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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*u   

ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

28704

*u genitive particle

5896

PWMP     *u₁ genitive particle

WMP
Karo Batak ugenitive marker
Sangir ugenitive particle

Note:   Also Buli o ‘suffix which expresses the genitive’. Probably an allomorph of *nu ‘genitive particle’. Parallel to the distribution of *i and *ni, *u probably followed consonant-final stems, while *nu followed vowel-final stems.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

ua

ua

uak₁

uak₂

uaʔ

28582

*ua exclamation of surprise, etc.

5709

PAN     *ua exclamation of surprise, etc.

Formosan
Seediq wafinal particle of exclamation
Paiwan uaexclamation of pain or surprise
WMP
Kapampangan wayes
Tagalog washoo! (to drive off pigs, etc.)
Cebuano waexpression of mild disappointment
Toba Batak uaexclamation
Mandar waexpression of surprise, etc.
OC
Tolai uainterjection expressing mild surprise
Gedaged uainterjection: see! behold! aha!

Note:   Also Atayal wah ‘final particle of mild exclamation and exhortation’, Bikol waʔ ‘whoa! (said to horses)’, Malay wah ‘why! Well I never! An interjection of surprise; a cry for calling dogs’. The possibility that some of these forms may be convergent products of universal expressive symbolism is not overlooked. However, it is equally likely that universal expressive symbolism would have been operative in PAn itself.

28580

*uak₁ harsh cry, bellow, loud cry

5707

PMP     *uak₁ harsh cry, bellow, loud cry     [doublet: *wáak 'crow']

WMP
Itbayaten owakblack crow: Corvus macrorhynchus philippinus
Pangasinan owákcrow (bird species)
Tagalog uwákcrow, raven
Bikol uwákcrow, raven; the cawing sound made by these birds
  mag-uwákto caw
Hanunóo ʔuwákthe common crow, Corvus macrorhynchus
Aklanon uwákcrow
Cebuano uwákcrow
  kaŋ-uwak-ánplace where crows abound
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uwaka crow
Tiruray ʔuwaka crow, Corvus macrorhynchus Wagler
Tboli waka bird similar to the crow
Ngaju Dayak uaksound of a gibbon's call
Malay meŋ-uakto bellow, of buffaloes and crocodiles
  uak-uakthe cry of the gibbon
  buroŋ uak-uakwhite-breasted water-hen
Tondano uakbird with large body and beak: hornbill
Tontemboan uwaka bird: the hornbill, named from its cry
Mongondow uaka cry, shriek, shout
CMP
Manggarai uakshout from a distance, call loudly

Note:   Also Itbayaten howak ‘bird sp.’, Toba Batak tahuak ‘to crow, of cocks’. Bimanese oa ‘sound of a carabao lowing’. Although PPh *uak clearly meant ‘crow (Corvus sp.)’, this meaning cannot safely be attributed to any higher level reconstruction on presently available evidence.

28581

*uak₂ sound of retching

5708

PMP     *uak₂ sound of retching

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia uakretching; physical nausea
Tae' uaʔsound of belching, sound of one about to vomit
CMP
Manggarai oaknausea, disgust, retching
Kambera uasound of retching when vomiting

Note:   Also Tagalog duwák ‘retching’, Malay luak ‘experience a slight feeling of nausea or disgust’, Malay muak ‘disgust; nausea; be sick and tired of something’, Tagalog duwál ‘gas expulsion from the stomach’, Tarakan dual ‘sick’, Malay mual ‘disgust’. Bahasa Indonesia uak is not cited by Poerwadarminta (1976), but appears in Verheijen (1967-70). This reconstruction may be identical to *uak₁.

28583

*uaʔ parents' elder sibling

5710

PMP     *uaʔ parents' elder sibling

WMP
Melanau Dalat uaFB, MB (add.)
Jarai wauncle, aunt
Malay uaelder (in certain local terms of relationship)
Rejang waʔFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ
Sundanese uaFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ
Old Javanese uauncle, aunt (older than father or mother; also used to address an older person who is not a relative)
Balinese uauncle, aunt
Sasak uaʔFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ
Bare'e uagrandfather, grandmother
Makasarese uaʔfather; uncle, aunt
CMP
Bimanese uaFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ
Manggarai uafather (much used by Moslems, hence probably a loan)
Proto-Ambon *uaaunt
Buruese uaaunt
OC
Lakalai e-ua-guparent-in-law (woman speaking); daughter-in-law
Proto-South-Huon-Gulf *wamother's brother (and also father's sister?)
Arosi uagrandfather, grandchild

Note:   Also Rejang woʔ ‘FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ’, Wolio ʔua ‘grandparent (esp. as a term of address), term of address used by noblemen for the highest officials’. This term may be related to PAn *tuqaS ‘mature, elder’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

ub

ubak

ubal

ubek

ubeŋ

ubet

ubuC

ubun (ubun)

ubuŋ

ubus

28584

*ubak tree bark

5711

PWMP     *ubak tree bark     [doublet: *upak₁]

WMP
Pangasinan obákbark or skin of tree
Sambal (Botolan) óbakbark of tree
Tagalog úbakbark of tree
Bikol úbaktree bark
Malagasy óvakaa chip of wood (Prov.)
  mi-òvakaskinned, peeled, stripped
  ovàh-anabe peeled or stripped
Sasak ombakto peel, shell, hull

Note:   With root *-bak₃ split off, separate.

28585

*ubal rise to the surface of water

5712

PWMP     *ubal rise to the surface of water     [doublet: *umbaŋ]

WMP
Sundanese ubaltie pieces of banana stalk or other buoyant material to a sunken object in order to make it float to the surface
Sasak ubal-ubalfloat of a fishing-line
Bare'e umbarise to the surface of water, appear on the surface

Note:   Also Sasak ompal ‘float, bob on the surface’, Makasarese umba ‘any object that rises to the surface of water’.

28586

*ubek immature rice grain?

5713

PWMP     *ubek immature rice grain (?)     [doublet: *upek]

WMP
Tboli ubekrice husks
Kayan ubeksoft immature rice grain, prepared by early reaping, then drying over fire, and then pounding

28588

*ubeŋ to block, to dam up

5715

PMP     *ubeŋ to block, to dam up

WMP
Kayan ubeŋfish trap fixed in a dam wall
CMP
Manggarai ubeŋto cork, to plug or stop up

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.

28587

*ubet buttocks, posterior

5714

PMP     *ubet buttocks, posterior

WMP
Ilokano úbetbuttocks, rump, bottom (of men, animals, jars, etc.)
Isneg úbatbuttocks, seat, gluteal region; anus; bottom (of a basket, etc.)
Itawis úbatanus, buttocks
Kankanaey úbetextremity of the rectum
Kallahan (Kayapa) ubɨtbuttocks
Casiguran Dumagat ubétfemale genitalia
CMP
Sika ubetbackside, posterior

Note:   Also Bontok kóbet ‘buttocks’, Bikol lubót ‘backside, behind, buttocks, rear end, rump, seat; anus, rectum’, Singhi Land Dayak rubat ‘bottom (anat.)’, Sika ubeŋ ‘backside, posterior’. With possible root *-bet ‘buttocks’.

28589

*ubuC pluck, pull out

5716

PAN     *ubuC pluck, pull out

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -uvuTpull out without much effort one by one, something small and rooted
WMP
Malagasy ombotraplucked up by the roots, plucked out, as thorns in the flesh, etc.
Malay umbutpull out gently; raise the line slightly in fishing

Note:   With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

28590

*ubun (ubun) fontanel; crown of the head

5717

PWMP     *ubun (ubun) fontanel; crown of the head     [doublet: *buNbuN]

WMP
Maranao ombon-ombon-anfontanel
Malay ubun-ubunfontanel
Alas ubunfontanel
Makasarese ubuŋfontanel, crown

28591

*ubuŋ ridge of the roof

5718

PMP     *ubuŋ ridge of the roof

WMP
Tausug ubuŋridgepole
Kenyah umboŋapex
CMP
Ngadha uburidge, roof
Sika ubuŋsummit, top of trees, mountains and fingers
Soboyo ubuend, point (as of a knife), tip, top (as of a coconut tree)

Note:   Also Ngadha obo ‘summit, top’. With root *-buŋ ‘roof top’.

31436

*ubus to finish, consume, use up

9544

PPh     *ubus to finish, consume, use up

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ubusto finish, to consume, be consumed; after
Tagalog úbosact of using up or consuming by eating, drinking, spending, etc.
  maŋ-úbosto eat, consume or use up all without leaving anything for others
Bikol úbosconsumed, exhausted, finished
  mag-úbosto empty something out
Maranao obosfinish, consume, liquidate

Note:   Casiguran Dumagat ubus may be a Tagalog loan, thus eliminating this as a PPh form. Possibly with a variant of the root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

ud

udahik

udaliq

udehi

udu

uduŋ

uduq₁

uduq₂

28592

*udahik upstream part of a river

5719

PWMP     *udahik upstream part of a river

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat udékgo upstream, to travel going upriver
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) urahikto go in the direction of upstream
Kayan udikupriver
Ngaju Dayak uriktravel upstream
Malagasy mi-òrikaascend, go up against the stream
  orìh-inabe gone against, of a current
Malay udékupstream
Old Javanese uḍikupstream
Javanese uḍikupstream part of a river
Mongondow uikgo upriver
Bare'e urego upstream, follow the river in an upstream direction
Mandar daiʔclimb, ascend; go
Buginese uraiʔwest

5720

PWMP     *um-udahik go upstream

WMP
Kayan m-udikascend a river, go upstream
Malay m-udékprogress upstream; going back against the current, in contrast to drifting downward with the current
Old Javanese m-uḍikto rise; to proceed upstream

Note:   Also Iban pudik ‘go upriver’.

28593

*udaliq deception

5721

PWMP     *udaliq deception

WMP
Tagalog uráliʔdeceptive incitement, intrigue
Malay daléhsubterfuge; equivocation
  ber-dalehto evade the issue

28595

*udehi last; come after or behind; late, later;

5725

PMP     *udehi last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child

WMP
Itbayaten mana-wdito be last
  pana-wdiposterior, behind, hind leg, hind part, rear
Ilokano údilast, latest, rear, hindmost
Isneg údilast, hindmost
Kankanaey udí-dihind leg
  maŋ-ud-udí-dilast, hindmost
Ifugaw udí, udí-dilast, the last
Tagalog hulí <Mlate, tardy; last; tail-end; position behind
Bikol hurí <Mlast; late, overdue, retarded, tardy
Aklanon ulíhi(h)be late, tardy; behind; later on
Kalamian Tagbanwa urilate, behind time
Cebuano ulhí, ulahílast in a group to do something; late
Maranao oribehind, late
  ori-orilast to come, one at the end of the line; hindmost, rearmost
Tausug huli <Mlast, end, rear
Kelabit udʰihrudder; stern of a boat; rear
Iban udiafter, later; follow after
Malay udiposterior; hindward; subsequent
  kem-udi-an harithe future
Simalur uribackside, back; afterwards, later
Balinese uriback; come after, be behind, walk behind
Tae' undifollow from behind; after, later

5726

PCEMP     *udi follow, come after

CMP
Sika odiexpression of future time; shall, will, must

5727

POC     *uri follow, come after

OC
Kove muhiback; later
Gedaged uzito follow, pursue; come after, succeed; go to the rear

5728

PMP     *kama-udehi rear part, stern or rudder of a boat

WMP
Ilokano kama-údihind leg, hind foot
Malay kem-udirudder (of a boat)
CMP
Kambera kam-urirear part; stern of a boat, rudder; lag behind, come later
  ana ka-muriyoungest child

5729

PWMP     *ka-udehi-an the last, at the rear

WMP
Cebuano ka-ulahí-anthe last
  k<in>a-ulahí-anthe last one in the group
Tausug ka-hulih-an <Mbehind, as of a person that follows in a line; at the last, as of a series of things; rear
Minangkabau k-udi-anafterwards

5730

PMP     *ma-udehi behind, last

WMP
Yami ma-udistern of a boat
Itbayaten ma-wdistern of a boat
Isneg m-ūdilast, hindmost
Ifugaw ma-údiit will be made last
Bikol ma-huríbe last, be late
Kelabit m-udʰihbehind, last
Wolio m-uri m-urifuture, later, coming afterwards; finally, eventually, ultimately

5731

PCEMP     *m-udi last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside

CMP
Manggarai m-usibehind; later, late
Rotinese m-uliwest; youngest child, last-born
  m-uli-kyoung, of people, animals and plants
Selaru m-uryoung, of fruits
Yamdena fa-mudiyoungest child
  m-udionly when used strictly as an adjective: posterior; otherwise always = mud the rear part; outside, the outside of
  m-udi-n térikthe boundary between reef and deep sea
Fordata m-urioutside, the outside of; behind, at the back; stern of a boat; rear of a house
  mar-m-urilater
Kei m-urrear part; later; following
  entaha m-urhold the till or rudder
  wahan m-ur m-urlater; in the future
Dobel muriyounger
Alune m-uliafter, behind; to follow

5732

POC     *muri after, behind, stern of canoe

OC
Loniu m-uʔu tunstern of a canoe
Likum con e m-uhstern of a canoe
Wuvulu m-uxistern of a canoe
Aua m-ukistern of a canoe
Duke of York m-uruto follow; behind, afterwards; the back; the last
Gedaged m-uzi-kbehind, in the rear; back part
  m-uzi-nthe rear, the back part, posterior, stern, after-part, the reverse, hind quarters, the outside (if one is inside a house, etc.)
Gitua m-urbehind, after (posterior time)
Motu m-urithe back of anything
Dobuan m-uri-aafter, behind
Nggela m-uriafter, behind; the back; the outside of an object, box house, village; the after-birth; posterity
Arosi m-uribehind; the back; the outside of egg, bottle, etc., opposed to raro; after, afterwards; to follow; left hand, facing an object
Fijian m-uriafter, following
  e m-uribehind, later
  ki m-urito the rear
Tongan m-uiplace or space behind or further back; rear; background; end, extremity, tip; back, rear, hind; later; young, immature, only partly grown or developed (as yet)
Niue m-uithe last; be last, follow; unripe, immature
Samoan m-ulicome last, be last; young, new
Tuvaluan m-ulibehind; the future; rear of a canoe, etc.;
  to-mulilate
  faka-m-uliafterwards, later on
Rennellese m-ugifollow, be or go behind or after; rear end, esp. lower or western end
Anuta m-uriback; the rear portion of something; behind; a village just to the west (i.e. "behind") Mua
Maori m-urithe rear, the hind part; the sequel, the time to come, the future; behind, afterwards, backwards; youngest child
Hawaiian m-uliafter, behind, afterward; last, following behind; younger, youngest; stern of a canoe

5733

POC     *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe heel

OC
[Lau buri ʔaeheel]
Kapingamarangi muli waeheel
Rennellese mugi baʔeheel

5734

PWMP     *pa-udehi behind, after

WMP
Cebuano pa-ulahíbe the last, do something as the last thing; allow oneself to be left behind
Toba Batak p-udiback, behind; after

5736

PWMP     *udehi-an the one who is behind (?)

