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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*z   

za    ze    zi    zu    

za

za(ŋ)kit

za(ŋ)kuC

zalan

zalateŋ

zaluaŋ

zaŋan₁

zaŋan₂

zaŋaw

zaŋkal

zaŋkaŋ

zapit

zaqat

zaqet

zaqit

zariaŋaw

zariŋ

zaRami

zaRaŋ

zaRum

zauq

zawa₁

zawa₂

28794

*za(ŋ)kit contagious, spreading by contact

6025

PWMP     *za(ŋ)kit contagious, spreading by contact     [doublet: *laŋkit]

WMP
Iban jaŋkitinfectious, contagious; catch, spread (as fire or disease)
Malay jaŋkitspread without visible contact, as an epidemic or fire
Proto-Sangiric *dakit, *dakiʔcontagious (of diseases)
Mongondow dakitto ignite, as a hearth fire; spread, jump across (also applied to sicknesses)

28795

*za(ŋ)kuC grab, grasp, seize

6026

PAN     *za(ŋ)kuC grab, grasp, seize

Formosan
Paiwan djakutsgrab, take in hand (non-cylindrical object)
WMP
Tagalog dakóthandful, graspful
Balinese jaŋkutembrace, take in one's arms
Sangir dakuʔseize, grasp, catch

30439

*zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something

7589

PAN     *zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something

Formosan
Basai tsatsanpath, road
Kavalan razan <Mroad; path, trail
  mani-razanto take the same way
  nan-razansame way of life
  sa-razanto pass through the bush
Saisiyat raLanroad
Pazeh daranroad, trail
Amis lalanpath, road, street, highway; direction figuratively; means to do something
Favorlang/Babuza tarranroad, path
Thao saranpath, road
  mu-sarango out onto the road; take out onto the road
Bunun daanroad, path
Tsou cronəroad
Kanakanabu caánəroad, path
Siraya daraŋroad, path
Proto-Rukai *daɭanəroad
Puyuma daɭanroad
  mi-a-daɭanspirits of the road
  p<in>u-daɭan-anplace where a road has been made
Paiwan djalanroad, trail, path
  pu-djalanto have a road; make a road
  ta-djalansame, same kind of (“one road”)
  ta-djalan a tsautsausame kind of people

7590

PMP     *zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way

WMP
Itbayaten raxanpath, wake, footpath, trace of boat-passing on the water; wheel track; furrow
  ka-raxanact of passing
  maka-raxanto pass away, to be out of season
  ma-naxanto be leaking, passing through
  raxa-raxanroad
Ilokano dálanroad, street, path; passage; track; corridor; aisle
  dalán-ento follow a road
  i-dálanto advise; guide; influence
  pa-dalán-ento give way; make way
Agta (Dupaningan) dilanroad, path, trail
Isneg dálanpath
  dad-dalán-ānroad
Itawis dálanroad
  ma-nálanto walk
Bontok dálantrail, path, road
Ifugaw dálanpath; nowadays horsetrail, road for large vehicles; act of walking, traveling
Ifugaw (Batad) dālana way, habitually used in going from one place to another; to walk (person or animal); make a path through a given area by clearing it with a bolo, walking back and forth over the same area; for the sun, moon, stars, water in a river, spirit beings, to follow a set course
Casiguran Dumagat dilanpath, trail, way; to walk on a trail
Ibaloy shalantrail, road; route; way
  man-shalanto pass a certain way
  on-shalanto drop by somewhere for a quick visit enroute to somewhere else
  shalan-ento take a certain route
Pangasinan dalánroad, way, street, path
Kapampangan dálanroad, way, passage
Tagalog dáan ~ daánroad, street, thoroughfare; way, passageway; track, trail, path
Bikol dálanpath, track, trail; road, thoroughfare, way
Hanunóo dálantrail, path, road, route
Masbatenyo dálanpath, trail, street, road, way
Aklanon dáeanroad,way, path, trail, street; be carried away by, be led by; almost forget (something else)
Waray-Waray dálanroad, street; avenue, way; path, highway
Agutaynen dalanroad, street; fig., the way, methodology, standards one follows in one’s work, life, beliefs; the way by which something is achieved, accomplished
Hiligaynon dálanstreet, road, path, cleared path
Cebuano dálanstreet, road, way; way, means; the way one acts, lives
  sin-dálanto do something else while walking
Maranao lalanpath, trail, road, way, course, street
  lalan a rogoʔblood vessel
Binukid dalanpath, trail, way; road, street
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalantrail; path
Mansaka daranpath, trail, way; road, street
Tiruray dolonroad, highway, path, trail
Mapun lānroad; street; path; highway; time
  lan-ana way of doing something
Yakan lān ~ lalanpath, trail, road, way
  mata lānthe middle of the road
Tboli lanpath, way, road; area worked on; handiwork; to pass through, follow a path
Tausug dānway, road, trail, street, path
  dān-anthe cause (of something), course of events leading up to (something)
Rungus Dusun ralanpath, road
Kadazan Dusun d̲ahanway
  in-d̲ahan-anplace to walk
Ida'an Begak dalanroad
Lun Dayeh dalanroad, route, street, way
  nalanto walk, travel
  delan-inpath to be taken
Kelabit dalanpath, road
  nalanto walk
  me-dalanhelp someone walk
Sa'ban alinpath, road
Narum jaliənpath, road
Kenyah (Long Ikang) jalanpath, road
Murik jalanpath, road
Kiput dalaanpath
  dalaan lalunroad (‘big path’)
Melanau (Mukah) jalanpath
Samihim lalanpath, road
Iban jalaiway, path, road; go, walk, travel; way of doing something, method, solution (way out) of difficulty
  jalai bumaimethod of farming, way to farm
  jalai asuʔhunting trail
Jarai jəlanpath, road
Moken jalanpath, road
Malay jalanmovement in a definite direction; course; road; way; way to do something
  jalan bahasaway of speech, idiom
  ber-jalanto walk, go
Karo Batak dalanpath, road; means to achieve something; cause of something; way of doing something
Toba Batak dalanway, path; manner, way, means; opportunity; cause, occasion
Rejang daleunroad, path, street
  daleun tikusfootpath, jungle path (lit. ‘rat path’)
Javanese dalanroad, street, passage; way, route; way, means
  nalanon the way to/from
Balinese jalango, walk, travel, proceed; path, road, street, way
Sasak men-jalanto walk
Sangir daḷeŋpath, trail, road
Tontemboan lalanway, path; way of acting
  to-lalanthe Milky Way
Mongondow daḷanpath, road
Tialo jalantrail, track
Dampelas jalaŋroad
Balaesang dalaŋroad
Bare'e jayapath, way, road; means to achieve something; means of transport
  jaya ŋkadagroove between nose and upper lip
  san-jayaa traveling party (lit. ‘one way’)
Tae' lalanpath, road
  lalan limaimprint of the hand
  sa-ŋ-lalanname of the relationship between men whose wives are sisters, or between women whose husbands are brothers (lit. ‘one path’)
Wolio dalaroad, street, path; item, possibility
  ma-liŋu-aka dalato lose one’s way
  bawine-na dalaprostitute (‘woman of the street’)
Muna salapath, track, trail; sort, thing
  sala waghuathe Milky Way
Palauan raylroad; path; way; connection (between families, etc.)
Chamorro chalanroad, highway, street, path
CMP
Komodo lalaŋway, road, path
Manggarai salaŋway, road, path; channel (as in irrigation)
Lamaholot rarãpath, road
Solorese laranpath, road
Lamboya lararoad
Anakalangu laralara
Hawu ʄarapath, way
Rotinese dala(k)row; path, road
Atoni lalanpath, road
Tetun dalanroad, track, path
  ha-tudu dalanto teach or show the way
Idate lalanpath, road
Erai sala(n)road, path, way
Tugun saləroad
Damar (West) holloroad
Dobel salaroad, path
Kamarian lalanpath, road
Alune lalanepath, road
Asilulu lalanroad, path
Kayeli lalanpath, road
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai raranpath, road

