Filter/Selection

193 languages


Äiwoo
Amara
Amblong
Anuki
Anus
Anuta
Araki
Arhâ
Arhö
Arifama-Miniafia
Asumboa
Austral
Avava
Baki
Bebeli
Bierebo
Bieria
Blablanga
Bola
Bonggo
Boselewa
Budibud
Bugawac
Bulu
Bwatoo
Caac
Carolinian
Dengalu
Dixon Reef
Doga
Dorig
Duwet
Elu

Emae
Fagani
Fortsenal
Gao
Gweda
Haeke
Hahon
Haveke
Hawaiian
Hiw
Hmwaveke
Hoava
Kaiep
Kandas
Kaninuwa
Kapingamarangi
Karore
Kayupulau
Kis
Kokota
Konomala
Koro
Kosraean
Kove
Label
Labu
Lakon
Lamap
Larevat
Lehali
Lemerig
Lenkau
Liki

Likum
Longgu
Lonwolwol
Lorediakarkar
Löyöp
Magori
Maii
Malalamai
Malfaxal
Mangareva
Maori
Maragus
Marino
Masimasi
Mavea
Mea
Mindiri
Mokerang
Mokilese
Mono
Morouas
Mortlockese
Mota
Motlav
Mpotovoro
Musom
Mussau-Emira
Mwatebu
Nafi
Nagu
Naman
Namonuito
Narango

Nasarian
Nauna
Nauruan
Navwien
Neku
Nemi
Nese
Neverver
Ngatik Menʻs Creole
Ngatikese
Ninde
Niue
Nokuku
North Ambrym
Nukuoro
Numbami
Numèè
Ormu
ʻÔrôê
Oroha
Ouma
Pááfang
Papana
Papitalai
Penrhyn
Piamatsina
Pije
Pingelapese
Piu
Polonombauk
Pukapuka
Puluwatese
Pwaamei

Pwapwâ
Rakahanga-Manihiki
Rapa
Rapa Nui
Rarotongan
Ratsua
Repanbitip
Ririo
Roria
Sakao
Saliba
Satawalese
Seke
Sengseng
Sepa
Sera
Shark Bay
Sissano
Sobei
Sonsorol
South Marquesan
South West Bay
Sowa
Sye
Tamambo
Tambotalo
Tanapag
Tanema
Tanimbili
Tarpia
Tasmate
Teanu
Tenis

Teop
Terebu
Tiale
Tobati
Tobian
Tokelauan
Tolomako
Tuamotuan
Tutuba
Tuvaluan
Ulithian
Ura
Vaeakau-Taumako
Vamale
Vano
Vehes
Veraʻa
Vinmavis
Vurës
Wab
Wailapa
Whitesands
Woleaian
Wusi
Yakaikeke
Yamna
Yarsun
Zazao

ascending # spkrs     alpha     descending # spkrs     endangerment level

ÄIWOO, Reef, Ayiwo, Naaude, Aiwo, Gnivo, Nivo, Nifilole, Lomlom, Reef Islands, Reefs, Äiwo, Aïwo, Reef Islands-Santa Cruz Sub-Family. Solomon Islands, Primarily spoken in Fenua Loa and Lomlom; there are also communities of Äiwoo speakers in settlements in the northeastern and eastern parts of Santa Cruz.   ElCat / Ethno
7,926 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)
Texts: OLAC
Note:

Næss, Åshild and Boerger, Brenda H. 2008. Reefs-Santa Cruz as Oceanic: Evidence from the Verb Complex. Oceanic Linguistics 47. 185-212.

