMP
Kadazan Dusun hogoŋmake a booming sound
Singhi Land Dayak bi-rogoŋstrike a gong
CMP
Manggarai reŋgeŋhum, buzz

Note:   With root *-geŋ ‘hum, buzz’.

28009

*re(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound

4895

PMP     *re(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound     [disjunct: *de(ŋ)guk]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) reŋɣukto snore
Bahasa Indonesia regukgulping down
CMP
Manggarai regukgulp, swallow

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

31108

*rekaŋ wide apart (as the legs)

9082

PWMP     *rekaŋ wide apart (as the legs)

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs)
Iban rekaŋwide apart, wide open

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

28010

*re(ŋ)kaq force open

4896

PMP     *re(ŋ)kaq force open

WMP
Malay reŋkahwresting open
OC
Arosi rokaopen, set open wide

Note:   With root *-kaq₁ ‘open forcibly’.

27982

*reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set

4868

PAN     *reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan
WMP
Cebuano lúkuncoil up, coil something up, usually in several coils
Kelabit rekencoiled rattan base on which cooking pots are placed when hot
  uled rekenkind of worm that curls up into a tight coil
Sasak rekenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load
Mamben rekencoiled base on which cooking pots are placed
CMP
Yamdena réanwoven palm leaf base on which hot cooking pots are placed
Buruese leke-hcoil up
  leke-na coil

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak rakar ‘rattan frame to support a pot’, Malay lekar ‘basket-stand for round-bottomed cooking-pots when taken off the fire’, Javanese leker ‘coiled, winding (as a snake, rope)’. Mills (1981) attributes the latter, a few other WMP cognates and Fijian lokoloko ‘a pillow of something soft’ to PAn *le(ŋ)ke[Dr] ‘to roll up (?)’.

Given its differing meaning, it is possible that the Fijian form is not cognate with the others. Kapampangan lakál ‘woven rattan ring for supporting round-bottomed pots on flat surfaces’ disambiguates the doublet as PWMP *leker (dbl. *li(ŋ)ke(r) ‘wind, coil’). Pangasinan dekén ‘woven bamboo ring for placing at base of pots, jars’, Tagalog dikín ‘pot support of braided rattan or bamboo formed into a ring’ raise the possibility that Cebuano lúkun derives from still another variant, *deken.

28013

*re(ŋ)kik have a squeaky voice

4899

PWMP     *re(ŋ)kik have a squeaky voice

WMP
Iban rekiklose the voice
Balinese eŋkiksound sad
  eŋkik eŋkirsp. of bird which has a mournful cry

Note:   With root *-kik ‘high-pitched sound in the throat’.

27983

*rekut curled or crumpled up

4869

PMP     *rekut curled or crumpled up

WMP
Hiligaynon lúkutwind up, roll, crumple
Cebuano lukutroll up, cause something to do so
Malay me-rekutcurled and twisted, as a man in convulsions
CMP
Manggarai rekot *u > o unexplainedfrizzled (of hair), crumpled, creased

27984

*remay crumble, break into small pieces

4870

PWMP     *remay crumble, break into small pieces

WMP
Ilokano remmáyto crumble, break into small pieces, as clods, etc.
Malay remaiminute, as particles of dust or sand

27985

*rembur mix together

4871

PMP     *rembur mix together

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) remburmix different kinds of seeds together
CMP
Paulohi lehuto mix, blend

Note:   With possible root *-bur ‘mix’, seen also in e.g. Isneg tambúr ‘mix shredded coconut meat with bási (rum)’, Maranao kambor ‘stir, mix’, Maranao sambor ‘mix’, Maranao sembor ‘mix, mixture’.