7591

POC     *salan path, road, way

OC
Nauna calpath, way, road
Lou salpath, way, road
Loniu canpath, way, road
Nali saypath, way, road
Leipon calpath, way, road
Ahus calpath, road
Drehet saŋpath, road
Sori mana saŋpath, way, road
Seimat awa-i-salpath, way, road (lit. ‘mouth of path’)
Wuvulu talapath, way, road
Mussau salanapath, way, road
Tigak salanpath, road
Bali (Uneapa) ndalaŋapath, road
Wogeo jalapath, way, road
Manam jalapath, way, road
Takia dalpath, way, road
Mbula zaalapath, road; way, manner; way of life; opportunity, chance
Motu dalaroad; path
  dala katakatacrossroads
Nggela hala-uturoad, path
  hala-tinamain road, government road
Kwaio talaroad, path, track
  faʔa-tala i kwalastir up blame, provoke a feud
  tala-abe born
Lau talapath, road; opportunity; to begin; the Milky Way
Toqabaqita talapath, track, road
Sa'a talapath, road, way; a row, a string of objects
Arosi tara-(na)path, road; a seam in sewing; a row; place, resting place for something; cause, reason, beginning
Marshallese iaḷroad; path; street; way; itinerary; journey; lane; route; transportation
Pohnpeian ahlroad, street, trail, path, line
Mokilese alroad, street, line, path, way; to line, to draw lines
Chuukese aanroad, street, path, way, route, course (at sea); approach (to a job or problem); method, way (of doing); line of reckoning (in genealogies); Milky Way (short for anenimey, lit. path of breadfruit, because on this heavenly path the breadfruit comes from its southern homeland when summoned by the sowuyótoomey, the breadfruit summoner who performs the ritual to induce the spirit of the breadfruit to come each year from its southern homeland to Truk and ensure a good breadfruit harvest)
Puluwat yaalroad, path, street
Woleaian yala-liroad of, way of, path of
Carolinian aalpath, road
Sonsorol-Tobi jara-iway, track, road
Mota mate-salapath, road
  manur-salacrossroad
Araki salaroad, path, way
Lonwolwol haltrack, road; road for thinking about, the faculty of being able to forecast events
Rotuman salapath, road, street; route; way, method; (of words) method of using or applying, usage, application, meaning; (of thing to be obtained) condition, stipulation, what must be done in order to obtain it; journey, distance; to go, come, or originate
Fijian salapath, road, track
  sala ni caŋithe Milky Way
  sala ni waŋgathe wake of a ship
  vaka-sala-takato point the way, show, advise, warn
Tongan halapath, road (lit. or fig.); gangway, stairway
  hala-fakitake an indirect or roundabout route
Niue halapath, track, way, mode, means, method, procedure
  hala utaby land
  hala vakaby canoe, by sea
Futunan alaroad, way, path
Samoan alapath, road; way; method, way of doing something; cause of, reason for; working section (area of mat woven by one person at a particular time)
  faʔa-alaexpress an opinion
Tuvaluan ala-tuuroad, path
Kapingamarangi alaresponsibility, be responsible for; row of plaiting on a net
Rennellese agapath, trail, track, road, street; doorway, door; way, method
  haka-agatake food on a trail, as to a ritual feast; the food so taken
Anuta arapath, road
Rarotongan araroad, path, way, track
Maori araway, path; means of conveyance; layer of sedge thatch on a roof
Hawaiian alapath, road, trail

7607

PWMP     *ma-zalan (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ma-raxanto be able to pass
Ilokano ma-dalán-anto pass by
Waray-Waray ma-dálanhaving many streets
Mapun ma-lāndrive a vehicle or fly a plane
Bare'e mo-jayatake a path; make headway

7592

PWMP     *pa-zalan make something go or move

WMP
Itbayaten pa-raxan-encause to pass through; give way to someone; obtain by means of
Ilokano ag-pa-dálanto give way, make room for, go to the road
Tagalog pa-raánway; a way of doing something; method; a course of action or conduct; tactics; resource; any means of achieving success or getting out of trouble; style
Mapun pa-lānhabitually going somewhere
Tae' pa-lalangrow seed; cultivate in order to sow later, of actions; make a model (to prepare the way for some action)
Palauan or-rayllead (animal, etc.); drive (boat, car, etc.); start (engine)

7593

PAN     *ka-zalan-an improvised trail, trail made by passing through?

Formosan
Rukai (Budai) ka-daa-dalán-anəroad
Paiwan ka-djalan-anmountain trail
WMP
Javanese ke-dalan-anto have a road, passage, etc. on or through it; to be passed by a road, etc.

7594

PWMP     *pa-zalan-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano pa-dalán-anto run over; excuse, apologize
Tagalog pa-raan-ánto pass over something; to allow someone to pass over or through a certain place (stress on the place)
Mapun pa-lan-ana place to go

7595

PAN     *za-zalan (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Rukai (Maga) da-dránəroad
Paiwan dja-djalancompanion on road
WMP
Yami ra-rahanroad
Itbayaten ra-raxanroad, street, avenue
Boano da-daantrail, track

7596

PWMP     *z<um>alan to pass through

WMP
Ilokano d<um>álanto go, walk, travel
Ifugaw d<um>álanto walk
Tagalog d<um>aánto drop in (for a short visit); pass through; to pass, pass through or over; to go by
Mapun l<um>ānto walk, to go somewhere
Palauan mə-raylgo; walk; travel; leave; (water) flow/move (in pipe); (blood) flow out

7597

PAN     *zalan-an passageway, place where one has walked

Formosan
Thao saran-anwalk on or across something; place where one is walking or going
  s<in>aran-anplace where one walked or went; passageway made by walking through
WMP
Itbayaten raxan-anpass, narrow passage
Ilokano dalán-ana passageway, pathway; to run over; run through; do haphazardly
Ifugaw dalán-anpath, way to walk upon
Kapampangan dalan-anpass by for someone
Tagalog daán-an ~ daan-ánto pass by a certain place; to drop in at someone’s place with intention of bringing that person with you
  daan-ánaccess; the way of approaching or reaching a place or person
Kelabit delan-anpath made by repeated walking over the same course
Javanese dalan-anroadways, street areas
Tae' lalan-ana way; make a hole for, as in boring a hole in order to knock in a dowel; prepare the way

7598

PAN     *zalan-zalan small path or trail

Formosan
Paiwan djala-djalansmall path
WMP
Bikol dálan-dálanpath, trail

Note:   Also Sa'ban alin, Kenyah (Long Anap) janan, Kayan (Uma Juman) alan, Berawan (Long Terawan) ilan, Lemeting jalin, Karo Batak dalin ‘path, road; means to achieve something; cause of something; way of doing something’, Buli laliŋ ‘footpath’, Moor ràrina, Yeresiam jáàra, Serui-Laut raŋ, Munggui layan ‘path, road’, Puluwat yel- road, path, Toqabaqita tale ‘path, track, road; a row of something’.

A number of words in South Halmahera-West New Guinea languages resemble the expected reflex of PAn *zalan, but with various irregularities. It is unclear whether these should be treated as inherited forms with sporadic changes, as loanwords, or as chance resemblances. The variant forms from Lemeting, Karo Batak , Buli and Moor might be taken to support a double *zalin, but since Sa'ban alin, Lemeting jalin and similar forms in other North Sarawak languages appear to be products of low vowel fronting it seems best for now to treat the minority pattern with last-syllable *i a product of convergence.

30274

*zalateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

7183

PMP     *zalateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *lateŋ, *zilateŋ]

WMP
Iban jelataŋsmall tree, Laportea stimulans Miq., having stinging hairs on the leaves, which can be littered about where an enemy may rest
Malay jelataŋstinging nettle, generic for certain plants with stinging leaves, including tree nettle (Laportea stimulans), causing intense pain and a rash like erysipelas, and used by Malays as an ingredient in poison or hung over doors to keep away evil spirits, common small nettle (Fleurya interrupta), causing itch, when the expression kena jelataŋ (or simply jelataŋ) ‘itchy, lascivious’, and stinging climber (Cnesmone javanica); a minute marine insect that gives a slight sting, sea-flea

7184

POC     *salatoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *la-latoŋ]

OC
Manam zalatostinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Arosi daraospecies of nettle, species of jellyfish; Portuguese man of war, Physalia (sea nettle)
Bauro taraospecies of nettle
Wayan salatonettle tree: Dendrocnide Harveyi (uncommon tree of mesic mid-altitude forest)
Fijian salatothe nettle plant, Laportea harveyi, Urticaceae
Samoan salatolarge forest tree, the tree nettle, Laportea spp.