WMP
Isneg udi-ānyoungest brother or sister
Ifugaw udi-dí-anthe youngest of the family
Bikol hurih-ánthe hindmost part, posterior
Maranao ori-anrear; behind; last; later; result
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) huzi-anfollowing all the rest; final; the final one
Tausug (h)ulih-anbehind, as of a person that follows in a line
Malagasy a-orí-anaback, behind, backward, passed

Note:   Also Isneg uddí ‘last, hindmost’, Bontok oddí ‘back legs of an animal; last in a series’, Hanunóo uríʔ ‘state or position of being last, final late’, Buli pulī ‘yonder, over there’, Numfor pur ‘last, furthest behind’. The reduplication in Maranao ori ori ‘last to come, one at the end of the line’, Samoan muli muli ‘follow, be done afterwards; last’ and some other languages probably is convergent, as is the assimilation of the last vowel in Loniu muʔu tun ‘stern of a canoe’, Duke of York muru ‘to follow behind, afterwards; the back; the last’.

The number of instances of *h in this form is somewhat unclear. Tagalog, Bikol, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Tausug appear to reflect *h-, but Bisayan reflexes (which show epenthetic vowels inserted after the regular syncope of shwa) suggest that these forms may involve metathesis of earlier *urhí (> hurí). The presence of final /h/ is suggested by suffixed forms in Aklanon, but is contradicted by Itbayaten and Cebuano.

The most interesting feature of this form undoubtedly is its meaning, which cannot be captured by any single, readily available semantic category of English. Perhaps the most basic and concrete sense of *udehi and its derivatives is ‘behind, coming after or later; be last’. In this sense it (like the demonstrative pronouns *-Cu, *-na, *-ni, etc.) has both a spatial and a temporal reference.

In its temporal sense *udehi referred not only to posteriority in sequence, but to future time in general (cf. Malay kemudian hari, and semantically similar reflexes in Wolio, Sika, Kei, Tuvaluan and Maori). This usage is striking, since the spatial imagery of the future in Indo-European languages typically places it before, not behind the observer.

Two other concrete senses of *udehi that are widely reflected are ‘stern/rudder of a boat’ (reflexes in Kelabit, Malay, Kambera, various languages of western Melanesia, and Hawaiian), and ‘youngest child’ ( = ‘one who comes last’, with reflexes in Isneg, Ifugaw, Kambera, Rotinese, Yamdena and Maori).

A number of other meanings appear to be confined to CEMP languages, and it is assumed that these are semantic innovations rather than retentions that have been lost in all non-CEMP languages. These include: 1. the meaning ‘west’, attested in Rotinese of the Lesser Sundas, and in such Polynesian languages as Rennellese and Anuta, 2. ‘young’, reflected in Rotinese, Selaru, Tongan, Niue, Samoan and Hawaiian, 3. ‘outside’, reflected in Yamdena, Fordata, Gedaged, Nggela and Arosi, and 4. ‘heel’, reflected in Lau, Rennellese and Kapingamarangi. Of these four innovative meanings the last appears to have arisen in POc or some descendant thereof. Although it is not attested in strictly cognate forms, it appears safe to infer that POc *m-uri qaqe, *m-uri waqe meant ‘heel’. The second semantic innovation evidently is an extension of the PMP sense ‘youngest child’, and requires no further comment. The last two innovated meanings are best treated together, as they appear to reflect a broader symbolism of directionality.

Terms for the cardinal directions cannot be reconstructed for any early Austronesian proto-language, but the symbolic association of *udehi with the west is understandable through the sense ‘later; the future’. In many Austronesian-speaking societies (and, indeed, many traditional societies in general) the east is associated with life and the west with death, a transparent symbolism deriving from the daily course of the sun. If PMP *ma-udehi was used in the sense of ‘west’ it seems likely that this usage was figurative or symbolic (in some ritual sense) rather than literal, given the other, more basic senses of the term. The cultural context of such symbolism remains unclear.

Finally, the semantic evolution from ‘behind, later’ to ‘outside’ in a number of languages is puzzling, and can be compared to the development *babaw ‘above’ to ‘outside’ in other languages. Paths of semantic change such as these suggest that the underlying system of spatial relations in Austronesian languages is fundamentally different from that in Indo-European languages, even though one-to-one category matches such as *babaw = ‘above’ can easily be made (cf. Blust (1997)).

28598

*udu grass

5739

PAN     *udu grass

Formosan
Siraya (Gravius) uru ~ uroweed, grass
Siraya (Utrecht ms.) usuweed
Proto-Siraya *uduweed, grass
WMP
Kelabit uduhgrass (generic)
Berawan (Long Terawan) urohgrass
Kenyah udugrass, weeds
  m-uduovergrown with grass, weedy
Kayan uroʔgrass, weeds; general term for jungle; vegetables (generic)
Kayan (Uma Juman) uruʔgrass
  m-uruʔgrassy
Bintulu urəwgrass, weeds
  məŋ-urəwpull up grass, pull weeds
Kapuas uruʔgrass
CMP
Kédang urusword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Ujir urgrass
Dobel kwurugrass

Note:   Also Sasak urut ‘grass’.

28599

*uduŋ hut, temporary shelter

5740

PMP     *uduŋ hut, temporary shelter

WMP
Bikol údoŋa hunter's shelter or hut
Kalamian Tagbanwa úloŋshade, shadow
Toba Batak unduŋ-unduŋprimitive hut, built as overnight lodging in transit, or for lepers
Minangkabau undoŋ-undoŋscreen or veil thrown over the head as a protection against rain
CMP
Ngadha udhusmall field hut; cover over, cover with a towel, etc.
Buruese uruna forest booth or shelter
OC
Tongan ūbe sheltered (esp. from wind or rain)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’.

28596

*uduq₁ stammer

5737

PMP     *uduq₁ stammer

WMP
Old Javanese uḍuhan exclamation (oh! ah!)
Tae' uduan exclamation of grief
CMP
Ngadha uduto coo

Note:   Also Old Javanese uḍū ‘an exclamation (oh! ah!)’, Chamorro udu ‘dumb, mute, speechless, destitute of the power of speech’. Tae' udu (for expected **udo) shows an irregularity which may be due to the expressive character of this word.

29888

*uduq₂ carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection

6551

PMP     *uduq₂ carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection

WMP
Itawis urúmedicine
Ilongot udumedicine
Rungus Dusun urumedicine
Kelabit udoʔghost; carved wooden figure kept to ward off misfortune or disease; ghost (Amster 1995)
Kenyah (Lepu Tau) udoʔa carving; a patron (Galvin 1967)
Kenyah (Lebu’ Kulit) udoʔmask, mask dance (Soriente 2006)
Kayan udoʔan image, formerly an idol (now used for a doll); a wooden mask used in entertainment; formerly used in pagan ceremonies
Nias uruidol, kept for protection
  maŋ-uruerect a protective image in front of the village to ward off pestilence
Minangkabau uduahincantation; kind of basket with cooked rice, sugar and grated coconut, set in the field during rice-planting to guard against calamity
  ma-uduah-kanplace a taboo sign as proof of ownership (usually accompanied by a spoken formula intended to bring sickness or misfortune to anyone who steals what is so marked)
Sangir urocharm, spell (against thieves of fruit in plantations)
Tontemboan uruʔcharm, spell concealed on a fruit tree to prevent the theft of fruit
Mongondow uyuʔcharm used to safeguard one's property, but also used to inflict harm on others
Bare'e urutaboo sign or charm used to protect fruit trees, temporary shelters, etc. from thieves
CMP
Ngadha uruevil spirit

Note:   Also Kapampangan úlu ‘medicine’, ulu-an ‘to cure, medicate’. Although it is only weakly attested in the available literature, this is an extremely interesting comparison, as it relates to an aspect of traditional culture in the Austronesian world that has all but disappeared. In some communities it is possible that a word still exists for this referent, but due to the influence of major world religions (Islam, Christianity) there is a reluctance to acknowledge that such a cultural practice once existed, or even to speak about it. Some Bornean reflexes suggest that *uduq referred both to a carved wooden figure set up outside a village to ensure supernatural protection, and to a ceremonial dance mask, but this is not confirmed by any witness outside Borneo. In addition, all known reflexes in Borneo show a lowered last-syllable vowel which is irregular, and may reflect a pattern of borrowing. Finally, it is possible that the forms meaning ‘medicine’ belong to a different cognate set.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

ug

ugáliq

ugaq

ugəŋ

28601

*ugáliq custom, manner, way, habit

5742

PWMP     *ugáliq custom, manner, way, habit

WMP
Ilokano ugálicustom, habit, character, nature, temperament, disposition
Bontok ʔugálicustom; manner; way; practice; habit
Casiguran Dumagat ugálihabit, custom, tradition, way, manners, inclination, style, mode, character, behavior
Pangasinan ogálicustom; character (of a person)
Kapampangan ugáliʔcharacter, habits, custom, demeanor
Tagalog ugáliʔpersonal conduct or behavior; habit; custom; tradition
Bikol ugáliʔcharacter, manner, personality, temperament; characteristic, idiosyncrasy, trait; custom, habit, tradition
Hanunóo ʔugáliʔcustom; superstition
Aklanon ugáliʔcustom, tradition; habit
Toba Batak ugaricustom, manner, way (expected **/ugali/)

Note:   Through its irregular liquid correspondence Toba Batak ugari raises doubts as to whether the Philippine forms are native or borrowed. Although Malay ugahari ‘parity (in weight, rank or power); of a man being of royal blood on both his father's and his mother's side; a friend being one's social equal, etc.’ is a Sanskrit loan which could have been spread by Malay traders in the Philippines, its meaning makes it a poor candidate as a source for most Philippine forms. Nonetheless, Acehnese ugahri ‘middling, average; as usual’ provides a possible semantic link to Toba Batak ugari and hence to the Philippine forms. Although this item is not mentioned by Gonda (1973), the whole matter of possible borrowing from Sanskrit remains unsettled, and is in need of further investigation.

28600

*ugaq loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake

5741

PWMP     *ugaq loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake

WMP
Tagalog ugáʔact of shaking (a tree, house or some structure)
Malay meŋ-ogahto shake, esp. of shaking for the purpose of loosening. Of working a pile or stake backwards and forwards so as to open out the soil around it; of shaking a tooth to make its extraction easier, etc.
Old Javanese ugahshaking; to shake
Madurese ogawobbly because it is not firmly embedded (of tooth, housepost, stake, etc.)
  ŋ-ogato shake, make something shake or wobble
Balinese ogahshake, move to and fro, be loose (a tooth)

Note:   Also Sasak ogah ‘loose; loosen, shake to loosen’, Sasak orah ‘loose (of a rope)’.

29887

*ugəŋ spin without wobbling, of a top

6549

PWMP     *ugəŋ spin without wobbling, of a top

WMP
Cebuano úguŋspin a top; be steady and without a wobble
Kelabit ugʰeŋspinning without wobbling, as a top

6550

PWMP     *uhaŋ intervening space

WMP
Cebuano uháŋspace between two things which are supposed to be touching or fitting each other
Kenyah uaŋempty

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

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uh

uhaq

28602

*uhaq cry of a newborn infant

5743

PWMP     *uhaq cry of a newborn infant

WMP
Pangasinan uhácry of newborn baby
Tagalog uháʔcry of the new-born infant
Bikol úhaʔto cry (infants)
Hanunóo ʔuháʔcry of a newborn baby
Kayan uhathe crying of an infant

Note:   Also Aklanon uhá ‘cry of a baby’, Cebuano uhá ‘for a newborn child to cry’. The medial consonant in Pangasinan and Kayan is irregular. I assume that in both cases it is a sporadic retention motivated by the onomatopoetic character of this word.

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ui

uit₁

uit₂

28603

*uit₁ move

5744

PWMP     *uit₁ move

WMP
Karo Batak uitstir, move a little
Sasak uitmove something

Note:   Possibly identical to *uit₂.

28604

*uit₂ bringing, carrying

5745

PWMP     *uit₂ bringing, carrying

WMP
Maranao oittake over, bring, carry
Subanen/Subanun g-oitto carry
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uwittake, carry in the hand
Tiruray ʔuwittake something, bring something
Kelabit uitway of bringing
Tontemboan uwitcarrying away of something; transport rice from field to house

5746

PWMP     *um-uit bring, carry

WMP
Kelabit m-uitto bring
Tontemboan m-uwitcarry something away

5747

PWMP     *in-uit brought by, carried by

WMP
Maranao in-oitbrought or carried by
Kelabit n-uitbrought by

Note:   Possibly identical to *uit₁.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uj

ujan

ujuŋ

28605

*ujan cargo; load a canoe

5748

PMP     *ujan cargo; load a canoe     [disjunct: *Rujan]

WMP
Kayan udancargo on a boat
OC
Motu uda-udaload, of pots in lagatoi (cited only in the English index sub 'load')
  uda-iato place in box, canoe, etc.
Dobuan ʔe-usanaload
Chuukese woosload, burden, thing carried
  wosa-nhis load
Puluwat wútáncargo, load; to be loaded
Woleaian iutal(a)load, burden, pack, cargo, freight
Fijian usacarry a cargo by boat
Tongan utato carry or convey by boat or vehicle or on horseback; carrying or conveying in this manner, or goods (or load) so carried
Niue utato load (as a canoe or truck); a load
Futunan utacargo (as on a boat)
  faka-utato load cargo on a boat
Samoan utaload, cargo
Tuvaluan utaa canoe load
Kapingamarangi udato transport (cargo)
Nukuoro udato board (a ship or canoe)
Rennellese utato put aboard a canoe or ship, to go or have aboard; to bear nuts, as a coconut; to assume a role
  haa-utato take aboard or into a car; to yield well, as a harvest
Anuta utasupplies or cargo lying in the hold of a boat or canoe
Rarotongan utato convey; to carry, as from one place to another; to load, to burden; to load up, as a canoe
  uta-utaconveying, carrying, loading up
  uta-uta-ŋiato overburden over-much; to be heavily weighed down, to be followed by different events in succession, etc.
Maori utaput persons or goods on board a canoe, etc.
  uta-ŋaburden, freight
Hawaiian hoʔo-ūkato load, as cargo or freight; to put on, as gear on a horse; to send, as a letter
  uka-nabaggage, luggage, freight, cargo, supplies

Note:   With the third palatal reflex in Polynesian languages (Blust 1976).