Ross, Malcolm and Næss, Åshild. 2007. An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?. Oceanic Linguistics 46. 456-498. Frostad, Benedicte Haraldstad. 2006. Syntactic and semantic aspects of some verbs of motion and location in Äiwoo. University of Oslo. Næss, Åshild. 2006. Bound Nominal Elements in Äiwoo (Reefs): A Reappraisal of the "Multiple Noun Class Systems". Oceanic Linguistics 45. 269-296. Wurm, Stephen A. 1991. Language Decay and Revivalism: The Äŷiwo language of the Reef Islands, Santa Cruz Archipelago, Solomon Islands. In Blust, Robert (ed.), Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and ethnolinguistics in Honour of George W. Grace, 551-560. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. Wurm, Stephen A. 1986. Remarks on Some Language Problems in the Santa Cruz Archipelago, Solomon Islands. In Elson, Benjamin F. (ed.), Language in a Global Perspective: Papers in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the Summer Institute of Linguistics 1935-1985, 507-523. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Wurm, Stephen A. 1981. Notes on nominal classification in Äŷiwo, Reef Islands, Solomon Islands. In Thomas, A. and Gonzales, D. (eds.), Linguistics across continents, 123-142. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. Wurm, Stephen A. 1981. The possessive class systems in Äiwo, Reef Islands, Solomon Islands. Papers in New Guinea Linguistics 21. 185-208. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

AMARA, Longa, Bibling. Papua New Guinea, West tip of New Britain.   ElCat / Ethno
1,170 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1996. Thurston, William. 1996. Amara: an Austronesian language of Northwestern New Britain. In Ross, Malcolm (ed.), Studies in Languages of New Britain and New Ireland . Volume 1: Austronesian languages of the North New Guinea Cluster in northwestern New Britain, 197-248. Canberra: Australian National University.
Dictionary: Thurston, William. 1984. Okolongo amara, amara lexicon, tok amara.
Texts: OLAC

AMBLONG, Vanuatu, South Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1979. Tryon, D. T. 1979. New Hebrides Languages: An Internal Classification. Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Texts: OLAC

ANUKI, Gabobora. Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province, Cape Vogel. Spoken on the north coast of Cape Vogel Peninsula, around Tapiosan.   ElCat / Ethno
574 speakers, Threatened (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1911. Strong, W. M. 1911. Notes on the languages of the north-eastern and adjoining divisions. Annual Report for the year ending 30th June 1911. 203-217.
Texts: OLAC

ANUS, Koroernoes, Korur. Indonesia, Papua Province.   ElCat / Ethno
320 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and C. L. Voorhoeve. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages (Part I). (Irian Jaya Source Material No. 4 Series B, 1.), p.1-179. Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Smits and Voorhoeve list Anus as a local variant of Sobei and include three wordlists for it: 1) a standard wordlist of 360 items distributed by the government in 1947, compiled by an unknown source; a 100-item basic wordlist devised by Anceaux and Grace in 1955, distributed by the Kantoor voor Bevolkingszaken, and compiled by an unidentified police officer; and 3) some extra items complied by Anceuax.

ANUTA, Solomon Islands, Temotu Province, Anuta island.   ElCat / Ethno
340 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1977. Feinberg, Richard. 1977. The Anutan Language Reconsidered: Lexicon and Grammar of a Polynesian Outlier. (HRAFlex Books: Language and Literature Series: OT1-001.) New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations Area Files. 138+140pp. (2 vols.)
Dictionary: 1977. Feinberg, Richard. 1977. The Anutan Language Reconsidered: Lexicon and Grammar of a Polynesian Outlier. (HRAFlex Books: Language and Literature Series: OT1-001.) New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations Area Files. 138+140pp. (2 vols.)
Texts: OLAC
Note: There is a large collection of translated (though I think not glossed) texts: Feinberg, Richard. 1998. Oral traditions of Anuta: a Polynesian outlier in the Solomon Islands. (Oxford studies in anthropological linguistics, 15.) New York: Oxford Univ. Press. viii+294pp. (Includes bibliographical references (p. 285-288) and index).

ARAKI, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Off the southern coast of Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
8 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Grammar: 2002. François, Alexander. 2002. Araki: a disappearing language of Vanuatu. (Pacific Linguistics, 522.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. xviii+353pp.
Word List: 1957. Revised Melanesian word list: Araki, S. Santo. Arthur Capell (compiler); Peter Newton (depositor). 1957. Pacific And Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (PARADISEC). oai:paradisec.org.au:AC2-VES22B
Texts: OLAC

ARHÂ, Ara, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, South shore of the island, one third the way from the western tip.   ElCat / Ethno
35 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.