Note:   Also Sangir əŋgalatiŋ, Bare'e gelata ‘stinging nettle tree: Laportea spp.’.

28784

*zaluaŋ bark cloth

6015

PWMP     *zaluaŋ bark cloth     [disjunct: *daluaŋ]

WMP
Malay jeluaŋvegetable parchment; native paper ... Old Malayo-Javanese romances are met with that have been written on this parchment (the bark used being that of Morus macroura or of Brousonnetia papyrifera)
Sundanese daluaŋnative paper
Old Javanese daluwaŋclothing of bark cloth (worn by hermits, etc.)
Wolio daluathin paper, tissue paper

28789

*zaŋan₁ handspan

6020

PMP     *zaŋan₁ handspan     [disjunct: *saŋa 'bifurcation']

WMP
Yami raŋandistance between an outstretched middle finger (or pinky) and thumb, used to measure length
Ivatan raŋanspan (8 inches)
Ilokano dáŋanhandspan
  saŋa-dáŋanmeasure of the palm of the hand
  daŋán-ento measure by handspans
Bontok dáŋanhandbreadth; the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger when the fingers are outstretched
Bare'e jaŋaspan
OC
Nggela haŋaa span, outstretched fingers
Fijian i cagaspan (about 9 inches)
Tongan haŋaspan (about 9 inches)
Hawaiian anato measure, survey, evaluate, rate
  ana-nafathom

Note:   Also Maranao raŋao ‘measure by using stretched thumb and finger as measuring tool’, Mongondow yaŋow ‘span with the fingers’, toŋo yaŋow ‘one handspan’, Sa'a taŋaa ‘span; to span with the hand’.

28790

*zaŋan₂ negative

6021

PWMP     *zaŋan₂ negative

WMP
Tagalog dáŋanwere it not for; if it were not that
Malay jaŋandon't

28791

*zaŋaw insect destructive to rice

6022

PWMP     *zaŋaw insect destructive to rice     [doublet: *baŋaw]

WMP
Isneg dáŋawkind of stinkbug very destructive to young ears of rice
Ifugaw dáŋokind of stinkbug very destructive to young ears of rice -- eats also the leaves of sweet potatoes
Casiguran Dumagat daŋáwtype of insect (they eat the rice plants when the fruit is beginning to develop)
Kayan jaŋawcrop destroyed by insects

28792

*zaŋkal handspan

6023

PWMP     *zaŋkal handspan     [doublet: *ze(ŋ)kal]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat daŋkálunit of measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched middle finger
Tagalog daŋkálunit of measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched middle finger
Maloh jaŋkala measurement (from thumb to second finger)

Note:   Also Tae' daŋkan ‘a span’, Manggarai daka ‘small unit of measure’, se-daka ‘handspan’. Mills (1975: 719) reconstructs Proto-South Sulawesi *jaŋka[l?] ‘handspan (unit of measure)’, a form which he proposes to derive irregularly from Dempwolff's (1934-38) *ze(ŋ)kal.

28793

*zaŋkaŋ wide apart, as the legs

6024

PWMP     *zaŋkaŋ wide apart, as the legs

WMP
Malay jaŋkaŋwide astretch, of the limbs
Banggai daŋkaŋwide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

28785

*zapit pinch, squeeze, press

6016

PWMP     *zapit pinch, squeeze, press

WMP
Javanese japitclip, fastener, tongs
Balinese japitpinch
Banggai dapitpinch, squeeze, press

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

30440

*zaqat bad, evil; ugly

7599

PMP     *zaqat bad, evil; ugly     [doublet: *zaqet]

WMP
Maranao rataʔsad, sadness, unhappy; bad
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daʔatto destroy; to harm; to ruin
Yakan laʔatbad, evil (morally); poorly (of feeling)
  laʔat-aneasily getting angry, hot-tempered
Abai Sembuak a-laatbad
Lun Dayeh daatbad; ugly; wicked; cruel
  fe-daataccuse or blame one another; say bad things about one another
  ne-daatdied, passed away, became bad
  si-daatpretend to be poor or no good
Narum jeətbad
Dusun Deyah daatbad
Dusun Witu raʔatbad
Malay jahatevil-hearted
  ber-jahatto speak ill deliberately of a person
  ke-jahat-anwickedness
  jahat-kanto represent as wicked, to defame
Karo Batak jahatbad, dangerous, not to be trusted (of animals and people)
Javanese jahatflaw, imperfection
Balinese jahatbad, immoral, nasty (conduct)
Uma da-daʔabad
Bare'e mampa-ka-jaʔato make something bad, to spoil
CMP
Komodo daʔbad, evil
Manggarai daʔatbad; spoiled, ruined; death, dead
Rembong daʔatbad
Riung daʔatbad

7600

POC     *saqat bad

OC
Label sakabad
Bali (Uneapa) zaghatabad
Vitu zahabad
Manam rat-abad; great
Gitua sagat-ibad
Nehan sabad, evil; wrong
Vaghua satabad
Varisi sakatabad
Ririo saʔatbad
Lau bad, evil
'Āre'āre taʔawrong, bad, evil; be dying, be in a bad condition
Sa'a taʔabad; also used as commiseration
Ulawa mwane taʔapoor fellow
Arosi taʔabad, poor; of poor quality; very
  taʔa-ha(na)badness, poorness
Hiw sabad
Nakanamanga sabad
Futuna-Aniwa sabad

7601

PWMP     *ma-zaqat bad, evil

WMP
Maranao ma-rataʔbad, disagreeable, wrong, evil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zaʔatbad; evil; dirty; undesirable
Mongondow mo-raatbad, foul, rotten
Balaesang ma-jaʔatbad, rotten, nasty
Bare'e ma-jaʔabad, wrong, spoiled, useless, ugly, difficult, unpleasant
Buginese ma-jaʔbad

Note:   Also Mapun maat ‘evil; badness’, mag-maat ‘to do bad; to have bad intentions’, ka-maat-an ‘dislike something’ (lit. ‘be affected by the badness of something’), Tausug kaat ‘(for a person) to go wrong, do things that are considered bad; (for someone’s behavior) to become bad’, Murung jeʔet ‘bad, Iban jaiʔ ‘bad, spoilt, broken, out of order, no more use’, Jarai sat ‘bad’, Toba Batak jahat ‘bad; vulgar’, Lamaholot daʔ ‘bad’, Toqabaqita taʔaa ‘be bad, no good; general term for expressing negative evaluation’.

30441

*zaqet bad, evil; ugly

7602

PWMP     *zaqet bad, evil; ugly     [doublet: *zaqat]

WMP
Yami rahetbad
Itbayaten raetdefect, deficiency, flaw
  ka-raetugliness, badness
  ma-raetugly, bad, unpleasant, evil
  mapa-raetdisfiguring
  pi-raet-ento mislead, make into the wrong way
Hanunóo daʔútbad, ugly
Hiligaynon dáʔutto injure, to hurt; to harm, to damage
Cebuano dáutdestroy, make inoperative; to harm, have bad effects on; be in bad health, cause bad health; harm someone with sorcery; speak ill of someone; of the weather, to get bad
  daút-ansorceror; bad in character or effect, not auspicious
Binukid ma-daétbad (in character and effect); dirty, unclean, soiled
  pig-daetto destroy something; to ruin, damage something, make something inoperative; to corrupt someone or something; to harm, have bad effects on someone; to harm, kill someone by sorcery
Kelabit daʔetbad
  pe-daʔetsay something bad about someone
  d<in>aʔetwas damaged by someone
Kenyah (Long Anap) jaʔətbad

Note:   Also Kayan (Uma Juman) jaʔək, Bintulu jaʔəs ‘bad, evil’.