27987

*remek crush, pulverize; crumble

4873

PMP     *remek crush, pulverize; crumble     [doublet: *Remuk]    [disjunct: *Remek]

WMP
Sundanese remekfall to pieces, be smashed; disintegrate
Javanese remekbroken into pieces, smashed
Balinese remekcrush, break, perish
CMP
Manggarai remeksoft (of earth around a termite mound)
Ngadha remepress, squeeze, massage

Note:   With root *-mek ‘crush, pulverize; powder’. Also Ilokano remʔek ‘break, smash, break in pieces’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) guremek ‘crush or wad something up in the hand or hands’.

27988

*rempun gather together

4874

PMP     *rempun gather together

WMP
Iban rempunclump of tubers or rhizomes
Tae' rampuncollect, gather, bring together
Buginese reppuŋgather
Makasarese rappuŋcome together, assemble
CMP
Buruese repu-hcollect, gather

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.

27989

*rendeŋ wet season

4875

PWMP     *rendeŋ wet season

WMP
Maranao rendeŋrainy season; winter; wet season
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rendeŋconstant sprinkling of rain; a rainy day
Malay (Jakarta) rendeŋrainy season
Sundanese rendeŋconstant rain
Javanese rendeŋwest monsoon (rainy season)

27999

*reŋat crack, split open

4885

PWMP     *reŋat crack, split open

WMP
Ilokano reŋŋatto crack, fissure, cleave, part, open, split, be creviced; said of ground
Sundanese reŋatburst, crack, rend (as earthworks); crack, tear, crevice
Old Javanese reŋatcleft, crack, crevice, fissure; split, cleft, cracked
Javanese reŋatburst; broken open (of fruit)
Balinese reŋatcrack, split, burst
Sasak reŋatcracked, burst

28000

*reŋeC angry, annoyed

4886

PAN     *reŋeC angry, annoyed

Formosan
Paiwan ma-reŋetsjealous
WMP
Cebuano luŋut luŋutrestless, moving about and talking in anger, exasperation or impatience to do something
Malay reŋatgriping pain, colic, shooting pains in toothache or earache
  reŋat hatitorn with anger
Balinese reŋetangry
Sasak reŋetangry, fanatical
CMP
Manggarai ceke-reŋetgrumble, complain, make a sour face

Note:   Also Paiwan seŋats ‘one who characteristically dislikes things’, Bontok liget, Isneg kéxut ‘anger’, Kankanaey báŋit ‘tease, plague, trouble, vex, annoy, pester’, gáŋit ‘provoke, challenge, defy’, Tagalog iŋgít ‘envy, spite, grudge’, Bikol aŋgót ‘piqued, angry, mad, furious’, Aklanon iŋít, súŋit ‘crabby, out of sorts, in a bad mood’, Cebuano aliŋit ‘short-tempered, irritable’, piŋut ‘irritated, slightly angry’, puŋut ‘irritating, maddening’, Maranao raŋit, Mansaka iŋet iŋet ‘anger’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) raŋit ‘wrath, intense anger’, Tiruray aŋet ‘short-tempered, easily angered’, Kayan (Busang) siŋat ‘speak in irritation’, Iban riŋat, Mongondow iŋot ‘angry’, Malay roŋot, ruŋut ‘mumble angrily’, Toba Batak siŋit ‘indignation, wrath’. Tsuchida (1976:179) gives Proto-South Formosan *rəŋəC ‘jealous’. The last syllable of *reŋeC, *ReŋeC evidently belongs to a root series *-ŋaC, *-ŋeC, *-ŋiC, *-ŋuC, found next to *gaC, *geC, *giC, *guC in many words relating to anger, irritation, and gnashing of the teeth.

28001

*reŋiC grimace at pain

4887

PAN     *reŋiC grimace at pain     [doublet: *reŋeC, 'angry', *ReŋeC 'annoyed']

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) vi-reŋitsto grimace (at pain)
CMP
Manggarai reŋitpucker up the face, grimace (example sentence: "what pain are you feeling that causes you to grimace so?")