28606

*ujuŋ nose

5749

PAN     *ujuŋ nose     [doublet: *ijuŋ]

Formosan
Kavalan unuŋnose
WMP
Kalamian Tagbanwa uruŋnose
Palawan Batak ʔuruŋnose
Samal uuŋnose
Kayan uruŋnose
Bintulu uruŋnose
Melanau (Mukah) uduŋnose
Bukat uruŋnose
Malagasy óronanose
CMP
Kambera urunose
OC
Motu udu-mouth; nose; beak
Mele-Fila usu-nose
Fijian ucu-nose

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak uroŋ ‘nose’. Motu udu- may reflect *ŋusu ‘nose, mouth, beak’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uk

uka₁

ukaŋ

u(ŋ)kaŋ

u(ŋ)kaq

uki

ukir

ukub

ukuk

ukup

ukuq

u(ŋ)kuq

28607

*uka₁ bowstring

5750

POC     *uka₂ bowstring     [doublet: *quku]

OC
Mota ukadraw the bow
  uka-glet fly, release an arrow
Rotuman ukathick, strong string, cord, esp. thick fishing-line
Tongan ukabowstring (obsolescent)
Tuvaluan ukafishing line
Kapingamarangi ugafishing line
Rennellese ukacord, line, rope
Anuta ukathin line or cord

28608

*ukaŋ slow and tentative movement

5751

PWMP     *ukaŋ slow and tentative movement

WMP
Tagalog úkaŋslow movements peculiar to the aged and the infirm
Iban ukaŋslow loris: Nycticebus coucang borneanus Lyon

Note:   Also Iban beŋkaŋ ‘slow loris’.

28609

*u(ŋ)kaŋ spread open, as the legs

5752

PWMP     *u(ŋ)kaŋ spread open, as the legs

WMP
Ilokano ukkáŋto open (a razor, pocketknife, calipers, the legs, etc.)
Banjarese ukaŋto bite (with the mouth wide)
Malay oŋkaŋsit with legs dangling
Simalur um-uŋkaŋ-uŋkaŋsquat with the legs spread wide
Sichule ukaŋ ukaŋto squat and thereby spread the legs
Javanese uŋkaŋ-uŋkaŋsit with the feet dangling

Note:   Also Javanese oŋkaŋ-oŋkaŋ ‘sit with the feet dangling’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

28716

*u(ŋ)kaq open

5910

PMP     *u(ŋ)kaq open

WMP
Tiruray ʔuŋkaʔto open
Kiput m-ukaːʔto open
Ma'anyan ukato open (Ray 1913)
Mongondow uŋkaʔcome loose, as a fingernail or a frond from a palm tree
CMP
Manggarai ukapry up, open

Note:   Also Bisaya (Limbang) m-ukeʔ ‘to open, as a parcel, untie’. With root *-kaq₁ ‘open forcibly’.

28611

*uki vulva, vagina; pet name for girls

5756

PWMP     *uki vulva, vagina; pet name for girls     [doublet: *puki 'vulva, vagina']

WMP
Ilokano úkivagina; cave at the base of two adjoining hills
  ukinnamcommon profane phrase from [uki ni inam] ‘your mother’s vagina!’
Isneg ókithe vulva
Itawis úkivagina
Bontok ʔukífemale genitals, used only in the expletive okin inam ('your mother's vulva!')
Maranao okipet name for girls
Kenyah (Long Wat) uki-nvulva, vagina
Banggai ukifemale pudendum; young girl

Note:   Malay (Jakarta) cuki, Muna wusi ‘vulva, vagina’. Evidently a shortened form of *puki used as a pet name for young girls (cp. PWMP *butuq ‘penis’, *utuq ‘vocative term for boys’).

28610

*ukir carving, sculpture

5753

PMP     *ukir carving, sculpture

WMP
Ilokano ókirgroove, furrow
Maranao okirdesigns usually carved and painted; carve elaborately
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ukirto carve out a bas-relief design on something
Tausug ukkilnative sculpture, carving
Ngaju Dayak ukircarving, carved figures (on wood)
Iban ukircarve, engrave; hence: draw designs, write; design or pattern carved or drawn
Malay ukirgraving; wood-carving; incising fine designs on the surface of wood or metal
Simalur ukilto carve out
Karo Batak ukircarve figures and designs in wood
Toba Batak uhircut or carve out figures or ornaments
Old Javanese ukircarve, chisel (out), sculpture, provide (adorn) with carvings (sculptures, reliefs)
Javanese ukircarved design
Balinese ukircarve, engrave, decorate with carving (wood, stone or metal)
Sasak ukircarve wood
Uma mo-ʔukiʔto write
Bare'e mo-ʔukiengrave, carve, draw
Tae' ukiʔengrave, draw, write
Mandar ukirwrite
Makasarese ukiriʔwriting; write, engrave, put figures on (as a gravestone)
CMP
Bimanese ukito carve
Manggarai ukircarve, make designs (on cloth, wood, stone, etc.)

5754

PWMP     *maŋ-ukir to carve

WMP
Malay meŋ-ukirwork as a carver
Toba Batak maŋ-uhircut or carve out figures or ornaments
Javanese ŋ-ukircarve decoratively
Sasak ŋ-ukircarve wood
Mandar maŋ-ukirto write

5755

PWMP     *ukir-an carving, thing made by carving wood

WMP
Ilokano okír-ancarve, engrave (metal, wood, etc.)
Malay ukir-ancarving, what has been made by carving
Balinese ukir-ancarved work; carving-tool
Sasak ukir-anwood carving
Mandar ukir-anwriting

Note:   Also Tae' okiʔ ‘to write’. This term probably applied only to wood carving. It is likely that several of the reflexes cited here, including Bimanese uki and Manggarai ukir, are loans from Malay.

28612

*ukub cover

5757

PWMP     *ukub cover

WMP
Cebuano úkubcling or hold firmly to; for two convex things to fit together at their brims
Simalungun Batak uhubcover with a blanket
Bare'e uŋkub-icover of a pot or pan, made of coconut shell or earthware

Note:   With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.

28613

*ukuk cough; to cough; sound of coughing

5758

PMP     *ukuk cough; to cough; sound of coughing

WMP
Pangasinan okókcough; to cough
CMP
Manggarai okok, okuksound of coughing
OC
Gedaged ukname of the sound made when afflicted with asthma or whooping cough

Note:   With root *-kuk₂ ‘sound of a sob, cackle, etc.’.

28614

*ukup brood, sit on eggs; cover completely

5759

PMP     *ukup brood, sit on eggs; cover completely

WMP
Ilokano okópsitting hen, brooder
Isneg okúpto brood, sit on eggs
Bontok ʔúkupto cover, as a sore; to line, as a rusty container before putting in the contents; to wrap, as a roll of tobacco
Maranao okopairtight; protect from evaporation, as in perfume
  okop-aʔairtight bottle for perfume
Iban ukupguard the ends of line of deer nets
Tondano ukupcover with a blanket, etc.
CMP
Manggarai ukupto brood, sit on eggs; guard eggs before they begin to hatch

Note:   Also Pazeh mu-kukup ‘to brood eggs’. With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.

28615

*ukuq bent over, hunched

5760

PWMP     *ukuq bent over, hunched     [disjunct: *hukuq]

WMP
Tagalog ukóʔwith head bowed low in decrepitude
Malay oŋkoh-oŋkohwalking about with a stoop
Balinese uŋkuhwalk in a bent posture, walk bowed down

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

28717

*u(ŋ)kuq puppy?

5911

PWMP     *u(ŋ)kuq puppy (?)

WMP
Murut (Tagol) ukuʔdog
Kelabit ukuʔdog
Mongondow uŋkuʔdog
  mog-uŋkuʔhunt with dogs

Note:   Also Paiwan kuku ‘a toy, pet (as a puppy)’, Ilokano óken ‘puppy, whelp (of a dog)’, Iban ukoi, ukui ‘dog’. Despite the complete semantic agreement of its reflexes, the meaning of this word remains uncertain. PWMP *asu clearly meant ‘dog’, and *uŋkuq thus presumably had some other closely related but distinctive meaning.

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ul

ulak

ulaŋ

ulat

ulaw

ulay

ule

uli

ulila

uliq₁

uliq₂

ulit

ulitau

ulug

uluR

ulus

28616

*ulak reel, spool (in weaving)

5761

PWMP     *ulak reel, spool (in weaving)

WMP
Tagalog úlakreel, spool
Malay olaka wooden revolving spindle used in weaving
Sundanese ŋ-ulakto wind thread in weaving
Balinese ulakwind, wind up (yarn)

5762

PWMP     *ulak-an reel, spool (in weaving)

WMP
Tausug ulak-anshuttle, as in weaving
Malay (Java) ulak-ana wooden revolving spindle used in weaving
Balinese ulak-anreel, spool (of thread, yarn)
Sasak ulak-anpart of the loom

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution produced through borrowing from Malay. This item is not to be confused with Malay olak ‘eddying motion’, Old Javanese ulek ‘swirling (rushing, eddying) water’, Balinese ulek ‘whirl, go round (water)’, ulek-an ‘whirlpool’.

28620

*ulaŋ repeat, do again

5767

PAN     *ulaŋ repeat, do again

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) ulaŋto repeat; periodic, habitual
WMP
Ngaju Dayak ulaŋto repeat, reiterate
Iban ulaŋrepeat; (of paths) well-trodden, much used
Malay ulaŋrepetition; keep doing
CMP
Kambera ulaŋurepeat

Note:   Kambera ulaŋu may be a loan from Malay/Bahasa Indonesia.

28617

*ulat scar

5763

PWMP     *ulat scar     [doublet: *kulad]

WMP
Aklanon ueátscab, scar; miscolored skin (left by a wound); to heal, form a scar (said of a wound)
Kalamian Tagbanwa ulatscar
Cebuano ulát, úlatscar; form a scar
Kalagan ulatscar
Kayan ulatthe scar of a wound in a person, or the scar on a tree)
Kayan (Uma Juman) ulatscar

Note:   With root *-lat₂ ‘scar’.

28618

*ulaw confusion, perplexity

5764

PAN     *ulaw confusion, perplexity

Formosan
Paiwan ulawcountless; a boundless number
  m-ulawlose sight of
  paka-ulawfail to recognize (someone whom one knows)
WMP
Ilokano úlawfeel dizzy, giddy, vertiginous, faint, inclined to swoon
Isneg úlawfeel dizzy, faint, inclined to vomit; be surfeited, disgusted by excess
Bontok ʔúlawfeel faint; giddy; nauseated; travel sick
Kankanaey úlawdizzy, giddy, vertiginous
Ifugaw úlawdizziness
Tagalog úlawdisturbed movement of upset stomach or intestines due to dizziness (seasickness or the like) or to unfavorable climate
Kadazan Dusun uhaubecome mad
Iban ulauunable to see clearly, dazed
  ulau manoknight-blindness, nyctalopia
  ŋ-ulaucause dim sight

5765

PAN     *ma-ulaw dazed, confused

Formosan
Paiwan ma-ulawevade, get out of sight; lose way
WMP
Ilokano ma-úlawfeel dizzy; be confused, perplexed, muddled, flustered, flurried
Isneg m-ólawfeel dizzy, faint, inclined to vomit
Kankanaey ma-úlawdizzy, giddy, vertiginous
Ifugaw ma-úlawdizzy

28619

*ulay worm

5766

PWMP     *ulay worm

WMP
Tagalog úlayintestinal worm, tapeworm
Banjarese luai <Mworm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *uDay ‘worm’, but his comparison is unconvincing.

28621

*ule penis

5768

POC     *ule penis

OC
Marshallese wōlpenis
  wūlepenis of
Mokilese wilpenis
  wile-npenis of (construct form)
Tongan ulepenis
Samoan ule(not in decent use) penis
Rennellese ugepenis
Anuta urepenis
Rarotongan uremembrum virile; used figuratively to denote a man or a male
Maori uremembrum virile; man, male; courage
Hawaiian ulepenis; tenon for a mortise: pointed end of a post which enters the crotch of a rafter

28626

*uli pry up, prise up

5787

PCMP     *uli pry up, prise up

CMP
Bimanese ulipry up with a bar
Buruese uli-hpry, prise up, roll

28622

*ulila orphan

5769

PWMP     *ulila orphan

WMP
Ilokano ulílaorphan
Tagalog ulílaorphan
Hanunóo ʔulílaorphan, i.e. only if the father is dead and the mother still living
Kenyah ulaslave
Kayan ulaʔorphan
Tontemboan ulaorphan, a child that has lost one of its parents

Note:   Also Ivatan alilaʔ ‘slave’, Sambal (Botolan) alilaʔ ‘servant’. I assume that Kilivila -ula ‘adopted’ is a product of chance.