30442

*zaqit to sew

7603

PMP     *zaqit to sew

WMP
Ilokano dáitsewing; manner of sewing; style of sewing
  ag-dáitto sew
  pag-dáitneedle; sewing thread
  pa-náitsewing thread
  da-dait-encloth for sewing
  dait-ento sew something
Bontok dáitto sew
Kankanaey i-dáitto add; to put, to join something to
Ifugaw dáitjoin two woven pieces by sewing them together
Ibaloy shaitsewing; style of sewing, how a thing is sewn
  i-shait-ansew something for someone
  man-shaitto sew
  me-naittailor, dressmaker, seamstress
  shait-ansewing machine
  shait-ento sew, mend something (as dress, a tear)
Pangasinan man-dáitto sew
Tagalog daítplaced so close as to be touching; united, fastened, attached
  mag-daítto be very close to another or others so as to be touching one another
Yakan mag-laʔitto sew (clothing, etc.)
Bintulu jaʔitsewing; sew (imper.)
Melanau (Mukah) jaʔitto sew
Iban jaitsewing, sew, work with a needle
Malay jahitsewing, stitching
  men-jahitto sew
Toba Batak jaitto sew
Javanese jaitpertaining to sewing
  men-jaitto make clothing
Balinese jahitsew, do needlework, stitch
Sasak jaitto sew
Makasarese jaiʔsewing
CMP
Komodo daiʔto sew
Manggarai jaʔikto sew

7604

POC     *saqit to sew

OC
Mussau sai-kito sew, of clothes
Nggela hai-haito patch an old garment
Kwaio taito sew; close up
  futa taiclosely related by kinship
  tai-ato sew
Lau taito sew
  tai-ato sew
  tai-lāa sewing, a seam
Toqabaqita tai-ato sew
'Āre'āre tai-ato entangle (of spider’s web entangling a person); entwine, mix together; jumble up; sew
Arosi taʔito sew, join together
Tongan haʔito bind (lit. or fig.); (of words) to bracket, put in brackets; binding; bond, that which binds, fetter, etc., or bracket (parenthesis)
  haʔi-haʔito bind round and round so as to make a number of bundles; to bandage
Niue haito lash on, tie fast (as in tying two canoes or baskets together)
Samoan āisew; seam

Note:   Also Itawis dahét ‘stitch’, mad-dahét ‘to sew’, Jarai jhik ‘to sew’, Muna dhai ‘sew an ornamental seam (to trouser legs; a practice in former times)’, Molima saila ‘to sew, make nets’.

28787

*zariaŋaw a plant: Calamus spp.

6018

PWMP     *zariaŋaw a plant: Calamus spp.

WMP
Malay jeraŋauthe sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints
Minangkabau jariaŋauthe sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints
Wolio dariaŋocalamus: kind of plant whose soft rootstocks are used as liniment against pains and worms, and for rubbing pregnant women and children for protection when they go out after dark

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed doublets *zaraŋaw, *zariŋaw.

30481

*zariŋ noose or net trap

7684

PMP     *zariŋ noose or net trap

WMP
Ngaju Dayak jariŋa 100-300 foot long cord from which a quantity of nooses are hung down to the near ground level, and into which wild animals are driven with the help of hunting dogs
  man-jariŋto hunt with such a net
Iban jarinlength of stout canes twisted together from which are hung overlapping cane nooses to catch driven deer
  ñarinto hunt deer in this way
Malay jariŋbarrier net – of stake nets drawn across a stream, drift nets in a tideway, and fowlers’ nets (not of seines or dragnets)
Toba Batak jariŋnet used to catch fish, bats, game and birds
  man-jariŋto hunt with such a net
Sundanese jariŋlong net used to catch birds, dragnet
  ŋa-jariŋfish with a dragnet
Old Javanese jariŋnet (to catch fish, birds, kidangs [barking deer])
  jariŋ-jariŋspider web
Javanese jariŋnet for trapping fish, birds; fig., trick for snaring an unwary person; spider web
  jariŋ-anintestines; internal organs
Balinese jariŋnet; fishing net; net for birds
  jariŋ burona net for wild animals
  ñariŋto catch with a net
  jariŋ-jariŋspider web
Sasak jariŋnet
  je-jariŋkind of spider

8370

POC     *sariŋ noose or net trap

OC
Kwaio talistuck, be stuck; come to hand, obtain, catch
'Āre'āre tarito stick in the throat; to be tangled up in, be caught in, be aground, stick fast in
Sa'a täriland a fish in a landing net; to stick fast in a tree or a noose
Arosi taria noose; bring in a profit, enrich, get gain
Maori tarinoose for catching birds, etc.; to ensnare

Note:   Also Malay jaliŋ ‘barrier net (said to be rare)’. In addition, Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog dáliŋ ~ dálin ‘fastening; binding for bamboo floors’, but the divergent semantics raises questions about whether this form is cognate. This comparison, which was first proposed by Dempwolff (1938) in a somewhat more restricted form, remains problematic. I assume that Maori tari shows the ‘third palatal reflex’ found in a number of other forms, but the connection of Oceanic forms to those in western Indonesia may be due to chance.

30736

*zaRami rice straw

8375

PAN     *zaRami rice straw     [doublet: *gaRami]

Formosan
Puyuma darami-enrice straw
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daRami-anrice straw
Paiwan djami-arice straw

8376

PWMP     *zaRami rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk

WMP
Isneg daxámistraw of rice; namely: that part of the culm that is situated below the place where the ear is cut at the harvest.
  (dag)-daxamiy-anthe culms or haulms of rice that remain in the field after reaping; a female spirit who makes children sick if they play at the place where the harvest is going on
Bontok dagámirice straw
Ifugaw (Batad) dagāmirice stubble, i.e. stalks remaining after the upper stalks with rice panicles ... have been harvested, either standing in a pond field, or removed to allow for a second planting
Ayta Abellan dayamirice husk
Kapampangan dayamirice straw, rice stubble (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol dagámistraw
Romblomanon dagāmirice stubble
Aklanon dagámirice stalk, straw (from rice)
Waray-Waray dagámihay, straw
Agutaynen dalamistraw, dried rice stalk
Hiligaynon dagámihay, straw
Cebuano dagámistalk that has been left after grain or sugar has been harvested
Maranao ragamirice stalk, straw
Mansaka dagamistraw (of grain)
Kelabit dəramihrice straw, rice stubble (dbl. gəramih)
Kayan jəmeʔstubble or straw of rice left in the field after reaping
Kayan (Uma Juman) jəmiʔrice stubble, rice straw
Iban jəramiʔsacred plants (induʔ padi – lit. ‘rice mother’) in the paddy field after harvest
  tanah jəramiʔ‘stubble’, land harvested of paddy with crops other than grain still to be gathered; land in the first year of fallow
Malay jeramistubble; rice-aftergrowth; the waste or inedible parts of fruits like the jack and durian
Nias damistemlet on the rice kernel; chaff
Rejang jamaystubble, rice stubble; last season’s ricefield
Old Javanese damirice-straw
  damy-anstubble
  damya-damy-ana whistle made from a rice-stalk
Sangir dahamifallow ricefield, land left fallow for not more than a year that is covered with newly-sprouted bushes
Tontemboan raʔamirice straw, a rice-straw flute
  ka-raʔamitime that the children blow on rice straws (i.e. ‘harvest time’)
Mongondow dogamibrushwood, undergrowth

Note:   Also Kavalan Rami ‘rice straw’, Bunun dumali (< met.) ‘millet straw’, Tagalog dayámi ‘straw; hay; dried rice or grain stalks used as fodder for cattle’ (Kapampangan loan), Binukid lagami ‘stalk that is left after the grain or sugarcane has been harvested; straw’, Bare'e deami ‘rice stubble; fallow ricefield’.

The basic referent of this term appears to have been that part of the rice stalk that remains in the field after the harvest (to fertilize the soil for the next planting). In at least two widely-separated languages (Old Javanese and Tontemboan) this word also refers to a flute made from a rice stalk, and in parts of northern Sulawesi the meaning has shifted from the stalks of the planted rice left after the harvest to the invasive weeds and brush that sprouts in a newly fallow field.