32571

*reŋit gnat, midge

10936

PWMP     *reŋit gnat, midge

WMP
Malay (Brunei) rəŋitmosquito
Malay rəŋitmoth; minute fly
Lolak hoŋitmosquito

28002

*reŋkeg keep quiet

4888

PWMP     *reŋkeg keep quiet

WMP
Maranao reŋkegpensive
Balinese reŋkegkeep quiet because of sickness

Note:   Also Maranao renek ‘keep silent’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eŋked, Mongondow toŋkod ‘stop; be silent’, Balinese reŋked ‘keep quiet because one feels cold’, reŋkek ‘keep quiet because of sickness’.

28007

*reŋut wrinkled; frown

4893

PMP     *reŋut wrinkled; frown

WMP
Malay reŋutfrown, look dissatisfied
Mongondow roŋutwrinkle (of the skin)
CMP
Manggarai reŋutsour
Sika beŋu-reŋutangry
  reŋutrude or insolent voice

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) mu-ku-ra-reŋeT ‘wrinkled (of skin, because of age)’, Paiwan (Western) vi-reŋits ‘to grimace (at pain)’, Cebuano ugut ‘frown in distaste’, Balinese jeŋat ‘put on a sour face’, jeŋis ‘put on a stern expression’. Manggarai reŋus ‘knit the brows, have a gloomy, sour expression’

27992

*repag to slap

4878

PWMP     *repag to slap

WMP
Isneg rappágslap, buffet
Malay repakslap; whack; fillip

Note:   With root *-pag ‘strike, beat’.

27994

*repek brittle, friable; to crumble

4880

PMP     *repek brittle, friable; to crumble     [disjunct: *re(m)pak]

WMP
Ilokano reppékbroken in pieces, crushed, smashed, shattered, crumbled
Malay repakcrumbling under pressure, dry and brittle
CMP
Manggarai repekvarious sounds: crackle, pop, rattle

27996

*reput rotten to brittleness, of

4882

PMP     *reput rotten to brittleness, of wood     [doublet: *repuk]

WMP
Malay reputrotten to brittleness, crumbling to decay (of a house about to fall to pieces)
CMP
Manggarai reputbrittle, fragile, easily broken up

30156

*rere₁ be afraid of something

6912

POC     *rere₁ be afraid of something

OC
Gedaged zezto fear, be afraid, be scared, be frightened; despair, be terror-stricken, panic-stricken, be anxious
Fijian rerebe afraid, fear, have a delicacy of feeling towards

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. If not, it is unclear how the meaning of this term differed from that of POc *ma-takut ‘fear, be afraid’.

30157

*rere₂ to flow, stream, move out rapidly

6913

POC     *rere₂ to flow, stream, move out rapidly

OC
Mbula reereto flow, run, stream
Gitua reredrain off (as water from a puddle)
Arosi rerea current, tide; to spread, of fire
Mota rereset of sea, current
Niue leleto fly; to flow (as water)
  vai-lelestream, river, flowing water
Futunan leleto fly
Samoan leleto fly (as a bird)
  lele-a(of dust, paper, etc.) be blown by the wind
Tuvaluan leleto fly, jump, dive
  lele-adriven away by wind
Kapingamarangi leleto run; to drive; to ride
Nukuoro leleto fly; jump
  lele ageregain consciousness; epilepsy; surfacing (of flying fish)
  lele tuliparturition
Rennellese gegeto jump, fly, leap, swing; a sling, swing
  gege-gegeto hop, bounce
Anuta rereto travel quickly – to run; to fly; a ship or canoe racing over the water is also said to rere
Rarotongan rereto fly, to move swiftly, as a bird; to leap, to move with bounds, to spring upward or forward; to hop, to leap on one leg; to swing, as to swing in the ancient Maori swing
Maori rereto flow; to fly; be carried on the wind
Hawaiian leleto fly, jump, leap, hop, swing, bounce, burst forth; to sail through the air, as a meteor; to rush out, as to attack

Note:   Also Tongan lele ‘to run or sail or travel along (of boats, vehicles, bicycles, etc, or of those in or on them); (of fish) to swim or move through the water’. It seems clear that POc *rere referred to the (perhaps rapid) flow of water, and in some Polynesian languages this primary sense was expanded to encompass flying, leaping, hopping, rushing and the like, or even more abstract senses of movement, as in regaining consciousness or parturition.