28623

*uliq₁ return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro

5770

PMP     *uliq₁ return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro     [doublet: *suliq]

WMP
Itbayaten oliidea of going homeward or to town
Isneg ūlireturn, go or come back
Itawis ulíagain; repetition
Pangasinan olíreturn; become resurrected
Kapampangan uliʔgo home
Tagalog ulíʔagain, once more
  uwíʔreturn home; to turn (a process, conversation or the like) into something unexpected
Bikol ulíʔreturn home; return something, give something back; be reconciled; change, the balance of money returned; rebate; be reversed in its flow (water in a stream, food after eating); regurgitate
Hanunóo ʔúliʔagain, i.e., repetition; going home, returning (to a certain place)
Aklanon úliʔreturn, bring/give (something) back
  ulíʔgo home, return (to one's place, country)
Kalamian Tagbanwa ulikreturn home; return to normal
Cebuano úliʔreturn something to someone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uliʔreturn to the place of origin or to one's original state; to cure
Tiruray ʔuléʔreturn home
Tboli ulékreturn; repetition; regrowth
Tausug uwiʔcome or go home
Kadazan Dusun uhigo home
Kenyah uliʔreturn home
Murik uligo home
Kayan ulireturn home; return an article to the owner; divorce a wife or husband
  uli kenepto repent
Javanese ulihact of returning home or to one's place of origin; to return (a borrowed item)
Balinese ulihreturn, coming back, homecoming; through, because of
Sasak uléʔgo home, return home
Mongondow uliʔrepair, mend; return something to its original condition; quenching of thirst, hunger
Banggai uléreturn, go back
Bare'e ulicorrect a mistake, restore to a previous condition
Makasarese uléto and fro, roll round and round on the ground

5771

PCEMP     *oliq, uliq return

CMP
Manggarai olérestore, repair
Lamaholot oli-nreturn
Selaru r-oli-kgo back, return
Yamdena n-olmove to and fro
Masiwang ulireturn, go back
Buruese olireturn (intr.)
  pi-oli-kreturn (trans.)
OC
Bugotu olichange
  oli-hiexchange
Nggela oliback, again; come back, return
Kwaio olireturn, come back to; commit incest
'Āre'āre orireturn; come back, go back (home)
Sa'a oli(oli)return, relieve, replace
  oli-sichange, alter
Arosi orireturn; stroll about
Rarotongan uriturn round or turn about; to translate, as one language into another

5772

PPh     *i-uliq take something home

WMP
Itbayaten i-olibring to town/home
Tagalog i-uwíʔtake something home; turn ( a processs, conversation or the like) into something not expected
Bikol i-ulíʔreturn something, give something back; give change, refund

5773

PPh     *maka-uliq₂ able to return

WMP
[Isneg maka-ulliable to return]
Tagalog maka-uwiʔable to go home

5774

PWMP     *maŋ-uliq return something; restore

WMP
Itawis maŋ-ulírepeat
Kayan ŋ-ulireturn an article; return to its former shape (as a bent board that has been straightened)
Old Javanese aŋ-ulih-igo home or come back to
Javanese ŋ-ulihreturn someone to his home or place of origin; return a borrowed item
Mongondow moŋ-uliqrestore, cure

5775

PPh     *maR-uliq return; go back

WMP
[Isneg max-ullíreturn, go or come back]
Tagalog mag-ulíʔrevert to a former state
Bikol mag-ulíʔreturn something, give something back
Hanunóo mag-ulíʔgo home
Mongondow mog-uliʔquitting of thirst, hunger or desire

5776

PMP     *pa-uliq return, send back

WMP
Pangasinan pa-olíleave (something) for awhile
Tagalog pa-uwíʔhomeward bound
Aklanon pa-úliʔhave (something) returned; ask to return
Cebuano pa-ulíʔbring someone back home; go back to the place one started
Tiruray fe-ʔuléʔreturn something
Samal p-oléʔreturn home
Kadazan Dusun po-po-uhibring home, let one go home
Kayan p-ulito divorce; divorced
Melanau (Mukah) puliɁto return
Malagasy f-odyreturned, sent back; withdraw from a bargain, retract
Malay p-uléhreturn; revival; renewal
  puléh-kanrestore or bring back
[Toba Batak pa-mulisend home, dispatch home]
Nias fa-uli(fa-uli)happen repeatedly
  fa-uli-tanew moon
OC
Roviana p-uleagain, once more; to return
Bugotu va-oliexchange; in turn

5777

PMP     *paka-uliq return something to someone

WMP
Kayan pek-ulireturn an object to its former possessor; reverse or rewind
  pek-uli keneprepent; experience a change of mind
OC
Kwaio faʔa-oli-acause to return, send back; return something to a person

5778

PMP     *um-uliq return home

WMP
Itbayaten om-oligo or return to town, go to town from the fields
Tagalog um-uwíʔgo home
Hanunóo ʔum-ulíʔlive, dwell (in a certain place)
Subanun (Sindangan) m-uliʔreturn home
Kadazan Dusun m-uhigo home, return home
Kelabit m-uliʔreturn home
Kenyah m-uléʔreturn
Kayan m-ulireturn an article -- borrowed or bought; to divorce
Malagasy m-odygo home, return home; pretend to be what one is not
Karo Batak m-ulihgo homeward, return to her family (term for divorce from the standpoint of the woman)
Toba Batak m-ulireturn home; of a girl: to marry
  pa-muli-honmarry a girl out
Old Javanese m-ulihreach (go to) one's destination; go (come) home, go (come) back
Balinese m-ulihreturn home
Sangir m-ulereturn to a former state (as of health); ask back what has been borrowed
Sangir (Siau) maŋ-ulerestore, repair
CMP
Dobel ʔa-m-ulcome back
Geser m-ulireturn, go back

5779

POC     *m-ule return home

OC
Tolai m-uleagain, afresh, more, yet; come back, return, of persons or things
Manam m-ulereturn
Gedaged m-ulturn back, return, come (go) back, come again, turn around, return home, revert, relapse, recoil, react
Gitua m-ulereturn, back, again
Eddystone/Mandegusu m-ulereturn; go back, come back; again, once again

5780

PWMP     *uliq-an go home

WMP
[Isneg ulliy-ānbe wandering about after having lost one's way]
Tagalog uwi-ángo home to (a place or someone); take (something) home to
  uli-áneccentric (at dotage)
Bikol uliʔ-ánsenile
Hanunóo ʔuliʔ-ánhome, dwelling; room
Cebuano uliʔ-ánbe home from time to time
Malagasy odì-anago home, return home; pretend to be what one is not
Sasak ulé-aŋbring home, take home; return (a borrowed object)

5781

PWMP     *uliq-en go home

WMP
Cebuano uliʔ-un-únsomething that is to be returned
Rungus Dusun uliʔ-Unhome
Kadazan Dusun uhi-ongo home, return home

5782

PMP     *uliq uliq repeatedly

WMP
Pangasinan olí-olíonce more; mention something repeatedly
Tagalog ulíʔ-ulíʔnext time (when the next opportunity comes round again)
Karo Batak ulih-ulihevery time, whenever, repeatedly; to and fro; off and on
Old Javanese ulih-ulihthat which one brings back (home), esp. for those left behind

5783

POC     *oliq oliq to and fro

OC
Nggela oli-oligo and return, go somewhere and come back
Rarotongan ori-origo about here and there, move about, walk about; ramble, stroll; wave, flutter in the wind

Note:   Also Isneg ullí ‘return, go or come back’, Cebuano húliʔ ‘go home, return to the place one lives or stays’, Ngaju Dayak buli ‘return, go back’. The basic sense of this term appears to have been ‘return (X) to its former place or condition’. More specific glosses include ‘return home’, ‘return something to someone’ and ‘restore, repair’. Either singly or reduplicated *uliq also conveyed the notion of repetition (reflexes in Itawis, Pangasinan, Hanunóo, Tboli, Karo Batak, Tolai, Nggela), or of motion to and fro (Karo Batak, Makasarese, Yamdena, Rarotongan). In both Kayan of central Borneo and in the Batak languages of northern Sumatra reflexes of *uliq refer to divorce; among the patrilocal Karo Batak the reference is specific to women, since upon divorce it is they who return to their natal family and own kin group. As noted in Blust (1983-84a), PMP *uliq developed two PCEMP variants, *uliq and *oliq.

28624

*uliq₂ get, obtain

5784

PWMP     *uliq₂ get, obtain

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ulihprofit, benefit, what is acquired, earned or received; property
Iban ulihby, because of; get, catch, obtain
Malay oléhby; by reason of; by means of; owing to; because
Karo Batak ulihwhat one receives
Old Javanese ulihthat which one obtains, attains or achieves; result, product, consequence, effect, fruit, achievement; prey, victim
Balinese olihget, acquire, attain to
Sangir uḷethat which one receives; that which one earns
Mongondow uliʔobtain, acquire, gain, get; put in order
Bare'e uliget, obtain, take possession of

5785

PWMP     *maka-uliq₁ able to obtain

WMP
Old Javanese mak-olihobtain, get, overpower, defeat, catch
Mongondow moko-ulihable to get

28843

*ulit repeat

6074

PWMP     *ulit repeat

WMP
Ilokano úlitrepeat, reiterate
Pangasinan ólitrepeat; again
Kapampangan úlitrepeat
Tagalog úlitrepetition, renewal of action
Bikol ulítrepeat something, do something again, redo
Mongondow (g)ulitrestore something to its original condition
Gorontalo wulitorepeat, mention again
Totoli ulitrepeat
Dampelas ulitrepeat

Note:   This item shares many of the same semantic characteristics as PMP *uliq₁ (PPh *ulíq). The primary sense of *uliq appears to have been ‘return, restore’, from which ‘repeat’ is derived. The primary sense of *ulit, on the other hand, appears to have been ‘repeat’, from which the notions of renewal and restoration are derived in turn.

28625

*ulitau bachelor, young unmarried man

5786

PPh     *ulitau bachelor, young unmarried man

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ulitöyoung unmarried man, bachelor, lad; to reach the age of puberty (of a boy)
Aklanon olitáwomaster, sire; bachelor, young man
Cebuano ulitáwubachelor, unmarried man; young man old enough to be married

Note:   Bontok olitáo, Ifugaw ulitáu, Isneg ulitág, Ilokano ulitég ‘uncle’ appear to be distinct.

28627

*ulug mock, ridicule

5788

PWMP     *ulug mock, ridicule

WMP
Bikol ulóg-ulógto scorn, disdain; take someone's name in vain
Cebuano ulug-úlugflatter someone to make him feel good or to get something out of him
Maranao olog-ologridicule, mock
Malay olok-olokjoking; chaff; a jester
  ber-olok-olokspeak jestingly
Bahasa Indonesia olok-olokwords intended to tease or ridicule, or just to have fun

Note:   Also Tagalog úlok ‘coaxing, cajolery, inducement’.

28628

*uluR flow, stream together

5789

PWMP     *uluR flow, stream together

WMP
Sasak oloh, olorbrook, stream, waterway
  oloh-olohgutter
Tontemboan uluflow together, as the waters of a river in its lower course

Note:   With root *-luR ‘flow’.

28629

*ulus slide down

5790

PWMP     *ulus slide down

WMP
Bontok ʔúlusslide down a slope
Ifugaw úlu(h)slide, glide out, slip
Kadazan Dusun uhusglide down

Note:   With root *-lus ‘slip off’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

um

umah

umaN

umbak umbak

umbaŋ

umbaw

umbul

umel

umpan

umpaŋ

umpeŋ

umpis

umpu

umpuk

umuR

28642

*-um- marker of actor focus

5805

PAN     *<um> marker of actor focus

Formosan
Saisiyat -om-marker of actor focus
Atayal -m-infix forming an active indicative corresponding to active negatable indicative without affixes
Seediq (Truku) -m-prefix or infix in verbs of state or action
Thao -m-marker of actor focus
Kanakanabu -um-marker of actor focus
Saaroa -um-marker of actor focus
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -em-marker of actor focus
Paiwan -m-marker of actor focus

5806

PMP     *<um> marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives

WMP
Ilokano -um-active 'casual' verbal infix
Ifugaw -um-verbal infix used with intransitive bases, and to mark inchoatives or futures
Sambal (Botolan) -om-infix used with intransitive and semitransitive verbs, and to mark inchoatives
Tagalog -um-verbal infix "used to express simple, single or general acts. (a) simple or single performance: bumása, to read; sumúlat, to write. (b) general acts, like the functions of nature and the natural acts of the human body: umulán, to rain; bumagyó, to storm; umáraw, (the sun) to shine; or tumiŋín, to look; sumakít, to become painful; tumakbó, to run; lumákad, to walk, to go." (Panganiban 1966). "verbs like bumagyó, formed with bases that designate natural conditions (cf. bagyó 'storm'), occur in topicless sentences ... Many of the bases that occur in intransitive -um- verbs also occur as the bases of ma- adjectives and the verbs, which may be called -um- VERBS OF 'BECOMING,' denote the acquisition of the quality expressed by the adjective." (Schachter and Otanes 1972:310).
Hanunóo -um-active verb infix, generally intransitive, and often with a future meaning (e.g. l-um-aŋúy 'to swim; will swim', t-um-índas 'to kick; will kick')
Aklanon -um-verbal infix used on command or conditioned forms
Hiligaynon -um-verbal affix designating completed action
Blaan (Sarangani) -om-subject focus, future tense
Kadazan Dusun -um-verbal infix used with intransitive bases and to form inchoatives
Murut (Timugon) -um-intransitive, subject focus, future temporal
Kelabit -em-active verb infix used with intransitive bases (e.g. S nurun O = 'S lowers O', S t-em-urun O = 'S descends O')
Malagasy -om-rare infix used with intransitive bases, and to form adjectives (Richardson 1885:xviiff)
Malay -em-rare fossilized infix in a few reduplicated forms that refer to natural actions: gilaŋ g-em-ilaŋ 'scintillating', guroh g-em-uroh 'to thunder', etc.
Toba Batak -um-verbal infix which "when it occurs intransitively, is both active and passive in meaning. When it is active it represents, often in contrast to the verb ... (with pa-), an action that does not result from the will of the thing carrying it out." The passive meaning occurs in constructions relating to: 1. the performing or satisfying of a natural need (eating, drinking, sleeping, urinating), 2. a movement that makes a marked impression on any of the sense organs, 3. a higher degree of some quality (g-um-abe 'be richer', um-balga 'be larger', etc.). Transitive verbs with the infix -um- "are simply variants of those with the prefix maŋ-, and they are used more in the elaborate poda language, in stories, laws, and aphorisms in verse form (uppama), than in daily life." (van der Tuuk 1971:117ff).
Enggano bu-verb prefix
Old Javanese -um-verbal infix used primarily in intransitive bases, including those that refer to natural conditions (e.g. kilat 'lightning', k-um-ilat 'flashing'; guruh 'thunder', g-um-uruh 'thundering, roaring')
Proto-South Sulawesi *-um-verbal infix which "parallels //maN// to a considerable extent: as an "infinitive" or "participial" marker, or to mark transitive verbs with indefinite or implicit objects. In all of these the focus seems to be less on the agent than on the action itself, and in this respect it is noteworthy that /um/, unlike /maN/ can co-occur with clearly intransitive verbs (at least in the Sa'dan group) like 'sit', 'go' and 'walk'." (Mills 1975:1:145ff).
Makasarese -um-unproductive infix found in verbs that designate a certain state or movement
Chamorro -um-"Almost any noun can be converted to a verb-like word -- a word that can function as a predicate -- by adding the verbalizing infix -um-." Contrasts with man-, used with plural subjects. (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975:226).