ARHÖ, Aro, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, South shore of the island, one third the way from the western tip.   ElCat / Ethno
62 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: According to Ethnologue, Arhö is tonal

ARIFAMA-MINIAFIA, Miniafia-Arifama, MiniafiaOyan. Papua New Guinea, Oro Province.   ElCat / Ethno
3,470 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1975. Wakefield, David.1975. Grammar Notes on Arifama-Miniafia.
Word List: 1911. Strong, W. M. 1911. Notes on the languages of the north-eastern and adjoining divisions. Annual Report for the year ending 30th June 1911. 203-217.
Texts: OLAC

ASUMBOA, Asumbua, Asumuo. Solomon Islands, Temotu Province, Utupua island, Asumbuo village.   ElCat / Ethno
10 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72). Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Summary:

Asumboa is a severely endangered language spoken by about ten people on the island of Utupua in the Santa Cruz archipelago of the Solomon Islands. The language belongs to an incredibly diverse and poorly documented group of ten languages, posited to form a first-order subgroup of the Oceanic family (Ross and Næss 2007). Aside from eight pages written by Ray (1926) and five by Tryon (1994), there has been no dedicated description of the language. The documentation of Asumboa would therefore contribute immensely to our understanding, not only of the classification of Oceanic subgroups but also of the settlement history of Melanesia (Sheppard 2011). Næss (2013: 108f.) writes that the combined archaeological and linguistic evidence “suggests that the ancestor of the Temotu languages broke off directly from Proto-Oceanic in a very early population movement out of the Bismarcks, and that the population has essentially remained in situ ever since. Consequently, information about these poorly described languages may provide an important contribution to our understanding of the properties of Proto-Oceanic.”

As classified by Ross and Næss (2007), the Temotu languages are composed of two (second-order) subgroups: Reefs-Santa Cruz and Utupua-Vanikoro, the former having proven famously difficult to classify: following Wurm’s (1976) classification of the group as non-Austronesian, Lincoln (1978) refuted the need to posit any Papuan influence at all, arguing that the group could indeed belong to the Oceanic family. Asumboa, however, is a member of the Utupua-Vanikoro subgroup, which has been classified less contentiously as Oceanic (Tryon 1994: 635). While one (and basically only one) language of the Reefs-Santa Cruz subgroup (Äiwoo) has received some attention (e.g., Wurm 1981a, 1981b; Næss 2006, 2013; Frostad 2006), there has been essentially no documentation at all of the Utupua-Vanikoro group, and most this research has been limited to the island of Vanikoro. François (2009: 6), for instance, has begun some comparative work of the three languages of Vanikoro, stating nevertheless that “more needs to be known of the languages on the neighbouring island Utupua.”

Since Asumboa has not yet received a detailed grammatical description, it is impossible to say much about its typological character. Nevertheless, some related languages of the Temotu subgroup have already been shown to exhibit a number of fascinating and unusual grammatical phenomena. Natügu, for example, has been argued to possess a morphological passive (van den Berg and Boerger 2011), a rather anomalous construction among Oceanic languages. The related language Äiwoo also possesses a number of typologically rare features, “including OVA word order in transitive clauses, a distinction between prefixed subject markers on intransitive verbs and suffixed subject markers on transitive verbs, and a verb phrase structure that appears to be ergative in that it includes the V and the A, but not O or S” (Næss 2013: 106).

Since its few remaining speakers are under pressure from Amba and Solomon Pijin (Wurm 2007: 474), the time is now to document Asumboa and uncover its linguistic treasures.

References:

François, Alexandre. 2009. The languages of Vanikoro: three lexicons and one grammar. In Evans, Bethwyn (ed.), Discovering History through Language: Papers in Honour of Malcolm Ross, 103-26. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Frostad, Benedicte Haraldstad. 2006. Syntactic and semantic aspects of some verbs of motion and location in Äiwoo. University of Oslo MA Thesis.

