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Updated: 7/22/2017


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        

aAklanon(WMP) exclamation of discovery; "ah" (with high intonation) PMP *a₃

-aAklanon(WMP) suffix attached to verbs of object focus #1 (with infix -in- or suffix -on) to express a command PAN *-a₁

aAmis(Formosan) a connecting particle with some of the meaning of "and"; modifying particle PAN *a₅

aAnuta(OC) particle placed between a preposition and a personal pronoun or a proper name, but not before a common noun PMP *a₁

-a'Āre'āre(OC) personal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed to verb (with or without verbal suffix) as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory object, and used both of persons and things: him, her, it; where the object is collective the anticipatory object is used in the singular, and not in the plural PMP *-a₂

aArosi(OC) personal article, used with names native or foreign; used with a common noun to personify; with verbs or adjectives to form a descriptive noun or nickname; and with pronouns; it seems to have been used once with names of places; also used with relationship terms PMP *a₁

-aArosi(OC) personal pronoun: he, she, it; suffixed to verbs and prepositions PMP *-a₂

a-Arosi(OC) an adjectival prefix, showing condition, often a shortened form of the prefix ta or ma POC *a-

a-Arosi(OC) a prefix of spontaneity PMP *ta-₂

aAsilulu(CMP) hesitation word: umm, uh PAN *a₄

-aAtayal(Formosan) suffix forming active subjunctive from the reduced stem, sometimes preceded by the prefix m- PAN *-a₃

-aBalinese(WMP) suffix indicating the third person (singular or plural) as a pronoun expressing the genitive, or the agent of a passive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb PMP *-a₂

-aBare'e(WMP) polite form of -ña 'pronominal suffix of the 3rd person PMP *-a₂

a-Banggai(WMP) causative prefix PAN *pa-₂

-aBikol(WMP) alternant command suffix for verbs taking -on in the infinitive PAN *-a₁

ãBintulu(WMP) no, not PWMP *aqa

aMongondow(WMP) exclamation capable of expressing joy or amazement, as well as fear and shock PMP *a₃

-aMongondow(WMP) suffix that incites to action (no longer in general use) PAN *-a₁

a-Mongondow(WMP) prefixed marker of location; a monik 'above, on top', a monag 'below, underneath' PAN *qa₁

a-Mongondow(WMP) prefixed marker of location; a monik 'above, on top', a monag 'below, underneath' PMP *ha₃

ʔaBontok(WMP) tag question, typically with a rising intonation PMP *ha₁

aBugotu(OC) personal article, used with proper names; used also of particular persons and with relationship terms PMP *a₁

aBugotu(OC) exclamation: oh! used in address PMP *a₃

-aBugotu(OC) suffixed pronoun of the object, added to verbs and prepositions; 3sg., him, her, it; serves as anticipatory object PMP *-a₂

a-Buludupi(WMP) adjectival prefix PWMP *ha-

-aBunun(Formosan) imperative suffix (Nihira 1983) PAN *-a₁

-aCebuano(WMP) subjunctive direct passive affix PAN *-a₃

a-Chuukese(OC) locative prefix, at PAN *qa₁

a-Chuukese(OC) locative prefix, at PMP *ha₃

-aEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) 3sg. object suffix PMP *-a₂

aFijian(OC) common article, used (1) before nouns: a tamata 'a man or the man'; (2) before possessives (really nouns): a noqu 'mine'; (3) before the preformative i PMP *a₁

aFijian(OC) conjunction: and or but PMP *a₂

-aFijian(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-a₂

-aGedaged(OC) a suffix added to certain finite verb forms to indicate that the third person plural is the undergoer of an action PMP *-a₂

-aGilbertese(OC) personal pronoun object suffix of the 3rd person, joined to a transitive verb PMP *-a₂

aGilbertese(OC) four PEMP *pat

aGorontalo(WMP) expression of satisfaction or ridicule PMP *a₃

aHawaiian(OC) and, then, but (usually preceding verbs, whereas a me usually precedes nouns; a may also connect words translated by English adjectives PMP *a₂

a-Ifugaw(WMP) kind of prepositional prefix which makes certain word-bases adjectival and descriptive, as if they were preceded by the preposition 'with'; in the Kiangan area an- is preferred to simple a- for some word-bases: a-tike/an-tike/ 'short (with shortness)' PWMP *ha-

aItbayaten(WMP) connective particle; adjective-noun connective, clause connective PAN *a₅

-aJavanese(WMP) imperative suffix PAN *-a₁

-aJavanese(WMP) subjunctive suffix PAN *-a₃

a-Javanese(WMP) prefix, adjective and verb formative; having, characterized by: doh, a-doh 'far-off, distant' PWMP *ha-

a-Kadazan Dusun(WMP) adjectival prefix PWMP *ha-

áKambera(CMP) interjection of surprise or terror PMP *a₃

-aKanakanabu(Formosan) imperative suffix PAN *-a₁

aKapampangan(WMP) introductory exclamation like English Oh or Well PMP *a₃

-aKapingamarangi(OC) imperative (transitivizing) suffix PAN *-a₁

-aKapingamarangi(OC) object marker for 3sg. pronoun PMP *-a₂

aKavalan(Formosan) nominative marker or linker between the attribute and head noun of an NP PAN *a₅

aLabel(OC) definite and indefinite article PMP *a₁

aLabel(OC) ligature between nouns; also binds possessive pronouns and adjectives with nouns; genitive particle PAN *a₅

aLabel(OC) a binding particle between nouns; genitive particle PMP *ha₂

aLeti(CMP) emphatic particle used to indicate a question PMP *ha₁

aLonwolwol(OC) and, (but) PMP *a₂

aLou(OC) and PMP *a₂

aMakasarese(WMP) exclamation: ha! See what I told you! PMP *a₃

a-Makasarese(WMP) prefix used before adjectives (mostly in 17th and 18th century texts) PWMP *ha-

a-Malagasy(WMP) a verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb. Thus from fafy, sowing, we get a-fafy, used of the seed sown, in correlation to the passive verb fafazana from the same root, used of the ground sown PWMP *ha-

a-Malagasy(WMP) a prefix used like an-, am-, and i-, to make a noun into a preposition; e.g. morona '(the) edge', amorona 'at the edge'; nosy 'an island', anosy 'on an island' PAN *qa₁

a-Malagasy(WMP) a prefix used like an-, am-, and i-, to make a noun into a preposition; e.g. morona '(the) edge', amorona 'at the edge'; nosy 'an island', anosy 'on an island' PMP *ha₃

ʔaManam(OC) and PAN *ka₁

aMandar(WMP) Oh! (exclamation expressing surprise at an unexpected occurrence, and as a response to a question or explanation) PMP *a₃

-aMansaka(WMP) suffix: active, imperative mode, object orientation PAN *-a₁

aMaori(OC) particle used 1. before names of persons, the pronouns wai and mea, and names of canoes, months, etc. a) when they stand as subject in a sentence, b) when they follow any of the prepositions i, ki, hei, kei, c) in explanatory clauses PMP *a₁

a-Maori(OC) particle used before names of places and local nouns when they (a) stand as subject in a sentence, (b) are repeated by way of explanation PAN *qa₁

a-Maori(OC) particle used before names of places and local nouns when they (a) stand as subject in a sentence, (b) are repeated by way of explanation PMP *ha₃

-aMaranao(WMP) objective/obligatory suffix PMP *-a₂

a-Mentawai(WMP) prefix indicating the completion of an event e.g. bala 'come out', a-bala 'it is out' PWMP *ha-

aManggarai(CMP) (at the beginning of a sentence) ah!; exclamation of surprise, contempt, etc. PMP *a₃

-aManggarai(CMP) postposed question marker PMP *ha₁

āMono-Alu(OC) exclamation PMP *a₃

-aMono-Alu(OC) suffix of place PAN *qa₁

-aMota(OC) personal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed as object to verb and preposition; him, her, it PMP *-a₂

a-Mota(OC) simple preposition, locative; at; before infinitive verb, to; used before the names of places; forms compound preposition, avune 'on', etc. PAN *qa₁

a-Mota(OC) simple preposition, locative; at; before infinitive verb, to; used before the names of places; forms compound preposition, avune 'on', etc. PMP *ha₃

-aMotu(OC) 3sg. object suffix PMP *-a₂

-aLakalai(OC) 3rd person sg. object pronoun, suffixed to verb PMP *-a₂

aNgadha(CMP) interjection: ah! oh! PMP *a₃

aNggela(OC) personal article, with names of people; prefix to personal pronouns; prefixed to hanu, indefinite pronoun 'So-and-so'; personifies when prefixed to verbs PMP *a₁

-aNggela(OC) he, she, it, as suffixed to transitive verb PMP *-a₂

aNias(WMP) conjunction: and (in counting and determining dimensions), then PMP *a₂

aNiue(OC) particle used in the following cases: 1. before pronouns (except au), personal names, or local nouns when they are the subject of an intransitive verb; 2. before pronouns, personal nouns and names of months when they follow the prepositions ki and i; 3. before a common noun following (but not preceding) a possessive pronoun; 4. before a demonstrative pronoun drawing attention to a noun associated with an indefinite article and an adjective; 5. after falu (some), a is used in place of the ordinary article, either singular or plural PMP *a₁

aNukuoro(OC) personal article PMP *a₁

aPaiwan(Formosan) equational construction marker for noun phrase PAN *a₅

aPalauan(WMP) article PMP *a₁

aPalauan(WMP) ligature, linking particle PAN *a₅

aPangasinan(WMP) interjection marking hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc. PAN *a₄

aPangasinan(WMP) linking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. PAN *a₅

aPangasinan(WMP) linking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. PMP *ha₂

aPazeh(Formosan) co-ordinate particle (links head and attribute) PAN *a₅

aPohnpeian(OC) conjunction: however, and PMP *a₂

aRarotongan(OC) relative pronoun used before personal pronouns and before proper nouns PMP *a₁

ʔāRarotongan(OC) hoarse, husky POC *paRak

āRarotongan(OC) four PEMP *pat

aRembong(CMP) exclamation: ah! PMP *a₃

-aRennellese(OC) suffix with passive, transitivizing, and multiplicative meanings, in close juncture PMP *-a₂

ʔāRotuman(OC) to eat; to use up, go through, consume PAN *kaen

-aRoviana(OC) objective suffix PMP *-a₂

-aRukai(Formosan) imperative suffix (Li 1973:37, 286) PAN *-a₁

aSa'a(OC) personal article, used with all names of persons, and with certain nouns, and also with verbs; (a) precedes all personal names (except in the vocative), both native and foreign, male and female; (b) used with relationship terms to indicate a particular person, (c) the relationship terms huʔe 'wife', poro 'husband', keni 'woman, wife', mwela 'child', are not ordinarily preceded by a, but require the addition of a demonstrative; (d) in stories the article a may be prefixed to poro and huʔe, which may be translated 'Lord' and 'Lady'; (e) after the Melanesian idiom the noun ola, prefaced by the personal article a; a ola/, denotes 'So-and-so'; (f) the nouns kei, denoting a female, mwai, denoting a male, mwau, boy, are used with the personal article and a demonstrative; (g) the interrogative atei 'who, what person' is made up of a and tei 'interrogative'; (h) there is a regular use of a in personification; (i) used with a verb to indicate a descriptive title PMP *a₁

-aSaaroa(Formosan) object focus imperative PAN *-a₁

a-Samoan(OC) particle occurring in certain nominal constructions, especially with locatives PAN *qa₁

a-Samoan(OC) particle occurring in certain nominal constructions, especially with locatives PMP *ha₃

-aSasak(WMP) pronominal suffix marking the object in imperatives PAN *-a₁

aThao(Formosan) linking particle, ligature, mark of lexical, phrasal, or clausal attribution or modification PAN *a₅

aTigak(OC) article: a, the PMP *a₁

aTolai(OC) definite and indefinite article: the, a, an. It is prefixed to all common nouns, except those of a personal nature expressing relationships, parts of the body and person equipment, and also to adjectives; the possessive pronouns do not take it PMP *a₁

aTolai(OC) preposition: to, in, of, at PAN *qa₁

aTolai(OC) preposition: to, in, of, at PMP *ha₃

-aTongan(OC) suffix forming transitive verbs, usually durational PMP *-a₂

āTongan(OC) to heat (sticks or leaves) over a fire in order to make them limp or soft PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

aTontemboan(WMP) exclamation of surprise (short for ya) PMP *a₃

-aTontemboan(WMP) a short form of the pronominal suffix of the 3rd person, used with words that end in a consonant; it marks not so much the genitive relationship of the subject as the relationship of the word with -a to the word that follows it PMP *-a₂

a-Tontemboan(WMP) (followed or not followed by a nasal), prefix that expresses the dative or locative: to, in, at, on, toward, with, over PAN *qa₁

a-Tontemboan(WMP) (followed or not followed by a nasal), prefix that expresses the dative or locative: to, in, at, on, toward, with, over PMP *ha₃

-aUma(WMP) the basic sense of the suffix -a is locative, although this basic sense is applied and extended in a variety of directions, so that there is often little or nothing of a local function left to perceive. As for the relationship of -a to the similarly local suffix -i, it can be said in general that -i is found in verbal, -a in nominal forms. There are, however, also many exceptions to this rule ... a. when added to a noun derived from a verb or adjective -a denotes the place or time in which the action takes place or the condition in question prevails; this suffix also occurs with forms that are prefixed with ka- and a possessive pronoun; b. -a is added to (underived) nouns in the sense 'having, supplied with, suffering from. These forms are adjectives, and have no prefix PAN *-an

-aUma(WMP) 3sg. object (especially in future (gerundive) constructions) PMP *-a₂

aWaropen(SHWNG) wood; tree (in combination forms) PCEMP *kayu₁

-aWolio(WMP) 3p. object suffix PMP *-a₂

-aWolio(WMP) verbal suffix: subjunctive PAN *-a₃

-a, -iaMotu(OC) transitive suffix POC *-ia


TOP      a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        


*a[sS]ePMic(OC) jaw, chin POC *qase


TOP      a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        


aaBare'e(WMP) an exclamation which expresses a variety of emotions, above all uncertainty, amazement or annoyance PMP *a₃

ʔaʔaBontok(WMP) expression of warning to small children, as for example against touching something hot or dirty PWMP *aqa

aʔaHawaiian(OC) small root, vein, artery, nerve, tendon, muscle PMP *akaR

aʔaKadazan Dusun(WMP) no PWMP *aqa

aaKamarian(CMP) to eat PAN *kaen

aaMuna(WMP) waist PMP *hawak

aaNukuoro(OC) the sound of hesitation noise PAN *a₄

aʔaSamoan(OC) root PMP *akaR

aaTigak(OC) exclamation: ah! PMP *a₃

aaaAtayal(Formosan) maybe; hesitation syllable PAN *a₄

ʔa-ʔablPalauan(WMP) (mother and child) walk together, with child carried under mother's arm PMP *qabin

aadaArosi(OC) to look up, raise the eyes POC *tadra

aadaʔ-iArosi(OC) look up to POC *tadra

ááfChuukese(OC) fire POC *api


TOP      a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        

aʔafaAua(OC) frigate bird POC *katapa


TOP      a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        


aagKelabit(WMP) minced fish or meat, so called because the traditional way of making such products was by tediously chopping (naag) away at the fish or meat until the whole became finely chopped, like minced fish or meat PWMP *sagsag₂

aagLun Dayeh(WMP) the chopping of meat or bones into small pieces PWMP *sagsag₂

a-ahaBugotu(OC) grate, rub down on a stone (as taro) sharpen by rubbing PEMP *asaq

a-aiTontemboan(WMP) arrival PAN *ai₃

a aiTuvaluan(OC) whose? PMP *sai

aaiWolio(WMP) I don't know! PWMP *away₃

aakUma(WMP) waist PMP *hawak

aalCarolinian(OC) path, road POC *salan

a-áluKanakanabu(Formosan) eight PAN *walu

áámChuukese(OC) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

aamKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

aamMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

a-ʔanIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) the taste of a staple or snack food, such as rice, sweet potato, bread or pastries, fermented rice grains, and fruit PAN *kaen

aanChuukese(OC) road, street, path, way, route, course (at sea); approach (to a job or problem); method, way (of doing); line of reckoning (in genealogies); Milky Way (short for anenimey, lit. path of breadfruit, because on this heavenly path the breadfruit comes from its southern homeland when summoned by the sowuyótoomey, the breadfruit summoner who performs the ritual to induce the spirit of the breadfruit to come each year from its southern homeland to Truk and ensure a good breadfruit harvest) POC *salan

a-ʔanSimalur(WMP) to feed PAN *pa-kaen

a-anákCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) toy doll PWMP *a-anak-an

a-anak-anBanjarese(WMP) doll PWMP *a-anak-an

a-anak-ánIlokano(WMP) womb, uterus, matrix PWMP *a-anak-an

a-anasaMussau(OC) warm, hot; to heat (as water) POC *pa-panas

ʔa-ʔanoSamoan(OC) flesh; kernel, meat; gist, essence, heart (of the matter); fleshy; meaty, substantial (as a sermon); of words, speech, etc., be full of substance POC *kanon₂

a-ansiLauje(WMP) pity PMP *qasiq

aaŋTae'(WMP) float, drift on the water PWMP *qabaŋ₂

a-apatPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) four (humans) PAN *Sa-Sepat

aasChuukese(OC) upper part, top, summit; eastern side; above (vertically) PMP *atas

ʔa-asiDondo(WMP) pity PMP *qasiq

aatTugun(CMP) four PMP *epat

aatúChuukese(OC) to smoke, to steam; cause to be smoked or steamed (for curing) PMP *pa(ka)-qasu

aʔauSamoan(OC) reef PMP *sakaRu

aawChuukese(OC) mouth; opening into something stem end (of fruit); stalk end (of taro) POC *qawa₂

aawChuukese(OC) a tree: Ficus carolinensis. the bark is used as medicine against evil spirits; fruits and leaves used as medicine; roots used to flavor a special breadfruit pudding PEMP *qayawan

ʔaʔayPalawan Batak(WMP) foot, leg (Reid 1971) PAN *qaqay


TOP      a,    a[    aa        aa    ab    ac    ad    ae    af    ag    ah    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an        ao    ap    ar    as    at    au    av    aw    ax    ay    az        


ʔabPalauan(WMP) ashes; fireplace; hearth PMP *qabu₂

abaArosi(OC) the half, a part, side, portion, chapter; the slope of a hill, one side of a ridge POC *taba₂

abaArosi(OC) half, part, side POC *tabal

abaAtayal(Formosan) father. Used in direct address only; otherwise i-aba (< i 'prefix for persons' + aba) PAN *aba₁

abaBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) expression of warning to stop an action PWMP *abá

abaBimanese(CMP) father (used only within the family circle) PAN *aba₁

ʔabáBontok(WMP) carry on one's back, as a child or sick person PPh *aba₂

abáCebuano(WMP) exclamation of pleasure and surprise PWMP *abá

ʔabáHanunóo(WMP) an exclamation of surprise, admiration, wonder; the more commonly used form is ʔabaʔabá PWMP *abá

abáKankanaey(WMP) carry on the back (children are ordinarily carried in that way) PPh *aba₂

ábaMalagasy(WMP) father, chiefly used by children PAN *aba₁

abaMaranao(WMP) ah -- exclamation of surprise PWMP *abá

abaNgadha(CMP) tasteless, very mild, insipid PMP *qambaR

abaNgaju Dayak(WMP) father (used by and with small children) PAN *aba₁

abaSubanen/Subanun(WMP) alas! PWMP *abá

abáTagalog(WMP) emphatic denial; sudden reproach; simple surprise; hail! PWMP *abá

abáToba Batak(WMP) exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas! PWMP *abá

a-ba-báyRukai (Tanan)(Formosan) woman PAN *ba-bahi

ab-abóIsneg(WMP) the powder that covers the body of locusts PMP *qabu₂

abadaIbaloy(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

ábagCebuano(WMP) give material help, help do work PPh *abag

abāgIsneg(WMP) a man’s G-string; the string of a bow net PMP *bahaR

abágKankanaey(WMP) put their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody PPh *abag

abagMurut (Timugon)(WMP) loincloth PMP *bahaR

abágaBikol(WMP) shoulder; side of a mountain PMP *qabaRa

abágaCebuano(WMP) shoulder; take responsibility for accomplishing something PMP *qabaRa

abágaIlokano(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abagáMansaka(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abágaMansaka(WMP) top hand on a stalk of bananas PMP *qabaRa₂

ʔabagáPalawan Batak(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abagaYogad(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abága(h)Aklanon(WMP) shoulder(s); take responsibility, to shoulder, take on PMP *qabaRa

abagá-hunCebuano(WMP) broad-shouldered PMP *qabaRa

abága-nKankanaey(WMP) shoulder (used only in tales) PAN *qabaRa-an

abágatCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) southwest monsoon winds PMP *habaRat

ʔabágatHanunóo(WMP) southwest monsoon; or, indefinitely, any very strong wind; year PMP *habaRat

abagatMaranao(WMP) southwest monsoon PMP *habaRat

abá(h)Aklanon(WMP) to get, climb up on one's back PPh *aba₂

abá(h)Aklanon(WMP) an exclamation expressing strong disbelief: Really? Ah, go on! PWMP *abá

aba-hMalay(WMP) father, papa PAN *aba₁

abahMiri(WMP) wife PAN *qasawa

aba-hSundanese(WMP) father (rare) PAN *aba₁

abáhaItawis(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abah-ínTagalog(WMP) take notice of someone PWMP *abá

a-baʔiMaranao(WMP) mother (used by her own children); queen, lady PAN *baqi

abakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) waist, hips PMP *hawak

abakMentawai(WMP) boat; travel by boat PAN *qabaŋ₁

ábakaBikol(WMP) abaca, Manila hemp: Musa textilis PPh *abaká

ʔabakáHanunóo(WMP) Manila hemp, abacá (Musa textilis Ne'e) PPh *abaká

abakáIfugaw(WMP) Manila hemp PPh *abaká

abakáIlokano(WMP) Manila hemp PPh *abaká

abakaKapampangan(WMP) the abaca plant, fiber, or cloth PPh *abaká

abakáTagalog(WMP) hemp PPh *abaká

abaká(h)Aklanon(WMP) abaca fibres, Manila hemp: Musa textilis PPh *abaká

abaláPangasinan(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abal-ábalIlokano(WMP) kind of brown burrowing June beetle or June bug. Many people eat it. PPh *abal abal

ʔabal-ʔabalTiruray(WMP) kind of scarab beetle, Leucopholis irrorata Chevrolat PPh *abal abal

aʔ-ballaŋ-ballaŋMakasarese(WMP) with light discoloration, with white spots (as a french-polished table which has gotten wet), with brown spots (as a manuscript) PWMP *belaŋ belaŋ

ʔabánBontok(WMP) blanket or length of cloth used for carrying children; carry a child using a carrying blanket PMP *haban

abanDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) atmosphere, the firmament PWMP *hawan

aʔ-bantaŋMakasarese(WMP) stretched taut PMP *benteŋ

aʔ-bantiŋMakasarese(WMP) beat wet clothes on a plank or stone, as in washing them; suddenly flip over, of an automobile or bicycle PMP *bantiŋ

ábaŋAklanon(WMP) obstruct, block, hinder; waylay, ambush PMP *abaŋ₁

abaŋBalinese(WMP) gutter, drain-pipe, channel PWMP *abaŋ₂

abaŋKelabit(WMP) ditch, canal PWMP *abaŋ₂

abaŋKelabit(WMP) an ambush PMP *abaŋ₁

ʔábaŋBontok(WMP) to rent; the amount of rent that one pays PWMP *abaŋ₃

ábaŋCebuano(WMP) rent; hire a prostitute; make an offering to a supernatural being for the use of land which is thought to be in his possession PWMP *abaŋ₃

abaŋGaddang(WMP) boat, canoe PAN *qabaŋ₁

ábaŋIlokano(WMP) rent, rental, hire, interest PWMP *abaŋ₃

abaŋKayan(WMP) trench, ditch, excavation PWMP *abaŋ₂

abaŋKomodo(CMP) cross-beam PMP *abaŋ₁

abaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) an ambush of an animal or enemy; a blocking, a guarding PMP *abaŋ₁

ábaŋPangasinan(WMP) rent, interest PWMP *abaŋ₃

*a(b)aŋPSS(WMP) float, drift PWMP *qabaŋ₂

abaŋSimalur(WMP) to fly PWMP *qabaŋ₂

abaŋTae'(WMP) band, as an iron band around a chisel PWMP *amben

abáŋTagalog(WMP) person asked to wait and watch for someone or some vehicle to come or pass by PMP *abaŋ₁

abáŋ-abáŋBikol(WMP) a hindrance (referring to a person who is always in the way) PMP *abaŋ₁

abaŋ-abaŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) fly about in the air like a bird PWMP *qabaŋ qabaŋ

abaŋ-abaŋManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) be floating PWMP *qabaŋ qabaŋ

abaŋ-abaŋKaro Batak(WMP) tree with large leguminous fruits that produce very light, winged seeds PWMP *qabaŋ qabaŋ

abaŋ-anBalinese(WMP) channel, groove PWMP *abaŋ₂

abáŋ-anIlokano(WMP) to rent, hold under a lease, hire PWMP *abaŋ₃

abaŋ-anMalay(WMP) water conduit of split pinaŋ stem PWMP *abaŋ₂

abaŋ-anSasak(WMP) drain-pipe from roof, aqueduct PWMP *abaŋ₂

ʔabaŋəSaaroa(Formosan) boat, canoe PAN *qabaŋ₁

abaŋ-papakSika(CMP) block the road, cut off the way PMP *abaŋ₁

abaŋuKanakanabu(Formosan) boat, canoe PAN *qabaŋ₁

abaraToba Batak(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abara-nUbir(OC) shoulder POC *qapaRa₁

ábasIlokano(WMP) kind of tumor or swelling that grows in the mouths of animals PPh *hábas

abasMaranao(WMP) chicken pox PPh *hábas

a-basõNias(WMP) become wet PMP *baseq

a-bassu-aŋMandar(WMP) satiation, glutting PWMP *besuR-en

ʔábatBontok(WMP) perform a ceremony for someone who has had a spirit encounter; such a ceremony PPh *abat₂

abatBuruese(CMP) wound PCEMP *abat₃

ábatCebuano(WMP) hold on to something fixed to support oneself PWMP *abat₁

abátCebuano(WMP) any supernatural being or human with supernatural powers which shows itself in an unexpected and startling way PPh *abat₂

ʔábatHanunóo(WMP) leading by the hand PWMP *abat₁

ábatIlokano(WMP) intercept, stop on the way PMP *qambat

ábatIsneg(WMP) a spirit who brings sickness to people whoever they are and wherever they abide PPh *abat₂

abatKaro Batak(WMP) hindrance PMP *qambat

abatToba Batak(WMP) hindrance, impediment, obstacle PMP *qambat

abat-ánCebuano(WMP) railing in the shape of a ladder for baby to cling to when he starts to walk PWMP *abat₁

abat-ánTagalog(WMP) waylay or ambush (someone) PMP *qambat

abátirIlokano(WMP) a grub that attacks wood, bamboo, etc. PMP *qabatiR

abatodManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) edible larva of palm tree beetle PMP *qabated

abawaŋSimalur(WMP) large mango: Mangifera odorata PWMP *qambawaŋ

abáxaIsneg(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

abaxa-nPazeh(Formosan) shoulder (Ferrell 1969) PAN *qabaRa-an

ʔabaxaʔPazeh(Formosan) shoulder (Ferrell 1968) PAN *qabaRa₁

ábayAklanon(WMP) sponsor (at wedding or baptism) PWMP *abay

ábayBikol(WMP) accompany one another; participate in something together; best man, brides maid PWMP *abay

abayCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) stay parallel with (as for two people to walk side by side, or for workers harvesting in a field to stay together in a row, rather than one getting ahead of the others) PWMP *abay

abáyCebuano(WMP) move along together with something moving; bridesmaid or best man PWMP *abay

ábayKankanaey(WMP) to use like a friend; be the companion of; be friendly to; take a liking to; make very much of PWMP *abay

abáyMansaka(WMP) be abreast PWMP *abay

ábayPangasinan(WMP) side, proximity; to approach, go near person or object close by; put beside PWMP *abay

ábayTagalog(WMP) best man in a wedding; maid-of-honor; escort PWMP *abay

ʔaba-yTiruray(WMP) father PAN *aba₁

abayaSambal (Botolan)(WMP) shoulder PMP *qabaRa

a-bay-ánəRukai (Tona)(Formosan) woman PAN *bahi

aʔ-bayaraʔMakasarese(WMP) pay something or someone PMP *bayaD

abbanGaddang(WMP) carry a child in a blanket PMP *haban

ábbanItawis(WMP) hold a baby PMP *heban

abbātIsneg(WMP) boil salt water, in the manufacture of salt PPh *hebás

abbédIlokano(WMP) obstacle, hindrance (mostly used for material obstruction) PWMP *habed

abeArosi(OC) carry something against the chest, as firewood POC *tabe

ʔabeArosi(OC) a creeping, jointed plant, from whose strands string is made; a woman’s string girdle POC *kabe₁

abeKapampangan(WMP) accompany; live together, stay together; friend, companion (used as a term of address) PWMP *abay

abəkCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) mat PWMP *a(m)bek

ʔabə́lBontok(WMP) weave cloth PWMP *habél

abélIlokano(WMP) textile, (woven) cloth, web, texture, tissue, woven fabric PWMP *habél

ʔabélPalawan Batak(WMP) clothing, garments PWMP *habél

abélPangasinan(WMP) cloth PWMP *habél

a-belahBalinese(WMP) half a fathom (from fingertip to center of chest) PAN *belaq

a-belahOld Javanese(WMP) separated PAN *ma-belaq

abeŋCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) canoe, small boat (with outriggers); to travel by boat PAN *qabaŋ₁

abeŋMadurese(WMP) obstruct, block PWMP *hambeŋ

a-beŋkuŋOld Javanese(WMP) bent, crooked PMP *beŋkuŋ

abetAlas(WMP) coil; cloth that is wound around the body PWMP *ambet

abetKelabit(WMP) way of tying; thing used to tie PWMP *ambet

abetMaranao(WMP) strap PWMP *ambet

abəyMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) late afternoon, evening PMP *Rabiqi

abəy-mabəyMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) yesterday evening PMP *Rabiqi

abhaNgadha(CMP) cut oneself, wound PCEMP *abat₃

abhaWolio(WMP) father (term of address), daddy PAN *aba₁

a-bhaŋkeMuna(WMP) to die, become a corpse PWMP *baŋkay

abiKelabit(WMP) last one PWMP *qabis

abiBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) take hold of something, grasp something POC *abi

abiBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) take hold of something, grasp something POC *qabi

abiGedaged(OC) take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take POC *abi

abiGedaged(OC) take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take POC *qabi

abiGedaged(OC) to take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take POC *kabi

abiLakalai(OC) take, catch, get POC *abi

abi-aMotu(OC) to have, hold POC *kabi

abi-abiKelabit(WMP) all, evey one PWMP *qabis

abidMansaka(WMP) copulate, engage in sexual intercourse PPh *abij

a-bidaŋBalinese(WMP) one page, one sheet PWMP *bidaŋ

abídayIlokano(WMP) to throw (a blanket, etc.) over the shoulder PPh *qambiday

ábigIlokano(WMP) to copulate (usually applied to adultery) PPh *abij

abígayIlokano(WMP) throw a blanket over the shoulder PPh *abijay

abígayIlokano(WMP) to throw (a blanket, etc.) over the shoulder PPh *qambijay

*abihPCha(WMP) all PWMP *qabiq

aʔ-biluʔMakasarese(WMP) steer a car, turn a car to left or right PMP *biluk

abinAlas(WMP) hug a child who is cold PMP *qabin

abinBalinese(WMP) hold in the lap PMP *qabin

abinBanggai(WMP) carry in the arms PMP *qabin

abinCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) fold (of the part of the g-string which is wrapped around the waist, and which men use to carry money, betel chew, etc.) PWMP *hambin

abinKaro Batak(WMP) hold in the lap, hold or carry against the bosom PMP *qabin

abinMaranao(WMP) carry on or near the stomach PMP *qabin

abin-abin-enKaro Batak(WMP) the lap PMP *qabin

abiraArosi(OC) a basket made of coconut leaf POC *tabiRa

abiraBauro(OC) food bowl POC *tabiRa

aʔ-biriŋMakasarese(WMP) step aside, yield the way PMP *bidiŋ

aʔ-biriŋMakasarese(WMP) step aside, yield the way PMP *biriŋ₁

abisIban(WMP) everyone, all, the whole, entirely; finished, used up PWMP *qabis

a-bisógPangasinan(WMP) bloated, puffed up PAN *bisuR

abitIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) wedge anything between waistband of loincloth and body PMP *habit

abitBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) plaited rattan carrying strap PMP *habit

abitDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) sarong PMP *habit

abitKaro Batak(WMP) the long cloth that is fixed under the armpits by women PMP *habit

abitMentawai(WMP) take along with, bring hither PMP *ambit

*abitPSan(WMP) climb a tree PWMP *abit₁

ʔabl-ənBontok(WMP) what is woven PWMP *habel-en

abōʔAcehnese(WMP) mould, dust, grit, sawdust, scrapings PMP *qabuk

abóBikol(WMP) ash, cinder PMP *qabu₂

ʔabúBontok(WMP) ashes which settle after something is burned; dust which settles after pounding rice or cleaning something PMP *qabu₂

aboFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) ashes or cinders; lime PAN *qabu₁