28786

*zaRaŋ having wide intervals; seldom

6017

PWMP     *zaRaŋ having wide intervals; seldom

WMP
Bisaya (Bukit) raŋgaŋfar apart, widely spaced; seldom
Malay jaraŋhaving intervals or interspaces; sparse

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) has *zaraŋ ‘seldom; scarce’. The Bisayan form shows secondary prenasalization of g from *R.

30443

*zaRum needle

7605

PAN     *zaRum needle

Formosan
Pazeh daxemneedle
Thao lhalhumneedle
  pash-lhalhum-anpincushion; place to keep needles
  pu-lhalhumto thread a needle
Paiwan djaumneedle
  dj<m>aumto use a needle
WMP
Yami rayomneedle
Itbayaten rayemneedle
  mar-rayemneedle-shaped, needle-like
Ilokano dágumneedle
  dágum- dágumsting of a bee, wasp, etc.
Isneg dáxumneedle
Itawis dáhumneedle
Casiguran Dumagat digumneedle
  ga-digumterm for a stage in the growth of rice plants (when they are about three inches high)
Kapampangan ka-ráyumneedle
Bikol dágomneedle
  mag-dágomto prick with a needle
Hanunóo dáyumneedle
Hiligaynon dagumsewing needle; injection needle
Cebuano dágumneedle
  d<in>águmpin
Maranao ragomneedle
Binukid dagumneedle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) raɣumsewing needle
Mansaka dagumneedle; spear (as of rice)
Tiruray darumneedle
Yakan dalumneedle
Tboli dalumneedle
  d<m>alumneedle-like (as young rice plant)
Iban jarum(sewing) needle; hand of clock or needle of dial
  padi ñau ñarumthe padi is sprouting (i.e. like green needles)
Jarai jrumneedle
Malay jarumneedle
  men-jarumto sprout, of needle-like plants such as grasses, rice seedlings
Karo Batak jarumsewing needle; hand of a clock; compass needle
Toba Batak jarumneedle
  man-jarumto sew
Rejang doloma needle
Javanese domneedle
  ŋe-dominsert a needle/pin into
Balinese jahumsewing needle
  jahum panabokanan awl
Sasak jarumneedle
Sangir dahuŋ ~ da-rahuŋneedle
Tontemboan raum ~ raʔumsew or plait thatch for roofing
Mongondow mo-dagumto sew
  do-daguma needle
  tumon-do-dagumbe needle-shaped (of new rice sprouts)
Lauje mon-jauŋto sew
Bare'e jauneedle
  mon-jauto sew
Tae' darunneedle
  darun lemothorn of a citrus tree
Mandar raruŋneedle
Makasarese jaruŋneedle
Muna deuneedle (sometimes worn in the cap to ward off malicious spirits)
  ka-deu-deuburrs, stickers
Palauan rasmneedle
  mə-rasmto sew (cloth or thatching)
CMP
Bimanese ndaʔuneedle; to sew
Manggarai jaruŋneedle
Hawu ʄauto sew
  ʄi-ʄauneedle

7606

POC     *saRum needle

OC
Lou sou-n pwikneedle (lit. ‘needle of flying fox (bone)’
Mussau raumneedle
Gitua sarumneedle
Nehan harumneedle
Selau saləmneedle
Nggela i-halusmall bone needle for sewing a sail
'Āre'āre taru-aneedle, the bones of a flying fox
Arosi tarubat’s bone for tattooing
Tongan hauthin dagger or stiletto, like a giant-sized needle, used in spearing bonito
Samoan auneedle; tattooing comb
Rennellese autattooing needle, with a point made of ibis (taghoa) or chicken bone

Note:   Also Puyuma daum ‘sewing needle’ (< Paiwan), Agta (Dupaningan) dagum ‘needle’ (< Ilokano), Bontok dágom ‘needle’, Ibaloy shaKom ‘needle (as for sewing, injection)’, Pangasinan dágom ‘needle’, Tagalog ka-rayom ‘needle’ (< Kapampangan), Hanunóo dágum (< a Bisayan source?), Tausug jawm ‘a needle; any needle-like object, as a compass needle or the hands of a watch’ (< Malay), Bare'e jaru ‘European fabric needle (< Malay or Buginese). Manggarai jaruŋ may be a Makasarese loan.

30628

*zauq far

8103

PMP     *zauq far

WMP
Tombonuwo o-rawufar
Simbo saufar
Lun Dayeh a-dodistance
  -adoget away from something; put distance between someone and some place
Sa'ban adiəwfar
Berawan (Long Terawan) diofar
Narum jaoʔfar
Kenyah (Long Anap) coʔfar
Penan (Long Labid) juʔfar
Murik sufar
Kayan (Uma Bawang) suʔfar
Kiput jəuʔfar
Bintulu jauʔfar
Melanau (Mukah) jauʔfar
Melanau Dalat jauʔfar
Tunjung ncoʔfar
Ngaju Dayak ke-jaudistant (in space or time); very different
Kapuas ke-jaufar
Katingan ke-caufar
Lawangan oroʔfar
Paku oroʔfar
Iban jauhfar, far off, distant, remote
Malay jauhremoteness
Karo Batak dauhfar; other
  pe-dauh-dauhseparately from one another
Sundanese jauhfar, far away
Old Javanese doha distance, the distance, afar, being far away
  a-dohfar away, distant
  ka-doh-andistance
  d<um>ohto go away, withdraw
  d<um>oh-ito avoid, evade, shun, forsake, desert, abandon
Javanese dohfar off
  ŋe-dohkeep something at a distance
  d<um>ohfar off
  woŋ d<um>oha dull-witted person
Madurese jaufar, distant
Sasak jaoʔfar
  bə-jaoʔmake a distant trip
  bə-jaoʔ-anbe distantly related to one another
Sangir daufar distance
Chamorro chagoʔfar, afar, distant
  chagoʔ-ñafurther, more distant
CMP
Bimanese ɗoʔofar
Rotinese do-klong; distant, far
Atoni lofar
Tetun doo-kfar, distant, remote
  mata-n doo-ka seer or fortune-teller (lit. ‘distant eyes’)
Mambai rofar
Galoli sofar
Erai sofar
Tugun soofar
Kamarian laufar
Paulohi e-laufar, distant
Asilulu laufar, distant
  pata-laudistant; far (from each other)
SHWNG
Buli laufar, far away

8104

POC     *sauq₁ far

OC
Aua rau-afar
Vitu zaufar
Kairiru i-saufar away
Manam ʔa-saufar
Takia a-saufar
Lungga soufar
Bugotu hauto be far; a long time
  i-haufar; of old
  hau-nito be far off from, distant
Talise sau-nafar
Kwaio (ta)-taufar, distant; for long
Lau taua long way, far off; a long time, always
Toqabaqita taube a long time, go on for a long time, last a long time; be far, distant in time (past or future) or in space
Sa'a haʔa tauto be far off, distant
Arosi haʔa-taufar off
Mota saufar
  a-sauafar

8105

PMP     *ma-zauq far

WMP
Lun Dayeh m-adofar away
Kelabit ma-dofar
Dohoi ma-hcuʔfar
Madurese ma-jaudistance oneself
Sangir ma-raufar, distant, remote
CMP
Waiyewa ma-rofar
Lamboya ma-raufar
Kambera ma-raufar, at a great distance

8106

PMP     *zauq zauq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Old Javanese doh dohat a distance, far away

8107

POC     *sauq sauq (gloss uncertain)

OC
Seimat xau-xau-anfar
Takia a-sau-sauvery far
Motu dau-daudistant; to be distant (of place or time)

Note:   Also Toba Batak dao ‘far, distant’. This morpheme appears to have replaced PAn *dawiN ‘far, distant’ in PMP. Favorlang/Babuza ro, ma-ro is a superficially similar form that, if accepted, would establish both *zauq and *dawiN as PAn, and raise fundamental questions about homonymy. However, the Favorlang/Babuza reflex of PAn *z is clearly t in etymologies such as *zalan > tarran ‘road’, and *quzaN > utas ‘rain’, and it therefore seems best to treat the similarity of Favorlang/Babuza ro, ma-ro to such non-Formosan forms as Lawangan oroʔ, Mambai ro or Waiyewa ma-ro as a product of chance convergence.