28005

*re(n)tes separate, remove

4891

PWMP     *re(n)tes separate, remove     [disjunct: *retas 'to split, of a seam']

WMP
Malay (Kedah) retas, rentasgentle severance
Mongondow rotot, rontottake away from, remove

27997

*retiq popped rice

4883

PWMP     *retiq popped rice     [disjunct: *Retiq]

WMP
Maranao retiʔgerminate
Malay retéhspring up in little jerks, like shrimps jumping about in a landing-basket
  beras be-rtéhparched rice

Note:   Also Cebuano bitíʔ ‘snapping, popping sound; popcorn’. Based on the comparison Toba Batak bo-r-ti, Malay be-r-tih, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *be[tT]iq ‘popped rice’. There is a high probability that the Toba Batak form is a loan from Malay, but Dempwolff's reconstruction appears to be additionally supported by Proto-Minahasan *bətiʔ ‘burst (of roasting corn)’.

27998

*retuk hit, pound, chop

4884

PMP     *retuk hit, pound, chop

WMP
Iban retoksound of chopping
OC
Fijian rotubeat at with fists or stick

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.

28006

*re(n)zak step on, place one's foot on

4892

PMP     *re(n)zak step on, place one's foot on

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak erjak <Mstep, tread
CMP
Manggarai rendakstep on

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

TOP      ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

ri

riba

ricik

rikas

riken

ri(ŋ)kep

ri(ŋ)kit

rikut

rimbit

rimpuk

rimpuŋ

rinis

riŋis₁

riŋis₂

ripak

riqas

risris

ri(n)tas

28017

*riba lap

4903

PMP     *riba lap

WMP
Malay ribalap, taking on the lap
  me-riba anakto have a child on one's lap
Proto-Sangiric *Ribalap; to hold in the lap
Buginese riwatake on the lap
CMP
Selaru rihalap

Note:   Also Minangkabau (ha)-riba-n ‘lap’. Sneddon (1984) first drew attention to the WMP members of this comparison.

28018

*ricik sound of splashing, etc.

4904

PWMP     *ricik sound of splashing, etc.

WMP
Ilokano rissíkto sparkle, emit sparks; also: the cracking sound of a glass, etc. when breaking
Balinese ricik(falling water) make a sound (less water than with rocok)

Note:   Probably with root *-cik ‘splash, spatter, fly out’.

28020

*rikas quick, fast

4906

PMP     *rikas quick, fast

WMP
Bikol rikásfast, rapid, quick
Singhi Land Dayak rikasquick
CMP
Buruese rike-nfast, speedy, swift

Note:   Also Buruese rike-n ‘fast, speedy, swift’. With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.

28021

*riken coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head

4907

PWMP     *riken coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head     [disjunct: *Riken]

WMP
Kankanaey líkenroll oneself up, coil, curl
Sasak réken ~ rikenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load

28039

*ri(ŋ)kep cover

4925

PWMP     *ri(ŋ)kep cover

WMP
Ilokano riképshutter, window sash, door
Iban riŋkaphave or move under a cover

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘cover, fold over’.

28040

*ri(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length

4926

PWMP     *ri(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length     [disjunct: *diŋkit, ziŋkit]

WMP
Cebuano liŋkitfor two things to be joined along their lengths
Maranao riŋkitstick together
Tiruray rikittie two things together
Balinese rékétadhere, stick

28022

*rikut grass

4908

PWMP     *rikut grass     [doublet: *dukut₂]

WMP
Hanunóo ríkutgrass, weeds
Ma'anyan rikutgrass
Mongondow rikutthickly grown with grass

Note:   Also Kapampangan dikút ‘grass’.