áboIlokano(WMP) ash-gray; cock with gray plumage and reddish tail PMP *qabu₂

abóIsneg(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

abóKankanaey(WMP) dust (used instead of abé in mourning songs) PMP *qabu₂

ʔáboPalawan Batak(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

abóTagalog(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

abodMaranao(WMP) feed by casting grains, as to fowls PWMP *qabud

abogMansaka(WMP) drive away, chase away PPh *ábuR

abogMaranao(WMP) scatter, drive away PPh *ábuR

abó(h)Aklanon(WMP) ash(es); to make ashes PMP *qabu₂

a-bohOld Javanese(WMP) swollen (of eyes, feet) PAN *baReq

aboh-ónBikol(WMP) gray; a grayish colored chicken PWMP *qabu-en

abokIban(WMP) mess, shavings, sawdust, dust, padi bran PMP *qabuk

abókTagalog(WMP) thin dust; cinder; powder PMP *qabuk

a bokonSeru(WMP) no, not PWMP *beken

aboḷMongondow(WMP) to weave PWMP *habél

ʔábulBontok(WMP) chase away chickens or animals, using a stick; the stick so used PPh *ábuR

abólIfugaw(WMP) weaving; whatever pertains to weaving PWMP *habél

abótAklanon(WMP) arrive, get to one's destination, go as far as; catch up (with/to); overcome by, overwhelmed PPh *qabut

abótBikol(WMP) arrive, come, reach PPh *qabut

a-botJavanese(WMP) weight, a weight PMP *ma-beReqat

abotMansaka(WMP) arrive; yield (as from a farm crop) PPh *qabut

ábotPangasinan(WMP) catch up (with) PPh *qabut

ábotTagalog(WMP) overtaken, abreast with PPh *qabut

abótTagalog(WMP) within reach PPh *qabut

abotToba Batak(WMP) hindrance, impediment, obstacle PWMP *habed

a-botaKwaio(OC) open; hatched, of eggs; smashed; break making big noise POC *posaq

a-botaToqabaqita(OC) of an egg: hatch; of a state of affairs: happen, occur, take place POC *posaq

abot-ónBikol(WMP) be reached PPh *qabut-en

absiʔKapampangan(WMP) satisfied (with respect to hunger) PAN *besuR

a-bsoyItbayaten(WMP) idea of stomach fullness PAN *besuR

absoy-enItbayaten(WMP) to sate, to satisfy PWMP *besuR-en

abtekItbayaten(WMP) belt PPh *betek₁

abtekYami(WMP) belt PPh *betek₁

abuArosi(OC) dehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc. POC *tabu

abuBalinese(WMP) ashes, earth mixed with ash; cigar-ash; dirt; dust, powder PMP *qabu₂

abuMongondow(WMP) ash, hearth, cooking place (part of the house) PMP *qabu₂

abúCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) fireplace, ashes, stove PMP *qabu₂

abúCebuano(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

abuIban(WMP) dust, fine ash PMP *qabu₂

ábuKankanaey(WMP) drive away, turn out, expel PPh *ábuR

abúKapampangan(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

abuKaro Batak(WMP) ash, dust PMP *qabu₂

abuKenyah(WMP) ash, stove PMP *qabu₂

abuKwaio(OC) sacred, taboo POC *tabu

ābuLau(OC) taboo, holy POC *tabu

abuMentawai(WMP) white ash PMP *qabu₂

abuʔMurik(WMP) ashes from the cooking fire; hearth PMP *qabu₂

abuNumbami(OC) grandparent PMP *ampu

abuPazeh(Formosan) ashes PAN *qabu₁

*abuPMin(WMP) ash, dust PMP *qabu₂

*abuPSan(WMP) ashes, dust PMP *qabu₂

*a(b)uPSS(WMP) dust, ashes PMP *qabu₂

abuToqabaqita(OC) taboo, not allowed, forbidden POC *tabu

abu-Manusela(CMP) intestines PMP *kambu

abuábuCebuano(WMP) kind of fish PWMP *abu abu

abuábuCebuano(WMP) fish sp. PWMP *qabu qabu

abu-abuKwaio(OC) sacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed POC *tapu-tapu

abu-abuMakasarese(WMP) gray (of substances) PMP *qabu₂

aʔ-bua-buajaMakasarese(WMP) act like a crocodile, greedily devour everything; children's game in which a boy wrapped in a sarong with arms and legs outstretched creeps forward on the ground in order to catch the other boys PMP *buqaya₂

a-buʔbuʔMakasarese(WMP) toss sand over oneself, bathe in the sand, of birds PMP *bukbuk₃

ábudCebuano(WMP) throw grains to; drop grains into ahole in planting PWMP *qabud

a-buékPangasinan(WMP) drunk PMP *ma-buhek₁

abúgCebuano(WMP) dust; become dusty; turn into dust PWMP *abuR

abúgCebuano(WMP) dust; become dusty; turn into dust PWMP *qabug

ábugCebuano(WMP) chase, drive, drive away PPh *ábuR

abugManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) dust PWMP *abuR

abugManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) dust PWMP *qabug

abugManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) drive away, drive out, chase PPh *ábuR

ábugIlokano(WMP) drive, drive away, incite PPh *ábuR

ábugIsneg(WMP) sprinkle with salt (sliced cucumbers, pineapples, etc.) PWMP *qambuR

a-bughuBinukid(WMP) show jealousy, anger, be jealous of (a loved one) PMP *buRehuʔ

abuhKelabit(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

ábuh-anTagalog(WMP) ash-tray, ashcan, table stove PAN *qabu-an

abuh-ínTagalog(WMP) clean (something) with ashes; ashy, gray or grayish PWMP *qabu-en

abuh-ónAklanon(WMP) gray, ashen color(ed) PWMP *qabu-en

abúh-unCebuano(WMP) ash-colored PWMP *qabu-en

abukBanggai(WMP) fireplace, hearth PMP *qabuk

abukJavanese(WMP) powder PMP *qabuk

abukJavanese(WMP) powder; dung, manure PMP *Rabuk

abukMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) tiny ash-like particles in the air (as from sago flour that is too dry) PMP *qabuk

ābulIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) frighten away chickens, rice birds, pigs, flies in any effective manner PPh *ábuR

ábulIfugaw(WMP) chase, repel, drive away PPh *ábuR

aʔ-bulaʔMakasarese(WMP) cylindrical (as a pencil); in its entirety (not in pieces) PMP *bulat₁

a-buloLau(OC) to turn around, turn back, turn aside POC *ta-bulos

abu-loŋoKwaio(OC) unable to hear; fail to realize POC *roŋoR

aʔ-bulu kapasaʔMakasarese(WMP) with nest feathers (of doves); downy, showing the first signs of pubic hair (humorously for pubescent boys and girls) PMP *bulu₁

aʔ-bumbuŋMakasarese(WMP) plateful; heaping full, of a measuring cup with rice, etc.; raised up, banked up, of a place PMP *bunbun

abunKenyah(WMP) cloud PWMP *Rabun

abunMurik(WMP) cloud, fog PWMP *ambun

abunSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) cloud, fog PWMP *ambun

abuniyanIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) skyworld; the dwelling place of spirits PWMP *buni₂

ábuŋCebuano(WMP) bar, block the way; something which blocks the way PWMP *qambeŋ

aʔbuŋaMakasarese(WMP) blossoming, flowering; strew flowers on a grave; the first signs of an illness PMP *buŋa

abu-rGaloli(CMP) belly PCEMP *kampuŋ

abu-rGaloli(CMP) belly PMP *kambu

abusIban(WMP) ashes PMP *abus

aʔ-busaMakasarese(WMP) have foam or lather, as soap) PMP *busa₁

aʔ-busa-i bawa-yaMakasarese(WMP) 'the mouth foams', said of someone who has spoken a long time, as in admonishing another PMP *busa₁

abutBalinese(WMP) pull out, pull up; raise (anchor) PMP *abut

abUtBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) securing devices: pin, band, tie, string, belt PWMP *ambet

abútCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) come together, reach, meet, overtake or catch up with someone on the trail PPh *qabut

abútCebuano(WMP) arrive, reach a place; have a feeling come over one; be overtaken; come to an orgasm PPh *qabut

abutManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) arrive at, reach; come to pass, happen; of crops, to ripen PPh *qabut

ʔábutHanunóo(WMP) reach, reaching, as with the hand; arriving PPh *qabut

abútHiligaynon(WMP) arrive, reach, come to PPh *qabut

ábutIlokano(WMP) reach, be within one's reach, overtake, understand PPh *qabut

ábutKapampangan(WMP) reach; hand something to someone; understand PPh *qabut

abutMentawai(WMP) collect, gather PWMP *abun

*abutPMin(WMP) pull out PMP *abut

abutSasak(WMP) pull out (as plants from the ground); draw in, as a kite PMP *abut

abut-ənCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) catch up with PPh *qabut-en

abut-inTagalog(WMP) overtake (someone) or find (someone or something) upon reaching a place PPh *qabut-en

aʔ-buttaMakasarese(WMP) own land, be housed in a certain district PMP *buRtaq

aʔ-buttuMakasarese(WMP) be bumpy, have an uneven surface PMP *butequl

ʔabuwátHanunóo(WMP) tall, high, referring to people or objects; height PWMP *abuat

abw-anKapampangan(WMP) scour using ash PAN *qabu-an

abwatKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) long PWMP *abuat

a-bwatOld Javanese(WMP) heavy, burdening, severe; burdened; serious, grave, earnest PMP *ma-beReqat

ʔabwátPalawan Batak(WMP) large; long PWMP *abuat

abyákKapampangan(WMP) suckling pig (Bergaño 1860) PAN *beRek

abyásKapampangan(WMP) milled rice PMP *beRas₂


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acaŋIban(WMP) domestic pigeon PWMP *acaŋ

acaŋ-acaŋLampung(WMP) dove, pigeon PWMP *acaŋ

ʔacawaAmis(Formosan) child’s spouse, son-in-law or daughter-in-law PAN *qasawa

acawaSakizaya(Formosan) spouse; husband, wife PAN *qasawa

accemMadurese(WMP) tamarind (tree and fruit) PWMP *qalesem

accenMadurese(WMP) salted PAN *qasiN

accen-anMadurese(WMP) saltier; something that has been salted PWMP *qasin-an

acekManggarai(CMP) fence post, stake; drive in a stake or post PMP *hasek₁

acemDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) sour, sour taste of fruits, especially lime juice PWMP *qalesem

acemKaro Batak(WMP) anything used to increase the sourness of desserts, as the fruit of the cekala (Zingiberacea), gelugur, etc. PWMP *qalesem

acem-acemKaro Batak(WMP) small sour-tasting plant with clover-like leaves PWMP *qalesem qalesem

ʔacəvəSaaroa(Formosan) deadfall trap to catch rats PAN *qaCeb

acewBerawan (Long Jegan)(WMP) dog PAN *asu₁

achaiChamorro(WMP) chin PMP *qazay

acih gikkuhBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

ʔaciʔiSaaroa(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

acohBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) dog PAN *asu₁

acokIban(WMP) thrust, pierce, poke PWMP *hacuk

acsKosraean(OC) liver; gallbladder; blood clot, clotted blood PMP *qatay

acuManggarai(CMP) dog (often used to insult and mock people) PAN *asu₁


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-adGedaged(OC) suffix added to some finite verb stems to indicate that the undergoer of the action is the first person plural inclusive PAN *ata₁

adMokilese(OC) name; reputation PMP *ajan

ʔadPalauan(WMP) liver PMP *qatay

ʔadPalauan(WMP) man; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody PMP *qaRta

ʔadaAmis(Formosan) enemy PAN *qaNa

adaBalinese(WMP) be, exist; existence, being (Low Balinese) PMP *wada

adaBimanese(CMP) slave, servant; I PMP *qaRta

adaLau(OC) to see, to look POC *tadra

adaʔMaloh(WMP) don't PMP *edaʔ

adaMaloh(WMP) don't PMP *wada

adaMalay(WMP) existence; to be; present; to appertain to; (vulg.) to have PMP *wada

adaMotu(OC) stalk (pedicel) of one banana; stalk of various fruits; body of penis; the stalk (pedicel) of a bunch of bananas is kwasi POC *kada

adaWolio(WMP) borrow PMP *hezam

ada alāLau(OC) to look up, etc. POC *tadra

a-ḍa-ḍawuhOld Javanese(WMP) to give food, bestow gifts (on the part of the king) PWMP *dabuq

adadduIsneg(WMP) long (of objects) PWMP *adaduq

ad-adúIlokano(WMP) more PMP *hadu

a-dáemKankanaey(WMP) deep, profound PMP *dalem

adahdPohnpeian(OC) sharpen, put an edge on something (intransitive) POC *asaq-i

adaiIban(WMP) born, be born, give birth; supply, provide; have, possess PWMP *wada-i

adakNarum(WMP) sniff, smell, kiss PMP *hajek

a-dálamItawis(WMP) deep PMP *dalem

a-dalemOld Javanese(WMP) deep PMP *dalem

(a)dalem kaJavanese(WMP) me; my (also a response when called) PMP *dalem

a-dálomIfugaw(WMP) deep (depth of a river, pond, or lake) PMP *dalem

adanBalinese(WMP) name, appellation; give a name PMP *ajan

adanIbatan(WMP) be old (as a hat) PPH *daqan₂

adanIvatan(WMP) old (things) PPH *daqan₂

adanSesayap(WMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

adanYami(WMP) old (as a story, clothing) PAN *daqaN

adanYami(WMP) old (as a story, or clothing) PPH *daqan₂

adaníIlokano(WMP) near PMP *adani

adanníIsneg(WMP) near PMP *adani

adapIban(WMP) aspect, position; to face, seek an interview, go before, appear before, present oneself; on the side of, towards PMP *qadep

a-ḍapətOld Javanese(WMP) closely joined, compact, thick (darkness) PMP *dapet

adasBahasa Indonesia(WMP) kind of hemp, Cannabis sativa; a substance such as marijuana, hashish, etc., made from the leaves and flowers of this plant PWMP *aqedas

adasBalinese(WMP) mint, a sort of herb used in medicine and cooking PWMP *hadas

adāsIsneg(WMP) Scleria sp. A sedge whose leaves have very sharp edges. Attached to the ladder of the house where a sacrifice is offered, it keeps out evil spirits. It is also added to the feathers of the dúlaw ornament PWMP *aqedas

adasJavanese(WMP) fennel PWMP *hadas

adasLampung(WMP) plant whose seed is used to produce an oil: Foeniculum vulgare PWMP *hadas

adasMalay(WMP) fennel. Also (specifically) adas pedas or 'peppery adas' in contrast to adas manis ... 'sweet adas' or aniseed PWMP *hadas

adas manisBalinese(WMP) aniseed PWMP *hadas

adat laŋkahMinangkabau(WMP) extra fee for marrying a younger sister before the elder has been married off PMP *laŋkaq

adava-Motu(OC) husband, wife PAN *qasawa

adava-iaMotu(OC) marry PAN *qasawa

adawBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) day PAN *qajaw

adaw-anIlokano(WMP) to go far away from, get away from, keep one’s distance PPH *adayuq

adawíKankanaey(WMP) far, far off, at a distance, remote PPH *hadawiq

adáwi ~ adawíIfugaw(WMP) far PPH *hadawiq

adawilPuyuma(Formosan) far PAN *adawiN

ʔadáwwiBontok(WMP) far, distant PPH *hadawiq

*adayPSan(WMP) chin PMP *qazay

adayóIlokano(WMP) far, distant PPH *adayuq

aʔdaʔTae'(WMP) kind of plant with serrated stem that can cause wounds; the leaves are also very sharp PWMP *aqedas

addágIsneg(WMP) the back (of living things) PWMP *edeg

ad-dalómIfugaw(WMP) beneath, at the bottom (of a container); at the underworld PMP *dalem

addanIbanag(WMP) stairway, ladder PMP *haRezan

áddanItawis(WMP) stairs, ladder PMP *haRezan

addíIsneg(WMP) not PWMP *hediq

addí, adíIsneg(WMP) not PAN *qazi

adduAgta (Central Cagayan)(WMP) many PMP *hadu

addúgIsneg(WMP) thunder PMP *enduR

adeBanggai(WMP) mandible, chin PMP *qazay

adeBimanese(CMP) liver, inner part; inside; want, wish, desire PMP *qatay

adéʔGondang(WMP) no, not PWMP *hadiq

adeKapingamarangi(OC) liver PMP *qatay

ade-Lindrou(OC) heart PMP *qatay

adeMakasarese (Salayar)(WMP) chin PMP *qazay

adeMotu(OC) chin POC *qase

*adePMin(WMP) jaw PMP *qazay

adeHawu(CMP) liver PMP *qatay

adeSoboyo(CMP) chin PMP *qazay

ade eɗiBimanese(CMP) sole of the foot/leg PMP *qatay

adekBalinese(WMP) smell, be smelt, follow a scent PMP *hajek

adekBonggi(WMP) sniff, smell PMP *hajek

adəkKiput(WMP) sniff, smell, kiss PMP *hajek

adé-kMalay(WMP) younger sibling. Loosely, any young near relative such as a cousin; (affectionately) to a wife by her husband PMP *huaji-q

adekMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) sniff, smell, kiss PMP *hajek

adek-inBalinese(WMP) smell this! PAN *Sajek-en

adeŋBalinese(WMP) charcoal, carbon; ashes of a cremated body PMP *qajeŋ

adeŋKelabit(WMP) charcoal used in blacksmithing PMP *qajeŋ

adeŋSasak(WMP) charcoal PMP *qajeŋ

adepDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) breast PMP *qadep

ʔad ər a uʔúl a yaŋdPalauan(WMP) foreigner PMP *puqun nu laŋit

ade rimaBimanese(CMP) palm of the hand PMP *qatay

ʔádəsPalauan(WMP) road (orig. paved with stones) PMP *qatuR₁

adëyoCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) far, distant; to withdraw, go far away PPH *adayuq

a-dharaMadurese(WMP) to bleed PAN *daRaq

adiBalangao(WMP) no, negation of non-nominal expressions PAN *adi

adiBalinese(WMP) younger sibling; afterbirth, placenta PMP *huaji

ʔadíBontok(WMP) no, not, negator of verbs and adjectives PAN *qazi

ʔadiBontok(WMP) no, not, negative of verbs and adjectives PAN *adi

adiIfugaw(WMP) no, not PWMP *hadiq

adíIfugaw(WMP) negative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action, uggé must be used PAN *qazi

adiIfugaw(WMP) negative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action uggé must be used PAN *adi

aḍiJavanese(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji

adi-ʔLundu(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji-q

adi-ʔGana(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji-q

adi-Mokilese(OC) gall bladder POC *qasu₂

aɖiPuyuma (Nanwang)(Formosan) negation PAN *adi

adi-ʔSasak(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji-q

adiSeediq (Truku)(Formosan) negation expressing the rejection of a preceding implicit affirmation PAN *adi

adiToba Batak(WMP) that (demonstrative) PWMP *qadi

adiaMotu(OC) green jobfish: Aprion virescens; small-tooth emperor: Lethrinus microdon POC *kasika

adiʔ-adiʔSasak(WMP) afterbirth, placenta PMP *huaji-q

adiəwSa'ban(WMP) far PMP *zauq

adígiIlokano(WMP) post; pillar. Any of the principal posts on which the whole frame or skeleton of the house is built; any of the four posts that support the frame of a loom PAN *SadiRi

ʔadigoAmis(Formosan) shadow; human soul or spirit PAN *qaNiŋu

adihIban(WMP) exclamation of pain or surprise PWMP *ajiq

*adikPSan(WMP) to kiss PMP *hajek

adi k-atéyKankanaey(WMP) not to die PAN *ka-aCay

adi-k ber-adi-kMalay(WMP) be in a sibling relationship PWMP *maR-huaji

a-ḍimpitOld Javanese(WMP) closely joined, fastened together PWMP *diq(e)pit

adinBelait(WMP) name PMP *ajan

adi-ŋMalay(WMP) younger sibling (vocative) PWMP *huaji-ŋ

adipogpogIvatan(WMP) whirlwind PPH *qali-pugpug

a-diroŋIbaloy(WMP) shadow PAN *liduŋ

a-diroŋ-anIbaloy(WMP) to cast a shadow on or over something; (to some) the human spirit PAN *liduŋ

ʔaditAmis(Formosan) scab over a healing wound PAN *qaNiC

adíxiIsneg(WMP) any of the seven principal posts on which the whole frame or skeleton of the house is built PAN *SadiRi

adi-yaŋBalinese(WMP) be regarded as or called 'younger brother' PAN *Suaji-an

ádlawAklanon(WMP) day; sun PMP *qalejaw

adláwCebuano(WMP) sun; day; day (as opposed to night) PMP *qalejaw

ádlaw-ádlawAklanon(WMP) daily, every day PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

adláw-adláwCebuano(WMP) every day PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

adlaw-ánCebuano(WMP) for it to be daylight PPh *qalejaw-an

adnetIbatan(WMP) touch lightly onto the surface of something PPH *denet

adnetItbayaten(WMP) idea of touching against something, idea of contact PPH *denet

adnetYami(WMP) to touch PPH *denet

a-dŋeyItbayaten(WMP) idea of hearing PMP *deŋeR

a-dŋey-enItbayaten(WMP) to listen, to heed, to hear advice PPH *deŋeR-en

a-doLun Dayeh(WMP) distance PMP *zauq

-adoLun Dayeh(WMP) get away from something; put distance between someone and some place PMP *zauq

adoʔMansaka(WMP) shout to the spirits (as is the custom of a shaman) PMP *aduq

adoMaranao(WMP) threaten, as a piece in chess PWMP *adu

ʔádoPalauan(WMP) roof PMP *qatep

ado-ataMotu(OC) midday POC *qaco

adohIban(WMP) exclamation of pain or surprise, adih; cry to a child to sooth it PMP *aduq

adohMalay(WMP) oh! as an interjection of grief or pain PMP *aduq

a-dohOld Javanese(WMP) far away, distant PMP *zauq

adónIsneg(WMP) leaf (of a plant) PMP *dahun

adón talíŋaIsneg(WMP) the auricle or pinna of the ear PMP *dahun nu taliŋa

a-DooRukai (Maga)(Formosan) soapberry PAN *daqu₂

adopToba Batak(WMP) female breast (polite word used by young women) PMP *qadep

ado-rahiMotu(OC) afternoon POC *Rapi

adsamManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) black vine used in ornamenting woven baskets PMP *qaRsam

aduAcehnese(WMP) compete PWMP *adu

aduBalinese(WMP) fighting, duel, quarrel PWMP *adu

áduCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) a great amount; crowd; to increase, become many; many, a lot, much PMP *hadu

aduIban(WMP) arbitrate, arrange, settle, adjust; complaint, appeal PWMP *adu

adúIfugaw(WMP) many, much PMP *hadu

adúIlokano(WMP) many, much, plenty PMP *hadu

adúIsneg(WMP) many, much, plenty PMP *hadu

áduItawis(WMP) bile PAN *qapeju

aduJavanese(WMP) in contact, in confrontation PWMP *adu

adúKankanaey(WMP) many; much; a great many; a great deal; plenty of; numerous PMP *hadu

aduKapingamarangi(OC) fish sp., bonito POC *qatun

aduKapingamarangi(OC) a conglomerate, group of things of same size PCEMP *qatuR₂

aduKapingamarangi(OC) toward the listener PMP *atu

aduKaro Batak(WMP) complain PMP *aduq

aduKaro Batak(WMP) competition, rivalry PWMP *adu

aduMalay(WMP) pitting; matching one against the other; getting up a contest. Of any trial of strength or skill, or even of smartness and looks PWMP *adu

aduNias(WMP) idol PMP *anduŋ

aduNukuoro(OC) toward the hearer PMP *a-tu

aduNukuoro(OC) fish sp., skipjack tuna POC *qatun

aduNukuoro(OC) conglomerate, islet PCEMP *qatuR₂

aduNukuoro(OC) toward hearer PMP *atu

aduSasak(WMP) compete for something, as in cockfights or races PWMP *adu

aduSundanese(WMP) come into contact with one another (as the noses or foreheads of two persons PWMP *adu

ʔaduʔTiruray(WMP) term of address used to males of the next younger generation by older persons of either sex; often implies that their name or teknonym is not known to the speaker PWMP *azuq

áduYogad(WMP) gall PAN *qapeju

ʔa-duaEnggano(WMP) two PMP *duha

adu-daiNukuoro(OC) islands to the west of Nukuoro (the Mortlocks?) PCEMP *qatuR₂

adu-gauNukuoro(OC) arrangement of things into a straight row PCEMP *qatuR₂

aḍuhBalinese(WMP) alas, oh! (pain, grief); address to superiors; illness, groaning PMP *aduq

aduhBanjarese(WMP) exclamation of pain, surprise, etc. PMP *aduq

aḍuhJavanese(WMP) exclamation of pain, sorrow, joy PMP *aduq

aḍuhOld Javanese(WMP) an exclamation of emotion (pain, surprise, etc.) PMP *aduq

a-duhOld Javanese(WMP) to contain fluid PMP *zuRuq

aduhSundanese(WMP) an exclamation of pain or grief' oh! ouch! alas! PMP *aduq

adu-haleNukuoro(OC) village, compound (aggregation of houses); to from house to house PCEMP *qatuR₂

adu henuaKapingamarangi(OC) group of islets of the same size PCEMP *qatuR₂

adu-henuaNukuoro(OC) group of islands or atolls, archipelago PCEMP *qatuR₂

aduleKapingamarangi(OC) fish sp. PMP *qatulay

aduloNias(WMP) egg PMP *qateluR

adulo mbisiNias(WMP) calf of the leg PMP *bities

adu-moduNukuoro(OC) group of islets; atoll (collection of islets) PCEMP *qatuR₂

adunSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) name PMP *ajan

aduŋJarai(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

aduŋBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) nose PWMP *e(ŋ)juŋ

adu zatuaNias(WMP) ancestor figure PMP *anduŋ

adwaGaddang(WMP) two PMP *duha

a-dwa-ʔKapampangan(WMP) two PMP *duha

a-dwa-ŋ-puluKapampangan(WMP) twenty PMP *ŋa


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aeAnsus(SHWNG) foot PAN *qaqay

aeArosi(OC) dung; food in process of digestion POC *taqe₂

aeArosi(OC) no, not, negative particle POC *taqe₁

aʔe-Aua(OC) heart PMP *qatay

aʔeHawaiian(OC) several native trees, the soapberry (sapindus saponaria f. inaequalis), and all species of Fagara (also known as Xanthoxylum), Fagara having yellowish wood formerly used for digging sticks and spears; seeds of all (largest in the soapberry) are black, round, and used for leis POC *ake

aeKeapara(OC) liver PMP *qatay

aeNumbami(OC) leg, foot POC *qaqe

*aʔePMin(WMP) foot, leg PAN *qaqay

aeSa'a(OC) feces, ordure POC *taqe₂

aeSeimat(OC) leg, foot POC *qaqe

aeSerui-Laut(SHWNG) foot PAN *qaqay

aeWindesi(SHWNG) foot PAN *qaqay

aeWolio(WMP) leg, foot, paw, lower course (of a river), river-mouth PAN *qaqay

aeaSimalur(WMP) father PMP *aya₂

ae-agaw-án (< *ar-agaw-anAklanon(WMP) make a scramble for (in order to take or get) PAN *qaRaw

aeamSimalur(WMP) toy PWMP *qayam₃

ae apuLi'o(CMP) fog, mist, dew PMP *hapun₁

ae-ayag-án (< *ar-ayag-an)Aklanon(WMP) screen (for sifting) PWMP *qayag

ʔaeboSaisiyat(Formosan) ashes, powder PAN *qabu₁

aede maWaropen(SHWNG) come here PAN *um-ai

ae dulaKeo(CMP) spittle, saliva PMP *dulaq

aek inum-onToba Batak(WMP) drinking water PWMP *inum-en

aek par-sabaToba Batak(WMP) irrigation water for the rice paddies PWMP *sabaq

ae laseLi'o(CMP) testicles PMP *laseR

ʔaelorSaisiyat(Formosan) wash away PAN *qañud

ae luLi'o(CMP) tears PMP *luheq

ae-na'Āre'āre(OC) anus POC *taqe₂

ʔae-naDobuan(OC) leg, foot POC *qaqe

ae-neKwaio(OC) excrement; anus, region around the anus POC *taqe₂

ae-niaArosi(OC) polluted POC *taqe₂

ʔaeoLSaisiyat(Formosan) type of bamboo PAN *qauR₁

ae-pauMuna(WMP) to use an umbrella PWMP *payuŋ

aerāMarshallese(OC) shoulder POC *qapaRa₁

aeranSimalur(WMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

ae ranranGilbertese(OC) watery, liquid, juicy POC *ranum

ʔaesəbSaisiyat(Formosan) deadfall trap to catch rats (Tsuchida 1976:167) PAN *qaCeb

aetTitan(OC) sago grub PMP *qabatiR

aeu-aeuSimalur(WMP) wood PMP *kahi-kahiw

äevaRotuman(OC) banyan tree PEMP *qayawan


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afāSamoan(OC) storm, gale, hurricane PMP *habaRat

afāTongan(OC) hurricane, gale or very severe storm PMP *habaRat

afaWatubela(CMP) what? PMP *apa₁

afaaWuvulu(OC) northwest wind PMP *habaRat

afa-afaRotinese(CMP) odorless, tasteless, insipid (cooked rice, meat, sirih leaf with betel chew, etc.) PMP *qambaR

áfa-bóvokaMalagasy(WMP) dishonored PMP *bukbuk₃

a-faearSimalur(WMP) paid; payment PMP *bayaD

afaʔfaʔChamorro(WMP) armpit, crotch PWMP *apaqpaq

a-fagaoChamorro(WMP) hoarse PAN *paRaw

afa-iPaulohi(CMP) what? PMP *apa-i

ʔafalaAmis(Formosan) shoulder PAN *qabaRa₁

afarChuukese(OC) shoulder (of human, animal, bottle) POC *qapaRa₁

ʔafaraʔ-anAmis(Formosan) shoulder (Ferrell 1969) PAN *qabaRa-an

ʔa-fasirDobel(CMP) to pay PMP *bayaD

afeKwaio(OC) flow, drip, run down, dissolve, current POC *tape₁

äfeRotuman(OC) liver PMP *qatay

afeToqabaqita(OC) current in the ocean POC *tape₁

afe-aToqabaqita(OC) float in the sea, be carried by the sea POC *tape-a

afe-afeKwaio(OC) current POC *tape-tape

afe-feToqabaqita(OC) diarrhoea POC *tape₁

afe-fe-aToqabaqita(OC) foreign place: an island, country other than one’s own POC *tape-a

a-felaSimalur(WMP) be split PAN *ma-belaq

afe-lauToqabaqita(OC) trample grass, vegetation when walking on or through it POC *tape₁

aferNumfor(SHWNG) lime, calcium PAN *qapuR

afe-rakoqaToqabaqita(OC) of flood water, high water in a stream, river (after heavy rains): subside, go down POC *tape₁

aféroMalagasy(WMP) bile, gall, gall bladder; bitterness; costly PAN *qapeju

afe-siaKwaio(OC) carry away, of wave, current or stream; slip away from POC *tape₁

a-fetaUjir(CMP) to split PMP *betaq₂

ʔafeyTiruray(WMP) fire PMP *hapuy

af-fúnatItawis(WMP) rag for wiping PMP *punas

afiBimanese(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

afíItawis(WMP) fire, light PMP *hapuy

afiMakatea(OC) fire POC *api

afiNortheast Ambae(OC) fire POC *api

afiSamoan(OC) fire; light (to light a fire with, i.e. smouldering stick etc.), brand POC *api

afiTongan(OC) fire (in general) POC *api

afiWatubela(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

afiWuvulu(OC) fire POC *api

afi-afiFutunan(OC) evening (after about 5:00 p.m.) PAN *Rabi-Rabi

afiʔafiNias(WMP) kind of wood PWMP *hapuy hapuy₂

afi-afiNiue(OC) evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

afi-afiSamoan(OC) afternoon, evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

afi-afiTuvaluan(OC) evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

afi-afi pooTuvaluan(OC) period just after sunset PAN *Rabi-Rabi

afi-afyMalagasy (Sakalava)(WMP) a tree PWMP *hapuy hapuy₂

afinYamdena(CMP) cover with a towel, mat, etc. to make a place to sit or to set something down PMP *hapin