28788

*zawa₁ daybreak, dawn

6019

PMP     *zawa₁ daybreak, dawn

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak jawahday (opposed to night)
CMP
Yamdena rawedaybreak, dawn
Buruese dawaday, the part of the day that is light

Note:   Also Malagasy (Provincial) javanjavana ‘illumination’.

30908

*zawa₂ millet sp.: Setaria italica (?)

8750

PAN     *zawa₂ millet sp.: Setaria italica (?)

Formosan
Puyuma dawamillet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.
WMP
Yami rawaear of grain
Ilokano dáwaear of grain
  ag-dáwato develop spikes (rice)
  manag- dáwafruitful
Isneg dáwaear, head, spike (of grain)
  taŋa-dáwaone ear (of grain)
Itawis dáwaear or head of grain
Pangasinan dawárice grain (in relation to remainder of rice plant)
Kapampangan dawaseed (edible)
Tagalog dáwamillet, Setaria italica (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo dáwaItalian millet (Setaria italica [Linn.] Beauv.)
Romblomanon dāwapearl millet grass or seed: Pennisetum glaucum (seed grain is cooked as a staple food)
Masbatenyo dáwamillet (glutinous millet is used to make a dessert)
Abaknon dawagrain like wheat
Aklanon dáwa(h)grass; rice grain dessert preparation
Agutaynen dawamillet, a small grain used for porridge, or chicken feed
Cebuano dáwamillet: Setaria italica. Widely cultivated, it is most commonly made into budbud [sweet prepared from crushed ingredients (rice, corn, pili nut, millet, etc.) formed into sticks, wrapped in banana leaves and steamed]
  dawa-dáwakind of tall grass bearing spikes similar to millet in appearance: Echinochloa crusgalli
Subanen/Subanun dawamillet
Binukid dawamillet
Mansaka dawamillet (cooked until soft)
Mapun dawamillet
Yakan dawamillet: Echinochloa frumentacea or Setaria italica (small-seeded annual cereal and forage grass, often planted at the edge of rice fields)
Tausug dawamillet, a cereal grass grown in Jolo and available in the market; Italian millet (Setaria italica)
Ngaju Dayak jawæa plant resembling sugarcane but smaller, only about one finger thick, with many stalks that support grain in a black hull; the curved grains are somewhat smaller than rice grains, and are eaten cooked, having a taste somewhat like rice, but greasier; in central Borneo jawæ is often planted as a substitute for rice
Iban jawaʔmillet, especially Bulrush millet, Pennisetum typhoideum; jawaʔ is planted with the padi, but not as a main crop
  jawaʔ jambaisuperior kind of millet with long ear
Karo Batak dawaa kind of grain
Old Javanese jawaa grain (in particular barley or millet?). Perhaps a Prakrit form of Sanskrit yawa (barley). Was barley known in Java? Or should we assume jawa = jawawut (millet)?
Balinese jawamillet

Note:   Old Javanese jawa, after which the island of Java may have been named, is sometimes thought to be a loan from Sanskrit yawa ‘barley’, a word that reportedly derives from the more general term ‘grain’ attested in both Avestan and Sanskrit (Buck 1949: 513). Adopting this interpretation requires the assumption that Sanskrit yawa ‘barley’ was borrowed as pre-Javanese jawa ‘millet’ within the past two millennia, as the early Indian name for Java was Yawadwipa, presumably because millet was widely cultivated on Java at that time (barley is not a native Southeast Asian crop --- see the doubts expressed in the gloss of Old Javanese jawa).

This putative loanword then spread northward with substitution of d for j in languages that lacked palatals, presumably replacing whatever term applied to the type of millet that this word represented. One possible scenario, then, is that jawa > dawa replaced reflexes of *beCeŋ ‘foxtail millet: Setaria italica’. However, the specific application of reflexes of *zawa to foxtail millet in southern Taiwan and much of the central Philippines (but not in intervening areas) argues against this interpretation and in favor of *zawa as a PAn term that has been lost over wide areas but retained in scattered pockets in its original meaning. Various references (Aklanon, Cebuano, Agutaynen, Yakan, Iban) suggest that millet was secondary to rice as a daily staple in virtually all language groups, a factor that may have played a role in the far more robust attestation for terms like *pajay or *beRas as compared with *beCeŋ, or *zawa.

TOP      za    ze    zi    zu    

ze

zeket

zelay

zeliŋ

zelzel

zemak

zeŋkuŋ

zepit

zera

28796

*zeket to burn (fields, etc.)

6027

PMP     *zeket to burn (fields, etc.)

WMP
Palawan Batak dɨkɨtburn (Reid 1971)
Cebuano dukútfor fire to catch to something
Miri jukatto burn (rubbish, the fields)
OC
Arosi togomake up a fire, set more wood on

Note:   Miri jukat is assumed to be a u ablaut form of an unrecorded base **jakat.

30893

*zelay a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.

8724

PMP     *zelay a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.

WMP
Maranao delayJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi
Subanen/Subanun delayJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi
Bintulu jəlaykind of cultivated plant
Ngaju Dayak jeleya plant similar to millet, but with larger grains that are round and yellowish
Malay jelaymillet, Aphania pancijuga
  buah jelayseeds of Coix lachryma-jobi, used as rosary beads
Bare'e jolenative maize: Coix agrestis
  jole goaMakasar maize: Zea mays
Tae' dallemaize: Zea mays
  dalle sisikanJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L., a plant with seed heads like the riceplant that contains numerous oval seeds; it is an edible plant, the seeds of which are pounded and then cooked, and also used as beads
CMP
Manggarai selaJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.
Rotinese delekind of millet that is especially important as a foodstuff in eastern Roti

Note:   Also Malay henjelay ‘millet’, Old Javanese jahəli ~ jahli ~ jali ‘a kind of millet: Eleusine coracana’, Javanese jali ‘a plant that produces corn-like (barley-like) kernels’, Balinese jali-jali ‘a species of plant’.

28797

*zeliŋ cross-eyed; squint

6028

PWMP     *zeliŋ cross-eyed; squint     [doublet: *zuliŋ]

WMP
Iban jeliŋlook from the corners of the eyes
Malay jeliŋgive a side-glance full of meaning
Karo Batak jeliŋcross-eyed
Toba Batak joliŋslanting, inclined
Balinese jileŋ <Msquint, be cross-eyed

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) siliŋ ‘cross-eyed’, Old Javanese jilak ‘partial eye defect (cross-eyed?)’, Wolio jilo ‘cross-eyed, squint’, Rotuman jila ‘squint, be crossed (eyes)’.

28798

*zelzel stuff or fill with material

6029

PWMP     *zelzel stuff or fill with material

WMP
Cebuano duldúlkapok fiber or tree: Ceiba pentandra. The pods produce a cotton-like fiber which is used as furniture stuffing
Ngaju Dayak jejelmaterial used for stopping something up
Malay jejalclose an orifice with stuffing of any sort

28799

*zemak feel, grope

6030

PMP     *zemak feel, grope     [doublet: *zamaq]

WMP
Karo Batak jemakhold something tightly in the hand
Dairi-Pakpak Batak jemakgrasp in the hand
Toba Batak jomakgrasp something with the whole hand
Balinese jemakpick up, take, seize, stretch out a hand for something, grasp
CMP
Manggarai demakgrope for something in a hole or cave; pick someone's pocket, take without permission

Note:   Also Toba Batak gomak ‘grasp something, take a handful’, Mongondow domok ‘catch, grasp, seize; fight, come to blows or grips’.