Note:   *-um- is, along with *-in-, one of the two commonest infixes in Austronesian, and was a cornerstone in Schmidt's (1906) Austric hypothesis, since an infix of partially similar shape is found in various Austroasiatic languages. Although no clear reflex is known in CEMP, reflexes of *-um- are widely distributed in Formosan and WMP languages. The syntax and semantics of these reflexes differs significantly across languages, in some cases across closely related languages (e.g. Hiligaynon, where -um- is described as "a verbal affix designating completed action", and Tagalog, where -um- marks the actor focus of certain transitive verbs, intransitive verbs that refer to natural actions in topicless sentences, and inchoatives).

These differences of meaning are most sharply marked by the boundary between Formosan and WMP languages. In the former reflexes of *-um- mark actor focus with no widely-shared semantic restrictions defining verb classes, and no competition with other affixes marking the same syntactic relations. In WMP languages, on the other hand, reflexes of *-um- compete with reflexes of PMP *maŋ-, and to some extent *maR- as markers of actor focus relationships. As a result there are restrictions on the type of verb to which a reflex of *-um- may attach, and some of these are widely shared within WMP.

Those which are most readily apparent are:

1. intransitive: cp. Ifugaw, Sambal (Botolan), Hanunóo, Murut (Timugon), Kadazan Dusun, Kelabit, Malagasy (affix rare) and Toba Batak,
2. natural conditions (probably a subset of the preceding, including such meanings as ‘to rain’, ‘to thunder’, ‘to lighten’, ‘to eat’, ‘to drink’, ‘to vomit’, ‘to urinate’ and ‘to defecate’): Tagalog, Kelabit, Malay (fossilized in a few forms), Toba Batak, Old Javanese,
3. verbs of motion (another subset of intransitives, including ‘to go/walk’, ‘to swim’, ‘to fly’, etc.): Ilokano, Sama-Bajaw, Toba Batak, Makasarese,
4. inchoatives: Ilokano, Sambal (Botolan), Tagalog, Kadazan Dusun,
5. future: Ifugaw, Hanunóo, Blaan (Sarangani), Murut (Timugon).
Collectively these conditions suggest that in PMP *-um- marked active verbs that were intransitive, but not stative.

References to future time have a more restricted distribution, but include several major Philippine subgroups, and Murut (Timugon) of northern Borneo. It is therefore likely that *-um- carried an inherently future or nonpast sense, and that in past tense constructions it co-occured with *-in-. in the form *-inum- or *-umin-, as suggested by Wolff (1973).

To date, all morphologically complex lexical reconstructions which contain *-um- on the PAn or PMP level are intransitive or optionally intransitive (PAn *l-um-aŋuy ‘to swim’, *C-um-aŋis ‘to weep’; *k-um-aen ‘to eat’; PMP *l-um-akaw ‘to go/walk’, *um-inum ‘to drink’, etc.). However, Formosan languages show no such restriction, and it is unclear whether the less restricted employment of *-um- in Formosan languages is a retention from PAn or an innovation. Tentatively I will assume the former, in part because the more complex morphological expression of focus in WMP languages (with prefixes *maŋ- and *maR- in addition to *-um-) cannot be reconstructed for PAn. However, historical inferences of this type suffer from an inherent indeterminacy when a cognate set is restricted to one of two primary branches of the collection of languages for which an ancestor is reconstructed (Blust 1978a:218ff).

Finally, it is noteworthy that reflexes of *-um- as an active affix show a distribution which closely parallels the distribution of languages with focus systems (fossilized in languages such as Malay, modern Javanese and Makasarese, which lack focus systems, but active in Formosan and Philippine languages generally, and in Toba Batak and Old Javanese which have/had focus systems). Despite this general correspondence some languages with fully developed focus systems lack a known reflex of *-um- (Rukai and Bunun in Taiwan, Isneg, Bikol and some others in the Philippines).

32700

*umah to kiss

11112

PPh     *umah to kiss

WMP
Itbayaten omahkiss, osculation
  maŋ-omahto kiss
Ayta Abellan omato kiss
Kapampangan umato kiss

11113

PPh     *umah-an to kiss someone

WMP
Itbayaten omah-anto kiss someone
Ayta Abellan in-oma-anwas kissed by
Kapampangan uma-nto kiss

28630

*umaN repeat, do again

5791

PAN     *uman again

Formosan
Kavalan umanagain, once more; to repeat
  m-umanto repeat
Paiwan m-umalʸdo again
WMP
Hanunóo ʔumánagain
Maranao omanadd, include, frequent, repeatedly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) umanrepeat something
Tiruray ʔumanadd to one's amount of something
Malay uman"keep harping on one string"
  uman-umanlong-winded, a bore

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *uman ‘repeat; do again’.

28631

*umbak umbak pump, pumping motion

5792

PWMP     *umbak umbak pump, pumping motion

WMP
Maranao ombak-ombakartesian well; water pump; pump
Dairi-Pakpak Batak umbak-umbakbellows, instrument for fanning the fire

Note:   Possibly a reduplication of *humbak ‘wave’ (from the up-and-down motion of pumps and the traditional bamboo bellows used in smithing).

28633

*umbaŋ to float

5794

PWMP     *umbaŋ to float     [doublet: *ubal]

WMP
Malay umbaŋmake a trip (of a ship), travel over the sea
Toba Batak umbaŋfloat on the water, drift
Old Javanese umbaŋto float
Makasarese umbaŋlift up, raise by placing something underneath, as a pregnant woman stretched out over cushions; boat raised by wooden floats for repair at a wharf

28632

*umbaw top part; high

5793

PMP     *umbaw top part; high

WMP
Bikol umbáwfilled to the brim
  mag-umbáwbe full to the top
Cebuano umbáwoverlook, tower over; look down from a height over the edge of something
Maranao ombawexceed, go higher than another
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) umbewgrow taller than someone
CMP
Buruese ubaupper part

Note:   Also Bikol uŋbáw ‘filed to the brim’. With root *-baw₁ ‘high; top’.

28634

*umbul spring, fountain

5795

PWMP     *umbul spring, fountain

WMP
Nias umbuspring, well, fountain
Old Javanese umbularise, come up, well up
Balinese umbulfountain, spring; bubble up, well up (water)

28635

*umel speechless, dumb, mute

5796

PMP     *umel speechless, dumb, mute

WMP
Ilokano úmeldumb, mute
Isneg úmaldumb, mute
Tagalog umíspeechless due to shyness or embarrassment, shame, fear, etc.
SHWNG
Buli umalblockhead, stupid person

32733

*umpan bait

11168

PWMP     *umpan bait     [doublet: *paen, *paniŋ]

WMP
Malay umpanbait
  umpan-kanto use as bait, to bait
Boano umpanbait
Balaesang upaŋbait
Petapa Taje upabait

28636

*umpaŋ plug, obstruct

5797

PMP     *umpaŋ plug, obstruct     [disjunct: *umpeŋ]

WMP
Maloh umpaŋdam; barrage
CMP
Manggarai umpaŋcaulk, patch, plug

28637

*umpeŋ dam, water barrier

5798

PWMP     *umpeŋ dam, water barrier     [disjunct: *umpaŋ]

WMP
Maloh umpaŋdam; barrage
Javanese umpeŋnarrow water channel

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.

28638

*umpis deflated, empty

5799

PWMP     *umpis deflated, empty

WMP
Tagalog umpísdeflated (said of balloons or air-filled sacs)
Kayan upéhempty ears or husks of padi grain

Note:   With root *-pis₁ ‘deflate; empty’.

28640

*umpu grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor

5802

PMP     *umpu grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor     [doublet: *ampu, *empu, *impu]

WMP
Cebuano umpu-ʔgrandparent or a grandparent's sibling or cousin of the same generation; term of address for a relation of the grandparent's generation
Moken opothe Lord
Makasarese (Salayar) opuSir, Madam; title of traditional community leader
CMP
Komodo umpugrandfather/grandchild (reciprocal); forefather
Manggarai umpugrandmother
Ngadha upukin group, lineage
Kambera umbuSir, lord, title of address for a man of high origin; grandfather
Rotinese upugrandchild
Erai upu-nlord, master; spiritual chief and representative of a class of beings or things in Nature
  upun hahatagrandmother
  upun mamanegrandfather
Fordata ubugrandparent/grandchild
Kei ubu-ngrandparent/grandchild
Alune upugrandparent/grandchild
Proto-Ambon *ubuancestor
Buruese upugrandparent/grandchild; ancestor, lord
Soboyo uhugrandchild

5803

PMP     *ta-umpu grandparent/grandchild (referential term used reciprocally)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun t-umpuwealthy man (any of the nobility)
Malagasy tumpumaster, owner; sir
Balantak tumpugrandchild

10811

POC     *tubu₂ grandparent/grandchild; ancestor

OC
Lou t-upuancestors
Nali tubrugrandparent/grandchild; ancestors
Tolai t-ubu-nagrandparent/grandchild; the relationship between them
Kove tuvugrandparent
Motu t-ubugrandparent/grandchild; posterity; ancestors
Nehan tubu-grandparent/grandchild (recip.); ancestor of
Nggela t-umbumother's brother/sister's child
Mota t-upu-igrandparent/grandchild
Niue t-upu-naancestor
  tupuna tanegrandfather
  tupuna fifinegrandmother
Tuvaluan t-upu-nagrandparent
Nukuoro d-ubu-nagrandparent/ancestor
Rennellese t-upu-naclassificatory grandfather or grandmother; term of address used by classificatory grandchild
Anuta t-upu-nagrandparent/ancestor
Rarotongan t-upu-naancestor; grandparent
Maori t-upu-naancestor/grandparent
Hawaiian k-upu-nagrandparent, ancestor, relative of the grandparents' generation

Note:   Also Hanunóo umpút ‘great-grandparent/great-grandchild (recipr.)’, Manggarai ompu ‘grandmother’, Samoan tupuŋa ‘ancestor’, Maori tipuna ‘ancestor, grandparent’. For a justification of the prefix *ta- cf. Blust (1979).

28639

*umpuk heap, pile, collection

5800

PWMP     *umpuk heap, pile, collection

WMP
Tagalog umpóksmall group of persons, usually engaged in conversation
Kalamian Tagbanwa umpukto pile up
Malay umpukheap, mound, pile
Javanese umpuk(to heap) in a pile
  ŋ-umpukto pile

5801

PWMP     *umpuk-an heap, pile, collection

WMP
Kapampangan umpúk-ana talking group
Tagalog umpúk-ansmall group of persons, usually engaged in conversation
Javanese umpuk-an(to heap) in a pile

Note:   With root *-puk₃ ‘gather, flock together’.

28641

*umuR hold in the mouth

5804

PAN     *umuR hold in the mouth     [disjunct: *qumuR]

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) umulsuck and hold in the mouth
CMP
Sika umurhave the mouth full
Buruese umu-kstuff the mouth (as with food)

Note:   With root *-muR ‘gargle, rinse the mouth’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

un

unah

undur

untay₁

untay₂

untul

unum

unzan

unzet

unzur

28643

*unah precede, go or be first; earlier, former

5807

PMP     *unah precede, go or be first; earlier, former

WMP
Ilokano onáfirst, foremost; sooner
Isneg onáthe first
  inagk-ónaancestors, elder brothers
Bontok ʔunágo ahead of, be first
Ifugaw unábe first, foremost; go ahead; do something first; accomplish something before anybody else
Pangasinan onáfirst, do first
Kapampangan unafirst, go first, be first
Tagalog únafirst, prior; earliest
Bikol únafirst
Hanunóo ʔúnafirst, i.e. before something or someone else
Aklanon únafirst; go first, go ahead, precede
  gin-unáh-anwent ahead of
Cebuano únaahead, earlier; the one that is first in position
Maranao onaahead; lead; first
Tausug unago ahead or before
Narum unéahancient times
Kayan unaʔgo ahead, go first; start first; formerly, before
  ŋ-unaʔforestall another, precede someone
Mongondow unago before, go in front
CMP
Wetan onatree-trunk (esp. the lower part); piece, lump in general; origin; chief, leader

5808

PMP     *um-unah go first

WMP
Ilokano um-onáfirst, foremost; sooner
Bontok ʔ<um>unágo ahead of, be first
Kapampangan m-unáfirst, go first
Mongondow um-unaproceed, go forward; go first
  m-unafirst; ancient
  m-una maiearlier, formerly
OC
Tolai m-unfirst, firstly, formerly; go first, lead

5809

PPh     *unah-an first

WMP
Pangasinan oná-anfirst in order
Hanunóo ʔún-ʔanfirst, i.e., before others
Tausug unah-anfront; forward

5810

PPh     *unah-unah precede, go before

WMP
Kankanaey on-onáfirst; precede, go before
Kapampangan m-una m-unafirst, go first
Hanunóo ʔuna-ʔunágoing on ahead
Cebuano una-únado something ahead of others when it is not proper or usual
Maranao ona-onago ahead; priority; first to come or go

Note:   Also Isneg onna ‘first, former’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) huna ‘go or be first; be first in relation to someone else’. Wetan ona shows semantic contamination (or perhaps simply parallel semantic evolution) with PMP *puqun ‘base of a tree; beginning, origin’.

28645

*undur retreat, fall back

5812

PWMP     *undur retreat, fall back

WMP
Kadazan Dusun undulgo backwards, retreat, retire, recoil, recede
Malay undurretirement; retreat; falling back
Simalungun Batak undurebb, retreat
Old Javanese undurretiring, retreating
Javanese undurbackward motion, withdrawal
Balinese undurretreat, yield
Makasarese unduruʔslacken, decrease, as anger; not remaining by, given up

Note:   Also Toba Batak udur ‘march in procession, single-file’; undur ‘go together’. Possibly a Malay loanword spread through western Indonesia within the past several centuries.

28646

*untay₁ hanging down, dangling

5813

PWMP     *untay₁ hanging down, dangling

WMP
Ilokano ontáyhanging, suspended, dangling
Malay untaihanging down loosely; dangling

28647

*untay₂ citrus fruit

5814

PMP     *untay₂ citrus fruit     [doublet: *muntay]

WMP
Toba Batak untecitrus fruit: lemon, orange
CMP
Ngadha utétree sp., kind of orange

Note:   Also Malagasy lamóty ‘small thorny tree with edible fruit similar in appearance and taste to a crab-apple’. Zorc (1971) gives PPh *-utay ‘fruit’.