(afi) ndaruBimanese(CMP) firefly PMP *dalu₁

áfitraMalagasy(WMP) stopped, hindered, or impeded PWMP *aped

ʔafoAmis(Formosan) ashes; fertilizer PAN *qabu₁

afoGaddang(WMP) reciprocal relationship between grandparent and grandchild PMP *ampu

afoMalagasy(WMP) fire; calamity (fig.) PMP *hapuy

afoNiue(OC) fishing line POC *apon

afoSamoan(OC) fishing line POC *apon

afoTongan(OC) cord; fishing line POC *apon

afoTuvaluan(OC) fishing rod cord POC *apon

a-fófokoaMalagasy(WMP) to be beaten PAN *pukpuk

afokChamorro(WMP) lime, birdlime, limestone (soft), quicklime PAN *qapuR

áfonaMalagasy(WMP) rest on the water, float, swim PMP *apuŋ

aft-eChamorro(WMP) to roof, cover with a roof PMP *qatep

afuAmblau(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

afuBimanese(CMP) chalk, lime PAN *qapuR

afúItawis(WMP) God PMP *ampu

afuPaulohi(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

afuRotinese(CMP) ash, dust; in combining forms: ash-colored, gray PMP *qabu₂

afuRotuman(OC) away, hence (Pawley 1972) PMP *a-tu

āfuSamoan(OC) waterfall POC *sabu

afuSimalur(WMP) kitchen, hearth, cooking place PMP *qabu₂

afuSoboyo(CMP) ash PMP *qabu₂

afuWuvulu(OC) lime in lime gourd (cp. kakaweʔi 'lime not in lime gourd') PAN *qapuR

afuYamdena(CMP) ash; hearth PMP *qabu₂

afu-afuSimalur(WMP) fireplace for warming women after childbirth PMP *qabu₂

afu-afuSamoan(OC) light shower POC *sabu

a-fufu-aKwaio(OC) fall on, drip on POC *pupus-a

afugAbai Sembuak(WMP) lime (for betel) PAN *qapuR

áfugItawis(WMP) lime for betel chew PAN *qapuR

afugYogad(WMP) lime PAN *qapuR

afuhLun Dayeh(WMP) a broom PMP *sapu

afuleRotuman(OC) kind of fish (silver bream?) PMP *qatulay

afu mama kaiBimanese(CMP) lime used in betel chew PAN *qapuR

ʔa-funDobel(CMP) kill PMP *bunuq₂

a-funUjir(CMP) to kill PMP *bunuq₂

afuniKwaio(OC) placenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her POC *tapuni

afu-reSelaru(CMP) hearth PMP *qabu₂

a-fusiNias(WMP) white PMP *putiq

a-fusi-fusiNias(WMP) whitish PWMP *ma-putiq-putiq

a-futaSimalur(WMP) blind PMP *buta₁

afu-ʔuuToqabaqita(OC) look for lice in the hair, delouse PMP *kutu₁

afuyAbai Sembuak(WMP) fire PMP *hapuy


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agaMongondow(WMP) a tree of no particular use PMP *qaRaʔ

agaKapingamarangi(OC) root (of tree or plant) PMP *akaR

agaRennellese(OC) path, trail, track, road, street; doorway, door; way, method POC *salan

ag-ábayIlokano(WMP) to stand, etc. side by side; to sing in unison PWMP *abay

ag-abélIlokano(WMP) to weave PPh *maR-habel

ag-adúIlokano(WMP) to augment, increase PMP *hadu

agakAbaknon(WMP) to take care of, to rear PMP *aRak

agakBinukid(WMP) for the male of a fowl to mate with the female PMP *aRak

ágakCebuano(WMP) give the hand to lead or lend support; guide someone in moral principles PMP *aRak

agakMaranao(WMP) lead; gather, as hen gathers chicks; influence PMP *aRak

aɣakManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) lead someone by the hand, as a blind person or a baby just learning to walk; teach a skill to an apprentice; figuratively of a supernatural leading a human whether in a helpful sense or otherwise PMP *aRak

agak-aʔMaranao(WMP) brood of fowls PMP *aRak

agak-agakMaranao(WMP) lead a person, follow in a contemplated action PWMP *aRak-aRak

agak-anMaranao(WMP) flock of fowls PMP *aRak

ag-alipugpógIlokano(WMP) to have a whirlwind PPH *qali-pugpug

agamIban(WMP) consider, think, reckon that PWMP *agam

agamToba Batak(WMP) think, intend PWMP *agam

agámaIlokano(WMP) large white crabs breeding in reefs PWMP *qaRama

ag-anákIlokano(WMP) give birth, be delivered, bring forth young PMP *maR-anak

ag-ananáyIlokano(WMP) to moan from pain PPH *ananay₁

ag-ániIlokano(WMP) to reap, harvest (grain) PWMP *q<aR>anih

aganiMaranao(WMP) harvest rice PWMP *aRani

aganiMaranao(WMP) harvest rice PWMP *q<aR>anih

ag-anítoIlokano(WMP) worship the spirits PMP *qanitu

ag-apúx-anIsneg(WMP) receptacle for lime. It may be a small box made of wood or the horn of a carabao, a small glass bottle, a deer horn or the fruit of the limbokbókaw tree, but it usually consists in the shell of a small bottle gourd PWMP *paR-qapuR-an

ag-apúyIlokano(WMP) cook rice PWMP *maR-hapuy

agasBinukid(WMP) a tree: Aporosa sphaeridophora Merr. (Madulid 2001) PWMP *agas

agas-agasMalay(WMP) a tree: Aporosa maingayi PWMP *agas

agat-aiKadazan Dusun(WMP) to tighten PMP *heRet

a-gatelOld Javanese(WMP) itchy PMP *gatel

ágawAklanon(WMP) grab, take, seize, snatch, get (without being one's due) PAN *qaRaw

agawBinukid(WMP) grab, seize, snatch, take (something) away from (someone) PAN *qaRaw

ágawCebuano(WMP) take something away from someone (as a toy from a child) PAN *qaRaw

ʔágawHanunóo(WMP) grasping, grabbing at (something) PAN *qaRaw

agawMansaka(WMP) take that which belongs to another (wife, land, etc.) PAN *qaRaw

agawMaranao(WMP) vie; go toward; seek protection; snatch away PAN *qaRaw

ágawTagalog(WMP) sudden snatching away; deprivation (of property or the like); interposition in conversation (used in narratives) PAN *qaRaw

agáw-anCebuano(WMP) fond of snatching PAN *qaRaw

agaw-ánTagalog(WMP) snatching (things) away from each other; competition PAN *qaRaw

agáw-enIlokano(WMP) snatch away, off; carry off, take away by violence; obtain by robbing PPh *qaRaw-en

ag-awerIlokano(WMP) to roar (streams, wind) PWMP *awer

agáw-onBikol(WMP) be snatched PPh *qaRaw-en

ʔagáw-unHanunóo(WMP) be grabbed at, be snatched PPh *qaRaw-en

agáw-unHiligaynon(WMP) be grabbed, seized, taken by force PPh *qaRaw-en

agay-àyamIlokano(WMP) to play, amuse oneself, to toy PWMP *qayam₃

a-gazoKadazan Dusun(WMP) big, great, large, chief, main, principal PAN *Raya

ag-baénIlokano(WMP) to sneeze PPH *bahen

ag-bágayIlokano(WMP) to be well matched; well suited PWMP *bagay₁

ag-bahan-enBinukid(WMP) to sneeze PPH *bahen

ag-baka-bakáIlokano(WMP) to be vague; perplexed; anxious; stupid; hesitant PPH *bakáq

ag-báliwIlokano(WMP) change, vary, alter, fade, be inconstant, fickle, unstable PMP *baliw₅

ag-b-an-egbégIlokano(WMP) the sound of the pestle in the mortar PWMP *begbeg

ag-batéŋIlokano(WMP) hunt wild animals with a net PPH *batéŋ

ag-bátugIlokano(WMP) to match, be in line with each other PPH *batuR₂

ag-batu-wenBinukid(WMP) be stoned by someone PWMP *batu-en

ag-bāx-ānIsneg(WMP) that part of the waist around which a man’s G-string is wound PMP *bahaR

ag-bekkágIlokano(WMP) dehisce, burst open, said of cotton bolls PWMP *bekaj

ag-bekkágIlokano(WMP) to dehisce, burst open, said of cotton bolls PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

ag-beŋŋátIlokano(WMP) start talking (said of children in some districts) PPh *beŋát₂

ag-berbérIlokano(WMP) expose oneself to the wind PMP *berber₁

ag-biágIlokano(WMP) to live PWMP *bihaR

ag-b<in>aklágIlokano(WMP) to be scarred by bruises or bites (Rubino) PWMP *bakelag

ag-bokáIlokano(WMP) give birth PMP *buka

agbu-bussógIlokano(WMP) having a pot-belly (said of children) PWMP *busuR₃

ag-búkarIlokano(WMP) to open, burst open, break open (flowers, fruits, etc.) PMP *buŋkaR

ag-bukélIlokano(WMP) to form, take form (the seed stone, fetus, etc.) PWMP *bukel

ag-búligIlokano(WMP) carry between two PPh *maR-búlig

ag-búlosIlokano(WMP) gush out, gush forth (liquids, blood, etc.) PPh *maR-búlus

ag-dadáŋIlokano(WMP) go near a fire, go near the heat PPH *maR-daŋdaŋ

ag-dáitIlokano(WMP) to sew PMP *zaqit

ag-daképIlokano(WMP) to embrace; catch; copulate (animals) PAN *dakep

ʔagdánBontok(WMP) wooden steps leading to the door of a house with raised floor PMP *haRezan

ʔagdánHanunóo(WMP) any single, inclined means of entering a typical Hanuno'o pile dwelling from the ground, especially a log or bamboo pole used in this manner. Note: Runged ladders, common elsewhere in the Philippines, are not used by the Hanuno'o PMP *haRezan

agdánIlokano(WMP) ladder; stairs, staircase; flight of stairs, steps PMP *haRezan

agdānIsneg(WMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

agdanMansaka(WMP) ladder; stair PMP *haRezan

ag-dáraIlokano(WMP) to bleed PWMP *maR-daRaq

ag-datárIlokano(WMP) to make a bamboo floor PAN *dataR

ag-dáwaIlokano(WMP) to develop spikes (rice) PAN *zawa₂

ag-dekkétIlokano(WMP) to stick; stick to each other PMP *deket₁

agdénCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) ladder; make a makeshift ladder so you can climb a tree PMP *haRezan

ag-deŋdéŋIlokano(WMP) to boil vegetables PPH *deŋdeŋ

ag-deppáIlokano(WMP) to extend the arms PPH *maR-depa

ag-di-dippîtIlokano(WMP) crowd, press together, throng, be crushed PWMP *diq(e)pit

ag-dígosIlokano(WMP) take a bath, bathe PAN *diRus

ag-dílatIlokano(WMP) stick out the tongue PWMP *dilat

ag-dua-duáIlokano(WMP) be in doubt, be undecided PMP *duha duha₂

ag-du-dúmaIlokano(WMP) various, several, different PAN *duma

ag-dúmaIlokano(WMP) to differ PAN *duma

ageGitua(OC) leg, foot POC *qaqe

agékIlokano(WMP) to kiss PMP *hajek

agemBalinese(WMP) hold PWMP *agem₁

agəmBintulu(WMP) hand PWMP *agem₁

agemKaro Batak(WMP) dull (of color, sound); not entirely clear, of the light PWMP *agem₃

agemMadurese(WMP) hold PWMP *agem₁

agemMelanau (Matu)(WMP) hand PWMP *agem₁

agemOld Javanese(WMP) cloudy sky PWMP *agem₃

agemOld Javanese(WMP) handful; grasp PWMP *Ragem

agemSebop(WMP) hand PWMP *agem₁

ageŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) charcoal PMP *qajeŋ

ageŋKaro Batak(WMP) charcoal PMP *qajeŋ

agewCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) grab, snatch, steal, run off with someone's spouse for a long time or indefinite period PAN *qaRaw

ágewKankanaey(WMP) sun, day, daytime, daylight, light, sweat, perspiration PMP *qalejaw

ágewPangasinan(WMP) day; sun; be light, sunny PPh *qalejaw-an

aɣewManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) seize; grab; illegally take possession of PAN *qaRaw

ágew-ágewPangasinan(WMP) daily, every day PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

ag-e wuk-niMoa(CMP) knot in wood PCEMP *buku

ag-gakgákIlokano(WMP) to croak (frogs); change voice at puberty PWMP *gakgak

ag-g<an>akgákIlokano(WMP) the sound of broken bells; quacking of ducks PWMP *gakgak

ag-gemgémIlokano(WMP) to clench the hand PAN *gemgem

ag-gígirIlokano(WMP) be apprehensive, fearful of what is coming; be careful PWMP *gigir

ag-giliŋ-ánIsinay(WMP) grinder PMP *giliŋ

agguIbanag(WMP) gall PAN *qapeju

ag-gunáyIlokano(WMP) to move PPH *gunay

agiBalangao(WMP) related people of same generation; a "sibling" word PMP *huaji

agiʔMongondow(WMP) come here!; toward the speaker PAN *aRi

agíIfugaw(WMP) brother, sister, cousin PMP *huaji

agiKaro Batak(WMP) younger sibling; placenta PMP *huaji

agiKallahan (Keleyqiq)(WMP) brother, sister, cousin PMP *huaji

agíPangasinan(WMP) ouch! PWMP *ajiq

agíPangasinan(WMP) younger sibling or other person of same generation PMP *huaji

*agiPRuk(Formosan) younger sibling PAN *Suaji

agiRennellese(OC) general name for flat fishes: flounders, soles, etc. POC *alali

agiʔ akowMongondow(WMP) hither and thither PAN *aRi

ʔagigiRennellese(OC) Turban shells: Turbo petholatus L. PMP *qaliliŋ

agi-kútoIlokano(WMP) to delouse oneself PMP *kutu₁

a-giliŋ-anOld Javanese(WMP) chariot soldiers PMP *giliŋ

agimaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) ocean crab PWMP *qaRama

ag-impapa-ŋínaIlokano(WMP) to play hard to get; to pretentiously show off material wealth although poor PPH *ŋina

aginʔa-ayIlokano(WMP) to pretend to come PAN *um-ai

agiʔ-onMongondow(WMP) it must be brought here (to the speaker) PAN *aRi

agisaŋSiraya(Formosan) broad beans PAN *qaRidaŋ

ag-isbóIlokano(WMP) to wet one’s bed PAN *sibu

ʔagitTiruray(WMP) paining, painful PMP *sakit

ag-kabá-kabáIlokano(WMP) to be anxious, perplexed PPH *kabá

ag-ka-báŋaIlokano(WMP) to have a mutual báŋa; to share meals when living together (from the same pot) PPH *baŋaq₂

ag-káburIlokano(WMP) to boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger) PPH *kabuR

ag-káburIlokano(WMP) to boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger) PPH *kambuR₂

ag-kadaŋ-kádaŋIlokano(WMP) to walk on stilts PPH *kadaŋ-kádaŋ

ag-kagkágIlokano(WMP) to bask in the sun PPH *kagkag

ag-kákaIlokano(WMP) two siblings together PMP *kaka

ag-ka-kiliŋBinukid(WMP) to lean, tilt to one side PMP *kiliŋ

ag-kalásagIlokano(WMP) to wear a shield, use a shield PWMP *kalasag

ag-káliIlokano(WMP) to dig PMP *kali₂

ag-kambórIlokano(WMP) to mix together (various substances) PMP *kambur

agk-ánIlokano(WMP) to kiss PPh *hajek-an

ag-k<an>uskúsIlokano(WMP) to rub the head with something rough PWMP *kuskus₂

ag-ka-pásaŋIlokano(WMP) to form a pair, to match PMP *pasaŋ₁

ag-ka-pilay-enAgutaynen(WMP) for one’s leg, foot, arm to be asleep, feel numb or paralyzed PAN *piNay

ag-kapkápIlokano(WMP) to grope in the dark PAN *kapkap

agka-rabiíIlokano(WMP) to stay out late at night PMP *Rabiqi

ag-karasákasIlokano(WMP) to make a rustling sound PPH *kaRaskas

ag-kátaŋ-kátaŋIlokano(WMP) to drift, randomly float; to not have a permanent house to live in; to live from house to house PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ

ag-ka-tugáŋ-anIlokano(WMP) the relationship between parent-in-law and child-in-law PMP *tuRaŋ

ag-kawílIlokano(WMP) to cross the legs; interlace, intertwine PWMP *kawil₂

ag-kayab-káyabIlokano(WMP) to flutter in the air PWMP *kayab

ag-kebbá-kebbáIlokano(WMP) to gasp for breath; be out of breath; to rise and fall strongly (said of a chest out of breath) PPH *kebá

ag-kebkébIlokano(WMP) to embrace, clasp tightly PMP *kebkeb

ag-kepképIlokano(WMP) to fold the arms over the chest PWMP *kepkép₁

aɣkesManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) tie up something inanimate PAN *bakes₁

ag-kettélIlokano(WMP) to pick with the fingers PPH *ketél

ag-kiákIlokano(WMP) to shriek (said of chickens when being caught, etc.) PMP *kiak

ag-kidémIlokano(WMP) to close the eyes; be new (moon) PWMP *kidem

ag-kililíŋIlokano(WMP) to ring a small bell PPH *kililíŋ

ag-kíliŋIlokano(WMP) to lean; be about to capsize PMP *kiliŋ

ag-kiskísIlokano(WMP) to shave; scrape PAN *kiskis

ag-kítaIlokano(WMP) to see each other; meet by chance PAN *kita₂

ag-kitáŋIlokano(WMP) to fish using the kitáŋ PPH *kitáŋ

ag-kitíkIlokano(WMP) to tick (said of a clock) PMP *kitik₂

ag-kiwkíwIlokano(WMP) to wag the tail PAN *kiwkiw

ag-kokkókIlokano(WMP) to cluck (chickens); to knock PWMP *kukkuk

ag-kudkúdIlokano(WMP) to scratch oneself PMP *kuDkuD

ag-kulasísiIlokano(WMP) to have a mistress PPH *kulasísi

ag-kulilíŋIlokano(WMP) to ring PPH *kuliliŋ₂

ag-kúmutIlokano(WMP) to wrap oneself completely in a blanket PPH *kumut

ag-kúpasIlokano(WMP) to fade, change color PPH *kupas

ag-kupkópIlokano(WMP) to go bald PPH *kupkup₄

ag-kuppítIlokano(WMP) close, shut (a wound, the mouth, etc.) PAN *kupit

ag-kuretrétIlokano(WMP) to wrinkle; crease; frown PPH *kuretret

ag-kútib-kútibIlokano(WMP) to gnaw PPH *kútib

ag-kutímIlokano(WMP) to peel with the teeth; uproot with the teeth; remove the outer shell of nuts, etc. with the teeth; purse the lips PPH *kutím

ag-kutkótIlokano(WMP) to dig, scratch, exhume PWMP *kutkut₁

ag-kutog-kutógIlokano(WMP) to shake repeatedly (contents in a jar, passengers in a car, etc.) PWMP *kutug

ag-kutókIlokano(WMP) to knock at the door PWMP *kutuk₂

ag-kutók-kutókIlokano(WMP) to rattle contents PWMP *kutuk₂

ag-lábasIlokano(WMP) to pass by, skip, omit PPH *labas

ag-labas-lábasIlokano(WMP) to come and go, pass back and forth PPH *labas

ag-lágaIlokano(WMP) to weave baskets PWMP *laja

ag-la-láxaIsneg(WMP) the period of time that follows the weeding of a rice field: the time for weaving baskets PWMP *laja

ag-laŋóyIlokano(WMP) to swim PWMP *laŋuy

ag-latáwIlokano(WMP) to float; drift PWMP *la(n)taw

ag-líkawIlokano(WMP) to go around PAN *likaw

ag-líkaw-líkawIlokano(WMP) to go in circles, zigzag PAN *likaw

ag-lipitIlokano(WMP) to crowd PMP *lip(e)qit

ag-luáIlokano(WMP) to shed tears, cry PMP *maR-luheq

ag-luábIlokano(WMP) to be lifted away by the wind (thatch); to bubble, boil; rise PMP *luab

ag-luásIlokano(WMP) to set out; commence (a voyage) PPH *luás

ag-lu-luáIlokano(WMP) to be tearful PMP *maR-luheq

ag-lúmotIlokano(WMP) to grow moss PMP *lumut

ag-luslósIlokano(WMP) to slip, slide; pull back and forth (uncircumcised penis); (fig.) masturbate; to have a hernia; slip, slide backwards PPH *luslús

ag-lútoIlokano(WMP) to cook PWMP *lutuq

ʔagmaBontok(WMP) crab PWMP *qaRama

ag-mamáIlokano(WMP) to chew betel PMP *mamaq

ag-man-manókIlokano(WMP) to raise chickens PWMP *maR-manuk

ágmaŋCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) type of ocean fish (Headland and Headland (1974)), kind of marine eel (Reid (1971:186)) PMP *haRemaŋ

agmáŋCebuano(WMP) kind of eel PMP *haRemaŋ

ag-matáIlokano(WMP) to be watchful, alert; open one’s eyes; bear fruit; result in, be the result of; be realized PMP *mata

ag-mata-mata-enAgutaynen(WMP) to see something or visualize something in your mind, such as the face of a dead person PPH *mata-en

ag-nákemIlokano(WMP) to be reasonable, to have sense PPH *nákem

ag-nánaIlokano(WMP) to fester (wounds, boils) PWMP *maR-nanaq

ag-ŋádasIlokano(WMP) to have a sore palate; to be unable to pronounce (said of dying people) PWMP *ŋadas

ag-ŋalŋálIlokano(WMP) to chew PAN *ŋalŋal

ag-ŋawŋawIlokano(WMP) to meow (said of the cat), speak softly, under one’s breath; gossip PAN *ŋawŋaw

ag-ŋerŋérIlokano(WMP) to growl, snarl (dogs) PAN *ŋerŋer

agoMaranao(WMP) and, also PMP *agu

ʔágudBontok(WMP) to sharpen to a point, as a post, stick, or pencil PWMP *aRud

(a)-goiRoviana(OC) you, thou POC *koe

agomSubanen/Subanun(WMP) to enjoy (Churchill 1913) PWMP *agem₂

agoŋToba Batak(WMP) charcoal PMP *qajeŋ

agosMaranao(WMP) outlet of pond or lake PMP *qaRus

ágosTagalog(WMP) flow of liquid, or direction of current PMP *qaRus

ag-pa-baŋlóIlokano(WMP) to wear perfume, perfume oneself PPH *baŋ(e)lu

ag-pa-búlodIlokano(WMP) to lend PPh *bulud₁

ag-pádaIlokano(WMP) to be the same, equal; to match PWMP *pada

ag-pa-dálanIlokano(WMP) to give way, make room for, go to the road PWMP *pa-zalan

ag-paídIlokano(WMP) to fan oneself PAN *paid

ag-pa-kánIlokano(WMP) to host a feast PAN *pa-kaen

ag-pa-kulótIlokano(WMP) to have a perm (curl the hair) PMP *kulut

ag-pa-kúyogIlokano(WMP) to look for a companion PPH *kuyug

ag-pa-lábasIlokano(WMP) to let pass; tolerate; be understanding PPH *labas

ag-pa-lákadIlokano(WMP) to go by land, walk PMP *lakaj

ag-pa-laudIlokano(WMP) go to the west PAN *lahud

ag-pallatíkIlokano(WMP) swing, sway PWMP *pale(n)tik

ag-palóŋIlokano(WMP) to create waves, undulate PPH *paluŋ₂

ag-pánawIlokano(WMP) to leave for good, evacuate PMP *panaw₂

ag-pandóŋIlokano(WMP) to wear a mantilla PPH *panduŋ

ag-pa-ŋan-enAgutaynen(WMP) to be eaten PWMP *pa-ŋaen

ag-pa-ŋátoIlokano(WMP) to ascend; climb up; go up PPH *ŋatu

ag-pa-ŋínaIlokano(WMP) to be vain; conceited; to assume to be more important than one actually is PPH *ŋina

ag-pa-patáyIlokano(WMP) commit suicide, take one's own life PMP *pa-p-atay

ag-pas-pa-ságidIlokano(WMP) to hang about the girls; haunt; (fig.) allude, insinuate PPH *saq(e)gid

ag-pátawIlokano(WMP) to swim by using a flotation device PPH *patáw

ag-patáyIlokano(WMP) faint, swoon, die away PMP *p-atay

ag-pa-túrogIlokano(WMP) to put to sleep; order someone to sleep PAN *tuduR

ag-páyoŋIlokano(WMP) to use an umbrella PWMP *payuŋ

ag-paypáyIlokano(WMP) to fan oneself PPH *paypáy

ag-pídutIlokano(WMP) to pick up; pilfer; steal little by little PPH *pidut

ag-piko-pikoIlokano(WMP) variety of girls’ hide-and-seek PPH *pikuq₂

ag-píliIlokano(WMP) to choose, to select PAN *piliq

ag-pílitIlokano(WMP) to insist PPH *pílit

ag-pil-pílayIlokano(WMP) to walk with a limp PAN *piNay

ag-pi-piákIlokano(WMP) to make the sound of chickens PMP *piak

ag-púlaŋIlokano(WMP) to return to one’s original position; come to life; regain consciousness PWMP *pulaŋ

ag-púloŋIlokano(WMP) to gather together, assemble PAN *puluŋ

ag-púnasIlokano(WMP) to dust furniture, wipe PMP *punas

ag-púnitIlokano(WMP) to close, shut; heal (wounds) PPH *punit

ag-putpótIlokano(WMP) the sound of a car horn PWMP *putput₂

ag-púyatIlokano(WMP) to stay up all night, to refrain from sleeping PPH *púyat

ag-rákitIlokano(WMP) to ride on a bamboo raft PMP *Rakit

ag-ramótIlokano(WMP) to grow roots PMP *Ramut

ag-rebbáIlokano(WMP) to break down, collapse, crumble down PWMP *rebaq

ag-sabáliIlokano(WMP) to become different, to change PPH *sabáliq

ag-sábatIlokano(WMP) to meet; agree PWMP *sabat

ag-sabáyIlokano(WMP) to act simultaneously; to go, do, etc. together PWMP *sa(m)bay

ag-sáboŋIlokano(WMP) to blossom, bear flowers PPH *sabuŋ₂

ag-sabsábIlokano(WMP) to eat noisily (as a pig) PAN *sabsab

ag-ságidIlokano(WMP) to collide; brush up against; touch accidentally or incidentally PPH *saq(e)gid

ag-sagitsítIlokano(WMP) to make a hissing sound PPH *sagitsit

ag-sakítIlokano(WMP) to be sick; to hurt, ail PMP *sakit

ag-sakníbIlokano(WMP) to lap over, overlap PPH *sak(e)níb

ag-salaksákIlokano(WMP) to cry (said of the kingfisher) PWMP *salaksak

agsamMansaka(WMP) kind of vine PMP *qaRsam

ag-sandírIlokano(WMP) to lean on one’s back PMP *sandiR

ag-sáŋiIlokano(WMP) to have a toothache PPH *saŋi

ag-sáŋitIlokano(WMP) to cry, weep PMP *taŋis

ag-saóIlokano(WMP) to speak, talk; converse PPH *sahuq

ag-saóIlokano(WMP) to speak, talk; converse PMP *sau₄

ag-sáputIlokano(WMP) to weave a web PMP *saput₁

ag-sárepIlokano(WMP) to catch fish floundering in a stream PPH *sáRep

ag-sarigsígIlokano(WMP) to move in a half circle; strut; attack from the side (cocks) PPH *sarijsij

ʔagsemPalawan Batak(WMP) sour (Reid 1971) PAN *qaRsem

ag-seppalIlokano(WMP) to swallow (said of animals) PPH *sepal

ag-siámIlokano(WMP) to reach the ninth day (of a novena, etc.) PPH *siám

ag-síkadIlokano(WMP) to strut, walk with the head erect and body bent backward; to peddle a paddleboat PPH *sikad

ag-s<inn>arigsígIlokano(WMP) to move around each other (as in boxing, etc.) PPH *sarijsij

ag-s<inn>íkoIlokano(WMP) to elbow one another PAN *sikux

ag-sintíkIlokano(WMP) to flick marbles PPH *sintík

ag-siŋkítIlokano(WMP) to close the eyes in slits PPH *siŋkít

ag-sípiŋIlokano(WMP) to grow together PPH *sípiŋ

ag-sípitIlokano(WMP) to use tongs, forceps or chopsticks PAN *sipit

ag-síripIlokano(WMP) to peep, peer PPH *siq(e)rip

ag-sitsítIlokano(WMP) to hiss, sizzle PMP *sitsit

ag-súbaIlokano(WMP) to be on the verge of death PPH *súbaq

ag-sugígiIlokano(WMP) to clean the teeth PWMP *sugi

ag-súlamIlokano(WMP) to embroider with untwisted silk PMP *sulam

ag-sumpítIlokano(WMP) to use a syringe; play with a syringe PMP *sumpit

ag-súnogIlokano(WMP) to smoke out bees from their honeycombs PMP *sunuR

ag-súŋoIlokano(WMP) to have a prominent snout PPH *suŋu₂

ag-su-sunódIlokano(WMP) to stand in a row; walk behind; retreat PPH *sunúd

ágtaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) a Negrito person; what the Dumagat people refer to themselves as; term for any dark-skinned person with kinky hair; to speak in the Dumagat language PMP *qaRta

agtáIsneg(WMP) Negrito PMP *qaRta

agtáTagalog(WMP) short black people, Negritos PMP *qaRta

ag-tábonIlokano(WMP) to be buried; to set (sun) PMP *tabun₂

ag-takáIlokano(WMP) to hesitate, vacillate PPH *taka

ag-tákawIlokano(WMP) steal, pilfer, purloin, rob, plunder, pillage, loot, harry (-an, manaN-) PMP *takaw₁

ag-takláIlokano(WMP) to click the tongue PPH *tak(e)laq

ag-tákoIlokano(WMP) to dip to draw liquids PAN *taku₂

ag-takúpIlokano(WMP) to patch; to marry a girl who is no longer a virgin PPH *takúp

ag-talátalIlokano(WMP) to revolve on an axis, turn over and over PPH *talátal

ag-tálawIlokano(WMP) flee, run away, hasten off, escape PAN *talaw

ag-tálonIlokano(WMP) to work a rice field; farm PMP *talun₁

ag-tambákIlokano(WMP) to build a dike PMP *tambak₂

ag-tambáŋIlokano(WMP) to ambush; raid; attack; waylay; obstruct a voyage; hold up and rob; block one’s way PPH *tambáŋ

ag-tammóIsneg(WMP) meeting PWMP *temu₂

ag-tantánIlokano(WMP) to delay unnecessarily PPH *tantán

ag-tanʔáwIlokano(WMP) to look down PPH *taq(e)náw

ag-taŋ-táŋadIlokano(WMP) to walk with the head up; to be looking up PMP *taŋad

ag-tapuákIlokano(WMP) to plunge; jump down PPH *tapuák

ag-tápusIlokano(WMP) to end, finish PAN *tapus

ag-tapʔílIlokano(WMP) to be adjacent to each other; to touch each other PMP *taq(e)pil

ag-taráokIlokano(WMP) to crow, of a rooster PPH *taRaquk

ag-tároIlokano(WMP) to place a bet PMP *taRuq

ag-tarúsIlokano(WMP) to go straight to without delay, move on; pierce, penetrate PWMP *tarus

ag-taúlIlokano(WMP) to bark PPH *taqul

ag-taúlIlokano(WMP) to bark PPH *tahúl

ag-tawátawIlokano(WMP) to roam, wander PWMP *tawtaw

ag-tawénIlokano(WMP) to be so many years old, to have as age PMP *taqun

agtáy lamánIsneg(WMP) (lit. 'liver of the wild boar') an herb some ten inches tall that grows in the forest; it serves for an amulet when starting the work on a balét (bow or spear) trap PMP *qatay qatay₁

ag-tebbáIlokano(WMP) to cut a stem of bananas PPH *tebáq

ag-temtémIlokano(WMP) to make a bonfire PPH *temtem

ag-teŋŋáIlokano(WMP) to be in the midst, in the middle PMP *teŋaq

ag-tiktíkIlokano(WMP) to make the sound of a cutting axe PMP *tiktik

ag-tiktíkIlokano(WMP) to inform; spy on PPH *tiktík

ag-tiktíkIlokano(WMP) to make the sound of a cutting axe PAN *tiktik

ag-t<inn>aúlIlokano(WMP) to bark at each other PPH *taqul

ag-tiŋtíŋIlokano(WMP) to make the sound of a small bell PMP *tiŋtiŋ

ag-típonIlokano(WMP) to assemble, unite, gather, convene, meet PPH *típun

ag-togtógIlokano(WMP) to knock (on a door, etc.) PMP *tugtug₂

ag-túdoIlokano(WMP) to rain PAN *tuduq

ag-tugáwIlokano(WMP) to sit down; to be inaugurated, assume a political position PWMP *tujaw

ag-tugtógIlokano(WMP) to knock PMP *tugtug₁

ag-tugtógIlokano(WMP) to knock PWMP *tugtug

ag-tuktókIlokano(WMP) to knock eggs against each other; to make a knocking sound PAN *tuktuk₃

ag-túladIlokano(WMP) to copy, imitate PWMP *tulad

ag-túleŋIlokano(WMP) to be deaf, hard of hearing PPH *tuleŋ

ag-túloyIlokano(WMP) to continue, proceed PMP *tuluy₁

ag-túonIlokano(WMP) to have one on top of another; copulate PPH *tuqun₁

ag-tútorIlokano(WMP) to take one’s time; be patient PMP *tutur₁

ag-tú-túladIlokano(WMP) imitator PWMP *tulad

agúCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) type of tree, Casuarina equisetifolia (found growing along the sea shores in the Casiguran area; it looks like a type of pine, but is not PMP *aRuhu

aguManggarai(CMP) and, more, yet more, still PMP *agu

aguRembong(CMP) and, with, together with PMP *agu

aguWuvulu(OC) smoke POC *kasu

aguaChamorro(WMP) type of fish: Chanos chanos, family Chanidae, milkfishes PMP *qawa₁

aguasChamorro(WMP) baby mullet: Neomyxus chaptalii PMP *qawas

aguásIlokano(WMP) edible fresh-water fish; it is very similar to the puroŋ, but its scales are smaller PMP *qaRuas