28801

*zeŋkuŋ curved

6032

PMP     *zeŋkuŋ curved

WMP
Iban jeŋkoŋcurved handle (as on a pail, teapot)
Banggai deŋkuŋcurly, of the hair
OC
Arosi tokubent, of an arm which cannot be straightened

28800

*zepit pinch, take up with the fingers

6031

PWMP     *zepit pinch, take up with the fingers

WMP
Iban jempitcrushed
Malay (Jakarta) jepitnip, catch between pincers
Javanese jepèt, jepitpinched tightly (in a clip, etc.)
Uma jopiʔnarrow

Note:   Uma jopiʔ may be a Kulawi loan. With root *-pit (or *peqit?) ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

30698

*zera hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience

8272

PWMP     *zera hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deǥato frighten or discourage someone or some creature from repeating an action
Tiruray derafeeling uncared for, sulky as a manifestation of hurt feelings rather than real anger
Iban jeraʔlearn by experience (‘the hard way’), have one’s fill, get one’s fingers burned, be fed up with; (poetic) fearful, crazed
Malay jeradeterred; warned by experience

Note:   Also Tagalog daláʔ ‘wary, cautious or scared because of previous painful, unpleasant, unfortunate or unsatisfactory experience’, ma-daláʔ, dalaʔ-ín ‘to have an unpleasant experience caused by the attitude of others or by other circumstances; to be taught by painful experience (in consequence of which one is wary about returning to a certain place)’, Cebuano dulá ‘for animals to be shy and not allow anyone to approach them’, Mapun dallaʔ ‘to give up doing something (because of having a bad or painful experience; to begin to give up’, dallaʔ-un ‘cause someone to give up doing something’.

It is unclear whether the Tagalog and Mapun forms justify a doublet *zeraq, but this seems doubtful, since the expected Tagalog reflex of such a form would be **diláʔ. Rather, it seems more likely that forms such as those listed in this note are loanwords from Malay. The same cannot be said, however, for Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deǥa, and so the reconstruction stands despite the questionable nature of some of its members.

TOP      za    ze    zi    zu    

zi

zilak

zilateŋ

ziŋkit

ziteq

zitzit

ziuq

zizi

ziziq

zizir

28802

*zilak cross-eyed

6033

PMP     *zilak cross-eyed     [doublet: *zeliŋ, *zuliŋ]

WMP
Old Javanese jilakpartial eye defect (cross-eyed?)
OC
Rotuman jilasquint, be crossed (eyes)

30275

*zilateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

7185

PMP     *zilateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *lateŋ, *zalateŋ]

WMP
Minangkabau jilataŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Lampung jilatoŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.

7186

POC     *silatoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *latoŋ, *salatoŋ]

OC
Roviana jilatoŋokind of nettle
Marovo zilatoŋonettle varieties: Laportea interrupta and L. ruderalis
Merlav ne-silatnettle: Dendrocnide sp.

Note:   The Oceanic members of this comparison are taken from Ross (2008:232).

31291

*ziŋkit touching or joined along the length

9348

PWMP     *ziŋkit touching or joined along the length

WMP
Cebuano díkitbe close so as to touch, put something close to touch it
  liŋkítfor two things to be joined along their lengths
Maranao riŋkitstick together
Sundanese jéŋkétstuck together, as the hair

Note:   With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.

28803

*ziteq vine from which poison is obtained

6034

PWMP     *ziteq vine from which poison is obtained

WMP
Isneg dítavenom, poison. Whether natural (as in snakes, etc.) or artificial (for arrowheads, etc.). Obtained by boiling the bark of the lanúg vine or that of the díta tree; a forest tree whose bark, when boiled, yields a poison to be smeared on arrowheads, etc.
Pangasinan ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc.
Bisaya (Limbang) riteʔblowpipe poison
Malay akar jitaha liana, Willughbeia spp.

31205

*zitzit to hiss

9237

PMP     *zitzit to hiss     [disjunct: *sitsit]

WMP
Chamorro cecethiss, call by hissing sound, call attention to

9238

POC     *sisit to hiss, as to call attention to

OC
Samoan sisihiss (to summon someone without attracting attention)

28804

*ziuq bathe

6035

PMP     *ziuq bathe     [doublet: *diRuq, *diRus]

WMP
Kelabit diuʔbathe
OC
Bugotu siubathe, wash oneself
Nggela siu, siu-vibathe
Lau siu, siu-fibathe, wash standing in water

Note:   Also Bintulu mən-duʔ ‘to bathe’. Mills (1975:684) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *dio(C(?)), ‘bathe’, which he associates with PAn *DiRuq or *DiRus, with unexplained loss of *R.

28806

*zizi disgusted, revolted

6037

PWMP     *zizi disgusted, revolted

WMP
Tagalog dírifeeling of loathing for what is foul or filthy
Malay jijidisgust

Note:   Also Malay jijék, cicék ‘disgust’, Javanese jijiːk ‘revolted, disgusted’.

28805

*ziziq grin, show the teeth

6036

PMP     *ziziq grin, show the teeth     [disjunct: *zizir]

WMP
Chamorro cicéʔgrin (showing teeth); smile (toothy), gritting teeth
OC
Manam ao-sisito smile
Gedaged sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling)
Sa'a sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth
Arosi sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning

Note:   Milke (1961:170, 173) compares the Sa'a word with Fijian sisiva ‘jealous’, Tongan hihihihi ‘gnash the teeth’, Samoan ma-sisi ‘term of abuse’. However, his source for Tongan (Churchward 1959) does not list hihihihi in the stated meaning, and Pratt's (1984) masisi ‘the piece of wood used in operating for tafao (circumcision), used reproachfully’ presents both formal and semantic problems, thus effectively invalidating the earlier comparison.

31355

*zizir grin, show the teeth

9437

PMP     *zizir grin, show the teeth     [disjunct: *ziziq]

WMP
Minangkabau jijirgrinning, showing the teeth
OC
Manam ao-sisito smile
Gedaged sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling)
Sa'a sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth
Arosi sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning

Note:   Milke (1961:170, 173) compares the Sa'a word with Fijian sisiva ‘jealous’, Tongan hihihihi ‘gnash the teeth’, Samoan ma-sisi ‘term of abuse’. However, his source for Tongan (Churchward 1959) does not list hihihihi in the stated meaning, and Pratt's (1984) masisi ‘the piece of wood used in operating for tafao (circumcision), used reproachfully’ presents both formal and semantic problems, thus effectively invalidating the earlier comparison.

TOP      za    ze    zi    zu    

zu

zukut

zulaq

zulu

zuluŋ

zuŋkuk

zuŋzuŋ

zuRu

zuRuq

zutzut

28807

*zukut grass

6038

PMP     *zukut grass

WMP
Toba Batak duhutgrass, plants
  duhut-duhutweeds
Nias duʔugrass, weeds
  mo-duʔue overgrown with grass or weeds
Sundanese jukutgrass, vegetables
Old Javanese dukutgrass
  ḍukutgrass
Javanese dukutgrass
CMP
Hawu juʔugrass

Note:   Also Bikol dúʔot ‘grass, lawn, weed’.

30594

*zulaq saliva; to spit

7995

PWMP     *zulaq saliva; to spit     [doublet: *dulaq, *ludaq, *luzaq]

WMP
Kenyah julaʔspittle
Kenyah (Long Dunin) ñulaʔto spit, expectorate
Bintulu bə-julaʔto spit
Taboyan ñurato spit, expectorate
Sasak julaʔsaliva, spittle
  bə-julaʔto spit
  julaʔ-into be spat upon
  julaʔ ladaʔthe first betel spittle, first expectoration after chewing areca nut

28808

*zulu earlier, in advance

6039

PAN     *zulu earlier, in advance

Formosan
Paiwan pa-djuluprepare something in advance
WMP
Sasak juluʔdo something before another
  julu-anearlier, former

Note:   Also Malay dahulu, dulu ‘before; in advance of; ahead’. Sasak Ɂ in this form is unexplained, but given the sporadic and often non-corresponding occurence of final glottal closure in languages such as Iban and Sasak, the final consonant in this form cannot be reconstructed with any confidence.