28023

*rimbit encumbered

4909

PWMP     *rimbit encumbered

WMP
Maranao rimbitpregnancy; encumber
Malay rémbét, rimbithampered; obstructed; having encumbrances
Balinese rimbitdifficult, slow

28024

*rimpuk strike together

4910

PMP     *rimpuk strike together

WMP
Sasak rémpokstrike together (of objects)
CMP
Manggarai rimpukto break (tubers, etc.)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.

28025

*rimpuŋ tie the feet together

4911

PMP     *rimpuŋ tie the feet together

WMP
Ilokano rimpóŋbinding together the four limbs (animals); tying elbow to elbow (men)
Bahasa Indonesia rimpuŋtied together of the feet
Sundanese rimpuŋknocked-kneed
Old Javanese rimpuŋlame, crippled, injured (on the leg or foot), especially of horses
Javanese rimpuŋwalk haltingly
Makasarese rimpuŋhave an arthritic pain in the loin, thigh, knee (as pregnant women sometimes have); unable to stand up, as a bound pig
CMP
Manggarai rémpuŋ, rimpuŋtie the feet together

Note:   Also Toba Batak rimpoŋ ‘dislocated, sprained; out of joint’, Old Javanese rimpus ‘tie, bind (hands, feet)’.

28026

*rinis drizzle, drizzling rain

4912

PWMP     *rinis drizzle, drizzling rain

WMP
Sasak rinisdrizzle, drizzling rain
Mandar rinnisdrizzle, drizzling rain

Note:   Also Malay hujan gerimis ‘fine drizzling rain’.

28032

*riŋis₁ bare the teeth in smiling or laughing

4918

PMP     *riŋis₁ bare the teeth in smiling or laughing

WMP
Malay (Java) me-riŋisgrin, show the teeth
CMP
Manggarai réŋés, riŋislaugh or smile while baring the teeth

28033

*riŋis₂ cruel

4919

PWMP     *riŋis₂ cruel     [doublet: *beŋis₁ 'enraged']

WMP
Bikol riŋiscruel
Karo Batak me-riŋissevere, stern, strict, rigorous

Note:   Possibly connected with *riŋis₁.

28035

*ripak split, crack

4921

PWMP     *ripak split, crack     [disjunct: *Ripak]

WMP
Ilokano ripáksound of a door slamming, a plate breaking, etc.
Cebuano lipákcut bamboo into slats
Iban rimpakchip, notch; broken (break) piece of
  ke-rimpakbroken (break) piece of
Malay rémpaksplit at the side

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.

28027

*riqas split

4913

PMP     *riqas split

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bu-riʔasof a tree which is being felled, to split up the middle and break off higher up
Tiruray riyassplit rattan, tear cloth lengthwise
Iban riassplit into strips, split and splay at end (e.g. to make torch), strip pieces off (e.g. sugarcane, to chew the sweet core)
CMP
Manggarai riʔassplit rope, etc.; crack, split

Note:   Disambiguates the initial and medial consonants, and raises the level of assignment of *[rR]i[qSØ] as ‘split or tear lengthwise’ (Blust 1973).

28030

*risris light rustling sound

4916

PWMP     *risris light rustling sound

WMP
Ilokano risrísthe sound of fluttering June bugs when taking hold of their outer wings
Tagalog l-ag-islísnoise of falling branches from high in a tree, passing through other branches
Old Javanese ririssoft rain
Balinese ririsrain gently, drizzle

Note:   With root *-ris₁ ‘rustling sound’.

28037

*ri(n)tas cut or tear off

4923

PWMP     *ri(n)tas cut or tear off     [disjunct: *Ri(n)tas]

WMP
Maranao ritasseparate, cut off
Iban rintastorn open, broken through
Malay rintastake the shortest way, cut across

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever; rip’.