águdIlokano(WMP) scraping the edge of a board of a strip of bamboo, etc. with the edge of a tool PWMP *aRud

agúhoBikol(WMP) tree possessing pine-like needles: Casuarina equisetifolia PMP *aRuhu

agúhoTagalog(WMP) a tree: Casuarina equisetifolia PMP *aRuhu

agúhoTagalog(WMP) a tree: Casuarina equisetifolia PMP *qaRuhu

agukBalinese(WMP) shout PWMP *haguk

a-guláŋCebuano(WMP) title for an old man or woman; old man or woman PAN *Rudaŋ

ag-úlogIlokano(WMP) decline, decrease in value; fail, languish, sink PPh *maR-huluR

águmCebuano(WMP) get full use out of some benefit someone bestows on one PWMP *agem₂

agumCebuano(WMP) dirtyish-white, greyish PWMP *agem₃

ag-uniIlokano(WMP) utter a sound, make a noise, to cry (animals), to sing (birds), to speak (men) PMP *huni

agusBinukid(WMP) for poison, etc. to spread through (a body of water) PMP *qaRus

águsCebuano(WMP) ooze, flow out slowly (as pus from a wound) PMP *qaRus

ʔagútayHanunóo(WMP) a species of plant PPH *qaRutay

ʔagúʔuHanunóo(WMP) a tree (Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.), pinelike in appearance PMP *aRuhu

agwaChamorro(WMP) the milkfish: Chanos chanos PMP *qawaʔ

agwasCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) kind of ocean fish PMP *qaRuas

agwasChamorro(WMP) baby mullet: Neomyxus chaptalii PMP *qaRuas

agwásTagalog(WMP) mullet (when still spawning) PMP *qaRuas

ag-yánIlokano(WMP) stay, dwell, abide, occupy a certain relative place or position PWMP *ian₂

ag-yotIlokano(WMP) to copulate PPH *iut₂

ag-yútIlokano(WMP) copulate, unite in sexual intercourse. Said of male persons and animals PAN *qiut


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ahDrehet(OC) lime (for betel) PAN *qapuR

ahKuruti(OC) lime PAN *qapuR

ahKosraean(OC) string, fishing line, rope, thread, cord POC *apon

ahLikum(OC) lime PAN *qapuR

ahSeimat(OC) fire POC *api

ahaAyta Abellan(WMP) sharpen with a whetstone PMP *hasaq

ahaBalinese(WMP) fig PMP *qaRaʔ

ahaʔKadazan Dusun(WMP) defeat, overcome, conquer PWMP *alaq₂

ahaʔKadazan Dusun(WMP) be overcome, defeated

ahaKambera(CMP) grind (rice) PMP *hasaq

ahaLamboya(CMP) what? PMP *apa₁

ahaNggela(OC) name PMP *ajan

ahaNggela(OC) species of creeper used for string, smaller than lape POC *qasam

ahaSa'a(OC) to cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising, to cross the ‘t’ in writing POC *tapa₂

ahaSa'a(OC) to cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising POC *tapar

ʔæhæSaisiyat(Formosan) one PAN *asa₁

ʔæhæSaisiyat(Formosan) one PAN *a-esa

ahaSangir(WMP) kind of wild fig tree PMP *qaRaʔ

ahaTaokas(Formosan) one PAN *asa₁

-ahaʔUma(WMP) whet, sharpen PMP *hasaq

ahaaRennellese(OC) storm PMP *habaRat

ah-aheTawala(OC) jawbone, chin POC *qase

ahakManggarai(CMP) imitation of the sound of a cough PMP *akak

ahakWatubela(CMP) sharpen PMP *hasaq

ahalaSa'a(OC) shoulder POC *qapaRa₁

aha-naMono-Alu(OC) what? PMP *sapa

ahannaRoma(CMP) gills PMP *hasaŋ

ahanneKisar(CMP) uvula PMP *hasaŋ

a hanuBugotu(OC) the person, he who PMP *sanu

a hanuNggela(OC) what's his name! PMP *sanu

áhaŋSambal (Botolan)(WMP) gills PMP *hasaŋ

aha-ŋSori(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

aharanTondano (Kakas)(WMP) ladder, stairs PMP *haRezan

ahara-na'Āre'āre(OC) shoulder POC *qapaRa₁

a-hásinaMalagasy(WMP) to be twisted PWMP *gasiŋ

aha-siŋeSa'a(OC) making incisions in POC *tapa₂

aha-tBuruese(CMP) a tree PMP *qaRaʔ

ahawIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) an inside rafter of the roof of a house PMP *kasaw₁

aháwaSambal (Botolan)(WMP) spouse PAN *qasawa

aháwaIfugaw(WMP) husband or wife PAN *qasawa

ahāwaʔonIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) the person whom one marries, spouse PPh *qasawa-en

a-hawukOld Javanese(WMP) grey, ash-grey PMP *qabuk

ahayEre(OC) wind, northwest monsoon PMP *habaRat

ahbanItbayaten(WMP) cloth for carrying a baby, cloth or blanket used for carrying an infant PMP *haban

ahban-enItbayaten(WMP) carry an infant in a piggyback manner PMP *haban

ahbeŋIbatan(WMP) a small, stagnant pool, a hollow where water stays PPH *lebeŋ₂

ahbeŋIvatan(WMP) a small, stagnant pool, a hollow where water stays PPH *lebeŋ₂

ahdPohnpeian(OC) name; noun PMP *ajan

*ahdanPMin(WMP) ladder, stairs PMP *haRezan

ʔahe'Āre'āre(OC) surf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly POC *tape₁

aheArosi(OC) to flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet POC *tape₁

aheLolak(WMP) chin, jaw PMP *qazay

aheLusi(OC) leg, foot POC *qaqe

aheNias(WMP) foot, fruit stalk (of palms) PAN *qaqay

aheSa'a(OC) surf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear POC *tape₁

ahe-aheArosi(OC) to float gently; a flood, freshet POC *tape-tape

ahe-ahe-aArosi(OC) an early name for foreign ships, whalers on the south coast POC *tape-tape

ahe-auruArosi(OC) a waterfall (auru = ‘down’) POC *tape₁

a-heiNggela(OC) pronoun, who?, indefinite pronoun, whoever, anyone, he who PMP *sei

ahei (< *asa-i)Nggela(OC) who?; whoever, anyone, he who PMP *ajan

ahe luluSa'a(OC) boiling tide POC *ruru

ahemKatingan(WMP) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

ahəmMurik(WMP) sour PWMP *qalesem

a-heŋAhus(OC) to feed POC *paŋan

ahes-iSa'a(OC) to cause to drift POC *tape₁

ahe-siaArosi(OC) carried away to sea POC *tape₁

ʔahe-taha'Āre'āre(OC) to flow POC *tape₁

ahe-ta ni wai'Āre'āre(OC) a dry river bed POC *tape₁

ʔahiArosi(OC) put a broken limb into splints; splints PMP *kapit

ʔahiArosi(OC) put a broken limb into splints; splint PMP *kaq(e)pi

ahiHawaiian(OC) fire, match, lightning; burn in a fire, destroy by fire POC *api

ahiKapingamarangi(OC) fire POC *api

ahiMaori(OC) fire POC *api

ahiPohnpeian(OC) fire POC *api

ahiRennellese(OC) fire POC *api

ahiRoro(OC) canoe hull PMP *katiR

ahiSeimat(OC) long type of Malay apple, red on the outside and white inside POC *kapika

ahiSoboyo(CMP) stingray PCEMP *paRi

ahiʔSori(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

ahiTetun(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

ahiʔUma(WMP) pity, compassion PMP *qasiq

ahi, wahiBalinese(WMP) day PAN *waRi₁

ahi-ahiHawaiian(OC) evening, late afternoon; to become evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ahi-ahiNukuoro(OC) late afternoon and early evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ahi-ahiRennellese(OC) late afternoon and evening until about 10 or 11; to be such time PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ahi-ahiMaori(OC) evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ahi-botókIfugaw(WMP) harvest time PPh *betek₁

ahi funanTetun(CMP) spark PMP *buŋa ni hapuy

ähi-ma-waSa'a(OC) yawn POC *mawap

ahínIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) salt; to salt food PAN *qasiN

ahínIfugaw(WMP) salt PAN *qasiN

ahinPaamese(OC) woman; female POC *papine

ahin-aliPaamese(OC) sister (male speaker) POC *papine

ahin-anIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) that salted PWMP *qasin-an

ahlPohnpeian(OC) road, street, trail, path, line POC *salan

ahnedItbayaten(WMP) idea of sinking PWMP *leñej

ah-ŋKosraean(OC) four PEMP *pat

ahŋPohnpeian(OC) air, wind POC *aŋin

ahoAyta Abellan(WMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahoBugotu(OC) sun POC *qaco

ahoCheke Holo(OC) be clear and sunny, good weather POC *qaco

ahoHawaiian(OC) line, cord, lashing, fishing line, kite string POC *apon

ʔahoHawaiian(OC) thatch purlin and rafter PMP *kasaw₁

ahoLamaholot(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahoMalagasy(WMP) I, myself (used chiefly after the predicate) PAN *aku

ahoMaori(OC) string, line POC *apon

ahoNggela(OC) sun; good weather; put in the sun; experience good weather POC *qaco

ahoNiue(OC) day, daylight, morning POC *qaco

ahoNukuoro(OC) fishing line of the sort used for adu fishing POC *apon

ahoRennellese(OC) cord, line, thong, string; be on a line or string, as fish; to troll or fish with line on the reef POC *apon

æhœSaisiyat(Formosan) dog PAN *asu₁

ahoSangir(WMP) stolen goods, booty, loot PAN *qaRaw

ʔahoTongan(OC) day; birthday POC *qaco

ahoTuvaluan(OC) day (24 hour period) POC *qaco

ahoa-Raga(OC) husband PAN *qasawa

ahoiRoro(OC) egg POC *qatoluR

ahókSambal (Botolan)(WMP) smoke PMP *asuk

ahoŋ-iaNiue(OC) be overtaken by daylight POC *qaco

ahuArosi(OC) branching coral PAN *qapuR

ahuArosi(OC) flock together PMP *tapuk₁

ahuArosi(OC) come together in a group, flock together PMP *ta(m)pun

ahuArosi(OC) to bury; a pile, heap of firewood, mound of earth POC *tapun₂

ahuBauro(OC) lime PAN *qapuR

áhuIfugaw(WMP) dog, hound PAN *asu₁

ahúItawis(WMP) ash PMP *qabu₂

ahuKambera(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahuKédang(CMP) fetch water PMP *asu₂

ahuKédang(CMP) fetch water PMP *qasu₁

ahuKisar(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahuKomodo(CMP) 1sg.: I, me PAN *aku

ahuMori(WMP) smoke of a fire PMP *qasu₃

ahuMotu(OC) closed (used in composition with verbs) PMP *kaput₁

ahuMotu(OC) lime (quick or slack) PAN *qapuR

ahuNggela(OC) gall POC *qasu₂

ahuNggela(OC) the smoke of a fire; to steam a sick baby PMP *qasu₃

ahuNiue(OC) bail out, dip up; canoe bailer POC *qasu

ahuNiue(OC) spleen POC *qasu₂

ahuPohnpeian(OC) mouth POC *qawa₂

ahuRaga(OC) smoke PMP *qasu₃

ʔahuSika(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahuTetun(CMP) lime, calcium PAN *qapuR

ahuToba Batak(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

ʔahuTongan(OC) gall, gall bladder POC *qasu₂

ʔahuTongan(OC) smoke, soot; emit smoke PMP *qasu₃

ahuTugun(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

ahu-ahu-aBugotu(OC) smoky PMP *qasu₃

a-hua-naMalagasy(WMP) how? what? (used in answering a call); why? What is the cause of it? PMP *kua₁

ahu awaŋuKambera(CMP) witch ( = heavenly dog) PAN *asu₁

ahúdIfugaw(WMP) pound rice with two or three pestles in one trough, each pounder acting by turns PPh *asúd

a-hudanOld Javanese(WMP) with rain PAN *ma-quzaN

a-huiMotu(OC) ten (combination form) PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

a-huiMotu(OC) ten PMP *ŋa

ahu i beaBugotu(OC) steam PMP *qasu₃

ahu i tahiBugotu(OC) sea spray PMP *qasu₃

ahúkIfugaw(WMP) smoke PMP *asuk

ahuleKayeli(CMP) lime, chalk PAN *qapuR

ahuniArosi(OC) to bury, cover, conceal, hide POC *tapuni

ahu-(ña)Bugotu(OC) smoke; to smoke, of a fire PMP *qasu₃

ahuriArosi(OC) conch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts POC *tapuRi

ähuriSa'a(OC) conch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people POC *tapuRi

ahusBalinese(WMP) an air-current, draught PMP *qaRus

a-hutaŋ-hutaŋOld Javanese(WMP) receive gifts PWMP *qutaŋ qutaŋ

ahutayCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) skin from the wild banana plant, used to make string; to make string from the wild banana plant PPH *Rutay

a-huyaŋOld Javanese(WMP) hot, heated, hot and bothered, restless PWMP *huyaŋ

a-hwaItbayaten(WMP) spit out PMP *luaq

a-hwabItbayaten(WMP) breath emitting while yawning; yawn PMP *huab₂

ahxoItbayaten(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

ah-yaŋOld Javanese(WMP) like a god, divine, extraordinary PWMP *qiaŋ


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aiAlune(CMP) wood; tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiAraki(OC) water; fresh, drinkable water, collected from rain or from rivers POC *waiR

ʔai'Āre'āre(OC) generic name for wood, tree POC *kayu₂

aiArosi(OC) there, that place POC *ai₁

ʔaiArosi(OC) a tree or plant having stem and branches; not used of a fern cycad, sago palm, coconut, etc. POC *kayu₂

aiArosi(OC) a native of, person of POC *kai

aiAtayal(Formosan) exclamation PAN *ai₂

aiKelabit(WMP) cry of surprise, shock or dismay PAN *ai₂

aiBanggai(WMP) foot, leg PAN *qaqay

aiBimanese(CMP) exclamation PAN *ai₂

aiBintulu(WMP) foot PAN *qaqay

aiMongondow(WMP) exclamation: hey! PAN *ai₂

aiBuli(SHWNG) tree; wood PCEMP *kayu₁

aiBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) fire POC *api

aiCheke Holo(OC) exclamation of surprise PAN *ai₂

aiEnggano(WMP) come PAN *ai₃

aiErai(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

aiErai(CMP) wood, piece of wood, pole, post, stick, tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiFutunan(OC) interrogative pronoun, who?, whom? PMP *sai

aiGedaged(OC) have sexual intercourse (also used in respect to animals) POC *ait

ai-Gilbertese(OC) prefix to some words having the meaning of reciprocity; ex., hit one another, look at each other, follow one another, etc. PEMP *paRi-

aiGilbertese(OC) coconut crab: Birgus latro PMP *qayuyu

aiGilbertese(OC) fire; (fig.) fervor, passion, ardor; get red, glow POC *api

aiGitua(OC) tree; wood POC *kayu₂

aiHawaiian(OC) coition; to have sexual relations POC *ait

aiHawaiian(OC) linking or anaphoric particle. Every ai in Hawaiian has an antecedent, usually expressed, but sometimes understood (Elbert and Pukui 1979:96) POC *ai₁

ʔaiHawaiian(OC) food or food plant, especially vegetable food as distinguished from iʔa, meat or fleshy food; often ʔai refers specifically to poi; to eat, destroy of consume, as by fire, erode; to taste, bite, take a hook, grasp, hold on to; edible; ; score, points in a game; stake, wager POC *kani

aiHitu(CMP) leg, foot PAN *qaqay

aiJavanese(WMP) exclamation of incredulity or deprecation PAN *ai₂

aiKamarian(CMP) wood; tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiKamarian(CMP) leg/foot PAN *qaqay

aiKambera(CMP) exclamation PAN *ai₂

aiKambera(CMP) wood PCEMP *kayu₁

aiKapingamarangi(OC) who?, whose?, what? (name) PMP *sai

aiKédang(CMP) pole; tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiKilivila(OC) oh no! PAN *ai₂

aiKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) tree PCEMP *kayu₁

ʔaiKwaio(OC) tree, branch, stick, woody plant (shrub, bush) POC *kayu₂

ʔaiLau(OC) wood; a mast POC *kayu₂

aiLeti(CMP) wood, in combination forms; tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiMalay(WMP) interjection expressive of interest and approval PAN *ai₂

aiMaori(OC) lie with a female; copulate, of both sexes POC *ait

aiMaori(OC) not generally to be translated by any equivalent English word, but used in the following cases: 1. in relative clauses, where the relative in English is governed by a verb or preposition, 2. in clauses expressing the reason for which anything is done, or the object in view in doing it, 3. in clauses marking the time or place of an action or event, 4. with a verb or adjective denoting an action or state consequent upon some previous action, 5. denoting present habitual condition or action, 6. with reference to something previously mentioned POC *ai₁

aiMbula(OC) hey! PAN *ai₂

aiMoa(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

ʔaiMolima(OC) to eat POC *kani

-aiMono-Alu(OC) suffix: there, away; place where or whither POC *ai₁

aiMotu(OC) of time or place; in, at, when, during. May be used after single words or clauses POC *ai₁

aiMotu(OC) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

ai-Mussau(OC) reciprocal or collective action (possibly fossilized in ai-obi 'fight', ai-ora 'copulate') PEMP *paRi-

aiNgadha(CMP) wail and lament; complain PAN *ai₂

aiNggela(OC) exclamation of surprise PAN *ai₂

aiNias(WMP) interjection: hey! PAN *ai₂

aiNiue(OC) a particle used in the following ways: 1. after verbs to show that what has happened, or is to happen, is the result, consequence, or intention of what has gone before, 2. to indicate a relative clause, frequently giving a verb a passive sense, 3. with the prepositions i and aki to refer to a thing or place already mentioned POC *ai₁

aiNukuoro(OC) predicate complement POC *ai₁

aiNumbami(OC) tree; wood; stick (of wood) POC *kayu₂

a(i)Numfor(SHWNG) wood; tree PCEMP *kayu₁

aiPaiwan(Formosan) exclamation: alas! oh my! PAN *ai₂

ʔáiPalauan(WMP) barracuda PMP *qalu

ʔáiPalauan(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aiPalauan(WMP) eight PAN *walu

aiRarotongan(OC) particle used after a verb to denote cause, means, etc. of event, or to connect an intransitive verb with a transitive verb POC *ai₁

aʔiRarotongan(OC) fire, light: that which burns or sheds a light or heat POC *api

aiRennellese(OC) common anaphoric particle usually closing a verb phrase and liking it to a preceding noun, often with meaning there, thereby, thus, at, in, it, him, her POC *ai₁

aiRennellese(OC) interrogative pronoun, who? PMP *sai

aiRotinese(CMP) tree, stalk, wood PCEMP *kayu₁

aiSa'a(OC) exclamation of dissent, disapproval or surprise PAN *ai₂

ʔäiSa'a(OC) tree, wood , more commonly used in Ulawa; to be stiff, numb POC *kayu₂

aiSamoan(OC) anaphoric and relative particle: there, why (e.g. 'that was the reason why he came'), herein, hereby POC *ai₁

āiSamoan(OC) sew; seam POC *saqit

ʔaiSamoan(OC) to eat; bite, grip; food; score, goal, point, run POC *kani

aiSamoan(OC) who? PMP *sai

àiHawu(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

aiSelaru(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

aiTakia(OC) tree POC *kayu₂

aiTolai(OC) it, sometimes used as a relative pronoun POC *ai₁

aiTongan(OC) pronominal adverb: there, in it, on it, because of it, etc.; or (in a relative sense) where, in which, on which, because of which, etc. POC *ai₁

aiTontemboan(WMP) hither, toward the place where the speaker is; used as a verbal postclitic PAN *ai₃

ʔaiToqabaqita(OC) tree (does not include palm trees, cycads, tree-ferns, bamboos, banana trees); wood; firewood; timber; stick, pole, post, beam; mast of a ship, and some other relatively long and thin objects made out of wood POC *kayu₂

aiTuvaluan(OC) anaphoric pronoun POC *ai₁

aiUjir(CMP) leg, foot PAN *qaqay

aiWetan(CMP) dog PAN *asu₁

aiWetan(CMP) fire (used in compounds only) PMP *hapuy

ʔaiWuvulu(OC) to weep, cry PMP *taŋis

aiWuvulu(OC) 1pl. excl. subject pronoun PAN *k-ami

aiYami(WMP) come PAN *aRi

aia'Āre'āre(OC) exclamation of assent, of wonder PAN *aya₁

aiaAtayal(Formosan) mother, mother's sister. Used in direct address only; otherwise iaia ( < i 'prefix for persons', plus aia) PAN *aya₂

aiaBugotu(OC) exclamation PAN *aya₁

aiaBuma(OC) father PMP *aya₂

aiaGedaged(OC) interjection indicating wonder, astonishment, etc. PAN *aya₁

aiaGilbertese(OC) firewood, fuel POC *papian

aiaMarshallese(OC) slang. Interjection: good grief! Nuts! PAN *aya₁

aiaMota(OC) exclamation of assent: that's it! PAN *aya₁

ayagMaranao(WMP) sieve, pass through a sieve PWMP *qayag

ayag-aʔMaranao(WMP) sifter, sieve PWMP *qayag

ai-aiAua(OC) tree POC *kayu-kayu

ai-aiMongondow(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji

ʔai-ʔaiKwaio(OC) tall and thin POC *kayu-kayu

ay-ʔayMaranao(WMP) exclamation of disdain or disbelief PAN *ai₂

ai-aiRejang(WMP) ejaculation of astonishment or appreciation PAN *ai₂

ai aiErai(CMP) pieces of wood PCEMP *kayu₁

ʔai-ʔaiMolima(OC) to eat POC *kani kani

ai-akarErai(CMP) root PMP *wakaR

ai aloaloMussau(OC) rudder of a boat POC *palo₁

ayamMaranao(WMP) animal PWMP *qayam₂

ʔaiamPazeh(Formosan) bird PAN *qayam₁

ayam-anMaranao(WMP) aquarium; breed livestock PWMP *qayam₂

ai anakRotinese(CMP) young tree PMP *anak i kahiw

aiauGedaged(OC) several species of the strangler fig (Ficus). They are considered to be the abode of tibud spirits ( = spirits of the dead) PEMP *qayawan

aiauPohnpeian(OC) banyan tree: Ficus carolinensis, used in the treatment of tetanus and as a hemostatic in menstruation PEMP *qayawan

aiawTakia(OC) banyan PEMP *qayawan

aʔiaʔiRarotongan(OC) afternoon, after 1:00 p.m. PAN *Rabi-Rabi

aʔiaʔi pōRarotongan(OC) just as darkness sets in PAN *Rabi-Rabi

aībManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) knee PAN *qaleb

ai-bobaŋBuli(SHWNG) butterfly PMP *beŋbeŋ₄

ai buna-kRotinese(CMP) flower, blossom PMP *buŋa na kahiw

ai buŋaSika(CMP) large tree with very good wood PMP *buŋa na kahiw

ai-enTontemboan(WMP) to have come to (a condition) PAN *ai₃

ai fua-nTetun(CMP) fruit; floor beams PMP *buaq ni kahiw

aigaWuvulu(OC) when? POC *ka-ica

aihaMotu(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

ai hane-kTetun(CMP) a tree from which plates are made, and whose bark is used as an antifebrile: Alstonia scholaris PMP *panay

ai hu-kRotinese(CMP) tree PCEMP *kayu₁

ai hunaErai(CMP) flower, blossom of a fruit tree PMP *buŋa na kahiw

ailSelaru(CMP) fishhook PAN *kawil₁

ai-lamut-iAlune(CMP) tree root PMP *Ramut

ailiMono-Alu(OC) fishhook PAN *kawil₁

aimMambai(CMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

ai mahu-nErai(CMP) smoke PCMP *masu

ai mata-nKédang(CMP) a knot or hole left at the base of a branch, or else the depression in the earth below the trunk of a tree (Barnes 1974:230) PMP *mata nu kahiw

ai ma-tuaRotinese(CMP) a heavy, thick piece of wood; a thick post PMP *ma-tuqah

ai-mauliBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) left (side) POC *mauRi

ainKelabit(WMP) sweetness, sweet taste PAN *qasiN

ai-nElat(CMP) leg, foot PAN *qaqay

ai-nTetun(CMP) leg, foot PAN *qaqay

aínaMalagasy(WMP) life, animal life, strength PWMP *qaseŋ

ai naTetun(CMP) rosewood tree (Pterocarpus indicus?), a good timber for furniture PMP *naRa₁

ainaoMussau(OC) steal POC *painako

aineGilbertese(OC) female; woman; feminine POC *pine

aineManam(OC) woman POC *papine

ai nenUjir(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

ai-n fua-nTetun(CMP) toes PMP *buaq

ai-n fuku-nTetun(CMP) ankle bone PCEMP *buku ni qaqay

ai nilKei(CMP) a tree: Cassia fistula L. PMP *qanilaw

aiʔ niurIban(WMP) water from green nut PMP *niuR

ai (ni) WangoArosi(OC) a native of Wango POC *kai

ain kabunTetun(CMP) calf of leg PCEMP *kampuŋ

ai-n kabu-nTetun(CMP) calf of leg PMP *kambu

ain lulurTetun(CMP) shin (of leg), the front part between knee and ankle PMP *luluj

ai-n mate-kTetun(CMP) pins and needles in the leg PCEMP *matay₁

aiowanGitua(OC) kind of ficus with short leaf; sometimes chewed with poapoa bark in lieu of betel PEMP *qayawan

ai paloSika(CMP) wooden club used to mash up pig fodder PMP *palu

ai pandiʔIban(WMP) bathing place, bathing pool PWMP *pa-andiʔ

air, ayerMalay(WMP) water; liquid; stream PMP *wahiR

ai rarmeLeti(CMP) heartwood PMP *dalem

aiʔ rayaIban(WMP) spring tides PAN *Raya

air bahMalay(WMP) freshet; floodwater in motion; the seasonal flooding of the ricefields PMP *wahiR bahaq

air mataMalay(WMP) tears PWMP *wahiR ni mata

ai ronTugun(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

air tawarMalay(WMP) fresh water (in contrast to salt) PWMP *tawaR₁

ai sana-kTetun(CMP) a branch, bough, or fork of tree, a spar or pole PMP *saŋa₁

ʔa-ísiKanakanabu(Formosan) exist PAN *isiʔ

a-isoNias(WMP) sour PWMP *isem₂

a-isuKavalan(Formosan) 2sg. PAN *iSu

ai suluTetun(CMP) a torch PMP *suluq

aʔitKelabit(WMP) sickness, pain PMP *sakit

a-itaNumbami(OC) we, us (inclusive) PAN *kita₁

ai taliSika(CMP) talisman worn around the neck PMP *talih

ai-taŋaMaori(OC) progeny, descendants POC *ait

ai ta-tunuAsilulu(CMP) firewood PMP *tunu

aitiMono-Alu(OC) copulate (of humans) POC *ait

ai-tiaMaori(OC) copulate with POC *ait

a-itik-anOld Javanese(WMP) to keep, as a young bird PWMP *itik₂

a-itoʔSimalur(WMP) make small, reduce in size PMP *itek

a-ito-itoFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) seven and seven, by sevens PAN *pitu pitu

a-i-tsuPaiwan(Formosan) this, this one PAN *i-Cu

aituMaori(OC) sickness, calamity; demon PMP *qanitu

aituNiue(OC) ghost, supernatural being PMP *qanitu

aituRarotongan(OC) god, deity, spirit PMP *qanitu

ʔaituRennellese(OC) worshipped deity, god, esp. the district gods; Lord, Jesus; worship a deity PMP *qanitu

aituSamoan(OC) ghost, spirit PMP *qanitu

aituTuvaluan(OC) family spirit in animal form which helped the family by providing omens and making predictions; ghost; fairy PMP *qanitu

aitu-āMaori(OC) of ill omen, unlucky; unfortunate, in trouble, misfortune, trouble, disaster, accident; omen, particularly evil omen PMP *qanitu

aitu-aSamoan(OC) be haunted PMP *qanitu

aitu-aTuvaluan(OC) be haunted PMP *qanitu

ai-tuduʔ-anPazeh(Formosan) classroom, place for instruction PAN *tuzuq₁

aiu (<Hap.)Mussau(OC) coconut crab, Birgus sp. PMP *qayuyu

ai-viaTolai(OC) how many?, how much?, how often?, how many at a time?, how many times? POC *pica

aiwaWuvulu(OC) banyan PEMP *qayawan

ʔai-waneKwaio(OC) a male tree; hence, sterile, unmarried, childless POC *kayu₂

ai wuaŋSika(CMP) fruit of a tree PMP *buaq ni kahiw

aiyowanaNumbami(OC) banyan PEMP *qayawan

ai ʔakarTugun(CMP) root PMP *akaR

aiʔ tabarIban(WMP) fresh water PWMP *tabaR

ai ʔunTugun(CMP) tree PMP *puqun


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ajMarshallese(OC) liver; spleen; seat of bravery PMP *qatay

ajMarshallese(OC) thatch (of pandanus leaves) POC *qatop

ajaAmpana(WMP) breeding animal, stud PWMP *qayam₂

ajaBare'e(WMP) substitute term for 'dog' (asu) PWMP *qayam₂

ajajMarshallese(OC) calf of leg POC *qate qate

ajakBalinese(WMP) take with one, take along, invite to do something with one; the verb can only be used to equals or inferiors (iriŋ~ŋiriŋ) must be used for superiors); it implies that one or more persons desires others as individuals (including animals) to do something, to act in some way with the subject or agent PWMP *azak

ajakJavanese(WMP) suggestion to join in someone's activity PWMP *azak

ajakKaro Batak (Kembaren)(WMP) spur on, incite, urge on PWMP *azak

ajakMalay(WMP) suasion to action PWMP *azak

ajakNgaju Dayak(WMP) impulse, stimulus, persuasion, inducement, seduction PWMP *azak

ajakOld Javanese(WMP) ask, invite (to do something together) PWMP *azak

ajakSundanese(WMP) invite, propose PWMP *azak

ajak-kanMalay(WMP) invite; press; incite PWMP *azak

ajar buaya berenaŋMalay(WMP) 'to teach a crocodile to swim' = to waste pains on those who will return evil for good PMP *buqaya₂

ajeBare'e(WMP) chin, jaw PMP *qazay

ajjipan, aripanAtta(WMP) slave PPh *qadipen

ajuBuginese(WMP) wood PMP *kahiw

ajuDhao/Ndao(CMP) tree PCEMP *kayu₁

ajuhIban(WMP) term of address used between men (only intimates) PWMP *azuq

ajuhMiri(WMP) wood; tree PMP *kahiw

aʔ-jujuŋMakasarese(WMP) take or carry on the head (as a basket full of rice) PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

aju-kaju-ŋBuginese(WMP) all sorts of wood PMP *kahi-kahiw

aju ma-terasMandar(WMP) strong, hard (wood) PMP *ma-teRas


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akDrehet(OC) roof, thatch POC *qatop

akElat(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akErai(CMP) four PMP *epat

akLikum(OC) roof, thatch POC *qatop

akToba Batak(WMP) hips, loins PMP *hawak

akUjir(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akaAraki(OC) boat POC *waŋka

ákaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) older sibling (reference) PWMP *aka