Lincoln, Peter C. 1978. Reef-Santa Cruz as Austronesian. In Carrington, Lois and Stephen A. Wurm (eds.), Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Proceedings, 969-67. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Næss, Åshild. 2006. Bound nominal elements in Äiwoo (Reefs): A reappraisal of the “multiple noun class systems”. Oceanic Linguistics 45(2).269-96.

Næss, Åshild. 2013. From Austronesian Voice to Oceanic Transitivity: Äiwoo as the “missing link”. Oceanic Linguistics 52(1).106-24.

Næss, Åshild and Boerger, Brenda H. 2008. Reefs-Santa Cruz as Oceanic: Evidence from the Verb Complex. Oceanic Linguistics 47(1).185-212.

Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the Utupua language. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 462-469. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ross, Malcolm and Næss, Åshild. 2007. An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?. Oceanic Linguistics 46. 456-498.

Sheppard, P. 2011. Lapita colonization across the near/remote Oceania boundary. Current Anthropology 52(6):799–840.

Tryon, Darrell T. 1994. Language contact-induced language change in the Eastern Outer Islands, Solomon Islands. In Dutton, Tom and Darrell T. Tryon (eds.), Language Contact and Change in the Austronesian World, 611-648. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Tryon, Darrell T. 2002. Buma. In Lynch, John; Malcolm Ross; and Terry Crowley (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 573-86. Richmond: Curzon.

van den Berg, René and Brenda H. Boerger. 2011. A Proto-Oceanic passive? Evidence from Bola and Natügu. Oceanic Linguistics, 50(1).221-46.

Wurm, Stephen A. 1976. The Reef Islands-Santa Cruz Family. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol. 2: Austronesian Languages, 637-74. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Wurm, Stephen A. 1981a. Notes on nominal classification in Äŷiwo, Reef Islands, Solomon Islands. In Thomas, A. and D. Gonzales (eds.), Linguistics across Continents, 123-42. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Wurm, Stephen A. 1981b. The possessive class systems in Äiwo, Reef Islands, Solomon Islands. Papers in New Guinea Linguistics 21. 185-208. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Wurm, Stephen A. 2007. Australasia and the Pacific. In Moseley, Christophe (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, 425-578. London: Routledge.

Note:

Aslak Vaag Olesen, PhD student at Newcastle, has just been awarded a Hans Rausing ELDP Small Grant (2014-2015: £9,934) to document Asumboa.

Project summary:

"The three languages of Utupua in Temotu Province, the most remote province of Solomon Islands, are highly endangered and almost completely undocumented. None of them has more than a few hundred speakers, and all are under great pressure from the expanding use of Solomon Islands Pijin. The project will provide extensive documentation materials for the smallest of the languages, Asubuo, and basic materials for the other two, Aba and Tanibili."

http://elar.soas.ac.uk/deposit/0375

Perhaps there are opportunities for collaborative work.

AUSTRAL, Tubuai-Rurutu. French Polynesia, Tubuai Island.   ElCat / Ethno
3,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1930. Aitken, Robert T. 1930. Ethnology of Tubuai. (Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 70.) Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 169pp.
Note: Also, three dialects have entries on Pollex: http://pollex.org.nz/language/raivavai/ http://pollex.org.nz/language/austral-island/ http://pollex.org.nz/language/rurutu/

AVAVA, Katbol, Tembimbe-Katbol, Taremp, Tisvel, Mallicolo. Vanuatu, Villages of Tisvel, Khatbol (Katbol), Taremp, and Tembimbi, Central Malakula.   ElCat / Ethno
700 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
Grammar: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. The Avava language of central Malakula (Vanuatu). (Pacific Linguistics, 574.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. xvi+213pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC

BAKI, Burumba, Paki. Vanuatu, Western Epi Island.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1926. Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the Baki language. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 245-258. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