30060

*zuluŋ kind of freshwater fish

6761

PWMP     *zuluŋ kind of freshwater fish

WMP
Tagalog dulóŋlake goby or anchovy fry
Malay juluŋ-juluŋkind of freshwater fish

30900

*zuŋkuk bend over, stoop

8733

PMP     *zuŋkuk bend over, stoop

WMP
Malagasy jokokacattle whose horns turn down (Provincial)
Malay joŋkokto squat
CMP
Manggarai dukukbend down (as when going to sit)
Ngadha dukuto bend, bow, incline the body forward; bend down, stoop

Note:   Also Javanese juŋkruk ‘sit with bowed head’, Makasarese dukku ‘bend over, bow, duck down; crouch down to hide. With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’. Possibly a chance resemblance made more similar through sharing a common monosyllabic root.

30818

*zuŋzuŋ carry on the head

8575

PWMP     *zuŋzuŋ carry on the head

WMP
Malay junjoŋsupporting on the head (of a hawker carrying a basket on his head, a warrior raising his club over his head before striking, and of fixing gun shields on guns); indirectly, of props on which a thing rests; fig. obeying
Karo Batak er-jujuŋcarry something on the head
  jujuŋ-enwages for something, above all for someone who will join in a fight
Toba Batak man-juŋjuŋcarry something on the head
  hau juŋjuŋ buhita forest tree that is used as an offering pole; male figures of the two gods of life are cut from its wood
Sundanese ŋa-juŋjuŋlift up, raise; also to raise in function or dignity
Old Javanese ka-juŋjuŋto life; to raise in rank
Balinese junjuŋcarry on the head
  juŋjuŋto praise highly, flatter
Sasak bə-junjuŋhold something above one’s head
  tə-junjuŋto boast, exalt oneself
Tae' duduŋtake or carry on the head
  pa-duduŋ-igive someone something to carry on the head
Buginese jujuŋcarrying on the head
  n-cujuŋto carry on the head
Makasarese aʔ-jujuŋtake or carry on the head (as a basket full of rice)
  pa-jujuŋpeople (especially women) who carry loads on their heads

8576

PWMP     *zuŋzuŋ-an what is carried on the head; a burden

WMP
Mapun duruŋ-ancarry something on one’s head (as laundry)
Javanese junjuŋ-ana burden
  junjuŋ-junjuŋ-anlifting, raising
Tae' duduŋ-anthat which is carried on the head
Makasarese jujuŋ-aŋload to be carried on the head

30847

*zuRu corner; side, edge

8661

PWMP     *zuRu corner; side, edge

WMP
Ilokano dúgocorner post of a house (one of four); backbone; foundation; monument
Bontok dúguthe corner of a rice terrace
Ifugaw (Batad) dūgua roof-ridge rafter of a traditional house; a corner line of a box, building basket (reference is to the exterior or interior line where two converging walls of a building meet; a horizontal or oblique line where two sides of a box or basket meet, as of a colander basket
Ibaloy shogocorner (as of a house)
  i-shogoplace something in a corner
  man-shogoput oneself in a corner
Maranao rogocorner
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ruǥua partitioned off sleeping room
Tausug dugua corner, a place behind (something); to do something in secret, in a corner
Malay pen-jurucorner; section, quarter
Gayō duruside; room of a house near the doorway
Dairi-Pakpak Batak duruside, edge of a field
  men-duru-durukeep at a distance; commit adultery
  ter-durube put on the side, as someone who will receive attention later
Toba Batak duruside, edge, corner
  man-duru-ibe undecided about something
  pa-durupush to the side
  tar-durube pushed to the side
Lampung juyuback side
Sundanese juruexternal corner, as of a mat, a house, a fence, etc.
Old Javanese du ~ dūcorner, side, edge

Note:   Also Maranao pidoro ‘corner, form’ (< Malay?), Mansaka kadogoŋan ‘corner (as of house), Minangkabau pinjuru ‘corner; section, quarter’. This term may have had a more precise meaning than that given here.

30456

*zuRuq juice; sap; gravy; soup

7635

PMP     *zuRuq juice; sap; gravy; soup

WMP
Tagalog dugóʔblood
  ka-dugóʔblood relation, one who is related by blood
  d<in>ugu-ána dish made with pig's or cow's blood
  dugu-ánbloody, covered with blood
  dugu-ínto have a hemorrhage
Bikol dugóʔblood
  ma-dugóʔbloody, gory
  mag-dugóʔto bleed
Hanunóo dugúʔblood
Masbatenyo dugóʔblood
  mag-dugóʔto bleed
  duguʔ-ónbe blood-stained
Aklanon dugóʔblood; to bleed
  pa-dugóʔto bleed, let bleed
  d<in>ugo-ána Filipino dish made from the blood and intestines of pigs, chickens, etc.
Waray-Waray dugóʔblood
  ma-dugóʔbloody, stained with blood
  dugoʔ-ónbloody, stained with blood
Hiligaynon dugúʔblood
  mag-dugúʔto bleed
Maranao rogoʔblood
Mansaka dogoʔto bleed, menstruate
  ma-dogoʔbleeding profusely
Tausug duguʔblood; one's life; a blood relative
  mag-duguʔto bleed
  ka-duguʔ-anto bleed
  duguʔ-unto experience menstruation
Abai Sembuak duuʔhoney
Ida'an Begak dduʔjuice, broth; make into broth
Lun Dayeh duruʔhoney
Kelabit duruʔhoney
Melanau (Mukah) juuʔjuice (of fruit), sap (of tree); gravy
  juuʔ bəñuhcoconut cream
Ngaju Dayak johobroth of meat or fish; sap, juice, fluid, liquid
  ha-johohaving broth, sap or milk
Malay jurohsyrup made of native sugar
Karo Batak duruhplant sap; milk
Old Javanese duhjuice, sap, oil (for a lamp)
  a-duhto contain fluid
Mongondow duguʔblood
  d<m>uguʔto bleed
  duguʔ-anbloody, blood-stained
Tae' durospecks of shiny oil on water or in a sauce
Chamorro chugoʔsap, juice (as from an orange); pus; semen
SHWNG
Numfor rurjuice of fruits; decoction produced from boiling leaves; boiled water

7636

POC     *suRuq₁ juice; broth, soup; gravy

OC
Nauna cuysoup
Baluan suysoup
Lou sisoup
Loniu cuysoup
Likum susoup
Bali (Uneapa) zurukacoconut milk
Vitu zurukaliquid, soup, juice
  zuruka paidococonut juice
Manam surusoup
Gitua suruprepared potable liquid: includes juice, coconut water, soup, tea, coffee, etc.
Molima sulucoconut milk
Lau sululiquid, oil, juice, sap
  sulu-awatery; to melt
  sululiquid, oil, juice, sap
  sulu-awatery
  sulu-nagreen, of timber; melted, running, liquified; to melt
Toqabaqita sulujuice, liquid of fruit; broth, sauce, gravy (in cooking)
  sulu-na niuthe water of a coconut
'Āre'āre suruboiled coconut cream
Sa'a sululiquid, water
  sulu ni waiwater
  sulu ni niuthe liquid of a green coconut
Arosi surucoconut milk, liquid of coconut; yam soup with strained coconut scrapings and cabbage, octopus, etc.
Rotuman juice of a ripe coconut
Fijian subroth, soup
Tongan wet
Niue paha-hūdamp, wet by dew
Samoan be moist; (of taro) be watery
Rennellese suuto be wet, damp, moist (as fleshy food; contrasting with vegetables)
Hawaiian ūmoist; to drip, drizzle; impregnated, as with salt

Note:   Also Javanese juruh sweet thick syrup or sauce, usually made of coconut sugar, Balinese juruh syrup. The exact meaning of this term is hard to pin down. It evidently referred to naturally occurring liquids that are more viscous than water, as juices of fruits, coconut water and the like, as well as broths or soups that are produced by cooking.

31293

*zutzut pluck, pull out

9353

PWMP     *zutzut pluck, pull out     [doublet: *dutdut]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dudutto pluck, as feathers from a chicken or weeds from the ground
Melanau (Mukah) dudutpull out, as a post or a tree; pluck feathers
Malay jonjot (secondary prenasalization)picking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum
Minangkabau jujutpicking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-z