àkaKambera(CMP) stutter (onom.) PMP *e(ŋ)kak

àkaKambera(CMP) stutter (onom.) PMP *qekak

akaKenyah(WMP) creeper PMP *wakaR

akaːʔKiput(WMP) spread something (as tweezers) apart PMP *kakaq

a-kaʔLawangan(WMP) if PAN *ka₂

akaʔMakasarese(WMP) root PMP *wakat

akaMaori(OC) long and thin roots of trees or plants; vine of any climbing plant PMP *akaR

aka-Mekeo(OC) name PMP *ajan

akaMota(OC) canoe POC *waŋka

akaNgaju Dayak(WMP) one’s own elder sibling of the same sex PWMP *aka

akaRarotongan(OC) root PMP *akaR

aka-Rarotongan(OC) a causative prefix; to make to, to cause something to be done; by the addition of the prefix aka- many nouns, adjectives and neuter verbs become active verbs POC *paka-

akaRennellese(OC) root PMP *akaR

akaSelaru(CMP) untie, loosen PMP *wakas

akaTongan(OC) root PMP *akaR

akaTuvaluan(OC) root PMP *akaR

akaWaropen(SHWNG) thatch PMP *qatep

aka-aŋiRarotongan(OC) cause to blow air upon or into POC *paka-aŋin

akafa-Mekeo(OC) spouse PAN *qasawa

akahBalinese(WMP) root, tree root PMP *akaR

akahBalinese(WMP) root, tree root PMP *wakaR

akahMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) creeper, vine; (aerial) root PMP *wakaR

akahMurik(WMP) vines, creepers, aerial roots PMP *akaR

akahMurik(WMP) vine, creeper, aerial root PMP *wakaR

akahKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) vines, creepers, exclusive of rattan PMP *akaR

akahKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) vines, creepers, exclusive of rattan PMP *wakaR

akah, akarSasak(WMP) root PMP *wakaR

a kai coloFijian(OC) the inland people POC *solos

akakBalinese(WMP) laugh loudly PMP *akak

akakBalinese(WMP) laugh loudly PWMP *hakhak

ákákBikol(WMP) to quack PMP *akak

akʔákBikol(WMP) to quack PMP *qekqek

a-kakaOld Javanese(WMP) toward an elder brother PMP *kaka

aka-kauRarotongan(OC) to make or cause to swim or float POC *kaRu

aka-kē-iaRarotongan(OC) estranged, alienated PCEMP *kese

a-ka-kilaPaulohi(CMP) wild; shy (of domesticated animals) PMP *gila

àkakuKambera(CMP) a stutterer PMP *e(ŋ)kak

àkakuKambera(CMP) a stutterer PMP *qekak

akalWatubela(CMP) root PMP *akaR

akalWatubela(CMP) root PMP *wakaR

a-kalisOld Javanese(WMP) hard, unfeeling, unreceptive, callous, indifferent; untouched, unscathed PWMP *kalis

akalo loo-lofoToqabaqita(OC) magic possessed by some people that enabled them to jump very high or far PMP *Rebek

aka-maŋa-maŋaNiue(OC) to stand with legs apart POC *paka-saŋa

ak-anIban(WMP) distant cousin; polite form of address to a younger person PWMP *kam-anak-en

a-kanKadazan Dusun(WMP) to eat, consume, wear away; (in such games as chess) take a piece, destroy (as if by eating) PAN *kaen

a-kanLun Dayeh(WMP) a meal, food supply PAN *kaen

a-kan-anPuyuma(Formosan) food PAN *kaen-an

a-kan-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) (to be) eaten, destroyed (as if by eating) PAN *kaen-en

a-ka-nuMansaka(WMP) when? (past) PMP *ka-nu₂

aka-ŋBalinese(WMP) older brother or sister PWMP *aka-ŋ

ākaŋIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for someone to step over someone or something, especially something low PWMP *akaŋ

ʔákaŋBontok(WMP) to step over, as a rock or a sleeping person PWMP *akaŋ

akáŋCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to cautiously take a step (as a hunter in stalking game, or a small child just learning to walk) PWMP *akaŋ

akaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) a pace, step, stride PMP *sakaŋ

akaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) a pace, step, stride PWMP *akaŋ

aka-ŋSangir(WMP) the older of two brothers or sisters PWMP *aka-ŋ

akaŋ-káŋKankanaey(WMP) to spread one’s legs; to straddle PWMP *akaŋ

akarIban(WMP) creeper or anything used for binding or generally as a substitute for rotan (except in mat-making) PMP *wakaR

akarKaro Batak(WMP) very young jungle (must have earlier referred to creepers) PMP *akaR

akarMalay(WMP) root; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana PMP *akaR

akarMalay(WMP) root; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana PMP *wakaR

akarSasak(WMP) root PMP *akaR

akar jitahMalay(WMP) a liana, Willughbeia spp. PWMP *ziteq

aka-roŋoRarotongan(OC) to hear, to listen, to obey, to yield to, to pay attention to, to heed; obedience; obedient POC *paka-roŋoR

aka-ro-ro-nOld Javanese(WMP) two together PMP *duha

akar putatMalay(WMP) Gnetum funiculare PMP *putat

akar taliMalay(WMP) climbers, Gnetum spp. PMP *talih

a-kasJavanese(WMP) hard and dry, crusty PMP *keRas

akatBanggai(WMP) root PMP *wakat

akatMaloh(WMP) origin, source PMP *wakat

akatMaranao(WMP) transport, move PWMP *aŋkat

akátMentawai(WMP) lift, raise (Morris 1900) PWMP *aŋkat

aka-taeRarotongan(OC) to let any fluid into or out of a vessel through a leak; to make to flow or run out, as water through a pipe, or as in turning on a tap to allow water to flow or run POC *tape₁

aka-taŋataRarotongan(OC) assume human shape or form, to attain adult age; to act like a man; to be or become manly PMP *tau-mata

aka-tapákPangasinan(WMP) barefoot PWMP *tapak₁

a-katirOld Javanese(WMP) to use as an outrigger PMP *katiR

akat kayuMaloh(WMP) tree PMP *wakat

ákatraMalagasy(WMP) ascent, upward progress PWMP *aŋkat

a-kaṭukOld Javanese(WMP) to chatter (of the teeth)? PMP *katuk

a-kauNiue(OC) tree, wood, timber; rod, staff, weapon POC *kayu₂

ʔa-kauTongan(OC) tree, plant POC *kayu₂

akawBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) vine, creeper PMP *akaR

akawBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) vine, creeper PMP *wakaR

akayYami(WMP) grandfather PWMP *lakay

aka-ɁKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) older sibling PWMP *aka-q

aka-ɁTinggalan (Eastern)(WMP) sibling PWMP *aka-q

a-kdot-enYami(WMP) to pinch PWMP *kedut-en

akeEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) sp. tree POC *ake

akeHawaiian(OC) liver; to desire, yearn (the emotions and intelligence were thought to be centered within the body) PMP *qatay

akeMaori(OC) a tree: Dodonaea viscosa POC *ake

akeTongan(OC) hardwood tree found at Vava’u POC *ake

akeakeRarotongan(OC) a tree which is common at high altitudes --- it attains from 12 to 15 feet in height, Xylosma gracile POC *ake

ake-akeSa'a(OC) twig, sprig POC *take₁

akemBerawan (Long Jegan)(WMP) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

ake māmāHawaiian(OC) lungs PMP *qatay

a-kəmuhOld Javanese(WMP) to rinse with PMP *kemuR

ak-enKapuas(WMP) sibling's child PWMP *kam-anak-en

ak-enMa'anyan(WMP) sibling's child PWMP *kam-anak-en

akepJavanese(WMP) put, hold between the lips PWMP *hakep

akesYami(WMP) grandmother PPH *bakes₂

aketKiput(WMP) illness PMP *sakit

akəuʔPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akeutRejang(WMP) adopted; senior, older PWMP *aŋkat

akəwBintulu(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akəwMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akiʔAtayal(Formosan) paternal or maternal grandmother PAN *aki

akiBare'e(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

ʔakiHawaiian(OC) to take a nip and let go; to nibble, as fish; to bite off the bark of sugarcane; to heal, as a wound; to scar over; sharp recurring pain, as in head or stomach POC *kaRati

akiKisar(CMP) liver PMP *qatay

(a)kiʔRhade(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

akiThao(Formosan) grandfather PAN *aki

akʔiTsou(Formosan) grandfather PAN *aki

ákinTagalog(WMP) 1sg oblique PAN *aken

ak-iniRukai (Tona)(Formosan) that (near hearer) PAN *i-ni

a-kiŋOld Javanese(WMP) dry, dried up, shrivelled PWMP *keRiŋ

a-kiŋogSungai Seguliud(WMP) to hear PAN *kiŋeR

akitBalaesang(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

akitBintulu(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

akitKayan(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

akitKenyah(WMP) a raft PMP *Rakit

akitManggarai(CMP) to bite PMP *a(ŋ)kit

akitTotoli(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

akkáʔIsneg(WMP) to cackle (fowls) PMP *qekak

akkáʔIsneg(WMP) to cackle, of fowls PMP *hekak

akkábIsneg(WMP) spread a tabúkol net over an agglomeration of pebbles in a stream; join the rims of two baskets, the upper one upside-down PMP *e(ŋ)keb

ak-kambuMakasarese(WMP) thrust into the body, as a piercing weapon PMP *kambu

akkátIsneg(WMP) cleave, adhere, stick PWMP *eket

akkat-ánIsneg(WMP) to lift, as a load that has to be carried; remove a pot from the fire, etc. PWMP *aŋkat-an

akkat-ānIsneg(WMP) help lift up a load PWMP *aŋkat-an

akkohBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akkúbIlokano(WMP) cover, wrapper, shell (of crab) PMP *aŋkub

akkuhBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) ashes PMP *qabu₂

akkúpIsneg(WMP) to catch (birds) in their nest at night PWMP *ekup

akkúp-anIsneg(WMP) catch birds in their nest, at night PWMP *aŋkup₁

ak-kutuMakasarese(WMP) seek out lice, pick lice from the hair PMP *kutu₁

akláhaʔTagalog(WMP) cry of monkeys PMP *akerahaq

akmaŋaoChamorro(WMP) the mangrove crab: Scylla serrata PMP *qali-maŋaw

aknasayIvatan(WMP) a fish: mullet PAN *kaNasay

aknasayYami(WMP) kind of fish: mullet PAN *kaNasay

akóAklanon(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akóBikol(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akoHawaiian(OC) thatching; to thatch POC *qatop

akoItbayaten(WMP) I PAN *aku

akoIvatan(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akoMaranao(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

ʔakóPalawan Batak(WMP) I (pronoun) PAN *aku

*-akoPRuk(Formosan) 1sg.; I’ PAN *aku

akóTagalog(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akoWaropen(SHWNG) four PEMP *pat

ako-Roro(OC) throat, neck POC *kadro

ʔakúbBontok(WMP) large covered basket, generally used as a lunch basket for carrying rice to the fields PMP *aŋkub

akóbIlokano(WMP) join together two things of the same kind facing each other (two plates, two shells, two hands, etc.) PMP *aŋkub

ako-énIlokano(WMP) receive, accept with both hands; receive graciously (a petitioner, etc.); to get (a reward) PWMP *aku-en

a-kokoHawaiian(OC) endemic shrubs and small trees (Euphorbia spp.) with jointed leaves, oblong stems, and milky sap POC *toto

akonSungai Seguliud(WMP) 1sg oblique PAN *aken

akonMurut (Timugon)(WMP) sibling's child PWMP *kam-anak-en

akon-akonOld Javanese(WMP) possession (promised as war booty); acknowledged (adopted) child PWMP *aku-en

ákopAklanon(WMP) greedy, selfish PWMP *aŋkup₁

ʔákupBontok(WMP) gather up with cupped hands, as spilt beans PWMP *aŋkup₁

akopCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) pick up (as to pick up rice, salt, sand by cupping it in your hands, or to pick up a pile of clothing or trash in your arms PWMP *aŋkup₁

akopKenyah(WMP) with hands cupped; two hands full PWMP *aŋkup₁

akopMaranao(WMP) scoop with both hands PWMP *aŋkup₁

akopNgaju Dayak(WMP) scoop up with the two cupped hands PWMP *aŋkup₁

ákopPangasinan(WMP) get with both hands PWMP *aŋkup₁

ʔa-koru ~ ʔa-koduEnggano(WMP) three PAN *telu

ʔa-koru-paraEnggano(WMP) parents with one child PAN *telu

akotCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) transport something from one place to another PMP *hakut

akotMansaka(WMP) carry repeatedly in order to move something from one place to another (this activity does not mean carrying a lot at once, but rather repeated trips until all is carried as planned) PMP *hakut

akotMaranao(WMP) carry, transport PMP *hakut

ákotPangasinan(WMP) wasp PWMP *hakut hakut

akuAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuBare'e(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuBisaya (Bukit)(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I (coarse, or non-respect form) PAN *aku

akuSambal (Botolan)(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuBuol(WMP) 1sg., I PAN *aku

akúCebuano(WMP) I, me PAN *aku

akuGayō(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuGeser(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

ʔakúHanunóo(WMP) I (pronoun) PAN *aku

akuHawaiian(OC) particle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future PMP *a-tu

akuHawaiian(OC) bonito, skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamys, an important food item; to run, of aku fish POC *qatun

akuHawaiian(OC) particle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future; the particle contrasts with mai, and sometimes may be translated “away” or “to say” PMP *atu

akúHiligaynon(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuIban(WMP) I, me, my, mine PAN *aku

akuIda'an Begak(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuJavanese(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me; my (variant of -ku) PAN *aku

akuKapampangan(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuKaro Batak(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akuʔLampung(WMP) take something PWMP *aŋkup₁

akuBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuLi'o(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuMa'anyan(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akuMalay(WMP) I; me. The pronoun of the first person singular, but used in a double sense: (i) 'myself', used by a superior to an inferior, by an elder to a younger, or between equals talking so familiarly as to ignore etiquette. Also in prayer, (ii) 'my own', i.e. taking responsibility for or answering for PAN *aku

akuManam(OC) pandanus with big leaves used to make grass skirt POC *pakum

akuMansaka(WMP) 1sg. topic pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuMekeo(OC) smoke of a fire PMP *qasu₃

ākuMentawai(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuManggarai(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuMori(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I (future) PAN *aku

akuOld Javanese(WMP) pronoun of the first person: I, me PAN *aku

*-akuPAty(Formosan) I PAN *aku

akuSamal(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuSasak(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuSoboyo(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuTae'(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuMurut (Timugon)(WMP) 1sg. topic and theme pronoun: I PAN *aku

aku-ʔUma(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

-akuWolio(WMP) suffix with transitive verbs indicating 1sg. object PAN *aku

akuYakan(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

aku~ auAlune(CMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

akuaHawaiian(OC) God, goddess, spirit, ghost, devil, image, idol, corpse; divine, supernatural, godly PMP *qatuan

a-kuḍuŋ-kuḍuŋOld Javanese(WMP) covered, wrapped in a veil (blanket, etc.) PWMP *kuduŋ

ʔakufTiruray(WMP) the contents of one's two cupped hands; try to get all for oneself PWMP *aŋkup₁

akuhSiang(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

akuhTausug(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

a-kukubOld Javanese(WMP) covered, under a sheet PWMP *kubkub₂

akuleHawaiian(OC) big-eyed or goggle-eyed scad: Trachurops crumenophthalmus PMP *qatulay

a-kumpulOld Javanese(WMP) to gather, be together PWMP *kumpul

akunMalay (Sarawak)(WMP) claim, admit PWMP *aku-en

aku-oiMongondow(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

ākupIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) scoop out a liquid or solid with the two hands cupped together PWMP *aŋkup₁

ʔákupHanunóo(WMP) handful, as of rice grains PWMP *aŋkup₁

ákupIfugaw(WMP) act of scooping out things (e.g. pounded rice, beans) with one's two hands joined PWMP *aŋkup₁

ákupIsneg(WMP) to catch PWMP *aŋkup₁

ákupKankanaey(WMP) one (great) handful; one (small) armful. A quantity that can be taken up with both hands PWMP *aŋkup₁

akupManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a measure of two handfuls PWMP *aŋkup₁

akup-akupCebuano(WMP) monopolize a job, possession, or enjoyment of something PWMP *aŋkup₁

akúp-enIlokano(WMP) gather, collect. With both hands, two brooms, etc., as dirt PWMP *aŋkup₁

a-kuruOld Javanese(WMP) thin, emaciated PWMP *kuru₂

a-kusuOld Javanese(WMP) make fire by rubbing two sticks together PMP *kusu₁

ʔákutHanunóo(WMP) packing, carrying on one's back, of slung over one's back PMP *hakut

akuTPuyuma(Formosan) transport PAN *SakuC

ʔakut-ʔákutHanunóo(WMP) wasp PWMP *hakut hakut

akut-ákutIlokano(WMP) kind of hymenopterous insect resembling a bumblebee but more slender, and very thin at the junction of the abdomen and the thorax PWMP *hakut hakut

akut-akutRejang(WMP) stinging wasp-like insect PWMP *hakut hakut

akut-aŋkutMalay(WMP) mason bee, ichneumon fly: Chalicodoma spp., or Eumenes gracilis PWMP *hakut hakut

aku-yKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) 1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

ākwaLau(OC) species of hardwood: Pometia pinnata PMP *tawan

akʷasiKwaio(OC) a tree whose leaves are used for tooth blackening and dyeing: Rhus taitensis POC *tawasi

akxatItbayaten(WMP) to do something upon something or someone suddenly and unexpectedly PPH *kelaqat


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alMokilese(OC) road, street, line, path, way; to line, to draw lines POC *salan

alMota(OC) to move PMP *aliq

alPelipowai(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

alSeimat(OC) thick-bodied barracuda sp. PMP *qalu

alSeimat(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

alSelaru(CMP) receive, get, take; give PAN *alaq₁

alTitan(OC) thick-bodied barracuda sp. PMP *qalu

alWatubela(CMP) water PCEMP *waiR

alaAmis(Formosan) to take PAN *ala

alaAsilulu(CMP) chin, jaw PMP *qazay

ālaIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) get PAN *alaq₁

alaBanggai(WMP) take away, fetch PAN *alaq₁

ʔálaBontok(WMP) get PAN *alaq₁

ʔálaBontok(WMP) get PAN *ala

alaBuginese(WMP) fetch, get, take PAN *alaq₁

álaʔCebuano(WMP) be mistaken for another person PWMP *alaq₃

alaFutunan(OC) road, way, path POC *salan

alaHawaiian(OC) path, road, trail POC *salan

alaIbaloy(WMP) to get, take something PAN *ala

álaIfugaw(WMP) conveys the action-denoting idea of getting, taking PAN *alaq₁

álaIlokano(WMP) take, get, go to and get PAN *alaq₁

aláʔIsneg(WMP) get, obtain, take, catch, bring PAN *alaq₁

alaJarai(WMP) snake PMP *hulaR

alaKamarian(CMP) chin PMP *qazay

alaKamarian(CMP) hornbill PMP *kalaw

alaKapingamarangi(OC) responsibility, be responsible for; row of plaiting on a net POC *salan

alaKayan(WMP) get, receive, take, find PAN *alaq₁

alaʔKenyah(WMP) take PAN *alaq₁

alaKisar(CMP) give PAN *alaq₁

alaKomodo(CMP) take; marry PAN *alaq₁

alaKomodo(CMP) fetch, get, take; search for (firewood), cut and haul (pandanus); understand, grasp PAN *alaq₁

alaKomodo(CMP) take; marry PAN *ala

alaKwaio(OC) southeast wind POC *karak₁

alaʔLun Dayeh(WMP) a miss (in shooting) PMP *salaq₁

alaLusi(OC) fence POC *qalar

álaMalagasy(WMP) removed, taken away, released, fetched, withdrawn, freed from PAN *alaq₁

alaMalagasy(WMP) a forest, a wood PMP *halas

alaMandar(WMP) fetch, get, take PAN *alaq₁

alaMandar(WMP) fetch, get, take PAN *ala

alaMentawai(WMP) fetch, get, pick up PAN *alaq₁

alaMentawai(WMP) fetch, get, pick up PAN *ala

alaManggarai(CMP) get, fetch PAN *alaq₁

alaLakalai(OC) to bite a thing or animal; by extension, to catch a pig, of a dog or a man hunting with dogs PMP *kaRat

alaNgadha(CMP) fetch, get, take; take out, win, capture PAN *alaq₁

alaNumbami(OC) fence (e.g. garden fence) POC *qalar

aláPangasinan(WMP) get, take PAN *alaq₁

aláPangasinan(WMP) get, take PAN *ala

alaPaulohi(CMP) chin, jaw PMP *qazay

alaRembong(CMP) fetch, get, take PAN *alaq₁

-alaRotinese(CMP) fetch, get, take, capture PAN *alaq₁

alaSa'a(OC) to bite, sting, be sharp-edged PMP *kaRat

ʔælaSaisiyat(Formosan) enemy PAN *qaNa

alaSamoan(OC) path, road; way; method, way of doing something; cause of, reason for; working section (area of mat woven by one person at a particular time) POC *salan

alaʔSangir(WMP) fetch, take; bite (of fish) PAN *alap

ʔalaSika(CMP) fetch, get, take, capture PAN *alaq₁

alaSoboyo(CMP) fetch, get, take, capture PAN *alaq₁

alaSoboyo(CMP) fetch, get, take, capture PAN *ala

alaSundanese(WMP) fetch, get, look for, gather in, harvest PAN *ala

alaTae'(WMP) fetch, get, take; begin a song; contact, touch PAN *alaq₁

alaʔTae'(WMP) bush, forest, jungle PMP *halas

alaTongan(OC) gather or catch with the hands, of certain kinds of shellfish and small crabs PAN *alap

alaʔUma(WMP) fetch, get, take PAN *alaq₁

alaWetan(CMP) to use, to take; like, love, marry PAN *alaq₁

alaWetan(CMP) large forest, wilderness PMP *halas

alaWolio(WMP) take, fetch, include, take along, take away, accept PAN *alaq₁

ala-ánPangasinan(WMP) source of something PAN *alaq₁

ala-ánPangasinan(WMP) source of something PAN *ala

a-laatAbai Sembuak(WMP) bad PMP *zaqat

ala atéNgadha(CMP) take note of, remember PAN *alaq₁

a-labásPangasinan(WMP) too much, more than enough PPH *labas

ala beMalagasy(WMP) a great or thick forest (lit. 'big forest') PWMP *halas Raya

al-abúh-anCebuano(WMP) stove or any place a fire for cooking is built PAN *qabu-an

aladKelabit(WMP) wall, partition, barrier PAN *qalad

aladBinukid(WMP) fence; enclosure (for animals); put a fence around an area, enclose an area with a fence, fence something in PAN *qalad

ʔáladBontok(WMP) fence, wall PAN *qalad

áladCebuano(WMP) wooden fence, enclosure; pig sty; enclose in a fence PAN *qalad

ʔaládHanunóo(WMP) fence PAN *qalad

aladMaranao(WMP) fence PAN *qalad

ʔáladPalawan Batak(WMP) fence PAN *qalad

*aladPMin(WMP) enclosure for animals PAN *qalad

aladManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a fence; to fence an area PAN *qalad

ala-enAmis(Formosan) be taken PAN *ala-en

ʔalá-ʔənBontok(WMP) get PAN *alaq-en

alá-enIlokano(WMP) take, get, go and get PAN *alaq-en

alá-enIlokano(WMP) take, get, go and get PAN *ala-en

ala-enIbaloy(WMP) to get, take something PAN *ala-en

alaf-iTongan(OC) catch it PAN *alap

alaf-iaTongan(OC) (of a woman) to be married, or (more strictly) to have had sexual intercourse, not to be a virgin PAN *alap

alagaMotu(OC) seaweed-like grass, Fucus sp. POC *karagʷam

alagauKwaio(OC) rufous-breasted hawk: Accipiter novaehollandiae rufoschistaceus POC *taragau

ala go ateNgadha(CMP) (lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection PMP *qalap qatay

alahBalinese(WMP) destroy, defeat, abandon; destruction PWMP *alaq₂

alahBalinese(WMP) be like, resemble PWMP *alaq₃

ala-hBuruese(CMP) pluck, as grain from the stem PAN *alaq₁

alahIban(WMP) beaten, defeated; subdue, vanquish PWMP *alaq₂

alahIban(WMP) beaten, defeated; subdue

ála(h)Ifugaw(WMP) communal forest PMP *halas

alahMalay(WMP) defeat; being worsted in battle PWMP *alaq₂

alahNgaju Dayak(WMP) lose, be overcome (in battle, legal matters); lose things PWMP *alaq₂

alahOld Javanese(WMP) lose, be defeated, be worsted, give away, succumb PWMP *alaq₂

alahOld Javanese(WMP) lose, be defeated, be worsted

aláh-anIfugaw(WMP) forested zone PWMP *halas-an

alahuKambera(CMP) dark woods PMP *halas

ala-ìnaMalagasy(WMP) be fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred PAN *alaq-en

ala-ìnaMalagasy(WMP) be fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred PAN *ala-en

ala-isa ~ al-isaLakalai(OC) when? (in the past) PAN *ijan

ala-kBuruese(CMP) bring PAN *alaq₁

alʸakPaiwan (Western)(Formosan) child; interest on deposit PAN *aNak

alakPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) child, son, daughter PAN *aNak

alakSiraya(Formosan) child PAN *aNak

a-lakiJavanese(WMP) to marry PMP *laki

alakweMurnaten(CMP) hornbill PMP *kalaw

alakweAlune(CMP) hornbill PMP *kalaw

alalSeimat(OC) flat bottom-dwelling fish: halibut, flounder POC *alali

ala-laviLakalai(OC) yesterday POC *Rapi

alaliWuvulu(OC) flounder POC *alali

*a-la-liŋoPRuk(Formosan) shadow PAN *liŋaw

alal-totovoNduke(OC) luminous flying insect; its light flashes on-off POC *totop

a-lamaOld Javanese(WMP) long, for a long time, already a long time, old; long ago PAN *lama

alamáPangasinan(WMP) small crabs PWMP *qaRama

ála maízinaMalagasy(WMP) dense forest (lit. 'dark forest') PMP *halas + "dark"

alhanəSaaroa(Formosan) right (not left) PAN *waNan

alaŋAcehnese(WMP) too short, too little, insufficient, inadequate PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋBintulu(WMP) cross-beam in a house PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋIban(WMP) beam PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋJavanese(WMP) crosswise dimension PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋMalay(WMP) mediocre; medium; half-and-half PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋMaranao(WMP) block the way, obstruct PWMP *qalaŋ

ʔalaŋTiruray(WMP) to block the way of someone or something PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋToba Batak(WMP) insufficient, inadequate PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to block; to hinder; to be in between PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋBinukid(WMP) somewhat, but not quite; not up to a certain level; to be not quite (as fruit that isn’t yet ripe enough to eat) PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋIban(WMP) insufficient, (do) half-heartedly PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋKaro Batak(WMP) mediocre; in-between; insufficient; for one purpose too large, for another too small PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋMapun(WMP) partially; sparingly; without all of one’s effort; half-heartedly PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋOld Javanese(WMP) “to be in the way”, obstructing PWMP *qalaŋ

ʔalaŋ-alaŋTiruray(WMP) falling short, not fully completed, discontinued too soon PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

ʔalaŋ-alaŋTiruray(WMP) reluctant to do something for fear of an unfavorable outcome PWMP *qalaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to deceive by hypocrisy; to be at the stage of growth where one is almost an adult PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋ-anMalay(WMP) half-hearted; in a mild way; of a man who is a poor hater, or lover PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-alaŋ-enKaro Batak(WMP) lacking the courage to do something; indecisive, wavering PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

alaŋ-anSasak(WMP) obstacle, hindrance PWMP *qalaŋ

aʔ-laŋeMakasarese(WMP) to swim PWMP *laŋuy

alaŋ-kapalaŋMapun(WMP) to be hesitant or reluctant PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

ala-ʔonIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) get PAN *alaq-en

alapBalinese(WMP) take off, pluck (fruit), harvest; take away, abduct; the fruit-harvest PAN *alap

alapKelabit(WMP) act of taking, getting or fetching PAN *alap

alapMongondow(WMP) catch, seize, grasp PAN *alap

alápCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to get, catch, trap PAN *alap

alapJavanese(WMP) a variety of hawk PAN *alap

alapMalay(WMP) gather fruit by means of a long pole to which a knife or hook is attached PAN *alap

alapOld Javanese(WMP) take, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win PAN *alap

alapPaiwan(Formosan) take, pick up PAN *alap

*alapPSan(WMP) get, fetch PAN *alap

alapToba Batak(WMP) fetch; invite PAN *alap

alap alapOld Javanese(WMP) a certain bird of prey. The texts suggest a large creature, which can attack a man; an eagle? PAN *alap

alap-anBalinese(WMP) the harvesting of fruit PWMP *alap-an

alap-onMongondow(WMP) it must or shall be gotten or taken PPH *alap-en

ala pulutAsilulu(CMP) kind of glutinous rice PMP *pulut

ʔa-larDobel(CMP) to sail PAN *layaR

alárPangasinan(WMP) fence; to fence PAN *qalad

alarTontemboan(WMP) enclosure for animals, stable, pen; originally a three-sided enclosure; also a cage trap with falling door used to catch monkeys PAN *qalad

alasBalinese(WMP) uninhabited land, jungle, forest; desert, wilderness; wild PMP *halas

alasJavanese(WMP) forest; jungle; non-irrigated agricultural land PMP *halas

alasLawangan(WMP) woods PMP *halas

alasMalay(WMP) jungle, forest (used in Java) PMP *halas

alasOld Javanese(WMP) wood, forest; also: quantity of flowers or plants growing in a thick cluster PMP *halas

alasRembong(CMP) forest, jungle PMP *halas

alasSelaru(CMP) forest, jungle PMP *halas

alasTetun(CMP) forest, woods, thicket of scrub PMP *halas

alasTotoli(WMP) jungle PMP *halas

alasYamdena(CMP) forest, jungle PMP *halas

alasaʔMakasarese (Salayar)(WMP) forest, jungle PMP *halas

alas alasMadurese(WMP) jungle PMP *halas

alas-anBalinese(WMP) wilderness, inaccessible wild area PWMP *halas-an

alas-anJavanese(WMP) uncultivated, uncivilized PWMP *halas-an

alas rajāMadurese(WMP) primeval forest; virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest') PWMP *halas Raya

ala-tuuTuvaluan(OC) road, path POC *salan

a-lauʔBuginese(WMP) east (in Bone) PAN *lahud

ala udipKenyah(WMP) implore a blessing PAN *qudip₁

a-lawa-lawaIbanag(WMP) spider PMP *lawaq-lawaq

alawidAgutaynen(WMP) far, a great distance PWMP *alawid

alawidKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) far PWMP *alawid

ʔaláwidPalawan Batak(WMP) far PWMP *alawid

aláyKanakanabu(Formosan) hemp yarn for weaving PAN *walay

alayPaiwan(Formosan) thread PAN *walay

alayPazeh(Formosan) termite, white ant PAN *aNay

a-layūOld Javanese(WMP) run, run away, take flight, flee PAN *laRiw

a-layuOld Javanese(WMP) languishing, withering PAN *layu

ʔala-ʔalaPuyuma(Formosan) stranger to the group (other Austronesians); enemy PAN *qaNa

aldanItneg(WMP) stairway, ladder PMP *haRezan

aldáwBikol(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

ʔáldawHanunóo(WMP) tomorrow PMP *qalejaw

aldáwIlokano(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

ʔaldáwPalawan Batak(WMP) sun; day (opposite of night, rather than time measure) PMP *qalejaw

aldaw-ánBikol(WMP) daily PPh *qalejaw-an

aldewCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) day, daytime PMP *qalejaw

aldoKapampangan(WMP) sun; day PMP *qalejaw

aldoKapampangan(WMP) sun, day PPh *qalejaw-an

aldo-aldóKapampangan(WMP) daily PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

aleʔBuginese(WMP) forest PMP *halas

aleBuol(WMP) chin PMP *qazay

aleMussau(OC) house POC *pale

aleaʔRejang(WMP) defeated PWMP *alaq₂

aleʔ aleʔBuginese(WMP) bushes, weeds (as in an overgrown garden) PMP *halas

alebKelabit(WMP) knee PAN *qaleb

ʔaƚebPazeh(Formosan) door, gate PAN *qaNeb₁

ʔaləbPazeh (Kahabu)(Formosan) door PAN *qaNeb₁

ʔaləb-ənPazeh (Kahabu)(Formosan) closed PAN *qaNeb₁

ale-hBuruese(CMP) to beckon PAN *qalep

aléhMalay(WMP) veer, change, shift one's position PMP *aliq

alekAyta Abellan(WMP) to kiss PMP *hajek

alekSambal (Botolan)(WMP) to kiss PMP *hajek

ʔalemAmis(Formosan) anteater with long tongue: Manis tricupis PAN *qaRem

alemKelabit(WMP) night PMP *halem

alemManggarai(CMP) quiet, still (as a pitch-black night) PMP *halem

alemNgaju Dayak(WMP) night PMP *halem

ʔæLəmSaisiyat(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

alem malemNgaju Dayak(WMP) last night, the previous night PMP *halem

aɭəŋəRukai (Mantauran)(Formosan) pine tree PAN *saleŋ

alhəŋəSaaroa(Formosan) pine tree PAN *saleŋ

aɭə́ŋəKanakanabu(Formosan) pine tree PAN *saleŋ

ale tanaLi'o(CMP) ask PMP *utaña

algawIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) do something all day long; to sun something or someone PMP *qalejaw

álgawItawis(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

ʔalgə́wBontok(WMP) sun PMP *qalejaw

ʔalgáw-anBontok(WMP) place in the sun PPh *qalejaw-an

algóIfugaw(WMP) sun; day PMP *qalejaw

alhaKisar(CMP) forest, jungle PMP *halas

alhotToba Batak(WMP) sap of a tree used to curdle milk PMP *la(ŋ)ket

alhúCebuano(WMP) pestle; make into a pestle; hit with a pestle PMP *qahelu

aliAyta Abellan(WMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji

āliIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for someone to come towards the speaker or hearer PAN *aRi

ʔáliBontok(WMP) to come; to bring; implies motion toward speaker or speaker’s home PAN *aRi

aliSambal (Botolan)(WMP) younger sibling, younger cousin, younger sibling-in-law PMP *huaji

aliIbaloy(WMP) this direction, toward me/us, coming --- both of space or time; of space, where ali lends a meaning component of this-direction, e.g. daw ‘go’, daw ali ‘come’; of time, where ali lends a meaning component of future; give it here! Give it to me! PAN *aRi