BEBELI, Benaule, Banaule, Kapore, Beli. Papua New Guinea, Morokea, Mosa, and Banaule villages, New Britain.   ElCat / Ethno
~3,193 speakers, Severely Endangered (100%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2013. MacKenzie, Bonnie and Spencer, Juliann and Van Cott, Sara. 2013. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Bebeli. (SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2013-003.) SIL International. 96pp.
Texts: OLAC
Summary: Bebeli, also known as Kapore, Banaule, or Beli, is an Austronesian language of the East Arawe branch spoken in West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. The language is spoken by less than 3193 speakers across three villages located in a 15 kilometer area of Cape Hoskins. These villages are: Morokea, Mosa, and Banuale. The language is severely endangered and is used solely for traditional events, and by middle-aged adults and Elders. Tok Pisin and English, the dominant languages, are used in “nearly every domain” including within the educational system and the work place. As such, intergenerational transmission has ceased and Tok Pisin is the predominant language of children and young adults. This trend has been influenced by the influx of immigrants to the area which makes up about 10% of the population and is growing due to the palm oil plantation industry. In 2013, a sociolinguistic survey which was comprised of a Bebeli wordlist was conducted within the community, but otherwise there is no documentation specifically on the language, or on the majority of it's related languages. References: "Bebeli." Endangered Languages. 2012. The Linguist List at Eastern Michigan University and The University of Hawaii at Manoa. 12/2/2014. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/9809. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Bebeli . Julian Spencer and Sara van Cott and Bonnie Maclenzie (2013) · SIL International Glottolog 2.3 edited by Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License .

BIEREBO, Bonkovia-Yevali. Vanuatu, Epi.   ElCat / Ethno
800 speakers, Threatened (100%)
Grammar: 2010. Budd, Peter Stewart. 2010. Topics in the grammar of Bierebo, Central Vanuatu, with a focus on the Realis/Irrealis categories, pp.1-493. London: School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London).
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification, pp.1-545. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics: Series C-No 50.
Note: Budd's grammar is a Ph.D. dissertation from SOAS. While it certainly meets the length qualification (>150 pp.), it seems focused on syntax. According to a description of the dissertation from the HRELP website: "Like many Oceanic languages of the region, Bierebo shows some complexity in its expression of possessive relations, spatial reference, and serial verb constructions, and all of these topics receive detailed accounts in the first part of the thesis. The second part focuses on the verbal categories, Realis and Irrealis, presenting a survey of their contexts of use, and drawing comparisons with ten other languages of the region. The findings reveal a high degree of semantic consistency and demonstrate that these categories cross cut temporal, aspectual, and modal domains." Tryon has 166 words in his 1976 survey work.

BIERIA, Bieri, Vovo, Wowo. Vanuatu, South Epi.   ElCat / Ethno
25 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1979. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: An internal classification (Pacific Linguistics: Series C 50). Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

BLABLANGA, Gema, Goi. Solomon Islands, Santa Isabel Island.   ElCat / Ethno
2,000 speakers, Threatened (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

BOLA, Bakovi, Bola-Bakovi. Papua New Guinea, West New Britain Province, northeast coast, Willaumez peninsula, Harua east of Kimbe.   ElCat / Ethno
13,700 speakers, Vulnerable (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2013. MacKenzie, Bonnie and Spencer, Juliann and Van Cott, Sara. 2013. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Bebeli. (SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2013-003.) SIL International. 96pp. http://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/16/00/79/16007918837865100330535996646233949927/silesr2013_003.pdf
Texts: OLAC
Note: Wordlist source is a ~190 word swadesh list Texts: Kave, Tomas and Vairi, James and Mautu, Erwin and Bua, RoseMary Valuka Peter and Gorea, Maria and Buku, Jackiline. 1995. A nuverei Bola (Bola stories). 10pp. Some materials from Capell in PARADISEC. http://catalog.paradisec.org.au/repository/AC1/243 Ethnologue reports that it is used in schools, as well as that there is a recent Bible translation. A very minimal description of the phonology (consisting primarily of a phoneme chart, example words, an example story, and some notes on orthography) is available from SIL: http://www-01.sil.org/pacific/png/pubs/928474542277/Bola.pdf

BONGGO, Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo. Indonesia, the northeast coast east of Sarmi and west of Demta (Irian Jaya).   ElCat / Ethno
432 speakers, Severely Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2006. Kim, So Hyun. 2006. Survey report on the Bgu language, the Kaptiau language and the Tarpia language of Papua, Indonesia.