28648

*untul bounce, rebound

5815

PWMP     *untul bounce, rebound

WMP
Bikol untólbounce, rebound
Cebuano untúlbounce, cause something to do so; rebound, fail to register or to take a firm hold on
Toba Batak untulrebound, bounce back

28649

*unum drink

5816

PCEMP     *unum drink     [doublet: *inum]

CMP
Kambera ŋ-unuŋuto drink
  maŋ-unuŋudrenched, saturated
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) n-unto drink
Paulohi unuto drink
SHWNG
Windesi unumto drink
Ansus unu(ŋ)to drink
Serui-Laut unuŋto drink
OC
Titan unto drink
Lindrou unto drink
Seimat unto drink
Chuukese wunum-idrink; smoke (tobacco); take (medicine); eat (honey); ingest (something) without chewing
Puluwat wúnúm-drink, beverage, smoke; possessive classifier for anything drunk, tobacco smoked, medicine taken; to drink, smoke, take medicine
Woleaian iulto drink, smoke a cigarette
  iulium-idrink it, smoke it (a cigarette)
Mota unto drink
  unu-vsink in, be absorbed, of a fluid
Central Maewo unuto drink
Fijian (dialectal) unuto drink
Nukuoro unudrink
  unum-iadrink (trans.)
Maori unudrink
  unum-iadrink (trans.)

5817

POC     *unum-unum drinking (progressive)

OC
Seimat unu-undrinking
Woleaian iul-iulbe drinking (progressive)

28651

*unzan add to, increase

5819

PWMP     *unzan add to, increase

WMP
Maranao ondanin addition, furthermore
Balinese unjanincrease, add to; rise, as a price (Panitia 1978)

28652

*unzet startled, make a startled movement

5820

PWMP     *unzet startled, make a startled movement     [doublet: *kezut]

WMP
Tagalog undótact of falling back suddenly in surprise or fear
Minangkabau unjatto start; to spring up with a start

28653

*unzur shove, thrust forward

5821

PWMP     *unzur shove, thrust forward

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) undurshove a stick of wood farther into the fire
Malay unjurto thrust out, as one stretches out a leg

Note:   With root *-zur ‘thrust out, extend’.

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uN

uNay

uNuq

28644

*uNay sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in

5811

PAN     *uNay sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh

Formosan
Paiwan ulʸaysomething broken off inside something else (as thorn in flesh)
WMP
Cebuano unáya deeply embedded sliver or foreign body

Note:   Also Sika una (expected **une) ‘splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh’, possibly a loan from neighboring Li'o.

28650

*uNuq beads

5818

PAN     *uNuq beads     [doublet: *SiNuq]

Formosan
Amis ʔuɬuqbeads (Tsuchida 1976)
WMP
Tiruray ʔonoʔnecklace

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uñat

28707

*uñat to stretch, straighten out

5899

PPh     *uñat to stretch, straighten out     [disjunct: *huñat]

WMP
Ilokano unnátstretch, strain, make tense, draw tight, extend, straighten out, lay out at full length; draw out, distend
Bontok ʔúnatdraw out, stretch, pull, as cotton from a reel or string from a ball
Pangasinan onátto spread (e.g. spread out a mat), stretch
Kapampangan uñatstretch; yawn
Tagalog únatstraighten, smooth out, stretch out (something)
Bikol unátstretch something; straighten something out
Aklanon únatstretch, straighten out; unbend, unkink

5900

PPh     *ma-uñat stretched, straightened

WMP
Bontok ma-ʔúnatbecome tall and thin, of growing children
Bikol ma-unátget stretched or straightened

5901

PPh     *uñat-en be stretched, be straightened out

WMP
Ilokano unnát-enstretched
Bontok ʔunát-ənbe drawn out, stretched out
Tagalog unat-ínstraightened, stretched out
Bikol unat-ónstretched, straightened out

Note:   With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uŋap

uŋaq

uŋet

uŋit

uŋkat

uŋkir

uŋus

uŋut

28705

*uŋap open the mouth wide

5897

PMP     *uŋap open the mouth wide

WMP
Banjarese uŋapopen (of the mouth)
Old Javanese uŋapwith wide-open mouth
CMP
Manggarai uŋapyawn; to yawn

Note:   With root *-ŋap ‘open, of the mouth’.

28706

*uŋaq child

5898

PWMP     *uŋaq child

WMP
Bontok ʔuŋáchild; baby
  ʔuŋ-ʔuŋáyoung one; a person who has not reached the age of puberty; child
Ifugaw úŋachild; boy or girl
Aklanon uŋáʔchild; son/daughter; give birth (humans)
Dondo uŋachild
Tialo uŋachild
Lauje uŋachild

Note:   Also Tiruray eŋaʔ ‘child’, Tboli ŋaʔ ‘offspring’. This term clearly coexisted with PPh *anák ‘child’; it may have referred more particularly to babies.

28708

*uŋet anger

5902

PWMP     *uŋet anger

WMP
Ilokano uŋétangry, irate, incensed
Kalinga (Guinaang) uŋótstrong anger
Kayan uŋetanger, wrath, bad temper

Note:   With root *-ŋeC angry; gnash the teeth.

28709

*uŋit tease, vex, annoy

5903

PWMP     *uŋit tease, vex, annoy

WMP
Ilokano uŋítavenge oneself on (an innocent person)
Karo Batak uŋit-uŋit-ennaughty, mischievous, fond of teasing, unable to keep one's hands off someone else (said of children)
Simalungun Batak uŋitgrumble, complain

Note:   With root PAn *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.

28710

*uŋkat recall or drag up disagreeable past

5904

PWMP     *uŋkat recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences

WMP
Tagalog uŋkátact of recalling or bring up again
Bikol uŋkátrecall, bring up or bring to mind the subject of something bad (such as a shameful or terrifying experience); reopen an old topic better forgotten
Cebuano uŋkátrevive, bring back to one's consciousness something which has long been forgotten
Iban uŋkatrepetition
  uŋkat uŋkatrepeatedly; reiterate
  be-uŋkat-uŋkatintermittently; do or carry little by little
  ng-uŋkat(of illness) recur or relapse
Javanese uŋkatdwell on disagreeable past experiences

28711

*uŋkir deny, refuse to acknowledge

5905

PWMP     *uŋkir deny, refuse to acknowledge

WMP
Maranao oŋkirdisbelieve, disregard, oppose
Javanese uŋkirdeny, disavow; refuse to acknowledge something

28873

*úŋur moan, growl

6106

PPh     *úŋur moan, growl

WMP
Ilokano úŋorto moan with closed mouth (when hurt or dying); also: the sound of swollen streams, rought breakers, etc.
Bontok ʔúŋulto moan, groan; the sound of distant motors as trucks or airplanes
Tagalog úŋolgrumble, growl

Note:   With root *-ŋur ‘low-pitched sound’.

28714

*uŋus snout, beak

5908

PWMP     *uŋus snout, beak

WMP
Tagalog uŋósupper lip; proboscis
Bikol uŋósthe snout or nose of animals
Kayan usuŋ <Mbeak of a bird
Kayan (Uma Juman) usuŋ <Mupper lip; beak of a bird

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) uduŋ ‘mouth’, Yami usuŋ ‘tooth, fang’, SCH uuŋ ‘snout, beak’, Banggai suuŋ ‘mouth, snout, lips’. With root *-ŋus ‘snout’.

28715

*uŋut mumble angrily, grumble

5909

PWMP     *uŋut mumble angrily, grumble

WMP
Tagalog uŋótmumbling
Banjarese uŋutmeditate on
  uŋut-uŋutwrapped up in one's thoughts
Toba Batak uŋut-uŋutgrumbling, grouching

Note:   Malay roŋot, be-roŋot, me-roŋot ‘mumble angrily to oneself’ may be a back-formation from earlier *ber-uŋut. With root *-ŋut ‘mumble, murmur, mutter’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

up

upak₁

upak₂

upaq

upas

upe

upek

upi

upik

upis

upit

upu

upuk

upun

upus

28654

*upak₁ bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark

5822

PWMP     *upak₁ bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark     [doublet: *ubak]

WMP
Atta upaːʔbark of tree
Kallahan (Kayapa) upakbark of tree
Ifugaw upákdry leaf of a betel nut tree; usually it hangs down along the stem of the tree
Tagalog úpakhusk, bark (of trees); sheathing (of banana plant)
Bikol úpakthe bark of a particular tree used to put the finishing touches on boats; also used as a container for baking bread and referring as well to the bread baked in this way
  mag-upakto remove such bark from the tree
Aklanon úpakskin, peeling (of fruits, vegetables); rind; to peel, take off (the skin or peeling)
Hiligaynon úpakpeeling, skin of fruits
Cebuano úpakbark of trees; peel off, get peeled off
Ngaju Dayak upakbark, rind; bast (of trees) that is stripped off
Lawangan upakskin
Taboyan upakskin
Malagasy ófakascaling off, peeling off, as blistered skin; to scale, peel off
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) upakan outer skin (as of human being, animal, plant, etc.); sheath; rind; bark
Boano umpakskin (of a person)

28655

*upak₂ slap, hit, beat

5823

PWMP     *upak₂ slap, hit, beat

WMP
Bikol upakapplaud for, clap for; hit or strike someone
Toba Batak u-l-pakbeat, hit, chop

Note:   With root *-pak₁ slap, clap. For a parallel of l-infixation in Toba Batak cf. *pajay ‘riceplant, rice in the field’ > pa-l-ge ‘select larger and finer rice grains’.

28656

*upaq compensation, reward

5824

PMP     *upaq compensation, reward

WMP
Ilokano úpawork by the day, for daily wages
Itawis úparent, wage
Casiguran Dumagat úpapay, payment for work; wages, salary; to pay wages
Kapampangan úpafare, rent, compensation
Kadazan Dusun upato bribe
Ngaju Dayak (h)upahwages, payment; rent
Iban upahreward, prize, wage (esp. for piecework)
Malay upahpayment for services rendered; tip; wage; salary
Simalur upawages, payment
Toba Batak upawages, payment
Rejang upeaʔremuneration, wages, fee
Old Javanese upahpay
Balinese upahwages, pay, hire
Sasak upaʔsalary, wages; to rent
CMP
Bimanese ufaloan, salary
Ngadha upawages, payment; reward

5825

PWMP     *maŋ-upaq pay for the use of something

WMP
Itawis maŋ-úpato rent
Kadazan Dusun moŋ-upato bribe
[Malagasy man-òfapay rent for, hire anything]
Old Javanese aŋ-upahpay a wage, give a reward

5826

PWMP     *upaq-an be paid; payment

WMP
Ilokano upá-anto rent, to hold under a lease; to hire
Kadazan Dusun upaʔ-anbe bribed by
Old Javanese upah-anpay, reward
Balinese upah-angbe paid for for someone
  upah-upah-anhireling, one who is paid

Note:   Also Kapampangan upah-an ‘fare, rent, compensation’, Tagalog úpa ‘remuneration, payment for work done; rent’, Kayan upah ‘wages, remuneration’, Malagasy hofa ‘rent, money paid for the use of rice-ground’, Ngadha opa ‘wages, payment; reward’, Rotinese upa ‘to pay, hire’.

Much of this distribution appears to be a product of borrowing from Malay, and it is possible that the comparison should be discarded. However, reflexes of *upaq evidently are native in such languages as Rejang and Sasak. *upaq probably was a relatively late innovation in the common ancestor of some of the languages of western Indonesia, and its meaning must have referred to payment in goods rather than to monetary compensation.

28657

*upas poison, venom of a snake

5827

PMP     *upas poison, venom of a snake

WMP
Iban upaspoisonous latex of IPOH tree: Antiaria sp.
Malay upaspoison, esp. dart-poison or blood-poison
Old Javanese upas(vegetable) poison; also figuratively of love, etc.
Javanese upaspoison, poisonous
Madurese opaspoison, venom of a snake
Balinese upaspoison (snake, etc.)
Sasak opaspoison, poisonous
Sangir upaseʔa sickness causing splitting headaches
Mongondow opa-upatkind of snake
Banggai bindana upaspoisonous snake
CMP
Manggarai upaspoisonous
Kambera upahupoison, venom of a snake

28659

*upe end of tuber that is kept for planting

5829

PEMP     *upe end of tuber that is kept for planting

SHWNG
Buli ufthe young tip of a plant shoot
OC
Gitua uvesprout for planting
Motu uhethe end of the yam which is kept for planting; any seed for planting
Bugotu ufetaro tops for planting

28658

*upek piece broken off, husk

5828

PWMP     *upek piece broken off, husk     [doublet: *ubek]

WMP
Bontok ʔupə́krice bran, esp. of the bran which results from pounding roasted green rice in the preparation of the doom confection
Kankanaey opékhusk (of corn)
Ifugaw upókchaff of rice ears, husks of winnowed rice grain
Toba Batak upokbroken to pieces
  maŋ-upok-honbreak something off
  upoh-upoksplinter, fragment

Note:   With root *-pek decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder.

28663

*upi to blow

5833

PCEMP     *upi to blow

CMP
Bimanese ufito blow
Buruese upi-hto blow
SHWNG
Buli ufto blow (person or wind)
Irarutu ufto blow
Numfor ufto blow
OC
Mono-Alu ihu <Mto blow
Nggela uvi-uviblow with the breath, play pipes
Kwaio ufiplay panpipes
Lau ufiblow with the mouth; blow a conch or panpipes
Sa'a uhiblow with the mouth upon an object, breathe upon
Arosi uhito blow, breathe on
  (ʔau) uhi-uhipanpipes
Mota uwto blow with the mouth, or of wind
Northeast Ambae ufito blow
Naman -upto blow
Tongan ifi <Ablow with the mouth, blow into, blow up, inflate; to play a tune (on a bugle, etc.)

5834

POC     *upi-a blow on or into

OC
Seimat uhiblow on the fire
Marovo ivu-a <Mto blow
Kwaio ufi-ablow on (e.g. a flute); to sniff, of a dog
'Āre'āre ūhi-ablow, breathe from the mouth
Fijian uvu-ca <Ablow with the mouth

Note:   Also Arosi uhu ‘to blow’, Rotuman ui ‘to blow (with the mouth, or on a nose flute)’.

28660

*upik break off

5830

PWMP     *upik break off

WMP
Toba Batak upikbroken off
Tontemboan upiʔtear off, pull off (as fruit or branches from a tree, the meat of a chicken or pig from the body)

28661

*upis husk, bark

5831

PWMP     *upis husk, bark

WMP
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) upitbark of tree; skin; shell; outer surface of fruits, etc.
Maranao opisbark, peeling, skin; fade, peel off
Manobo (Ilianen) upishusk of rice
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) upisthe husk at the lower end of a palm branch

28662

*upit press, squeeze together

5832

PWMP     *upit press, squeeze together

WMP
Ilokano ópitto compress, to compact, to consolidate, to harden, to press
Kelabit upittweezers
Totoli upitcarry under the arm
Boano upitcarry under the arm
Uma upiʔcarry under the arm
Bare'e upipress, clip, pinch, squeeze, carry under the arm

Note:   Also Ifugaw ukpít ‘hold by pressing something between the knees, between the elbow (or the upper arm) and the side of the body, etc.’ With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

28667

*upu germinating coconut ?