áliIfugaw(WMP) act of coming, arriving, approaching PAN *aRi

aliKwaio(OC) plait POC *tali₁

aliLamboya(CMP) younger sibling (probably parallel) PCEMP *waji

aliLau(OC) twine round, encircle; surround; coil a rope, wind a line; coil up like a dog; curled, tangled, of hair; make a loop, bend string or rope; strand of a rope POC *tali₁

aliLau(OC) to twine round, encircle; to surround; to coil a rope, wind a line; to curl up like a dog POC *tali₂

aliLakalai(OC) to eat, to chew POC *kani

äliSa'a(OC) lie curled up as a dog or a snake POC *tali₁

aliSa'a(OC) a cockle POC *kaRi₂

alhiSaaroa(Formosan) tooth PAN *waNiS

ʔaliSamoan(OC) bamboo pillow, headrest POC *kalik

aliSamoan(OC) name given to flat fish, esp. to flounders of genera Platophrys and Zebrasoma POC *alali

aliSeimat(OC) large grouper, up to six feet in length POC *kalia

aliSeimat(OC) large grouper (about 6 feet long) POC *kalika

aliToba Batak(WMP) in place of PMP *aliq

aliTongan(OC) flounder (fish) POC *alali

aliToqabaqita(OC) be curved into a circle; have the shape of a circle (complete or incomplete) POC *tali₂

aliTugun(CMP) younger sibling PMP *huaji

aliaManam(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

aliaʔRejang(WMP) move, transfer (of an individual or group) PMP *aliq

aliaWuvulu(OC) large sea fish, grouper POC *kalia

aliaWuvulu(OC) ear POC *taliŋa

aliaWuvulu(OC) rock cod, grouper POC *kalika

ali-abukManobo (Tigwa)(WMP) dust PMP *qabuk

ali-alMota(OC) move from place to place PMP *aliq

ali-aliLakalai(OC) to eat, to chew POC *kani kani

alialifaWuvulu(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

alianSimalur(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

ali-baŋbaŋCebuano(WMP) butterfly, butterfly fish PMP *baŋbaŋ₉

alibaŋbáŋCebuano(WMP) butterfly PAN *qali-

alibusbúsCebuano(WMP) winged large red house ants that come in swarms, esp. during rainy days, and hover around bright lights PAN *qali-

alhiciSaaroa(Formosan) leather PAN *qaNiC

alieWuvulu(OC) a shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. POC *talise₁

alienaMussau(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

alifaNias(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

ali-fambaSichule(WMP) butterfly PMP *baŋbaŋ₉

ali-fambaŋGaddang(WMP) butterfly PMP *baŋbaŋ₉

alihKelabit(WMP) pregnancy PAN *maliqi

alihKelabit(WMP) a taboo PAN *paliSi

alihIban(WMP) change PMP *aliq

alihJavanese(WMP) act of moving (changing residence); (having been) moved from one place to another PMP *aliq

alihNgaju Dayak(WMP) change, alteration, evasion PMP *aliq

alihOld Javanese(WMP) moving to another place, changing PMP *aliq

alihSundanese(WMP) move, change residence PMP *aliq

älihaUlawa(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

alikBipi(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

alik-abókTagalog(WMP) dust (rising and falling upon surfaces) PPh *alik-qabuk

alik-abukCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) dust (as the dust thrown up by a passing truck) PPh *alik-qabuk

alik-ábukManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) dust PPh *alik-qabuk

alik-abukIlongot (Kakiduge:n)(WMP) dust PPh *alik-qabuk

ali-kokopMongondow(WMP) kind of creeper that clings to trees PWMP *kepkép₁

a-ɭikuɖ-anPuyuma(Formosan) a person behind PAN *likud

alileŋChamorro(WMP) cateye shell PMP *qaliliŋ

aliliNumbami(OC) pillar, housepost POC *ariRi

aliliSamoan(OC) a mollusc: Turbo sp. PMP *qaliliŋ

alimPaiwan(Formosan) forget something/someone PAN *alim

alímaAklanon(WMP) to use one’s hands on PAN *qa-lima

a-limaBare'e(WMP) five (independent form) PAN *lima

alimaMamanwa(WMP) hand PAN *qa-lima

alimaMamanwa(WMP) hand PAN *qalima

ʔalímaPalawan Batak(WMP) arm; hand PAN *qa-lima

*aɭimaPRuk(Formosan) hand PAN *qa-lima

*aLimaPRuk(Formosan) hand PAN *qalima

alimaBinukid(WMP) hand; forearm including the hand PAN *qa-lima

alímaCebuano(WMP) hand PAN *qa-lima

alíma(h)Aklanon(WMP) hand PAN *qa-lima

alimaŋLou(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

alimaŋSeimat(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

alimaŋoKove(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

alimaŋoNias(WMP) sea crab PMP *qali-maŋaw

alimaŋoSamoan(OC) a crab: Lupea spp. (Pratt 1984 [1911]) POC *qali-maŋo

alimáŋoTagalog(WMP) large crab PMP *qali-maŋu

alimáŋuCebuano(WMP) edible crab of tidal swamps PMP *qali-maŋu

alimaoWuvulu(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

alimaoŋKankanaey(WMP) civet, civet cat PWMP *qari-maquŋ

alimátekIlokano(WMP) leech (generic) PWMP *qali-matek

(a)limátukCebuano(WMP) leech PWMP *qali-matek

alimatukTausug(WMP) leech-like creature that lives on mangrove trees PWMP *qali-matek

alim-buyuŋ-enGaddang(WMP) bumblebee PWMP *buyuŋ

alimekatMaranao(WMP) spirit, god of the water PAN *qali-

ʔaƚimətək-aKanakanabu(Formosan) paddy leech PAN *qaNi-

alimísTagalog(WMP) furtive PWMP *qali-meqes

ali-mogmógIlokano(WMP) rinse the mouth, gargle PMP *muRmuR

alimosToba Batak(WMP) visible for only a moment PWMP *qali-meqes

alim-pu-púdw-an (< R)Aklanon(WMP) crown of head (where hair whorls) PAN *qali-puju-an

alimpupúro (< R)Bikol(WMP) hair whorl PAN *qali-puju

alim-puyoTagalog(WMP) whirlwind, eddy PWMP *puyu₂

alimtáIsneg(WMP) very large leech, striped yellow and black; when it clings to the feet it is removed and put into an amulet bottle as an amulet against sickness PWMP *qali-metaq

(a)li-mugmugCebuano(WMP) rinse the mouth out PMP *muRmuR

ali-mukunCebuano(WMP) wild dove with white ears and light brown feathers speckled with black; Phapitreron leucotis PMP *muken

alimúʔusCebuano(WMP) invisible (Encarnación 1885) PWMP *qali-meqes

ali-nErai(CMP) younger sibling of the same sex PCEMP *waji

*alinPSan(WMP) to move, transfer PMP *halin

alinSa'ban(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

álinaMalagasy(WMP) night, darkness; pertaining to the night PMP *halem

alinawGaddang(WMP) shadow PPh *alinaw

alináwIsneg(WMP) small urticaceous forest tree whose timber furnishes carrying poles PMP *qanilaw

alintaBare'e(WMP) jungle leech that moves like an inchworm PWMP *qali-metaq

alintáIlokano(WMP) earthworm; leech PWMP *qali-metaq

alintaMakasarese(WMP) leech PWMP *qali-metaq

alin-tatáwBikol(WMP) center of the eye containing the iris and the pupil PMP *tau tau

alinuaGorontalo(WMP) butterfly PAN *qali-

aliŋManggarai(CMP) to move (a horse), transfer to another place; change; go out from inside PMP *halin

aliŋawŋáwTagalog(WMP) echoing sound PAN *qali-

äliŋeSa'a(OC) large fungi, some edible, growing on logs POC *taliŋa

ʔaliŋoSaisiyat(Formosan) reflection (in mirror or water) PAN *qaNiŋu

alipaBare'e(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

alipanTotoli(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

alipaŋBuginese(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

alipaŋDampelas(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

alipaŋMakasarese(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

ʔaƚipaŋpaŋAmis(Formosan) butterfly (Ogawa 1934) PAN *qaNi-

alipatpátIsneg(WMP) firefly, glowworm PMP *qali-petpet

alipatpátIsneg(WMP) firefly PAN *qali-

alipətpətCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) lightning bug PMP *qali-petpet

alipʔipCebuano(WMP) person's back reaching from the shoulders as far as the waist PWMP *qali-peqip

ʔalipʔípHanunóo(WMP) scapula PWMP *qali-peqip

ʔalipugpugBontok(WMP) to so something with exaggerated motions, as walking; to shake; to convulse PPH *qali-pugpug

alipogpogIbatan(WMP) whirlwind PPH *qali-pugpug

alipogpogItbayaten(WMP) whirlwind PPH *qali-pugpug

alipogpog a pagpagYami(WMP) whirlwind (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) PPH *qali-pugpug

alipopoBare'e(WMP) small flying insect, possibly firefly by daylight PMP *qali-petpet

ali-pudw-anAklanon(WMP) hair whorl PAN *qali-puju-an

alipugpógIlokano(WMP) whirlwind PPH *qali-pugpug

alipugpúgIsneg(WMP) whirlwind, eddy of air (it announces the presence of the spirit of the same name) PPH *qali-pugpug

alipuŋdanKankanaey(WMP) malicious spirit PAN *qali-

alipúrosBikol(WMP) whirlwind PAN *qali-

alirSasak(WMP) decant, pour out PMP *qaliR

alirTolai(OC) swim, float, drift; float through the air, as a bird with motionless wings; adrift, drifting; to run PMP *qaliR

alir-anJavanese(WMP) irrigation conduit; stream of water PMP *qaliR-an

alir-enTolai(OC) rivulet or small stream caused by the rain PMP *qaliR-an

alisItbayaten(WMP) idea of leaving/transferring PPH *alís

alisLindrou(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

alʸisPaiwan(Formosan) tooth, fang, tusk PAN *waNiS

alísPangasinan(WMP) to leave, go away PPH *alís

alísTagalog(WMP) departure PPH *alís

alis-ánTagalog(WMP) to divest or strip someone of something PPH *alis-an

alis-anItbayaten(WMP) place in the kitchen where you keep the biggest in-alis (yams) for planting PPH *alis-an

alis-an [edisan]Ibaloy(WMP) to move something to a place; to affect, influence something, someone PPH *alis-an

*aɭisəəsəPRuk(Formosan) nit PAN *liseqeS

aɭisəəsəRukai (Budai)(Formosan) nit PAN *liseqeS

alis-ínTagalog(WMP) to remove PPH *alís

ʔali-sosoʔ ~Dampelas(WMP) house lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus PWMP *cekcek

alitNauna(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

alitPenchal(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

alitTitan(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

alitánIsneg(WMP) firebrand, half-burned wood PWMP *aliten

alitáptapAklanon(WMP) glowworm, found on rocks at high tide PMP *qali-petpet

ali-táptapAklanon(WMP) glowworm, founds on rocks at high tide PMP *teptep

alitaptapTagalog(WMP) firefly PMP *qali-petpet

ali-taptápTagalog(WMP) firefly PMP *teptep

äliteSa'a(OC) a tree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa POC *talise₁

alitõNias(WMP) fire PWMP *aliten

ali-wadáŋIlokano(WMP) collar bone, clavicle PAN *wadaŋ

ali-wadāŋIsneg(WMP) collar bone, clavicle PAN *wadaŋ

ali-wadáŋKankanaey(WMP) rib (used only in tales) PAN *wadaŋ

a-liwerOld Javanese(WMP) move about, dart to and fro (of many, without order), rush about, fly around, swarm, flash back and forth PWMP *liwed

ali-womboAmpana(WMP) butterfly PMP *beŋbeŋ₄

aliwuswósBikol(WMP) squall; whirlwind PPH *weswés

alketDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) viscous PMP *la(ŋ)ket

allaʔMakasarese(WMP) interval, intervening space, unhabited area between two inhabited areas PMP *qelet

allaʔTae'(WMP) interval, intervening space PMP *qelet

alládIsneg(WMP) sink, go to the bottom PWMP *qeled

alleʔMandar(WMP) between PMP *qelet

alleʔ banuaMandar(WMP) lonely place between settlements PMP *qelet

al-liduŋKallahan (Keleyqiq)(WMP) shadow PAN *liduŋ

alliŋTae'(WMP) vague sound from a distance PMP *eliŋ

alloAbaknon(WMP) rice pestle PMP *qahelu

allóIsneg(WMP) pestle. For pounding rice, etc. PMP *qahelu

alloMakasarese(WMP) day; sun (in some expressions) PMP *qalejaw

alloTae'(WMP) sun; day; daylight PMP *qalejaw

allo-alloMakasarese(WMP) daily PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

allo-alloTae'(WMP) daily, every day PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

allo ka-anakk-aŋMakasarese(WMP) birthday PWMP *ka-anak-an

allónIlokano(WMP) wave, ripple forming no breakers, e.g. those produced by a swimmer or bather PMP *qalun

álluItawis(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

al-luaMakasarese(WMP) to spit out (as the pit of a fruit) PMP *luaq

allunTae'(WMP) covered, as the sun with clouds, shadowed, as the sunlight blocked by trees PWMP *heluŋ

alluŋMandar(WMP) cloud PWMP *heluŋ

a-lmekPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) soft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg PAN *lemek₁

ʔalʔúBontok(WMP) pestle; use as a pestle PMP *qahelu

áloCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) pestle (for pounding rice); use a pestle PMP *qahelu

aloHawaiian(OC) front, face, presence, upper surface, as of a bowl POC *qarop

alʔóKankanaey(WMP) pestle, stamper PMP *qahelu

áloKapampangan(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aloKenyah(WMP) stream PMP *qaluR₂

aloKwaio(OC) taro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast POC *talos

aloLau(OC) taro POC *talos

alo-Likum(OC) stomach, belly, abdomen POC *qarop

aloMussau(OC) to steer POC *palo₁

alo-Mussau(OC) neck POC *kalo

aloMussau(OC) kind of tree the wood of which is used for firewood, and was traditionally used to make fireplows POC *qalo₂

alo-Mussau(OC) neck POC *kadro

áloPangasinan(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

*aloPMic(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

aloRaga(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

ʔaloRennellese(OC) front; coastline; front of the human chest; interior; to face towards or come to POC *qarop

aloSamoan(OC) smooth, soft side of a thing (the ‘front’ as opposed to tua the ‘back’ or rougher side); stomach, belly POC *qarop

aloTangoa(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

aloToqabaqita(OC) taro (plant and corm) POC *talos

aloTuvaluan(OC) belly of mammal, ventral area of fish; front of a person, palm of hand, sole of foot POC *qarop

aloWuvulu(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

alo, alov-iNggela(OC) to beckon PAN *qalep

alo-aloAnuta(OC) belly inside POC *qarop

álo-áloMalagasy(WMP) fosse, ditch, precipice PMP *qaluR₂

alo-aloNukuoro(OC) chest, front (opposite of back); lagoon shore as opposed to seaward reef shore POC *qarop

alobIda'an Begak(WMP) knee PAN *qaleb

alobMaranao(WMP) roast, blacken by heating PWMP *alub

alofChamorro(WMP) beckon, signal, summon by signs, call by signs, wave PAN *qalep

álogIlokano(WMP) low land, low field; pool, puddle PMP *qaluR₂

alogMaranao(WMP) gorge, canyon PMP *qaluR₂

álogTagalog(WMP) pool of water on a lowland PMP *qaluR₂

alo-iManam(OC) to beckon PAN *qalep

alókBikol(WMP) invite, ask to come PWMP *e(n)zuk

alókTagalog(WMP) proffer, offer PWMP *e(n)zuk

alokMurut (Timugon)(WMP) sniff, smell PMP *hajek

ʔalolAmis(Formosan) be carried away by water so that it is no longer seen PAN *qaluR₁

ʔalolAmis(Formosan) be carried away by water so that it is no longer seen PAN *qañud

a-lomotMaranao(WMP) algae, scum PMP *lumut

a-lomot a atorMaranao(WMP) moss (ator = ‘stone’) PMP *lumut

alonAbaknon(WMP) wave; current PMP *qalun

álonBikol(WMP) wave, surf PMP *qalun

álonTagalog(WMP) wave; waviness of surface PMP *qalun

alo-naKwaio(OC) taro corm POC *talos

alonaMalagasy(WMP) wave, billow PMP *qalun

álon-àlonaMalagasy(WMP) small waves PWMP *qalun qalun

álo-n-ònyMalagasy(WMP) riverbed (óny = 'river') PMP *qaluR₂

álo-n tsàhaMalagasy(WMP) the bottom of a ravine; the bed of a river PMP *qaluR₂

aloŋMaranao(WMP) shadow, see dimly PMP *aluŋ

alosBanggai(WMP) tough creepers or tendrils; rope PMP *waRej

alotKiput(WMP) boat, canoe PWMP *alud

ʔalutə́nBontok(WMP) pieces of split log when placed on a fire; firewood PMP *aluten

alov-iAraki(OC) beckon, wave to someone PAN *qalep

aɬoʔoSaaroa(Formosan) honeybee PAN *waNu

alsámIsneg(WMP) sourness, tartness, acidity PWMP *qalesem

álsamItawis(WMP) sourness PWMP *qalesem

altáIfugaw(WMP) pygmies of the Philippines, called Negritos by the Spaniards PMP *qaRta

altíʔKapampangan(WMP) thunder PWMP *letiq

aluBalinese(WMP) iguana PWMP *haluh

aluBanggai(WMP) eight PAN *walu

aluMongondow(WMP) rice pestle PMP *qahelu

aluBuruese(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluCape Cumberland(OC) eight PAN *walu

aluChamorro(WMP) barracuda PMP *qalu

aluErai(CMP) pounder, pestle PMP *qahelu

aluIban(WMP) pestle of hard wood used to pound padi, etc. PMP *qahelu

alʔúIfugaw(WMP) pestle for pounding rice in an Ifugaw trough, also called lalú. It is just a round, polished pole (more or less one meter twenty long and 20 cm. in diameter) rounded at its ends so that it can fit in the bottom of the hollowed cavity of the trough; its handle is made in the middle, which is thin enough to fit the grip of the hand PMP *qahelu

aluJavanese(WMP) pestle for pounding things in a mortar PMP *qahelu

aluKambera(CMP) (rice) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluKisar(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluKomodo(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluKwaio(OC) garden, of second or third crop, or having been opened for harvest PMP *talun₁

aluKwaio(OC) to put, keep PMP *taRuq

aluLau(OC) garden ground, last year's garden PMP *talun₁

aluLau(OC) to place, put, lay down; to give, send; to bury; to have, to be; to become, change into PMP *taRuq

aluLau(OC) to bury POC *taRu

aluLi'o(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluMakasarese(WMP) rice pestle PMP *qahelu

aluManam(OC) another, others; some POC *palu₆

aluManggarai(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluNgadha(CMP) pole, bamboo pole, pestle PMP *qahelu

aluNggela(OC) barracuda PMP *qalu

aɬuPaiwan(Formosan) honey; candy; sweets PAN *waNu

aluRembong(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

äluSa'a(OC) last year's yam garden; bananas and pawpaws and oha planted there PMP *talun₁

äluSa'a(OC) to put, to place; to change into, to become PMP *taRuq

ʔaluSika(CMP) rice pestle made of hard bamboo PMP *qahelu

aluTae'(WMP) rice pestle, made of Lansium domesticum, Casuarina or lemon wood, tapering in the middle, and gripped there with the hands PMP *qahelu

aluTugun(CMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluʔKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

aluWuvulu(OC) thick-bodied barracuda sp. PMP *qalu

alu, valuPaiwan(Formosan) eight PAN *walu

a-lúaMalagasy(WMP) to be vomited PMP *luaq

alu-aToqabaqita(OC) put, put down, place (as a mat on the ground); put on (as hat, shoes); bury (a corpse); have, possess, own (other than domestic animals and pets); offer a bounty for killing someone PMP *taRuq

alu-atiItbayaten(WMP) earthworm PMP *wati₁

alubJavanese(WMP) to parboil (vegetables) by placing them in hot water briefly PWMP *alub

alubOld Javanese(WMP) put in the fire, heat PWMP *alub

ʔalubTiruray(WMP) warm or dry something briefly over a fire PWMP *alub

alu bàhiKambera(CMP) iron pestle (for crushing areca nut) PMP *qahelu

aludBintulu(WMP) boat PWMP *alud

aludIda'an Begak(WMP) boat PWMP *alud

aludLun Dayeh(WMP) a boat PWMP *alud

aludMiri(WMP) boat PWMP *alud

aludTombonuwo(WMP) canoe PWMP *alud

aludKelabit(WMP) dugout canoe, boat PWMP *alud

aluëAcehnese(WMP) brook, small river, tributary stream PMP *qaluR₂

alugMongondow(WMP) striped, having stripes of equal width PMP *qaluR₂

alúgCebuano(WMP) go down to get water PMP *qaluR₂

aluhKelabit(WMP) long wooden rice pestle used with iuŋ PMP *qahelu

aluhípanBikol(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

aluhípanCebuano(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

ʔaluhípanHanunóo(WMP) centipede, a small common chilopod 5 to 6 cm. long PMP *qalu-hipan

aluhipanTagalog(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

aluh ŋeh puluʔKelabit(WMP) eighty PMP *walu ŋa puluq

alu huaAsilulu(CMP) pestle, especially rice pestle PMP *qahelu

alu lalaKwaio(OC) put by the fire to warm PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

a-lumut-lumutOld Javanese(WMP) mossy PMP *lumut-lumut

alunBalinese(WMP) wave of the sea PMP *qalun

alunBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) boat, canoe PWMP *alud

álunCebuano(WMP) long rolling wave, swell; for there to be big waves PMP *qalun

alunIban(WMP) (of sea) swell, rollers, surge PMP *qalun

álunItawis(WMP) wave (in water) PMP *qalun

alunJavanese(WMP) wave PMP *qalun

álunKapampangan(WMP) wave PMP *qalun

alunMalay(WMP) long rolling waves; surge or swell of the sea. In contrast to broken water (ombak, gelombaŋ). Of waves "rolling mountain-high" PMP *qalun

alunSundanese(WMP) wave, billow PMP *qalun

alunahAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) large variety of ant PAN *alujah

alún-alónTagalog(WMP) wavy; curly PWMP *qalun qalun

alun-alunIban(WMP) waves or swell PWMP *qalun qalun

alun-ʔalunKapampangan(WMP) roller-coaster motion; wavy (hair) PWMP *qalun qalun

alun-alunMalay(WMP) booming. Possibly from the sound of the sea PWMP *qalun qalun

alunanChamorro(WMP) pillow PMP *qalunan

áluŋCebuano(WMP) cast a shadow over something PMP *aluŋ

aluŋSasak(WMP) screened, shaded PMP *aluŋ

ʔaluŋTiruray(WMP) shade PMP *aluŋ

aluŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) shadow, reflection PMP *aluŋ

alupatMentawai(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

alurBalinese(WMP) current PMP *qaluR₂

alurIban(WMP) (main) current of a river, hence the deep channel PMP *qaluR₂

alurJavanese(WMP) course, pace, progress PMP *qaluR₂

alurKaro Batak(WMP) belonging to a certain river system PMP *qaluR₂

alurKatingan(WMP) boat PWMP *alud

alurKei(CMP) large water pitcher PMP *qaluR₂

alurMalay(WMP) groove; cutting; furrow. With many varying or local applications: (Johore) the main channel of a stream between the mudbanks on either side; (Pahang) any channel in river or sea, and even a dry torrent-bed if water flows there sometimes; (Kedah) hollow or backwater scooped out by a stream, the main channel being geloŋ; (Minangkabau) channel, e.g. of relationship, and even of a wife "scooping" money out of her husband; furrow, beaten path made by wild animals PMP *qaluR₂

alurSundanese(WMP) track, trail left by tiger, rhinoceros, etc. in moving through jungle PMP *qaluR₂

alur-alurMalay(WMP) channels made by maggots in fruit PMP *qaluR₂

alur-anJavanese(WMP) trampled out buffalo path' (Pigeaud 1938); 'traces, that which tells a tale (Horne 1974) PMP *qaluR₂

alur-anMalay(WMP) groove along horseshoe PMP *qaluR₂

alur bibirMalay(WMP) hollow between nostril and center of upper lip PMP *qaluR₂

alur didalam redaŋMalay(WMP) boat-channel through a swamp PMP *qaluR₂

alur teŋgalaMalay(WMP) plough-furrow PMP *qaluR₂

alur teŋkokMalay(WMP) hollow at back of neck PMP *qaluR₂

alusTolai (Nokon)(OC) to paddle PAN *aluja

alusSimalur(WMP) pulling, dragging (said of rivers) PMP *qaRus

alus-alusSimalur(WMP) name of a river on the south coast of the island of Simalur PMP *qaRus

alu siisiiKwaio(OC) an old garden plot returning to secondary growth, beginning to be overgrown PMP *talun₁

alutKenyah (Lepu Anan)(WMP) boat, canoe PWMP *alud

alutSebop(WMP) boat, canoe PWMP *alud

alutánIsneg(WMP) firebrand, half-burned wood PMP *aluten

alutónIfugaw(WMP) pieces of wood that are not, or not wholly burned and still lie in the hearth PMP *aluten

aluxaNias(WMP) rudder, steering paddle PAN *aluja

alxáwIsneg(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

alʸutDohoi(WMP) canoe PWMP *alud

ʔæL-ʔæLiwSaisiyat(Formosan) dry PAN *qaRiw

ʔæL-ʔæLozæhSaisiyat(Formosan) ant sp. PAN *alujah


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amBerawan (Batu Belah)(WMP) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

amIrarutu(SHWNG) we (excl.) PAN *k-ami

amKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

amaAdonara(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaʔMurut (Tagol)(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaAlune(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaAmis(Formosan) father (Hualien county) PAN *amax

amaAnakalangu(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaAnuta(OC) outrigger POC *saman

amaAsilulu(CMP) father (archaic); a rank in the village hierarchy related to adat PAN *amax

amaʔAtoni(CMP) father PMP *ama-q

amáʔBikol(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaBimanese(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaʔMongondow(WMP) father; sometimes also mother, and uncle PMP *ama-q

amaBonerate(WMP) father PAN *amax

ʔamáBontok(WMP) married man; adult male, one who has had a child; an old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers; be big, of children, male or female, especially newborn, also of sweet potatoes PAN *amax

ʔámaBontok(WMP) term of address for one's male relatives at the first ascending generation level; father; uncle; father-in-law PAN *amax

amaBuginese(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaʔBukat(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaBuruese(CMP) father; ancestor; son. Used as 'son' in address only PAN *amax

ámaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) father (reference) PAN *amax

amáCebuano(WMP) expression uttered when frightened: help! PAN *amax

amaElat(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaEnggano(WMP) father; father-in-law PAN *amax

amaFutunan(OC) outrigger of a canoe POC *saman

amaGayō(WMP) father PAN *amax

ʔámaʔHanunóo(WMP) father (particularly in the nominative) PMP *ama-q

amaHawaiian(OC) outrigger float; port hull of a double canoe, so called because it replaces the float POC *saman

amaʔIda'an Begak(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amáIfugaw(WMP) father PAN *amax

amáIlokano(WMP) father. Also said of persons that are old enough to be one's father PAN *amax

amāIsneg(WMP) father. Sometimes: uncle or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a father PAN *amax

amaʔItbayaten(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amáItawis(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaJarai(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaKadazan Dusun(WMP) father (addr.) PAN *amax

amaʔKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaKambera(CMP) father, FB PAN *amax

amáKankanaey(WMP) father; parent; sire PAN *amax

ámaKankanaey(WMP) my father PAN *amax

amaKapingamarangi(OC) outrigger float POC *saman

amaʔKenyah (Long Wat)(WMP) father (add.) PMP *ama-q

amaʔLahanan(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaLamaholot(CMP) father (used only in traditional ceremonies) PAN *amax

amaLamboya(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaLeti(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaʔKenyah (Long Selaaʻn)(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaʔMaloh(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaʔMansaka(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaMaori(OC) outrigger on the windward side of a canoe; thwart of a canoe POC *saman

amaʔMaranao(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaMentawai(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaMori(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaMuna(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaNgaju Dayak(WMP) uncle (term used for one's own uncle; for the uncle of another person one uses mama); also often used for other older unrelated persons PAN *amax

amaNias(WMP) father, uncle (also more distant relatives), father-in-law PAN *amax

amaNiue(OC) to fish for crabs, etc. with a torch POC *ramaR

amaNukuoro(OC) outrigger float POC *saman

amaPaiwan(Formosan) father! PAN *amax

ʔamáʔPalawan Batak(WMP) father (particularly in the nominative) PMP *ama-q

amáPangasinan(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaPaulohi(CMP) father PAN *amax

*amaPRuk(Formosan) father PAN *amax

amaPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) father, uncle PAN *amax

amaRarotongan(OC) the outrigger of a canoe; is also the name of the lesser canoe in a double one; the larger canoe of the combination is called katea; the ama is always on the windward side of the combination POC *saman

amaRennellese(OC) outrigger float; side of a canoe with the float; port hull of a double canoe in which the captain does not sit; log to be made into a float POC *saman

amaRhade(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaRotinese(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaRukai (Budai)(Formosan) father (addr.) PAN *amax

amaSa'a(OC) father, FB PMP *t-amax

amaSamoan(OC) outrigger; (on the) outrigger (i.e. the weather) side (as opposed to atea) the hull (i.e. the lee) side; (to) port (as opposed to starboard, atea); attach less importance; be of lesser use, of secondary value POC *saman

amaʔSangir (Siau)(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaʔSangir (Tamako)(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaʔSasak(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

àmaHawu(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaSelaru(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaSika(CMP) father PAN *amax

amaSimalur(WMP) father PAN *amax

amáTagalog(WMP) father, progenitor; founder PAN *amax

amaThao(Formosan) father PAN *amax

amaʔMurut (Timugon)(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

ʔamaʔTiruray(WMP) to eat PWMP *amaq

amaʔTondano(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amaTongan(OC) to fish at night by the light of a torch POC *ramaR

amaTuvaluan(OC) outrigger float; left or outrigger side of canoe; fitted with an outrigger (of a raft); wife (jocular); think little of; despise POC *saman

amaʔManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) father (direct address) PMP *ama-q

amaWolio(WMP) father PAN *amax

amaW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) father PAN *amax

ama-Wuvulu(OC) father PMP *t-amax

amaYami(WMP) father PAN *amax

a-maʔaWuvulu(OC) raw, unripe POC *mataq

áma-ámaAklanon(WMP) stepfather PWMP *ama ama

ama-ámaCebuano(WMP) stepfather PWMP *ama ama

ama-amaMansaka(WMP) big man PWMP *ama ama

ama-amaToba Batak(WMP) everyone who is called father PWMP *ama ama

amaʔ amaʔMaranao(WMP) stepfather PWMP *ama ama

ama-ānIfugaw(WMP) thumb PWMP *ama-an

amaʔ-anMentawai(WMP) corpulent, easy, comfortable (given by Morris 1900 under āma 'father') PWMP *ama-an