TOP      ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

ro

roko

30475

*roko stoop, bow, bend over

7677

POC     *roko stoop, bow, bend over

OC
Nggela rogobend; bend over, move, press, of the wind
  tinoni rogoa bent old man
  rogo-vito bend over, move, press, of the wind
Wayan rokobe bent, bowed, have a stoop or bend; bow to someone, go past in a stooping posture; be respectful (in words or action)
  roko-ti ~ roko-vibend something; what is bent
Fijian rokobe in a bowing or stooping position, a sign of reverence

7678

POC     *roko-roko to walk past in a stooping posture

OC
Nggela rogo-rogoto go with bent head; slanting
Wayan vaka-roko-rokobe respectful, show reverence or respect; be bent, stooping, with a stoop or bow
  roko-roko vā-kanace(idiom) be respectful to one’s face but disrespectful behind one’s back (lit. ‘show respect like a mullet’)

TOP      ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

ru

rudrud

ru(n)duŋ

ru(ŋ)guŋ

ruit

ru(ŋ)kuq

rumpak

rumpun

runaw

ruŋkáb

rupit

rupuk

ruqag

ruru

rusrus₁

rusrus₂

rusuk

rutas

ruyuŋ

28042

*rudrud scrape, rub

4928

PWMP     *rudrud scrape, rub

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rudrudscrape the skin
Iban rurutstrip by drawing between fingers
Malay lurut, rurutdrawing one's hand over a rope, a man's arm or any similar object

Note:   With root *-rud ‘scrape, grate’.

28061

*ru(n)duŋ shelter

4948

PMP     *ru(n)duŋ shelter

WMP
Mandar runduŋshelter
CMP
Rembong ruduŋcover or veil with a cloth

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’.

28062

*ru(ŋ)guŋ thunder

4949

PMP     *ru(ŋ)guŋ thunder

WMP
Maranao rogoŋthunder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ruɣuŋthunder, to thunder
Blaan (Koronadal) luguŋthunder
CMP
Soboyo ba-ruŋgurumble of thunder

Note:   With root *-guŋ ‘deep resounding sound’. Loss of * in Soboyo is irregular, but recurrent (cf. Blust 1981a:23). Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *luGuŋ ‘thunder’.

28043

*ruit barbed; sharp

4929

PWMP     *ruit barbed; sharp

WMP
Malay (Brunei) ruithook or barb
Iban ruita barb
Malay ruitbent, hook-shaped
Javanese ruwitbarb (of a hook), sharp (of blades)
Mongondow ruitsharp, pointed

28063

*ru(ŋ)kuq bowed, hunched, as from age

4950

PWMP     *ru(ŋ)kuq bowed, hunched, as from age

WMP
Cebuano lúkuʔcurled up; fall down in a curled up position
Maranao rokoʔobeisance, prostrate in Islamic prayer
Iban ruŋkohdrooping (as paddy)
Malay (Borneo) roŋkohdecrepit
Mongondow ruŋkuʔbent, bowed (of the back, through old age)

Note:   Also Old Javanese ruŋkuk ‘hunched, huddled, crouching’, ruŋkuŋ ‘walk with a bent back’.

28045

*rumpak thud, strike against

4931

PMP     *rumpak thud, strike against

WMP
Tiruray rumfakcollide with something
Sasak rumpakhit, beat, pound
CMP
Manggarai rumpakcollide with something

Note:   Also Manggarai dumpak ‘run aground, collide with’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

28046

*rumpun cluster, clump

4932

PWMP     *rumpun cluster, clump     [doublet: *punpun 'assemble, gather']

WMP
Malay rumpuncluster, clump. Of such things as clumps of bamboos, bananas or lemongrass
Uma rumpugather, assemble

28047

*runaw melt, liquefy

4933

PWMP     *runaw melt, liquefy

WMP
Ilokano rúnawmelt, liquefy, dissolve (wax, sugar, etc.)
Kelabit (Long Napir) runomelt, liquefy

Note:   With root *-naw₂ ‘melt, liquefy’.