5838

PEMP     *upu germinating coconut (?)

SHWNG
Numfor ufround, yellow germination in a coconut

5839

POC     *ubu young coconut

OC
Seimat upcoconut
Wuvulu upumature coconut with meat
Aua upuyoung coconut
Kosraean ufyoung coconut
Pohnpeian uhpwdrinking coconut
Mokilese upwunripe coconut, younger than pen (drinking coconut)

Note:   Although POc *upu evidently referred to a young coconut, the meaning of Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *upu is less certain. 'Āre'āre uhu ‘to shoot, sprout’ is attributed to PMP *tubuq.

28664

*upuk clap, slap, pound

5835

PWMP     *upuk clap, slap, pound

WMP
Tboli ufukto flap (as wings), clap
Melanau (Mukah) upukto wash clothes (by pounding)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ throb, thud, clap, break.

28665

*upun gather in masses, as smoke

5836

PMP     *upun₁ gather in masses, as smoke

WMP
Bontok ʔúpunplace in one pile; gather in one place; form a group
Kankanaey úpontogether
Sasak umpunsmoke
  ŋ-umpunform masses (as clouds of smoke, ants)
CMP
Yamdena upunhang in the air, of smoke in an enclosed area

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.

28666

*upus end, finish; used up, finished

5837

PMP     *upus end, finish; used up, finished

WMP
Kankanaey upúsup; spent; consumed; empty; finished
Ifugaw upú(h)empty; consume all the things that are available, or have been gathered
Tagalog upósconsumed down to the butt (as candles, cigarettes, cigars, or the like); down to the bottom; butt or stub (of candle, cigar, cigarette or the like)
Aklanon upósconsumed, used up; cigarette butt
Cebuano upússomething long used up until only a stub is left; wear something down
Punan Tuvu' upuhyoungest (last) child; finally, at last
Mongondow uputend, termination, conclusion; to complete
Tae' upuʔat an end, used up, finished
CMP
Ngadha opoend, finish, conclusion; out of, used up, come to an end; kill, last, later

Note:   Also Ngadha opu ‘perish, die out, become extinct’. With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.

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ur

urit

urub

32616

*urit stripe, streak, line

11004

PPh     *urit stripe, streak, line

WMP
Itbayaten oritstripe, streak, line (vertical)
Ilokano urítline, stripe, streak
  y-urítto underline; write; mark
  urit-ánstriped, marked, streaked

28671

*urub flame

5850

PWMP     *urub flame

WMP
Tagalog úlobflame that reaches up high
Old Javanese urubto burn; flare, flame, blaze, glow
Javanese urubflash, flare, flame

Note:   Also Itbayaten oxob ‘have smoke-like exhaust or emission or mass overhead’, Malagasy óro ‘burning’, Iban uru ‘singe, set fire or smoke to’, Malay m-urup ‘brilliant or fiery (of colour)’, Anuta uro ‘be aflame, glow’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uR

uRem

uReŋ

u(R)sah

uRtuh

uRup

28669

*uRem hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth

5848

PWMP     *uRem hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth

WMP
Bikol ugómsuck on something (as a lollipop); carry something in the mouth
Cebuano úgumhold or keep something inside the mouth
Kayan uhemto suck in the mouth (as candy)

Note:   Also Tontemboan urem ‘hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth’.

32528

*uReŋ horn of an animal

10877

PAN     *uReŋ horn of an animal

Formosan
Seediq uruŋhorn (Ferrell 1969:136)
Pazeh uxuŋhorn of deer, cow or goat
WMP
Yami (Imorod) ozoŋhorn (as of a goat)
  mi-ozoŋto have horns
Itbayaten oroŋhorn
Ibatan oloŋthe horns of an animal
Berawan (Long Terawan) uguŋhorn of an animal
Kenyah (Long Anap) uəŋhorn of an animal

Note:   The Bashiic forms are irregular, but contain what appear to be substratum reflexes of *R (Pick, to appear).

28713

*u(R)sah deer

5907

PWMP     *u(R)sah deer

WMP
Ilokano ugsádeer; venison
Isneg ugtáthe deer
Itawis úttadeer
  maŋ-úttato hunt deer
Bontok ʔugsádeer
Kankanaey ugsádeer
Ifugaw ulhádeer, stag
Gaddang uttadoe, female deer
Casiguran Dumagat ógsadeer
Sambal (Botolan) oyhadeer
Kapampangan usádeer
Tagalog usádeer, stag
Bikol usádeer
Aklanon usá(h)deer
Cebuano usádoe
Subanun (Sindangan) gusadeer
Iban rusaʔSambhur: Cervus unicolor Kerr.
Malay rusa <Mdeer, specifically the sambhur, Cervus equinus
Toba Batak ursadeer

Note:   Probably the sambhur deer. This term was replaced by a reflex of *payaw over much of central and western Borneo.

28670

*uRtuh zenith; noon, mid-day

5849

PPh     *uRtuh zenith; noon, mid-day

WMP
Tagalog udtónoon, noontime, midday
Hanunóo ʔudtúmid-point of a vizualized celestial arch; more specifically, noon
  ʔudtuh-annoontime
Aklanon údtoabout directly overhead (in the sky)
  ugtoat the zenith, directly overhead; half moon (waxing or waning)
  pa-udtoh-óngibbous (waning); 3rd quarter
Cebuano udtútwelve o'clock, for the sun to be overhead; for the moon or something else to be in the heavens at the noon position
  udtúh-anzenith
Maranao otolunch; eat noon meal
  oto-neat during lunch time, lunch on
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) udtuaction (of the earth's rotation) upon celestial bodies which causes them to rise to the zenith
Blaan (Koronadal) ltu dunoon
Tausug ugtunoontime, mid-day, whe the sun is at its zenith
Mongondow utuzenith, point in the heavens directly overhead
  utu-anthe uppermost atmosphere

Note:   Also Pangasinan ogtó ‘noon’, Kapampangan ugtú ‘noon’, Sa'a uwo ‘be directly overhead, of sun or moon’. Except for Blaan (Koronadal) ltu du (with regular *R > /l/) this item could be regarded as a Greater Central Philippines innovation. Reflexes with the medial cluster -dt- show assimilation of earlier *g to the following alveolar stop.

28672

*uRup help, assistance; to help, assist

5851

PWMP     *uRup help, assistance; to help, assist

WMP
Pangasinan olópaccompany, go together
Maranao ogophelp, serve
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uɣupto help; aid in physical labor
Dairi-Pakpak Batak urupto help, support
Toba Batak urupto help; help or assistance
Balinese ohophelp, stand by, support

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak dohop ‘help, assistance’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *u(r)up ‘exchange, alternate; help’.

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us

u(n)sek

usi

usik

uso

usu

usuk

usuq

usuri

usur-i

28712

*u(n)sek press into

5906

PMP     *u(n)sek press into

WMP
Aklanon usókpole (of a fence)
Cebuano úsukdrive stakes into the ground
Banggai usokenter, go in
Uma uncoʔinsert, put on clothes
CMP
Manggarai ucekpush through a crowd
OC
Fijian usothrust a stick into, pierce

Note:   With root *-sek₂ insert, stick into a soft surface.

28675

*usi relative of the third ascending or descending

5856

PCMP     *usi relative of the third ascending or descending generation     [doublet: *nusi]

CMP
Komodo usigreat grandchild (CCC)
Buruese osigreat grandfather (FFF)
Soboyo usegreat grandfather (FFF)

Note:   Probably a reciprocal term.

28673

*usik disturb, annoy

5852

PMP     *usik disturb, annoy

WMP
Malay usikdisturbance
  meŋ-usikto disturb
Balinese usikannoy, vex
OC
Arosi udiannoy, disturb
  usito worry, annoy

Note:   Also Gorontalo wusiʔo (expected **wutiʔo) ‘disturb, be disturbed’. This item may be a loan from one of the other Gorontalic languages (Atinggola, Mongondow, Bintauna, Kaidipang or Suwawa), in which *s remained a fricative.

28676

*uso core of a fruit

5857

POC     *uso core of a fruit

OC
Kwaio uto-nacenter of breadfruit
Lau utocore of fruit
Sa'a utopith
Arosi utopithy core of breadfruit
Tongan uhopith (lit. or fig.); central thick root of kava plant; core or core-like center (of plantain, pineapple, apple, etc., but not of breadfruit)
Niue uhocore, center
Samoan usopith
Tuvaluan uhopith of tree
Rennellese usoheart, seat of affections, soul; inside, center, middle, interior
Maori uhoheart of a tree, pith

Note:   Reflexes of this item and of POc *quto ‘pith of a tree’ are easily confused. Although the most widespread agreements suggest that *uso referred to the cores of fruits and *quto to the pith of trees, some languages reflect *uso with the meaning ‘pith of a tree’.

28680

*usu push, launch a canoe

5864

POC     *usu push, launch a canoe

OC
Sa'a usupush, shove; launch a boat
Tuvaluan uhupush
Rennellese usuto push, as a canoe into water

28677

*usuk press into, penetrate; enter crouching

5859

PMP     *usuk press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes

WMP
Ilokano y-ósokinsert, etc. from below
  um-ósokpass under something stooping or crouching; insert, etc. from below
Aklanon usokpole (of a fence), fencepole
Cebuano úsukdrive stakes into the ground; put stakes around
Maranao osokstick with a sharp point
Tiruray ʔohokto plant in general, specifically to dibble
Tae' osokimplant, drive in, as a grave post into the ground; also: erect a hut or house (that is not on houseposts)
CMP
Manggarai ucukhide, enter crouching
Proto-Ambon *usuenter
Buruese oso-kenter; put into
OC
Fijian usuthread through, as a rope through a hole
Samoan usu-i(of spear, etc.) stick, thrust

5860

PWMP     *usuk-an drive in (stakes, etc.)

WMP
Cebuano usúk-anput (drive) stakes around something
Tae' osok-an baruŋ-baruŋthe erection of a hut or house (that is not on houseposts)

Note:   With root *-suk insert, penetrate, enter.

28678

*usuq rub, wipe

5861

PMP     *usuq rub, wipe

WMP
Kenyah (Long Wat) m-usuʔrub
Penan (Long Labid) m-osorub, wipe
Kayan (Long Atip) m-usurub
Siang ŋ-usurub, wipe
OC
Motu udurub a stick to make fire
Lau usurub, wipe, rub off
'Āre'āre usurub, grate, wipe
Sa'a usurub, daub, wipe, grate

5862

POC     *usuq-a rub (it), wipe (it)

OC
Motu udu-arub a stick to make fire
Lau usu-arub, wipe, rub off

32897

*usuri copy, imitate, pass on

11356

POC     *usuri copy, imitate, pass on

OC
Longgu gere-usulicopy writing
Lau usulito follow along, beside
  usuli-ato copy; to take after, resemble
'Āre'āre usuri-ato follow, copy, imitate
Arosi usurihand on a tale; transplant; to copy
Mota usurto pass on, relate

11357

POC     *paka-usuri to teach

OC
Patpatar ha-usurto teach
'Āre'āre haʔa-usuri-ato teach, instruct
Arosi haʔa-usurito teach, cause to copy; a teacher; a model, copy, pattern

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016e:565).

28679

*usur-i pass on, as a tale

5863

POC     *usur-i pass on, as a tale

OC
Arosi usur-ihand on a tale
Bauro usur-iahanded on, passed on (as a tale)
Mota usurpass on, relate

Note:   Possibly a product of diffusion.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

ut

uta

utaña

utaq

utem

uteŋaq

utik

utiŋ

utúg

utuŋ

utuq

utuR

utus₁

utus₂

28682

*uta chaff

5874

PCMP     *uta chaff

CMP
Kambera utachaff
Selaru utchaff

28683

*utaña ask, inquire

5875

PMP     *utaña ask, inquire     [doublet: *kutaña]

WMP
Malagasy ontanyenquiry, question, interrogation, examination
Malay tañainterrogation
  ber-taña-kanto enquire about
Tialo utañato ask
Lauje utañato ask
Dampelas tañato ask
CMP
Rembong tanaask, inquire; request
Palu'e tanaask
Li'o ale tanaask
Kambera ka-tanaask about, inquire
SHWNG
Buli utanto ask

Note:   Also Iban tañaʔ ‘question, ask, inquire, be on speaking terms’, Makasarese kutaʔnaŋ ‘ask about’.