ʔamaʔ-anTiruray(WMP) the place on the floor where people are eating; by recent extension, a table PWMP *amaq-an

amadiArosi(OC) betel pepper POC *tamaji

a-maear-anSimalur(WMP) means of payment PMP *bayaD

ama-enItbayaten(WMP) father-in-law, one considered as father, foster father PWMP *ama-en

amaʔ-enMamanwa(WMP) uncle PWMP *ama-en

a-mafu-tAtoni(CMP) drunkard PMP *buhek₂

amagáCebuano(WMP) a forest tree: Diospyros sp. PWMP *amaRa

amá(h)Aklanon(WMP) father PAN *amax

amahBalinese(WMP) eat PWMP *amaq

amahMelanau (Matu)(WMP) father PAN *amax

amah-amakToba Batak(WMP) straw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain PWMP *amak

amah-amakToba Batak(WMP) straw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain PWMP *hamak

amah-anBalinese(WMP) wood eaten into dust (by worms); cooked rice PWMP *amaq-an

amah-anCebuano(WMP) father PWMP *ama-an

amaiDusun Malang(WMP) father PMP *ama-i

amaiNgaju Dayak(WMP) father PMP *ama-i

amakSambal (Botolan)(WMP) mat PWMP *amak

amakSambal (Botolan)(WMP) mat PWMP *hamak

ʔamákHanunóo(WMP) woven mat, especially one made of buri-palm leaves and used for sleeping purposes PWMP *amak

amakTboli(WMP) a masticatory composed of betel nut or tree bark mixed with lime and wrapped in ikô [Piper betle] leaves; to chew betel nut PMP *mamaq

amakToba Batak(WMP) mat woven of bulrushes PWMP *amak

amakToba Batak(WMP) mat woven of (Binsen) PWMP *hamak

ama-kaiKemak(CMP) father PAN *amax

amak-anAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) reed mat used to dry rice PWMP *amak

amák-anAklanon(WMP) mat of woven bamboo PWMP *amak

amák-anCebuano(WMP) bamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling (the weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces); weave amákan PWMP *amak

a-ma-kan-iOld Javanese(WMP) to feed, give someone something to eat PAN *ma-kaen

amak podom-anToba Batak(WMP) sleeping mat PWMP *amak

amak podom-anToba Batak(WMP) sleeping mat PWMP *hamak

a-malaNumbami(OC) tongue POC *maya

ʔama-laúcuKanakanabu(Formosan) downhill PAN *lahud

ʔam-ʔamáBontok(WMP) an old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers PWMP *ama ama

am-ʔamáKankanaey(WMP) old man PWMP *ama ama

ama(n)Erai(CMP) father, father's brother and the other male members of father's lineage and generation PAN *amax

ama-nTetun(CMP) father, FB PAN *amax

amanTolai(OC) outrigger of a canoe; that side of a canoe, port, larboard POC *saman

ama-naLau(OC) father PMP *t-amax

ama námuʔCebuano(WMP) the Lord's prayer PAN *amax

ama na s<um>uan ahuToba Batak(WMP) my father (lit. the father who planted me; used in andung, a special funeral language) PWMP *suan

aman tuakTetun(CMP) grandfather, grand uncle (aman = ‘father’) PMP *tuqah

am-anuChamorro(WMP) where, which? PMP *a-nu

amaŋBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) father PMP *amá-ŋ

ʔamá-ŋHanunóo(WMP) father (vocative) PMP *amá-ŋ

amaŋIban(WMP) menace, threaten, aim (weapon) at; (hence) test, try (someone) PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

amaŋMalay(WMP) defiance PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

ama-ŋManggarai(CMP) FZH, HF, MB, WF PMP *amá-ŋ

amaŋSasak(WMP) marine eel PMP *haRemaŋ

amaŋSori(OC) men’s house PMP *kamaliR

amá-ŋTagalog(WMP) (in some localities) elder person PMP *amá-ŋ

amáŋToba Batak(WMP) vocative: oh, father! PMP *amá-ŋ

amaŋTontemboan(WMP) father PMP *amá-ŋ

amaŋTotoli(WMP) father PMP *amá-ŋ

amáŋ-amáŋCebuano(WMP) have the nerve to do something which an ordinary person wouldn't dare do PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

amaŋ amaŋMalay(WMP) to challenge PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

a-ma-ŋan-iOld Javanese(WMP) to hurt, wound PWMP *ma-ŋaen

a-maŋkuOld Javanese(WMP) to hold or receive on the lap; to carry in both hands or arms in front of the chest PWMP *paŋku

amaŋ tuaToba Batak(WMP) father’s older brother PMP *tuqah

a-maŋunOld Javanese(WMP) to shape, form, build, compose, bring into existence, cause, perform PWMP *maŋ-baŋun

amaʔ-onKalinga(WMP) uncle, great uncle PWMP *ama-en

amaraMakasarese(WMP) tree with strong wood used to make the shafts of lances and pikes, and also formerly used to make the finishing planks of royal canoes PWMP *amaRa

amasBuli(SHWNG) sift, squeeze out or wash sago PAN *Rames

amasPohnpeian(OC) raw, uncooked PAN *qamataq

amas(a)Chuukese(OC) not fully cooked, raw PAN *qamataq

amasiBauro(OC) to eat two things together, use a relish, betel pepper POC *tamaji

amatLoniu(OC) person, human being PMP *tau-mata

a-mate-laNias(WMP) corpse PMP *m-atay

a-mati matiOld Javanese(WMP) kill (in general, not in a particular case), commit the crime of killing PMP *m-atay m-atay

amatuKove(OC) double-headed parrotfish POC *amatu

amatuSeimat(OC) a large reef fish, probably double-headed POC *amatu

amatuSeimat(OC) a large reef fish, probably double-headed parrotfish POC *kamatu

amatuPatpatar(OC) large green fish POC *amatu

amáʔ-unCebuano(WMP) godfather in any ceremony PWMP *ama-en

amayBinukid(WMP) father, vocative. Term of address for one's father PMP *ama-i

amáyCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) uncle PMP *ama-i

amáyHiligaynon(WMP) father PMP *ama-i

amayKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) father PMP *ama-i

amayManobo (Sarangani)(WMP) father PMP *ama-i

amay-amayBinukid(WMP) stepfather PWMP *ama ama

ʔamāy-anPalawan Batak(WMP) FB PWMP *ama-an

ʔamay-anPalawan Batak(WMP) FB PMP *ama-i

a-mayuŋOld Javanese(WMP) like a parasol PWMP *payuŋ

amaʔaSaaroa(Formosan) father PAN *amax

ambaKambera(CMP) check, stop, hold back (as a horse); to hinder PMP *abaŋ₁

ambaKambera(CMP) check, stop, hold back (as a horse); obstruct the way PMP *qambat

ambaʔMakasarese(WMP) try to hit something in a game (one marble with another, billiard ball, etc.) PMP *ambak

ambaʔMandar(WMP) hit, beat PMP *ambak

ambaaŋTae'(WMP) large mango variety with a strong turpentine odor: Mangifera odorata PWMP *qambawaŋ

ambahBalinese(WMP) weak, tasteless (e.g., lime for betel) PMP *qambaR

ambaiIban(WMP) lover, sweetheart PWMP *abay

ambaiMalay(WMP) purse-net attached to stakes in a tideway or river. The stakes hold its mouth open; the bunt trails away in the current PWMP *ambay

ambákCebuano(WMP) jump down to a lower place PMP *ambak

ambakManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) collide with something (person, post, etc.) PMP *ambak

ambakYamdena(CMP) stamp on the ground with the foot PMP *ambak

ambák-ambákCebuano(WMP) jump up and down PMP *ambak

am-balátokBikol(WMP) woodpecker PAN *balalaCuk

ambaŋBalinese(WMP) hinder, interfere with PMP *abaŋ₁

ambaŋKaro Batak(WMP) restrain or hold back with outstretched arms, as a runaway horse PMP *abaŋ₁

ambaŋMakasarese(WMP) belly strap of horses PWMP *amben

ambaŋManggarai(CMP) obstruct, block the way PMP *abaŋ₁

ambaŋRembong(CMP) restrain, hold back with extended hands; to catch (a horse) with lasso PMP *abaŋ₁

ambaŋ-anKapampangan(WMP) obstacle, impediment to passage PMP *abaŋ₁

am-baŋuŋMakasarese(WMP) stand up from a reclining position; to construct, build a house, erect a mast, found a society, rouse a reclining or sleeping person, rouse the dead from their graves on Judgement Day PMP *baŋun₂

ambaraʔMakasarese(WMP) having lost its taste or force (as wine, cajuput oil, perfumes, vinegar, salt, glue that has lost its adhesiveness, magic formula that no longer works, etc.) PMP *qambaR

am-barrasaʔMakasarese(WMP) appear in large numbers all at once (of pimples, pock marks); having kernels that are already visible in the husk (of corn; if the kernels are somewhat larger they are referred to as aʔmata-doaŋ) PMP *beRas₂

ambatIban(WMP) lend a hand (to hold steady) PWMP *abat₁

ambatIban(WMP) intercept, (hence) stalk prey as a cat does; block, surround and catch PMP *qambat

ambatKaro Batak(WMP) hold back, hinder, detain PMP *qambat

ambatMalay(WMP) noose PWMP *ambet

ambatMinangkabau(WMP) to obstruct PMP *qambat

ambatToba Batak(WMP) stopped, delayed PMP *qambat

ámbatraMalagasy(WMP) tongue-tied PMP *qambat

ambawaBare'e(WMP) very large mango variety with a strong turpentine odor which grows primarily on the shore: Mangifera odorata PWMP *qambawaŋ

ambayKapampangan(WMP) couple, pair (Bergaño 1860) PWMP *abay

ambeLauje(WMP) beckon with the hand PWMP *ambay

ambeaRejang(WMP) tasteless, as food that lacks salt or some other spice; ineffectual medicine, medicine that has lost its therapeutic power PMP *qambaR

ambedBalinese(WMP) strap, girth (horse) PWMP *hambej

ambedBalinese(WMP) strap, girth (horse) PWMP *qa(m)bej

ambedBalinese(WMP) strap, girth (horse) PWMP *Ra(m)bej

ambelátPangasinan(WMP) heavy PMP *beReqat

am-belátPangasinan(WMP) heavy PMP *ma-beReqat

ambé-nBalinese(WMP) front balcony, porch, veranda, gallery PWMP *ambiq

ambenJavanese(WMP) belly band for draft animal PWMP *amben

ambé-nSasak(WMP) side-wings of a roof; side-gallery of a house PWMP *ambiq

ambenSundanese(WMP) belly strap of a horse PWMP *amben

ambé-nSundanese(WMP) gallery, veranda of a house PWMP *ambiq

ambeŋBalinese(WMP) keep watch to prevent people from passing; close a road PWMP *hambeŋ

ambetBalinese(WMP) strap PWMP *ambet

ambétManggarai(CMP) carrying astraddle on the hip (as in carrying a child); climb (a tree) with a rope looped around the feet PMP *ambit

ambetMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) child's first garment; swaddling band PWMP *ambet

ambetNgaju Dayak(WMP) brought near, drawn to one, seized PWMP *ambet

ambetOld Javanese(WMP) to lash PWMP *ambet

ʔambetTiruray(WMP) catch a loose animal by entwining it in a rope PWMP *ambet

ambet basaŋBalinese(WMP) saddle-girth PWMP *ambet

ambiKapampangan(WMP) wing or interior gallery of a house (Bergaño 1860) PWMP *ambiq

-ambiNumbami(OC) hold, get, take POC *abit₂

-ambiNumbami(OC) hold, get, take POC *abi

-ambiNumbami(OC) hold, get, take POC *qabi

ambíʔTagalog(WMP) eaves, gable end PWMP *ambiq

ambiToba Batak(WMP) what one adds; the piece of material that a tailor adds to trousers that are too small PWMP *ambiq

ambiaTotoli(WMP) sago PMP *Rambia

ambihIban(WMP) finished PWMP *qabiq

ambihKaro Batak(WMP) make an extension to a house that is too small PWMP *ambiq

ambiláyCebuano(WMP) carry something with a strap slung over the shoulder PPh *abijay

ambílayCebuano(WMP) carry something with a strap slung over the shoulder PPh *qambiday

ambílayCebuano(WMP) carry something with a strap slung over the shoulder PPh *qambijay

ambil hatiMalay(WMP) (lit. 'fetch the liver') loveable PMP *qalap qatay

ambinIban(WMP) large wide basket with strap(s) for carrying padi PWMP *hambin

ambinMalay(WMP) strap-support; carrying in a loop of rope or band of cloth (of a child in the fold of a sarong slung from the mother's shoulder); straps or ropes passed round a load (ambinan) swung on a coolie's back, etc. PWMP *hambin

ambinNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is carried on the back PWMP *hambin

ambinRejang(WMP) shawl for carrying infant on back or at waist PWMP *hambin

ambi-roaMalagasy(WMP) the ghost of the dead; the spirit of the living PMP *duha

ambis seputIban(WMP) out of breath PWMP *seput

ambitKadazan Dusun(WMP) take with the hands PMP *ambit

ambitMaloh(WMP) climb, clamber up PWMP *abit₁

ambitSamal(WMP) lead by the hand PMP *ambit

ambitToba Batak(WMP) carry a child in the arms PMP *ambit

ambitToba Batak(WMP) carry a child in the arms PMP *habit

amboJavanese(WMP) hoist sail PMP *abaw

ámboMalagasy(WMP) high, lofty, long, overhead PWMP *ambuq

amboʔTae'(WMP) scatter seed, strew PWMP *qambuR

ambódBikol(WMP) to wrap; to band, bandage PWMP *qa(m)bej

ambogMansaka(WMP) boast; proud PPh *hambúg

ambogMaranao(WMP) arrogant, proud, boastful, showy PPh *hambúg

ambokBeta(WMP) mat PWMP *a(m)bek

ámbonAklanon(WMP) fog, mist, haze PWMP *ambun

ambónBikol(WMP) dew; fog, mist, haze PWMP *ambun

ambónBikol(WMP) dew; fog, mist, haze PWMP *qembun

ambónIlokano(WMP) assemble; concourse PWMP *abun

ambonNgaju Dayak(WMP) dew, fog PWMP *ambun

ambónTagalog(WMP) shower, drizzle PWMP *ambun

ambon-enIlokano(WMP) to join in fighting against the enemy PWMP *abun

amboŋMongondow(WMP) dam, dyke, kind of obstacle or roping off PWMP *hambeŋ

amboŋMongondow(WMP) dam, dyke, kind of obstacle or roping off PWMP *qambeŋ

amboŋIban(WMP) proud, haughty PWMP *ambuŋ

ambúʔCebuano(WMP) overlook, look from a high point (as in looking at someone downstairs), tower over PWMP *ambuq

am-buʔbuk-i ballaʔ-naMakasarese(WMP) pull his house up and put it down elsewhere PMP *butbut-i

ambúgIlokano(WMP) proud, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious, arrogant, insolent PPh *hambúg

am-bulaʔMakasarese(WMP) start to become round, swell a little PMP *bulat₁

ambunBanjarese(WMP) dew PWMP *ambun

ambunBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) dew (in small drops) PWMP *ambun

ambunBintulu(WMP) fog PWMP *ambun

ambunIban(WMP) dew, damp PWMP *ambun

ambunKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) ground fog, mist PWMP *ambun

ambunKapampangan(WMP) dew PWMP *ambun

ambunKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) abdomen PCEMP *kampuŋ

ambunBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) fog PWMP *ambun

ambunMaloh(WMP) dew, vapor PWMP *ambun

ambunMinangkabau(WMP) dew PWMP *ambun

ambunOld Javanese(WMP) cloud (or mist?) PWMP *ambun

ambunOld Javanese(WMP) cloud (or mist?) PWMP *Rabun

ambunTae'(WMP) dew, morning mist PWMP *ambun

amburBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) dust, broken bits PWMP *abuR

amburIban(WMP) scatter, sprinkle (as rice in feeding chickens) PWMP *qambuR

amburKaro Batak(WMP) spill out, spill over, strew, scatter; cast a net PWMP *qambuR

*ambuRPSS(WMP) strew, scatter PWMP *qambuR

ambutBanjarese(WMP) tear off coconut husk PMP *abut

ambutBanjarese(WMP) pull off the husk of a coconut PMP *hebut

ambuwáŋTagalog(WMP) large beetle PMP *abuqaŋ

amcait matmatBuli(SHWNG) deathly afraid, scared to death PCEMP *matay₁

ameʔBonggi(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

ameʔCebuano (SE Bohol)(WMP) 1pl ex oblique PWMP *ameq

ameNgadha(CMP) father, uncle, nephew PMP *ama-i

ameRiung(CMP) father PMP *ama-i

ameYamdena(CMP) father, FB, MZH PAN *amax

a-mebed, am-bebedOld Javanese(WMP) tie, bind, bandage, entwine PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

a-məcutOld Javanese(WMP) to whip, wield a whip PWMP *pecut

ameiKayan(WMP) father (vocative); polite address to an older man PMP *ama-i

ame ibanMurik(WMP) father-in-law PMP *ibah-an

a-melUjir(CMP) laugh PCEMP *malip

a-melar-akenOld Javanese(WMP) to spread out, open PWMP *maŋ-bekelaj

amenAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) 1pl ex oblique PAN *amen

a-mener-menerOld Javanese(WMP) go straight PMP *bener

a-mentukOld Javanese(WMP) to form, make, build PMP *bentuk

a-menuh-iOld Javanese(WMP) to fill, make complete PWMP *maŋ-penuq

amə-ŋCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) father (vocative) PMP *amá-ŋ

a-məpərOld Javanese(WMP) to urge, press, push; to be insistent (in questioning), press for further particulars PWMP *perper₂

amesSasak(WMP) knead, press PAN *Rames

a-meteŋOld Javanese(WMP) become or be pregnant PWMP *beteŋ₂

a-mətəŋOld Javanese(WMP) to darken, blind, obscure PWMP *peteŋ

ameyManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) father (reference) PMP *ama-i

ameɁ patKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *ami

ameɁ tələwPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) we three, excl. PAN *ami

ʔamfilTiruray(WMP) come to the defense of someone or something PMP *hampil

amiAlune(CMP) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

amiBulungan(WMP) 1pl. excl. genitive, our PAN *ami

amiErai(CMP) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

amiKamarian(CMP) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

amiLarike(CMP) lst pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

amiManggarai (Central)(CMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *ami

amiPazeh(Formosan) 1pl. excl. nominative, we PAN *ami

amiRotinese(CMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

amiSika(CMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

amiSimalur(WMP) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

amiSubanon(WMP) lpl., excl., we PAN *ami

amiTetun(CMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

amiWaropen(SHWNG) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

ami-Seimat(OC) 1pl. excl. subject pronoun PAN *k-ami

amiánIlokano(WMP) north wind PMP *qamihan

amianKapampangan(WMP) winter, the cold season from October to January PMP *qamihan

amianMaranao(WMP) north wind PMP *qamihan

*amianPMin(WMP) north; north wind PMP *qamihan

amianTontemboan(WMP) north; north wind PMP *qamihan

amíanaMalagasy(WMP) shrubs with large stinging hairs PWMP *amiaŋ

amián-anIlokano(WMP) north PPh *qamihan-an

amian-anMaranao(WMP) north PPh *qamihan-an

amíhanAklanon(WMP) northeast wind PMP *qamihan

amíhanBikol(WMP) northeast wind, trade wind PMP *qamihan

amíhanCebuano(WMP) wind from the north PMP *qamihan

ʔamíhanHanunóo(WMP) northeast; northeast wind, which is usually very gentle PMP *qamihan

amihanTagalog(WMP) north wind, northeast wind; breeze from the mountains going to the lowlands PMP *qamihan

amihán-anAklanon(WMP) north(erly) PPh *qamihan-an

amihán-anBikol(WMP) direction of the northeast wind PPh *qamihan-an

amihán-anCebuano(WMP) north, northern PPh *qamihan-an

a-mijətOld Javanese(WMP) to press with the fingers, squeeze, crush, knead, massage PWMP *pizet

a-milaŋOld Javanese(WMP) count, enumerate, calculate, consider one by one, take into account, consider PWMP *maŋ-bilaŋ

a-milihOld Javanese(WMP) to choose, make a choice from (well-considered, not at random), select, give one’s preference to PAN *piliq

ami-luaLakalai(OC) 1dl. excl. subject and object pronoun PAN *k-ami

aminIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) do all, complete something, exhaust a supply, as of food, money; all, exclusively PAN *amin

ʔamínBontok(WMP) use up, consume PAN *amin

aminBunun(Formosan) all PAN *amin

áminIlokano(WMP) all; total, entire, complete, whole PAN *amin

áminIsneg(WMP) all PAN *amin

aminKapampangan(WMP) consume, finish PAN *amin

aminMaranao(WMP) formula used in ending prayer; so be it PAN *amin

aminPaiwan(Formosan) finished; there is no more, there is no other than PAN *amin

amínPangasinan(WMP) all PAN *amin

áminTagalog(WMP) 1pl ex oblique PAN *amen

aminManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) complete; consume; use up PAN *amin

amính-anHiligaynon(WMP) north PPh *qamihan-an

ámin noIlokano(WMP) whatever PAN *amin

a-minturOld Javanese(WMP) to fish with a bintur PWMP *bintur

a-miŋkukOld Javanese(WMP) to bend, curve (river) PMP *biŋkuk

ami-roOld Javanese(WMP) do something twice PMP *duha

ami-rwaOld Javanese(WMP) second cousin PMP *duha

ʔamisAmis(Formosan) north PAN *qamiS

amisPaiwan(Formosan) hair-root (of plant); rough hemp cord PAN *RamiS

a-misahOld Javanese(WMP) to isolate oneself, withdraw PWMP *pisaq

a-misanOld Javanese(WMP) (to do something or to be done) in one act, at the same time, completely (not by halves, definitely) PWMP *pisan

ʔamisanPazeh(Formosan) north; winter PAN *qamiS-an

ʔæmiSænSaisiyat(Formosan) winter PAN *qamiS-an

ʔamis-an-aSaaroa(Formosan) winter PAN *qamiS-an

ʔamís-anəKanakanabu(Formosan) winter PAN *qamiS-an

a-misik-i, w-in-isik-anOld Javanese(WMP) whisper to someone, give secret instruction PWMP *bisik₃

amisuMono-Alu(OC) to spit POC *kamisu

ami-teuLakalai(OC) 1pl. excl. subject and object pronoun PAN *k-ami

amiyanCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) northeast wind, northeast monsoon; rainy season PMP *qamihan

amiyanMansaka(WMP) rainy season; north wind PMP *qamihan

amlaŋoLusi(OC) crab sp. POC *qali-maŋo

a-mlifBuli(SHWNG) laugh PCEMP *malip

a-mlif-aBuli(SHWNG) laugh at PCEMP *malip

ammāIsneg(WMP) father PMP *ema₁

ammáItawis(WMP) kiss PWMP *ema₂

ammaMakasarese(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

amma-ʔMakasarese(WMP) mother (reference and address) PMP *ema-ʔ

ammalliMakasarese(WMP) buy PMP *beli₂

ammanaMakasarese(WMP) shoot with bow and arrow PAN *panaq

am-manaʔ buŋasaʔMakasarese(WMP) give birth for the first time PMP *buŋas

am-mantiŋMakasarese(WMP) hang up laundry on a line PMP *bantiŋ

am-mantuŋMakasarese(WMP) pull up, raise, hoist (of fishing rod, fish, sail, etc.) PMP *bantun

ammaŋMakasarese(WMP) hold in the closed mouth; hold in the lips, as a pencil PAN *qemqem

ammaŋTae'(WMP) put in the mouth and then keep the lips closed PAN *qemqem

amm-aŋiŋMakasarese(WMP) hang in the wind to dry PMP *haŋin

am-marroʔMakasarese(WMP) squeeze something out PWMP *ma-meRes

am-masaʔMakasarese(WMP) drive a wedge into wood in order to split it open PAN *pacek

ammayAtta(WMP) rice on the stalk PMP *hemay

ammáyIsneg(WMP) rice, Oryza sativa L. Paddy, rice in the husk, unhusked rice, whether growing or not PMP *hemay

ammáyItawis(WMP) rice plant PMP *hemay

am-mileMakasarese(WMP) to choose, select, pick out PAN *piliq

ammínIsneg(WMP) all PAN *qemin

amminra buluMakasarese(WMP) change in color, of hair PMP *bulu₁

am-misaʔMakasarese(WMP) to split, hack to pieces (firewood or coconut husk) PMP *biseqak

ammótIsneg(WMP) cover the mouth with the hand PMP *hemut

ammot-ánIsneg(WMP) to cover the mouth with the hand PMP *hemut

am-muaŋMakasarese(WMP) to drop, discard, throw out; to lower (prices) PWMP *maŋ-buqaŋ

am-muaŋ daduMakasarese(WMP) cast dice PWMP *maŋ-buqaŋ

am-muʔbuʔIsneg(WMP) a spirit who causes dental caries PWMP *maŋ-bukbuk

am-muʔbuʔMakasarese(WMP) pull out, as rice seedlings to be transplanted, a sword from its scabbard PMP *butbut₂

am-mukaʔMakasarese(WMP) fish with a pukaʔ net PWMP *ma-muket

am-mulaŋMakasarese(WMP) bind an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

am-munoMakasarese(WMP) kill, extinguish, do away with, rub out with an eraser; leave undone (work) PWMP *maŋ-bunuq

am-muno-i jaŋan-naMakasarese(WMP) his fighting cock has killed (its opponent), has won PWMP *maŋ-bunuq

ammúŋItawis(WMP) gathering PWMP *emuŋ

ammuŋMakasarese(WMP) altogether, everyone PWMP *emuŋ

ámoCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) tame, domesticated, docile, submissive (referring to animals) PPH *haq(e)muq

amoIbatan(WMP) afraid PPH *haq(e)muq

ámoIfugaw(WMP) concept of tameness PPH *haq(e)muq

amoIlokano(WMP) civilized people PPH *haq(e)muq

amoKédang(CMP) father PAN *amax

amóTsou(Formosan) father PAN *amax

amoYami(WMP) ashamed, embarrassed PPH *haq(e)muq

amo ajuHawu(CMP) root; medicine (because the people prepare medicines from roots) PMP *Ramut

ámo-ámoCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to speak softly and gently to someone with a reluctant attitude in order to win him over to your side; to act apologetically to someone with whom you have had a misunderstanding; to persuade, to induce, to win over to one’s side PPH *haq(e)muq

amo-anIbaloy(WMP) to make someone or something obey PPH *haq(e)muq

amokIban(WMP) attack, run amuck; passion, enthusiasm, do with keenness, slave away at PMP *hamuk

amokMalay(WMP) furious attack; charge; amuck. Of desperate onslaughts in old romances PMP *hamuk

amokNgaju Dayak(WMP) furious, murderous attack PMP *hamuk

amótAgta (Eastern)(WMP) to clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters PMP *hemut

amot-ánAgta (Eastern)(WMP) to pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter PMP *hemut

ámoʔTagalog(WMP) tameness; coaxing, supplication PPH *haq(e)muq

ampaBidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)(WMP) lacking contents, empty (as grains) PMP *qapah

ampaʔIban(WMP) empty ears (of rice) (Scott 1956); worthless, empty; rubbish, husk, chaff (Richards 1981) PMP *qapah

ampaʔTae'(WMP) spread out; mat PMP *hampaR

ampaʔ-iTae'(WMP) spread out on, over, cover with PMP *hampaR

am-paítPangasinan(WMP) bitter PMP *paqit₂

ampákIlokano(WMP) slap, cuff, buffet; spank PPh *hampak

ampalJavanese(WMP) beetle PWMP *ampal

ampalOld Javanese(WMP) a particular kind of beetle PWMP *ampal

ampalManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) large cockroach PWMP *ampal

ampalèsinaMalagasy(WMP) be smoothed with the ampály leaves PWMP *qa(m)pelas-en

ampallaʔTae'(WMP) Ficus semicordata, a type of fig tree with rough leaves used for polishing PWMP *qampelas

ampallaʔTae'(WMP) Ficus semicordata, a type of fig tree with rough leaves used for polishing or smoothing; the leaves are used to clean wooden bowls and plates, and to polish all kinds of wooden utensils PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampallasaʔMakasarese(WMP) tree with broad leaves used to sand wood smooth: Ficus Ampelas PWMP *qampelas

ampallasaʔMakasarese(WMP) a tree the broad leaves of which are used to sand wood smooth: Ficus Ampelas PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampalyMalagasy(WMP) shrub or tree the leaves of which are used as a substitute for sandpaper: Ficus soroceoides Baker PWMP *qampelas

ampályMalagasy(WMP) a shrub or tree, the leaves of which are used as a substitute for sand-paper: Ficus soroceoides Baker PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampaŋBalinese(WMP) light, easy, not heavy PWMP *hampaŋ

ampáŋIlokano(WMP) silly, foolish, wanton, loose (said of women) PWMP *hampaŋ

ampaŋJavanese(WMP) light, without body PWMP *hampaŋ

ampaŋMalay(WMP) easy, light PWMP *hampaŋ

am-paŋilMurut (Timugon)(WMP) ankle PWMP *paŋil

ampawMaranao(WMP) popped rice PMP *ampaw

amparIban(WMP) spread (as a cloth on a table) PMP *hampaR

amparJavanese(WMP) floor PMP *hampaR

amparKaro Batak(WMP) lie on the ground PMP *hampaR

amparNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is spread out (mats, carpets, etc.) PMP *hampaR

*a(m)pa(r)PSS(WMP) unroll, spread out PMP *hampaR

ampar-anJavanese(WMP) mat to sit on PMP *hampaR

ampar-anJavanese(WMP) mat to sit on PWMP *hapaR-an

ampar-anToba Batak(WMP) a broad mat PMP *hampaR

ampar-anToba Batak(WMP) a broad mat PWMP *hapaR-an

ampátBikol(WMP) stop, put a stop to, quell, suppress PWMP *ampet

ampatKapampangan(WMP) stanch the flow of blood; stop, detain, check the progress of (Bergaño 1860) PWMP *ampet

ampatMaloh(WMP) four PMP *epat

ámpatraMalagasy(WMP) stretched out, as the legs, or a corpse immediately after death PMP *hampaR

ámpawAklanon(WMP) popped rice candy PMP *ampaw

ampáwBikol(WMP) puffed rice PMP *ampaw

ampáwCebuano(WMP) delicacy consisting of puffed rice coated with caramel and stuck into bricks PMP *ampaw

ampáwIlokano(WMP) empty shell, nut, etc. PMP *ampaw

ampáwTagalog(WMP) puffed rice or corn PMP *ampaw

ampenDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) fishline PMP *hapen

amperuBalinese(WMP) gall, bile PAN *qapeju

amperuJavanese(WMP) pancreas PAN *qapeju

ampetBalinese(WMP) stanch, stop the flow PWMP *ampet

ampetJavanese(WMP) to check, restrain PWMP *ampet

ampi-apiSeko(WMP) firefly (Mills 1975:621) PWMP *hapuy hapuy₁

ampíasTagalog(WMP) rain entering through open or cracked windows, doors, walls, etc. PWMP *ampias

ampidMansaka(WMP) to stack (as wood) PWMP *apid₂

*ampiɨllasPSS(WMP) tree sp., Ficus politoria L. (the leaves of this tree can be used like sandpaper) PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampikBanjarese(WMP) clap PWMP *ampik

ampíkKankanaey(WMP) pat, tap lightly PWMP *ampik

ampilManggarai(CMP) stay together PMP *hampil

ampil-aʔMaranao(WMP) ally PMP *hampil

ampil-ampilMaranao(WMP) side lightly with someone; sympathy for someone PMP *hampil

*ampɨllasPSS(WMP) tree sp.: Ficus politoria L. (the leaves of this tree can be used like sandpaper) PWMP *qampelas

ampinBalinese(WMP) bunch (of leaves), bundle, pile, heap PWMP *ampin

ampinIban(WMP) baby's napkin, nappy PMP *hapin

ampinMalay(WMP) swaddling-band for infant PMP *hapin

ampinSasak(WMP) roll of sirih leaves PWMP *ampin

ampinSimalungun Batak(WMP) swaddling cloth PMP *hapin

ampinTontemboan(WMP) leaf, cloth, etc. with which one seizes something PWMP *ampin

ampirIban(WMP) encroach, come foraging; approach threateningly or suspiciously PWMP *hampir

ampirMaranao(WMP) shoreward, near, go side-by-side PWMP *hampir

ampirNgaju Dayak(WMP) almost, nearly PWMP *hampir

ampir-aʔMaranao(WMP) wharf, landing platform, quay PWMP *hampir

ampisBalinese(WMP) thin, worn thin PWMP *Rampis

ampitBanggai(WMP) what is folded PMP *hapit

ampitNgaju Dayak(WMP) small bird which does great damage in the ricefields; there are two kinds: black with white beak, and red with ash-gray neck and green beak PWMP *apiRit

amplasBalinese(WMP) tree with hard, rough leaves which are used like sand-paper to smooth down wood PWMP *qampelas

amplasSasak(WMP) a plant with leaves used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa PWMP *qampelas

amplasSasak(WMP) a plant the leaves of which are used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampoTae'(WMP) grandchild PMP *ampu

ampoTae'(WMP) grandchild PMP *empu

ampolasToba Batak(WMP) leaves which are used for polishing; also an implement of iron and bamboo used for polishing PWMP *qampelas

ampolasToba Batak(WMP) leaves used to polish; also a bamboo and iron implement with which one polishes PMP *qa(m)pelas

ampōnAcehnese(WMP) pardon, forgiveness; apology; remission, absolution PMP *ampun

ampōŋAcehnese(WMP) float of a fishing net, buoy PMP *apuŋ

amporikToba Batak(WMP) rice bird PWMP *ampeRij

ampuMakasarese(WMP) owner of something PMP *ampu

ampuMakasarese(WMP) owner, possessor PMP *empu

ampuMakasarese (Salayar)(WMP) grandchild PMP *ampu

ampuMakasarese (Salayar)(WMP) grandchild PMP *empu

ampuMaloh(WMP) grandchild PMP *ampu

ampuMaloh(WMP) grandchild PMP *empu

ampuAbaknon(WMP) grandchild PMP *ampu

ampukBalinese(WMP) widely scattered, dispersed PWMP *ampuk

ampul-ampul-anSundanese(WMP) heave, dance (of swells at sea) PWMP *hampul

am-puliBare'e(WMP) dust or dirt in the eye PWMP *puliŋ₂

ampunBalinese(WMP) pardon, forgive PMP *ampun

ampunBanjarese(WMP) pardon PMP *ampun

ampunBanggai(WMP) forgiveness, pardon PMP *ampun

ampunDampelas(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampunIban(WMP) forgiveness, pardon, submission; apologize, confess PMP *ampun

ampunKadazan Dusun(WMP) pardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve PMP *ampun

ampunMalay(WMP) pardon (of a royal or divine superior showing mercy; forgiveness between equals is maaf, mahap, tabek) PMP *ampun

ampunNgaju Dayak(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampunOld Javanese(WMP) show mercy toward, receive with favor PMP *ampun

ampunSasak(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampunSundanese(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampunToba Batak(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampun-anMalay(WMP) pardon, apology PWMP *ampun-an

ampun-anSasak(WMP) pardon, forgiveness PWMP *ampun-an

ampúniBare'e(WMP) tree fern. The pith is fed to pigs, the wood is burned as a mosquito repellant, the roots (a pretty black) are chopped into bits and used 1. as beads, and 2. as a magical charm PMP *apuni

am-puniBare'e(WMP) tree fern, Alsophila sp. The pith is fed to pigs, the wood is burned to repel mosquitos, the shiny black roots are chopped up and used to make beads and as a ritual substance in ceremonies to assist the rice, because the plant is very tenacious PMP *puni₁