31109

*ruŋkáb to open, peel off

9083

PWMP     *ruŋkáb to open, peel off

WMP
Bontok lukábto raise, as the edge of a pot lid in order to look into the pot
Kankanaey lukábto lift up
Ifugaw lukábto lift up something that is more or less heavy
  man-lukábperson who lifts up
Bikol mag-ruŋkábto force open; to pry apart
Cebuano luŋkábbreak something open by prying so as to get into it
Kadazan Dusun huŋkabto open, peel off (by itself)
  huŋkab-onto be opened, peeled off
Murut (Timugon) kaka-luŋkabjust opened
  l<um>uŋkabopened
  luŋkab-onsomething that has been opened

Note:   With root *-kab open, uncover.

28049

*rupit narrow

4935

PWMP     *rupit narrow     [doublet: *lupiC, *lupit 'press between two flat surfaces']

WMP
Javanese rupitnarrow (as a footpath)
Balinese rupitsmall
Mongondow rupitnarrow (of an opening or doorway)

28050

*rupuk sound of breaking or cracking

4936

PMP     *rupuk sound of breaking or cracking

WMP
Ilokano roppókbreak short, snap, break in two (a stick, etc.)
CMP
Manggarai ropoksound of a fence, etc. that is being walked on

Note:   With root *puk₁ ‘throb, thud, crack, break’.

28051

*ruqag wide, spacious

4937

PWMP     *ruqag wide, spacious     [disjunct: *ruqaR]

WMP
Tagalog luwágspaciousness; looseness
Cebuano luagloose, not tightly attached or wound around; having ample space
Banjarese ruhakwiden, enlarge
Malay ruakspread out, expand, gape open. Of the hood of a cobra, the contents of an egg when the shell is broken, etc.
Karo Batak ruhakspacious, wide, of an opening
Toba Batak ruakwide, spacious

Note:   According to Adelaar (1981) earlier *g became Karo Batak ŋ in final position. It is thus possible that the Batak forms, or perhaps all of the western Indonesian forms cited here, derive from a prototype with *-k.

30372

*ruru to back water with a paddle

7416

POC     *ruru to back water with a paddle

OC
Motu ruruto hold back, slacken the speed of a boat (of an oar, or anything dragging)
Sa'a luluto back water with paddles
  ahe luluboiling tide

28053

*rusrus₁ rustling sound

4940

PWMP     *rusrus₁ rustling sound

WMP
Tagalog l-ag-uslóssound of trickling water over rough surface
Nias rururustling sound (of someone pushing through vegetation, earth descending in a landslide, etc.)

Note:   With root *-rus₁ ‘rustling sound’.

28054

*rusrus₂ slip down or off

4941

PWMP     *rusrus₂ slip down or off     [disjunct: *lurus 'slip off']

WMP
Ilokano rusrústo lower, to slip down (a garment, without unfastening or unbuttoning)
Maranao rorosslide down
Kelabit (Long Napir) ruruslide back, as when climbing a slippery tree
Toba Batak rusrusslowly slip or slide down

Note:   With root *-rus₂ ‘slip or slide off’.

28055

*rusuk pierce, stab

4942

PMP     *rusuk pierce, stab

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rusukstring meat on a line
CMP
Bimanese rusupierce, stab

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’.

28056

*rutas sever, tear

4943

PMP     *rutas sever, tear

WMP
Hiligaynon lutáswean; detach affection for something longed for
Malay runtassever with a jerk
CMP
Manggarai rotastear, make an incision

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever, tear’.

28059

*ruyuŋ reel, stagger

4946

PWMP     *ruyuŋ₁ reel, stagger     [disjunct: *Ruyuŋ]

WMP
Hanunóo rúyuŋfalling, as of bamboos when cut
Malay royoŋreeling, staggering

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-r