28681

*utaq vomit

5865

PAN     *utaq vomit

Formosan
Seediq utaqvomit
Amis otaʔvomit
Tsou tra-vtovomit
Saaroa taar-utavomit
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -utaHvomit (from the stomach)
Paiwan utjaqvomit
WMP
Itbayaten otavomitus, what an adult vomits, matter that is vomited
Ilokano útavomit; spew violently
Isneg ótavomit, spew
Itawis utávomit
Bontok ʔútavomit
Kankanaey útavomit, throw up
Ifugaw útawhat is vomited; act of vomiting
Casiguran Dumagat ótavomit; to vomit
Pangasinan otávomit
Maranao otaʔregurgitate, spit, disgorge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) utaʔvomit; to vomit
Kelabit utaʔvomit
Sa'ban toəʔvomit
Kayan utavomit
Bintulu utaʔvomit
Melanau (Mukah) utaʔvomit
Ngaju Dayak utawhat is vomited up: vomitus
Alas utahvomit
Simalur utavomit
Toba Batak uta-utawhat is thrown up, what is vomited
Simalungun Batak utahvomit
Nias uta-ʔutawhat is vomited
Sundanese utahvomit; to vomit
Old Javanese utahspit out, vomit up
Javanese utahspill out
Madurese otavomit
Balinese utahvomit
Sasak utaʔvomit

5866

PWMP     *ka-utaq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-wtaact of vomiting; state/condition of vomiting
Isneg ka-k-otavomiting
[Old Javanese ka-wutahthrow up, vomit out]

5867

PWMP     *maŋ-utaq to vomit

WMP
Kelabit ŋ-utaʔto vomit
Lawangan ŋ-utato vomit
Simalur maŋ-uta-nvomit something up
Toba Batak maŋ-uta-honvomit something out
Nias maŋ-utato spew out, to vomit
Sundanese ŋ-utah-kɨnto vomit, throw up
Madurese ŋ-otaʔto vomit
Balinese ŋ-utahto vomit
Sasak ŋ-utaʔto vomit

5868

POC     *mu-mutaq to vomit

OC
Lou mu-mutto vomit
Wuvulu mu-muʔato vomit
Aua mu-muʔato vomit
Motu mu-mutavomit; to vomit
Nggela mu-mutato vomit
Gilbertese mu-mutaregurgitation; to vomit, to regurgitate
Marshallese ṃṃōjvomit; spit; saliva
Pohnpeian mmwusvomit; to vomit
Chuukese mwmwusto vomit, to throw up
Puluwat mmwuhto vomit

5869

PAN     *pa-utaq cause to vomit

Formosan
Atayal p-utaqto vomit; to emit semen; semen
Paiwan pa-utjaqcause vomiting
WMP
Itbayaten pa-wta-encause to vomit
Bintulu p-utaʔto vomit
Melanau (Mukah) p-utaʔto vomit (involuntarily)

5870

PAN     *um-utaq to vomit

Formosan
Kavalan m-utito vomit
Saisiyat m-om-otæto vomit
Seediq (Truku) m-utaqto vomit
Pazeh m-utaʔto vomit
Paiwan m-utjaqto vomit
WMP
Itbayaten om-otato vomit
Bontok ʔ<um>útato vomit
Ifugaw um-útahe/she will vomit
Ngaju Dayak m-utato vomit
Moken m-otakto vomit
Malay m-untahto vomit
Simalur um-utato vomit
Toba Batak m-uta-utato vomit
Minangkabau m-utahto vomit
Old Javanese m-utahto vomit
CMP
Tugun mutato vomit

5871

PCEMP     *mutaq to vomit

CMP
Komodo mutato vomit
Manggarai muntato vomit
Rembong mutaʔto vomit
Ngadha mutato vomit
Sika mutato vomit
Anakalangu mutavomit
Kambera mutato vomit
Hawu madu <Mto vomit
Rotinese mutato vomit
  muta-svomitus
Tetun mutato vomit
Leti mutato vomit
Wetan motato vomit
Selaru mutto vomit
Yamdena muteto vomit; semen
Fordata mutato vomit
Hitu ma-mutato vomit
Buruese mutaregurgitate, vomit
OC
Loniu a-mutto vomit
Nali ulo-mutto vomit
  ulo-mura-yvomitus
Bipi xa-muta-yvomitus
Seimat mutvomitus
  mutu-mutto vomit
Mendak murato vomit
Marovo mutato vomit
Proto-Micronesian *mʷumʷutato vomit
Pohnpeian mmʷusto vomit; vomitus
Mokilese umʷwujto vomit
Chuukese mʷmʷus(a)to vomit, throw up
Woleaian mmʷut(a)to vomit, throw up, disgorge contents of the stomach
Iaai hmitato vomit

5872

PAN     *utaq-an vomit (imperative)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) utaH-anvomit (imperative)
WMP
Itbayaten otaʔ-anindependent imperative form: vomit (it) out
Bontok ʔuta-ʔánto vomit (object form)
Sundanese utah-utah-anvomit continuously
Javanese utah-anvomitus

5873

PAN     *utaq-en be vomited up; vomit (command)

Formosan
Amis otaʔ-envomit (a command)
WMP
Ifugaw utá-onbe vomited up
Nias utaʔ-õvomit up

Note:   Also Old Javanese wutah ‘spit out, vomit up’, Lau mo-moa ‘to vomit’, Kwaio moa ‘to vomit’, 'Āre'āre moa ‘to vomit’, Sa'a moa ‘to vomit’, Bauro moa ‘to vomit’. The apocopation of initial *u and loss of the morpheme boundary in *um-utaq is characteristic of all CEMP languages. In POc the reanalyzed form *mutaq was then partially reduplicated to produce a partial paradigm *mutaq : *mu-mutaq. The semantic distinctions associated with these forms remain unclear.

28684

*utem fish net float

5876

PEMP     *utem fish net float

SHWNG
Buli utamfloats of a fish net

5877

POC     *uton fish net float

OC
Wuvulu uʔotree, the wood of which is used to make fishnet floats and headrests
Gitua utonfish net float
Motu utofloat of a fishing-net
Lau uothe float for a net
'Āre'āre uwoa piece of skinned soft wood used as a float for fishing nets
Sa'a uwoflying-fish float
Arosi uwoa float
Gilbertese itovery light wood found on beaches and used as cork
Marshallese wūjcork; balsa driftwood
Pohnpeian uhsfloat, as for a fishing net
Mokilese uj-peifloat for a net
Mota utoto come above the surface in water
Tongan utofloaters of fish-net
  uton-iprovide a net with floaters
Samoan utofloat (in a fish-net); bait (tied to a float, esp. in shark-hunting)

Note:   Also Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka utoga ‘the float of a fish-net’.

32768

*uteŋaq wobble, come loose, of something attached

11207

PWMP     *uteŋaq wobble, come loose, of something attached

WMP
Cebuano útŋaʔcome off, let go of something firmly attached to something else (as a leech letting go)
Malay uŋahto be shaking loose (as a tooth, or insecure stake)

Note:   Also Cebuano útŋa ‘come off, let go of something firmly attached to something else (as a leech letting go)’.

28685

*utik marine fish with thorny skin

5878

PMP     *utik marine fish with thorny skin

WMP
Cebuano utíkporcupine fish: Diodon spp.
Malay ikan otéka catfish: Arius utik
Sundanese utikkind of marine fish
SHWNG
Numfor uspufferfish (both spiny and spineless types)

Note:   Also Malay ikan oték-oték ‘a catfish: Arius utik’, ikan duri oték ‘a catfish: Arius utik’. The latter name clearly indicates a fish with thorn-like projections (duri), hence comparable in this respect to the porcupine fish.

28686

*utiŋ tongue of a knife, etc.

5879

PMP     *utiŋ tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle

WMP
Tontemboan utiŋtang of a knife
Tae' otiŋpointed extremity at the base of a knife or machete which is stuck into the hilt
Makasarese otiŋiron pin at the base of the blade of a kris used to bind blade and hilt together
CMP
Manggarai utiŋhandle or hilt of a knife, etc.
Rembong utiŋhilt, as of a sword
Hawu udithat part of a knife blade which is in the haft; the binding of haft and blade

Note:   Also Itbayaten otaŋ ‘handle of wasay (axe)’, Ifugaw utóŋ ‘tang beneath the blade of a spear or knife, driven into the shaft or handle’, Malay putiŋ ‘head of blade; shank; helve; (fig.) clitoris’.

28692

*utúg erect, of the penis

5885

PPh     *utúg erect, of the penis     [disjunct: *qetuR]

WMP
Ilokano ottógbe in the state of erection (said of the penis)
Aklanon utógerection (of penis); to erect, become sexually excited (penis)
  útogbe/get sexually excited
Cebuano utúgfor a penis to be erect; the erected penis; taughten or erect, like the penis

Note:   Also Bikol láʔtog ‘to stand erect (the penis)’, Manggarai uter ‘head of a drill, etc., glans penis’.

28691

*utuŋ extremity, tip

5884

PWMP     *utuŋ extremity, tip

WMP
Itbayaten otoŋnipple, tip of teat, protuberance of breast
Tagalog utóŋteat (of breast); nipple (of milk bottle)
Bikol utóŋnipple
Hanunóo ʔútuŋprotuberance, nipple
Melanau (Mukah) utuŋend, tip
Bare'e untuthe highest point or extremity of something; the beginning of a river

Note:   Also Kapampangan utaŋ ‘nipple of breast’. In PPh this item evidently replaced PMP *mata ni susu in the meaning ‘nipple, tip of the breast’.

28687

*utuq vocative term for boys

5880

PWMP     *utuq vocative term for boys

WMP
Bikol utóʔterm used when calling small children
  mag-utóʔto call small children using such a term
Maranao otoʔboy
Tontemboan utuʔname for boys
Uma utoʔboy! (used in calling)

28688

*utuR a string of something; to string

5881

PCMP     *utuR a string of something; to string

CMP
Kambera uturow, string; to string beads
Selaru uturrow, string of something; to string

28689

*utus₁ break under tension, as a rope

5882

PMP     *utus₁ break under tension, as a rope

WMP
Kayan utuha billet of wood cut from a log
Chamorro gutosbreak off (rubber band, string, etc.), snap off (neck of chicken, root)
OC
Lakalai ututo cut, as with a knife, cut off
Mbula -utcut with an axe
Motu utu-acut off, sever
Kilivila -utu-to cut (sticks)
Bugotu utu-utuclip, crop, cut short
  utuh-isever, cut off, cut in two, finish building a house
Nggela utu-utubreak, be severed, of a rope; pull and break, as a string
  utuh-ibreak, be severed, of a rope
Mota utto cut or break across
Rotuman ufupull apart, pull in two, sever (lit. and fig.), esp to break (string, rope, net, etc.) or to divorce

Note:   With root *-tus ‘break under tension’.

28690

*utus₂ send on a mission, command someone to do

5883

PWMP     *utus₂ send on a mission, command someone to do something

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat utúsorder, command; command someone to do some menial task
Tagalog útoscommand; order; mandate; edict; ordinance; law
Maranao otoscajole
Malay utussending on a mission or embassy
  meŋ-utusto send on a mission
  utus-anrepresentative
Toba Batak utus-anrepresentative
Sundanese utussend someone
Old Javanese utusorder, command
Balinese utussend (a person)

Note:   Both the forms cited here from Philippine languages and some of the forms cited from western Indonesia (as Toba Batak utus-an) may be loans from Malay. If so, the entire comparison reduces to a relatively late innovation in western Indonesia.

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uu

uu

28693

*uu moaning sound

5886

PMP     *uu moaning sound

WMP
Bare'e uusound of the wood-pigeon
CMP
Ngadha uusob, sigh, moan
Rotinese uusound of a pig while rooting for food
Fordata uuhowling of dogs
OC
Tolai uumoaning sound of the wind or surf
Mono-Alu uunoise or cry by a creature
Samoan ūmake a hollow sound, such as is made by waves, hornets, pigeons, engines, etc.
Rarotongan ūnoisy expulsion of wind, fart
Maori ūan inarticulate sound

Note:   Also Bare'e uou ‘sound of the wild dove’, Buruese oo ‘an exclamation of disdain’.

TOP      ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    ut    uu    uy    uz    

uy

uy

uyeg

uyug

uyun

uyuR

uyut₁

uyut₂

28700

*uy exclamation to express surprise, call

5893

PMP     *uy exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc.     [disjunct: *huy]

WMP
Tagalog uysay! (an expression of admiration)
Bikol uyan expression of surprise or admiration; also used in calling people who are nearby
Cebuano uyan impolite way of attracting attention; exclamation of surprise upon noticing something
Ngaju Dayak oiyo! (answer when one is called)
CMP
Tetun oihoy! (an exclamation to attract attention)

28694

*uyeg shake, sway, stagger

5887

PWMP     *uyeg shake, sway, stagger     [disjunct: *huyug, *uyug, *uyuR]

WMP
Cebuano úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.)
Kadazan Dusun uzogto shake

28695

*uyug shake, sway, stagger

5888

PWMP     *uyug shake, sway, stagger     [disjunct: *huyug, *uyeg, *uyuR]

WMP
Cebuano úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.)
Javanese uyugunsteady (as someone who staggers along)

28696

*uyun bunch, bundle (probably of long objects)

5889

PWMP     *uyun bunch, bundle (probably of long objects)

WMP
Ilokano úyonten baár of palay (rice). This measurement differs from district to district: it may mean twenty, one hundred, two hundred, etc. up to six hundred bundles
Isneg úyonone hundred bundles of rice
  uyón-antie into bundles
Bontok ʔúyuna bundle of tobacco containing about twenty mános (one mános = one to five sticks)
Kankanaey úyonband, anything used to bind a load of wood
Ifugaw úyunbundle of firewood, grass, etc., but not of rice, since a bundle of rice is called botok
Casiguran Dumagat uyónto bundle, tie in a bundle; a bundle
Bare'e ujubunch, bundle
Tae' uyungather long objects into a bundle
Buginese ujuŋbundle, as of firewood
Makasarese uyuŋbundle of long objects, as sugarcane stalks

28697

*uyuR shake, sway, stagger

5890

PMP     *uyuR shake, sway, stagger     [disjunct: *huyug, *uyeg, *uyug]

WMP
Cebuano úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.)
CMP
Sika ojormove to and fro

28698

*uyut₁ carrying pouch or small basket

5891

PWMP     *uyut₁ carrying pouch or small basket

WMP
Maranao oiotpouch, pocket
Kelabit uyutsmall carrying basket worn on the back
Kayan uyutthe gourd receptacle, or bamboo container which is carried at the side of one's head when fishing with a lawaʔ net
Bintulu uzutsmall carrying container used mostly by women to hold fish or small prawns while fishing in the river
Iban uyutdeep, narrow rattan basket carried slung on shoulder or back

28699

*uyut₂ to swing, be unsteady

5892

PWMP     *uyut₂ to swing, be unsteady

WMP
Tagalog uyótdisequilibrium
Iban uyutswing or hammock
Sasak oyotdilapidated, rickety

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uz

uzeg

uzi

28701

*uzeg drive in, erect, as a piling

5894

PMP     *uzeg drive in, erect, as a piling

WMP
Iban ujakdrive in, plant, stick upright
CMP
Manggarai udekdrive in, as a piling or stake

Note:   With root *-zeg ‘stand erect’.

28702

*uzi test, assay, examine

5895

PWMP     *uzi test, assay, examine

WMP
Iban ujitest, try, attempt
Malay ujitesting; trying with a touchstone
Simalur ujitest, try
Karo Batak ujitest, try
Toba Batak ujitest, try, attempt; test oneself in combat, endure an ordeal
Sundanese ujitesting of metals
Javanese ujitest, examination
Balinese ujitest, inspect, examine
Tae' uditest, examine
Mandar ujitest, try
Makasarese ujitest, examine

Note:   Also Kapampangan úriʔ ‘class, category, kind’, paːman-uriʔ ‘examination, investigation’, Tagalog úriʔ ‘kind, class, classification; karat (applied to gold, platinum, silver and precious stones)’, Old Javanese udi ‘test, check, assay’, Muna udhi ‘test, try’, Sika ʔuji ‘brideprice; to demand’, Buruese uji-h ‘test’. Many of these irregular forms appear to be loans from Malay, and it is possible that the evidence for PWMP *uzi is entirely an artifact of still undetected borrowing.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-u