(am)pu-nnaMakasarese(WMP) the owner of PWMP *empu-ni-a

ampuŋKadazan Dusun(WMP) float, swim PMP *apuŋ

ampuŋManggarai(CMP) pardon, forgiveness PMP *ampun

ampuŋSangir(WMP) forgiveness, pardon PMP *ampun

ampuŋ-ampuŋKaro Batak(WMP) float of a fishline or fish net PMP *apuŋ apuŋ

ampuŋ ampuŋSasak(WMP) kind of floating acquatic plant PMP *apuŋ apuŋ

ampuŋ-anTontemboan(WMP) be forgiven PWMP *ampun-an

ámpuŋ-iBare'e(WMP) forgiveness, pardon PMP *ampun

ampusManggarai(CMP) exterminate, destroy, wipe out (as a house by fire, chickens by some cause, etc.) PMP *qa(m)pus

am-putíPangasinan(WMP) white, fair, light colored PMP *ma-putiq

amsíIsneg(WMP) the nightshade, Solanum nigrum L. Its young leaves are used for vegetables; eating these cooked young leaves cures the it-itól disease of the eyes PMP *SameCi

amtákIfugaw(WMP) a yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn., universally known as mongos PWMP *hametak

amtákIlokano(WMP) a variety of cowpeas with very large seeds PWMP *hametak

amtíIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) black nightshade: a broad-leafed plant, Solanum nigrum [Sol.] planted in upland fields … or on mounds … along a pondfield dyke. The leaves and young shoots are boiled and eaten as a side dish PMP *SameCi

ʔamtíBontok(WMP) a tall herb used for pig food, and cultivated as a vegetable substitute: Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) PMP *SameCi

amtíIfugaw(WMP) nightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries PMP *SameCi

amtíKankanaey(WMP) nightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries PMP *SameCi

ʔa-mtíkHanunóo(WMP) red stinging ant PMP *me(n)tik

amtirEre(OC) to sleep POC *matiruR

am-tuliBuli(SHWNG) to sleep PMP *ma-tuduR

amuAlune(CMP) 2pl. possessive, your PMP *kamu₂

amuAnakalangu(CMP) root PMP *Ramut

amuAsilulu(CMP) 2sg. genitive for alienable possession, your PMP *kamu₂

amuBimanese(CMP) root PMP *Ramut

amuKambera(CMP) root; cause PMP *Ramut

amuKodi(CMP) root PMP *Ramut

amuMoor(SHWNG) 2pl., you all PMP *kamu₂

amuNumbami(OC) 2nd person plural free pronoun; you (plural) PMP *kamu₂

amukBalinese(WMP) rave, be furious; attack in fury PMP *hamuk

amukJavanese(WMP) fury, violence PMP *hamuk

amukSasak(WMP) attack without warning, murder PMP *hamuk

amuk-amukBalinese(WMP) tumult, great noise; furious, mad rage PMP *hamuk

amuk-amuk-anJavanese(WMP) attack each other violently PMP *hamuk

a-mukətOld Javanese(WMP) to fish with a dragnet or seine; to catch (in a net), entrap, entangle, enmesh PWMP *ma-muket

a-mukulOld Javanese(WMP) to beat (with a hammer); to play a percussion instrument PWMP *pukul

a-mukut-mukut-iOld Javanese(WMP) to bend over? PMP *bukut

ʔa-m-ulDobel(CMP) come back PMP *um-uliq

amu-luaLakalai(OC) 2dl. subject and object pronoun PMP *kamu₂

a-muluhOld Javanese(WMP) like bamboo, like a bamboo vessel PAN *buluq₂

a-muniOld Javanese(WMP) hide, keep secret PMP *buni₁

a-muniOld Javanese(WMP) to hide, keep secet PWMP *maŋ-buni

a-munuhOld Javanese(WMP) slaughter, kill, put an end to, slay PWMP *maŋ-bunuq

a-munu-n-anSimalur(WMP) place where something is killed PMP *bunuq₂

a-muŋar-iOld Javanese(WMP) be the first in doing something, enjoy something in its prime, break fresh ground, taste the first fruits PWMP *buŋaR

amutBintulu(WMP) small or fine roots, fibrous roots PMP *Ramut

amutIvatan(WMP) suffocate PMP *hemut

amutLamaholot(CMP) root PMP *Ramut

a-mutLoniu(OC) to vomit PCEMP *mutaq

a-muta-muta-niOld Javanese(WMP) to blindfold; turn a blind eye PWMP *maŋ-buta

a-mutərOld Javanese(WMP) to turn, rotate, spin; to churn, to produce as if by churning; to meditate in order to bring forth the deity; “to make go round”’ PWMP *puteR

amu-tou (*k > zero)Lakalai(OC) 2pl. subject and object pronoun PMP *kamu₂

amwaSudest(OC) forehead POC *damwa

a-mwat tohOld Javanese(WMP) to gamble PMP *taRuq


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-anAklanon(WMP) common suffix denoting a place or a referent. Used with (1) verbs: ginbáke-an sánda it dúlsi 'candy was bought for them', (2) nouns: simbáh-an 'church' (from símba(h) 'worship'), tindáh-an 'market' (from tínda(h) 'goods for sale'), (3) adjectives: baʔbá-an 'talkative' (from báʔbaʔ 'mouth') PAN *-an

-anAtayal(Formosan) suffix forming first passive indicative from the reduced stem, and suffix forming first passive perfect from the reduced stem in connection with the infix -in-. Forms an imperative with the reduced or extra reduced stem. Forms nouns indicating place or time. Common suffix in place names, and less common suffix in personal names (e.g. qalup 'to hunt' : qlup-an 'hunting ground') PAN *-an

-anBahasa Indonesia(WMP) the suffix -an is used to form nouns from various types of base ... It is also used to form a small number of adjectives and adverbs ... When added to a root which can function as a noun, the suffix -an 1. occasionally produces a noun which hardly varies in meaning from the base noun (e.g. ruaŋ 'room' : ruaŋ-an 'room'); 2. more usually it produces a noun whose referent has some real or fancied resemblance to the referent of the base noun (e.g. achir 'end' : achir-an 'suffix', anak 'child' : anak-an 'interest (on an investment)', rambut 'hair' : rambut-an 'a fruit, the hairy cherry'; 3. when added to a noun root (usually reduplicated) the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to a collection of the referents of the simple noun, or of related referents (e.g. bintaŋ 'star' : bintaŋ-an 'constellation', pohon 'tree' : pohon-pohon-an 'trees, the vegetable kingdom'; 4. when added to a numerative (usually only satu, or those which can be preceded by satu in the form se-), the suffix -an forms a noun referring to a group consisting of that number (e.g. satu 'one' : satu-an 'a unit', -puluh 'ten' : puluh-an 'decade, a group of ten'; 5. when added to a verb (all other prefixes and suffixes being lost), the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to what is involved in the performance of the action referred to by the verb, whether as the product or the instrument (e.g. makan 'eat' : makan-an 'food', me-lukis 'to draws, paint' : lukis-an 'a drawing, painting', meŋ-ayun 'to rock, sway' : ayun-an 'cradle'. Such nouns in -an contrast with nouns in ke- -an, per- -an and peŋ- -an in that they refer to more concrete or definite things, while the three latter groups refer to more abstract processes. Nonetheless, there is sometimes a congruence in meaning between the noun in -an and the other nouns, especially those in per- -an and peŋ- -an... 6. Such nouns, derived from verbs by the addition of -an, refer to a collection of items, when the root is reduplicated (e.g. meŋ-gali 'to dig' : gali-an 'what is dug up' : gali-gali-an 'minerals, root crops', tembak 'to shoot' : tembak-an 'shot' : tembak-tembak-an 'shooting'; 7. Just as the suffix -an, added to a reduplicated noun root, produces a noun referring to a collection of items, the same suffix, added to a few adjective roots, usually reduplicated, produces a noun referring to a collection of items which can be characterized by that adjective (e.g. enak 'delicious' : enak-enak-an 'delicacies', manis 'sweet' : manis-an 'candy, sweets'; 8. Otherwise, adjectives and the occasional verb root, when reduplicated and followed by -an, produce adjectives, or adverbs of manner (e.g. teraŋ 'bright' : teraŋ-teraŋ-an 'frank', takut 'afraid' : takut-takut-an 'bashful', buta 'blind' : buta-buta-an 'at random, blindly') (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:65ff). PAN *-an

-anKelabit(WMP) marker of nouns of location (e.g. irup 'what is drunk; way or manner of drinking' : m-irup 'to drink' : rup-an 'watering hole for animals in the jungle', dalan 'path, road' : nalan 'to walk' : delan-an 'path made by repeated walking over the same course PAN *-an

anIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) the taste of food; to eat; for a fire to consume something combustible; for a saw to cut into iron, wood PAN *kaen

-anBanggai(WMP) suffix forming adjectives. The suffix -an is actually local, and in the second instance temporal, and it thus gives the place and time at which or in which the meaning of the stem word is realized... Examples of adjectives with the suffix -an are: buluŋ-an 'loud, of sound' (from buluŋ 'throat', boo-an 'evil-smelling' (from boo 'stench'), buku-an 'strong' (from buku 'bone'), mon-doso-an 'be taboo' (from doso 'a taboo')...The collective function of -an which is found in some other languages is seen in osoa-an 'to marry' (from soa 'spouse') ... In other cases the meaning of the stem word is not available in Banggai, and hence the precise meaning of the suffix -an cannot be determined PAN *-an

-anBikol(WMP) 1. verbal affix, locative series, infinitive-command form: dumán 'there, yonder' : duman-án 'come or go to', 2. verbal affix, reflexive action series, infinitive-command form: hugák 'lazy' : hugak-án 'to feel lazy', 3. verbal affix, regular series, infinitive-command form: imbitár 'invite' : imbitar-án 'to invite', 4. alternant command suffix for verbs taking i- in the infinitive: i-abót mo an asín or abot-án an asín 'pass the salt', 5. nominal affix, locative: eskuéla 'student' : eskuelah-án 'school' PAN *-an

-anMongondow(WMP) suffix with locative sense, where what the base-word says happens, is, or comes; afflicted with PAN *-an

ʔanBontok(WMP) a voice-marking suffix, non-completive aspect, which subjectivalizes the locative case relation; a gerundivizing suffix occurring in combination with voice marking affixes... In appropriate contexts it also functions as a temporal or locative suffix PAN *-an

ānBuli(SHWNG) food; to eat PAN *kaen

-anCebuano(WMP) local passive verb affix, future; noun forming affix. 1. forming nouns which refer to a place where something is found, done, held, located..., 2. forming nouns which refer to a person possessed of a certain power..., adjective forming suffix 1. forming adjectives which mean 'characterized by being [so-and-so]..., 2. added to nouns to form adjectives which mean 'having [so-and-so] PAN *-an

-anChamorro(WMP) attributive suffix. It is difficult to find an appropriate name for this suffix. It is usually added to nouns. The affixed form then describes something that has attributes or features of the stem... The stem usually, but not always, takes the infix -in- (e.g. bosbos 'skin rash' : b-in-esbus-an 'condition of having a skin rash', chugoʔ 'sap, juice' : chiguʔ-an 'salty fish sauce', palaoʔan 'woman' : p-in-alaoʔan-an 'effeminate male' or 'having attributes of woman', pao 'odor' : pagu-an 'smelly') PAN *-an

-anHiligaynon(WMP) infinitive benefactive-locative focus affix; noun formative affix designating a container or a place where an action occurs PAN *-an

anIaai(OC) food POC *kana

-anIfugaw(WMP) suffix of general use. First, it conveys a locative meaning; it is used to form names of places, or common nouns indicating certain places... Second, -an (like -on) is a suffix which actually verbalizes a given word-base by making it pertain to the so-called passive voice..... The difference between the suffix -on and the suffix -an can be (in some way) clarified as follows: the suffix -on puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base can be applied and, in fact, is applied to the direct object, while the suffix -an puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base is only indirectly applicable to the grammatical object PAN *-an

-anIlokano(WMP) a suffix of general use, mostly locative PAN *-an

-anLampung(WMP) a noun + -an, most often a reduplicated noun, specifies a large variety of the thing signified by the single-morpheme noun' (e.g. bataŋ 'tree' : bataŋ-bataŋ-an 'all kinds of trees'; verbal roots combine with -an to form nouns signifying the result of the action of the verb: cinciŋ 'carry (something light)' : cinciŋ-an 'that which is carried', aji 'to chant' : aji-an 'the chant', xatoŋ 'to come' : xatoŋ-an 'guests, the people coming'; partial reduplication + -an functions as a circumfix, combining with some intransitive verb roots meaning to cook, expressing a variety of ingredients used in the cooking process: gulay 'to make soup' : ga-gulay-an 'vegetables', pajaʔ 'to boil something' : pa-pajaʔ-an 'greens for boiling'; this combination also occurs with a few adjective and intransitive verb roots to give the abstraction of the root meaning: taway 'to teach' : ta-taway-an 'teaching, instruction', demon 'like' : da-demon-an 'a liking' PAN *-an

anLeipon(OC) termite, white ant POC *ane

anLikum(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

anLindrou(OC) sun POC *qalo₁

anLoniu(OC) termite, white ant POC *ane

ʔanLoniu(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

-anMaranao(WMP) a third grammatical relation between the verb and the so-phrase is indicated by the suffix -an: Tabas(an) o bebai so mamaʔ (cut o-woman so-man) 'The man is the one for whom the woman will cut it' or 'The woman will cut it for the man'. Here the action is performed on behalf of the one designated by the particle so. The so-phrase stands in an indirect relation to the verb. It may indirectly receive the action, be the location of the action, or be the associate or beneficiary of the action. The suffix -an thus marks referential voice PAN *-an

ānNumfor(SHWNG) to eat PAN *kaen

-anPaiwan(Formosan) specific location in time or space; specific one/type: kan-an 'eating place' (kan 'eat') PAN *-an

anPak(OC) termite, white ant POC *ane

anSeimat(OC) food POC *kana

anSeimat(OC) food POC *kani

an-Seimat(OC) marker of edible possession POC *kana-

anSeimat(OC) food PAN *kaen-an

anSelaru(CMP) plaiting of mats, baskets, etc. PMP *añam

-anSimalur(WMP) suffix used to form: 1. abstract nouns, 2. nouns which express a nominal perfect participle, 3. nouns of location; verbal suffix used to express various relationships between the action and the object; added to qualitative and intransitive constructions it has a causative function PAN *-an

-anTagalog(WMP) the -an suffix usually functions as the affix that focuses attention on the person or object or place toward which the action is directed or where the action is being carried out. Usually the actor focus counterpart of the -an suffix is -um-: b-um-ilí kamí sa kaniyá 'we bought from her (actor focus construction)', b-in-ilh-án namín siyá 'we bought from her (locative focus construction) (Ramos 1981:63) PAN *-an

-anMurut (Timugon)(WMP) associate focus suffix. It occurs with all verbs that are inflected with -um- in the subject focus...The past temporal aspect is formed by the addition of -in- ... to the future temporal forms (e.g. min-oŋoy 'went (active)' : in-aŋay-an 'place where someone went') PAN *-an

-anToba Batak(WMP) (in the second passive) the prefix tar- or ha- is placed before the nominal form. The prefix ha is always used when the active has the suffix -i: in the passive, this suffix is replaced by -an... The passive verbal substantives with the suffix -an do not always have a corresponding verb with the suffix -i. Their meaning can also be derived from another verbal form. For example, I have never come across a ma-maŋani-, which would mean 'to eat out of (something), as an active corresponding to paŋan-an: 1. 'that which can be eaten out of' (e.g. a large leaf); 2. 'from which one usually eats (a plate or a dish); 3. 'that which has been eaten into (by a disease)' (referring to marks left on the limbs by, for example, an eruptive skin disease... Such derived substantives represent a place where that which the verb represents usually takes place, or must take place... The suffix -an, just as the suffix -i, can, moreover, not only refer to a plural, but also to the repeated occurrence of the thing represented by the verb, or to its occurring on and off, for example, dalan-an can also mean where it is customary for someone to walk... The suffix -an seldom denotes a direct object, but an example is suru-an 'messenger who is sent', from ma-nuru. Suru-suru-an (repetition of the stem-word) is, however, far more often found...where such a word has not been taken from Minangkabau or Malay -an, representing -i, also means a plural, or repetition, or frequency ... (The second kind of nominal verb) has the suffix -an. a. When verbs of this kind are derived from substantives, the suffix indicates place and the subject is, therefore, represented by this verb as being a place where what the stem-word means can be seen (e.g. panas-an 'to sweat' = the place where the sweat (panas) is; roŋit-an 'to be bothered by flies' = something where flies (roŋit) are to be found), b. when this kind of nominal verb is derived from a verb, the subject is other than the stem-word, i.e. a person who is affected by what the stem-word represents (e.g. ŋolŋol-an 'be bored' : ŋolŋol 'boring', c. the suffix further strengthens what is represented by the stem-word and the derived form then means 'taking place continually', or 'occurring extensively' (e.g. borat-an 'be very laden' : borat 'heavy'; d. these verbs also mean 'an acquiring of', or 'a losing of', as a state (e.g. mate-an 'having deaths, of someone whose soldiers have been slain'; e. when they are derived from a qualificative verb, these verbs have the accent on the suffix and indicate that the quality exists to a greater degree (e.g. gabe-án 'to be richer' : gabé 'rich', datu-án 'to be a more skillful datu' ... Words ending in a vowel can insert an n before the suffix (e.g. dae-n-an, from dae) (van der Tuuk 1971:161, 196ff) PAN *-an

-ʔan-Kairiru(OC) to eat POC *kani

anaAua(OC) food POC *kana

anaBare'e(WMP) child, young one (always as a qualifier of another noun); sometimes also used of a part of some larger thing PMP *anak

anaʔBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaBimanese(CMP) child; anything that is small PMP *anak

anaʔBuginese(WMP) child, offspring' PMP *anak

anaBuruese(CMP) child PMP *anak

ana-Chuukese(OC) food to eat; food portion (of cooked starchy food) POC *kana

anaDobel(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaGilbertese(OC) take, subtract, take away, remove, take off PAN *alaq₁

anaGilbertese(OC) term used in mat weaving to designate a certain width PMP *añam

anaGilbertese(OC) a fish (small, slender species), needlefish, garfish, halfbeak (Sabatier 1971) POC *panapa

anaGilbertese(OC) take, subtract, take away, remove, take off PAN *ala

anaHawaiian(OC) to measure, survey, evaluate, rate PMP *zaŋan₁

anaHawaiian(OC) to measure, survey, evaluate, rate; survey, measurement, pattern, plan, model POC *saŋa₁

anaHitu(CMP) child PMP *anak

anáʔIsneg(WMP) child, son, daughter PMP *anak

anaʔJarai(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaKamarian(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaKambera(CMP) child; young; small PMP *anak

anaʔKédang(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaʔKomodo(CMP) child; young; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); son, daughter; give birth, breed PMP *anak

anaʔLampung(WMP) child, offspring PMP *anak

anaLarike(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaLeti(CMP) child; small PMP *anak

anaLi'o(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaʔMadurese(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaʔMakasarese(WMP) child; son, daughter; young of animals, young plant; smaller part of a larger thing PMP *anak

-anaMalagasy(WMP) passives in -ana are often similar in meaning to those in -ina, and are used simply as passives of verbs active transitive in mi- and man-. Often, however, passives in -ina and -ana are made from the same root, and used in different senses, thus: from tàmpoka ('suddenly, unexpectedly') are formed tampóh-ina 'being surprised', and tampóh-ana 'having cold water added'; the passive in a- is of very frequent occurrence. Its primary meaning is said to be that an object is placed in such and such a position...The most difficult use, however, to a learner is when it is made a correlative of the passive in -ana...Many verb that govern two accusatives, one of an object to which something is done, and the other of the instrument, means, etc., with which the action is effected, make the former the nominative case of a passive in -ana, and the latter of a passive in a-... Thus in the sentence manóso tsólika ázy àho 'I anoint it with oil', the body anointed would be made nominative case of the passive hosór-ana ..., and the oil of the verb a-hòsotra PAN *-an

anaʔMandar(WMP) child, offspring' PMP *anak

anaMoa(CMP) child; small; bear children PMP *anak

anaMori(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaMuna(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaNgadha(CMP) child; person, human being; disciple, follower, member; inhabitant, resident; protege'; ward (person); title of distinction; young, small PMP *anak

anaPaulohi(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaPaulohi(CMP) to plait, weave PMP *añam

anaRarotongan(OC) the word used by itself means movement, and is used only in reference to mankind': the exact meaning if fixed by the word following: ana mai 'come (or move) here (towards the speaker)', anáatu 'go (or move) away (away from the speaker); go ahead, pass on, etc. POC *pana

anaRotinese(CMP) child, in comparison with adult; young of animals; small (used as both predicate and attributive adjective PMP *anak

-anaRoviana(OC) suffix of location (e.g. huhuve 'bathe' : huhuve-ana 'bathing place, bath') PAN *-an

ʔa-naSamoan(OC) if PAN *ka₂

anaʔSangir(WMP) child (in contrast with adults; otherwise one uses darioʔ PMP *anak

anaHawu(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaSelaru(CMP) lineage; child of; offspring PMP *anak

anaʔSimalur(WMP) child, boy PMP *anak

anaʔSoboyo(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaTugun(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaʔUma(WMP) child PMP *anak

anaWaropen(SHWNG) land, bush, earth PMP *taneq

anaWaropen(SHWNG) shoot an arrow PAN *panaq

an-aWetan(CMP) to eat PMP *kaen-a

anaWolio(WMP) child, offspring', young (of animals), small and separate part of a whole PMP *anak

anaWolio(WMP) plait PMP *añam

anaW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) child PMP *anak

anaaGilbertese(OC) long-billed needlefish (Johannes 1981:160) POC *panapa

anaʔ aeranSimalur(WMP) rung of a ladder PWMP *anak i haRezan

anaʔ anaʔBuginese(WMP) many children; a small child PWMP *anak anak

anaʔ anaʔMakasarese(WMP) child (immature person), young man, young woman; servant, follower; doll of native manufacture; part of a casting net PWMP *anak anak

anaʔ anaʔSimalur(WMP) small child PWMP *anak anak

anaʔ aoMakasarese(WMP) stepchild PMP *anak

ana apa mai'Āre'āre(OC) on this side POC *taba₂

anaʔ aseMakasarese(WMP) small rice haulm PMP *anak i kahiw

anaʔ ataMakasarese(WMP) child of one's own slaves PMP *anak i qaRta

ana-ataata-anaRotinese(CMP) slave child PMP *anak i qaRta

anáawIlokano(WMP) kind of tall palm: Livistona rotundifolia PWMP *qanahaw

ana awoWolio(WMP) stepchild PMP *anak

anaʔ axoeSimalur(WMP) sparks of fire PWMP *anak i hapuy

anaʔ banwoSimalur(WMP) subject (of state), serf; native of a place PMP *anak i banua

anaʔ batu-fatuSimalur(WMP) small stones, gravel PMP *anak i batu

ana bavyMalagasy(WMP) Z (m.s.) PMP *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi

anaʔ baʔdiliʔMakasarese(WMP) bullet PMP *anak i sumpit

ana bediBimanese(CMP) bullet PMP *anak i sumpit

anaboIbanag(WMP) small tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001) PWMP *anabu

anaboIlokano(WMP) small tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001) PWMP *anabu

anabóIsneg(WMP) a malvaceous tree with red or yellow flowers, and entire leaves that affect the skin like nettles. The fibers of its bark are used for binding purposes PWMP *anabu

anabúCebuano(WMP) shrub or small tree which produces strong bark fiber of commercial importance: Abroma augusta PWMP *anabu

ʔanabúHanunóo(WMP) small tree (Abroma augusta L.); the leaves are used to rub on swollen parts of the body; the bast fibers of the inner bark are used extensively for making twisted bowstrings PWMP *anabu

ana buaNgadha(CMP) children of the same father, but different mother PMP *anak buaq

anaʔ bua-na paʔrasaŋaŋaMakasarese(WMP) inhabitant of an area PMP *anak buaq

anaʔ buniMakasarese(WMP) illegitimate child PMP *anak

anaʔ buŋasaʔMakasarese(WMP) the first child PMP *buŋas

ana cempeBimanese(CMP) adopted child PMP *anak

ana-dahiMalagasy(WMP) a woman’s brother; used also of men when women are speaking PMP *laki

ana dahyMalagasy(WMP) B (w.s.) PMP *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki

ana doaNgadha(CMP) twin; siblings of the same sex PMP *anak apij

anae anaeSimalur(WMP) termite PAN *aNay

anafuIsinay(WMP) small tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001) PWMP *anabu

anahaFordata(CMP) kind of fish PAN *kaNasay

anah anakToba Batak(WMP) small club or cudgel; shuttle of a loom PWMP *anak anak

ana-hataErai(CMP) ZC (m.s.) PMP *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi

anáhawAklanon(WMP) fan palm: Livistona rotundifolia PWMP *qanahaw

anáhawBikol(WMP) fan palm, possessing fronds which may be used for hats and thatching for houses: Livistona chinensis PWMP *qanahaw

anáhawCebuano(WMP) kind of palm with fan-shaped leaves: Livistona rotundifolia. The leaves are used for mats, hats, etc. Potted anáhaw are widely used for ornamental purposes PWMP *qanahaw

ʔanaháwHanunóo(WMP) palm sp.: Livistona robinsoniana Becc.; the bold was formerly much prized as a source of bow wood PWMP *qanahaw

anahawItbayaten(WMP) fan palm: Livistona spp. PWMP *qanahaw

anahawSubanen/Subanun(WMP) tree whose long leaves are used in religious dances PWMP *qanahaw

anáhawTagalog(WMP) fan palm: Livistona spp. PWMP *qanahaw

anáhaw mubuʔCebuano(WMP) ornamental palm similar in appearance to the anáhaw: Licuala spinosa PWMP *qanahaw

ana-hiraErai(CMP) the children, often used in the meaning of: villagers, the village population PMP *anak i banua

ana huaKamarian(CMP) illegitimate child PMP *anak buaq

a-na-huluHawaiian(OC) period of ten days; for ten days; to pass ten days PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

ana-iaWuvulu(OC) eat it! POC *kana

ana iluBare'e(WMP) orphan PMP *anak

anaʔ iluBare'e(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

ana iluUma(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

anákAklanon(WMP) godchild; become a godparent, be a godparent PMP *anak

anakBahasa Indonesia(WMP) offspring; young person or animal; person who originates from or was born in (a given country, area, etc.); person belonging to a certain occupation (family, etc.), as anak kapal 'crewmember of a ship'; small part of some larger thing, as anak baju 'undershirt', anak bukit 'small hill (at foot of mountain)', anak air 'small tributary stream' PMP *anak

anakBalantak(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakBalinese(WMP) person, human individual; the word originally meant 'child' as in Malay ...; it is the widest word for 'human being', and needs to be qualified with other nouns or with adjectives to give it content; alone it may even be used with nouns indicating animals (bémasé ento anak 'those goldfish'), and with personal pronouns PMP *anak

anakBanjarese(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakKelabit(WMP) child, baby PMP *anak

anakBintulu(WMP) child; dependent part PMP *anak

ʔanákBontok(WMP) relative at the first generation level below ego; child; nephew; niece; son; daughter PMP *anak

ʔanʔákBontok(WMP) offspring (plural) PMP *anak

anakBukat(WMP) child PMP *anak

anákCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) baby, child, son, daughter, offspring PMP *anak

ánakCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) children PMP *anak

anákCebuano(WMP) son, daughter; give birth; happen to have for a child PMP *anak

anakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) son; young of an animal PMP *anak

anakGayō(WMP) child PMP *anak

ʔanákHanunóo(WMP) child, offspring, i.e., son or daughter; with all such kinship whenever one wishes to be specific as to sex; e.g. anák laláki 'son'; young, youthful, referring to persons PMP *anak

anákHiligaynon(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakIban(WMP) child, son, daughter, offspring, youngster, junior; small, a little, young PMP *anak

anákIfugaw(WMP) son, daughter; sibling; may sometimes be used in the sense of nephew or niece PMP *anak

anákIlokano(WMP) child, son, daughter; interest PMP *anak

anakItbayaten(WMP) one's child (daughter or son), as reference and a vocative term, offspring (of person or animal) PMP *anak

anákItawis(WMP) child PMP *anak

ánakItawis(WMP) children PMP *anak

anakJavanese(WMP) offspring; nephew, niece; young plant sprout PMP *anak

anakKadazan Dusun(WMP) child PMP *anak

anákKankanaey(WMP) child, infant, offspring; son, daughter; boy, lad, girl, lass; young, whelp, pup, cub; shoot, sprout, young plant PMP *anak

anákKapampangan(WMP) child PMP *anak

aːnakKapampangan(WMP) children PMP *anak

anakKaro Batak(WMP) child; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); young of animals; sprout of a plant; descendant; inhabitant; figuratively of things that are small for their kind, in contrast with induŋ for things that are large for their kind PMP *anak

anakKayan(WMP) child; the young of plants, animals, etc. PMP *anak

anakKenyah(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakMaloh(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakMalay(WMP) child; young (of animal); native (of a country); one (of a party, set or series); important component part; smaller of two PMP *anak

anákMansaka(WMP) child; offspring PMP *anak

anakMaranao(WMP) offspring, brood PMP *anak

anakManggarai(CMP) child; part of something; give birth, bear a child; young, small (of animals) PMP *anak

anakMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) child, offspring PMP *anak

anakNgaju Dayak(WMP) child, offspring (human or animal) PMP *anak

anakOld Javanese(WMP) child; smaller of two things (as a small mountain at the foot of a bigger one) PMP *anak

ʔanákPalawan Batak(WMP) child, young person; offspring, i.e., son or daughter PMP *anak

anákPangasinan(WMP) child, offspring PMP *anak

*anakPMin(WMP) offspring, child (of someone) PMP *anak

*anakPSan(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakRembong(CMP) child; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); sprout of plant; interest PMP *anak

anakRhade(WMP) daughter, son; nephew, niece: one's brother's child PMP *anak

anakSasak(WMP) child (in contrast with adults); young of animals; sometimes child in general; smaller part of something larger, of small for its kind PMP *anak

ʔanakSika(CMP) small, of animals PMP *anak

anakSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) child PMP *anak

anákTagalog(WMP) offspring; son, daughter PMP *anak

anakToba Batak(WMP) son, of man or animal; BS (m.s.), ZS (w.s.); son of all other same generation lineage mates; interest from money PMP *anak

anakTontemboan(WMP) child, in relation to adults, hence 'offspring'; used as a vocative term PMP *anak

anakManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) offspring PMP *anak

anakYamdena(CMP) child in the sense of offspring; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.) PMP *anak

anakYami(WMP) child PMP *anak

anakSolorese(CMP) child PMP *anak

ánakaMalagasy(WMP) child, the young of anything; anyone treated with affection; affectionate and respectful mode of address PMP *anak

anak akonSasak(WMP) adopted child who does not have the right to succession PMP *anak

ana kaloBimanese(CMP) banana sprout, young banana tree PMP *anak i kahiw

anak ambuʔIban(WMP) adopted child PMP *anak

anak ambuMaloh(WMP) adopted child PMP *anak

anak ampaŋIban(WMP) bastard PMP *anak

anak ampaŋIban(WMP) bastard, child with no known or recognized father; valueless, 'black sheep' PWMP *hampaŋ

anak ampaŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) illegitimate child PWMP *hampaŋ

anak amuŋKayan(WMP) adopted child PMP *anak

ana ka-muriKambera(CMP) youngest child PMP *kama-udehi

anak-anBahasa Indonesia(WMP) interest on money PWMP *anak-an

anak-anBanjarese(WMP) fingerlings of fish PWMP *anak-an

anak-anJavanese(WMP) the young of an animal; doll; small, of natural phenomena; copy, duplicate; drawer, section, compartment; interest on borrowed money PWMP *anak-an

anak-anMansaka(WMP) give birth PWMP *anak-an

anak anakBahasa Indonesia(WMP) many children; a small child PWMP *anak anak

anak anakBalinese(WMP) people, persons (as individuals, as opposed to woŋ which = a person or persons as members of a category) PWMP *anak anak

anak ánakCebuano(WMP) adopted child; in a child's game, the pretend child PWMP *anak anak

anak anakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) child, without regard to sex PWMP *anak anak

anak anakJavanese(WMP) to have children PWMP *anak anak

anak anakKaro Batak(WMP) brook, tributary stream; children, in contrast with adults PWMP *anak anak

anak anakOld Javanese(WMP) give birth to a child (calve, etc.); consider as one's child PWMP *anak anak

anak-anakaMalagasy(WMP) an allowance made for a loan or debt PMP *anak

anak anak-anBahasa Indonesia(WMP) doll PWMP *anak anak-an

anak anak-anKapampangan(WMP) adopted child PWMP *anak anak-an

anak anak-anOld Javanese(WMP) doll or anything (which is treated and fondled) like a baby PWMP *anak anak-an

anak anak-(an)Old Javanese(WMP) pupil of the eye PWMP *anak anak-an

anák anak-anTagalog(WMP) foster child PWMP *anak anak-an

anak anak-an mentimunBahasa Indonesia(WMP) child adopted for one's wife (lit. 'cucumber doll') PWMP *anak anak-an

ának-andríanaMalagasy(WMP) petty princes among the various tribes PMP *anak

anaka-ndri-masoMalagasy(WMP) pupil of the eye PMP *anak i mata

anakan habuBanjarese(WMP) minute young of the murrel (Ophiocephalus striatus) PWMP *qabu qabu

anak anjiŋMalay(WMP) lower part of calf-muscle PMP *anak

anak-aŋSasak(WMP) give birth; lend money to earn interest PWMP *anak-an

anak aŋkatMalay