BOSELEWA, Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province. Spoken on the central north coast of Fergusson Island.   ElCat / Ethno
250-600 speakers, Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: No substantial work of any kind has been done on Boselewa.

BUDIBUD, Nada. Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province.   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: ca early 1930s. Capell, Arthur. Comparative vocabularies of some Southern PNG languages. In Paradesic: 7 page manuscript. -- Comparative vocabularies. English - Tagula - Nada - Taupota - Galavi - Boniki [Languages of the Laughlin Island, Sud Est island and Goodenough Bay, Milne Bay Province and Central Province PNG], Together with numerals, pronouns and verbal pronouns.. Language as given: Tagula (Sudest), Nada (Budibud), Taupota, Galavi (Ghayavi), Boniki

BUGAWAC, Bukawa, Bukaua, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province, Huon gulf coast.   ElCat / Ethno
9,690 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 2007. Eckermann, William. 2007. A descriptive grammar of the Bukawa language of the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. Canberra : Pacific Linguistics.
Word List: 1919. Ray, Sidney H. 1919. The Languages of Northern Papua. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 49. 317–341
Texts: OLAC
Note: According to Ethnologue, Bugawac is tonal.

BULU, Papua New Guinea, West New Britain Province, Willaumez peninsula.   ElCat / Ethno
910 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

BWATOO, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, North and South provinces, west coast, Voh Koné area, Baco and Gatope, Oundjo; Poya and Népou.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 2006. Rivierre, Jean Claude and Ehrhart, Sabine. 2006. Le Bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie). (Langues et cultures du Pacifique, 17.) Paris: Peeters. 501pp. ("LACITO"–T.p. verso Includes bibliographical references (p. 495-498). Selaf. Selaf ; 435).
Dictionary: 2006. Rivierre, Jean Claude and Ehrhart, Sabine. 2006. Le Bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie). (Langues et cultures du Pacifique, 17.) Paris: Peeters. 501pp. ("LACITO"–T.p. verso Includes bibliographical references (p. 495-498). Selaf. Selaf ; 435).
Texts: OLAC
Note: For the resource listed for grammar/dictionary, Rivierre & Ehrhart 2006, not sure how much material is grammar, compared with dictionary. The book is available at Hamilton if we need to check.

CAAC, Moenebeng, Neukaledonien, Cawac. New Caledonia, North Province, east coast, Pouébo.   ElCat / Ethno
850-1,165 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Texts: OLAC
Note: ELCat lists 5 different sources with a range of speakers and the language is endangered or threatened.

CAROLINIAN, Saipan Carolinian, Southern Carolinian, Sprache der Marianen, Karolinian. Northern Mariana Islands, .   ElCat / Ethno
3,100 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1911. Fritz, Georg. 1911. Die Zentralkarolinische Sprache: Grammatik, Übungen u. Wörterbuch der Mundart der westlich von Truk liegenden Atolle, insbesondere der Saipan-Karoliner. (Lehrbücher des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, 29.) Berlin: Georg Reimer. 154pp. (Wörterbuch: S. 65-134).
Dictionary: 1991. Jackson, Frederick H., and Jeffrey C. Marck. 1991. Carolinian-English Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

DENGALU, Patep, Ptep. Papua New Guinea, Morobe province. Spoken inland to the southwest of the western extremity of the Huon Gulf.   ElCat / Ethno
140 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 1976. Lauck, Linda M. and Adams, Karen L. and Loving, Richard. 1976. Grammatical Studies in Patep. (Workpapers in Papua New Guinea Languages, 17.) Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: The Summer Institute of Linguistics. 162 pp.
Word List: 1985. Adams, Karen and Lauck, Linda. 1985. Dialect Survey of Mumeng Dialect Chain. In Papers in New Guinea Linguistics 22, 1-27. Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Also said to be a dialect of Mumeng (along with Patep).

DIXON REEF, Vanuatu, .   ElCat / Ethno
50 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

DOGA, Magabara. Papua New Guinea, Cape Vogel in Milne Bay Province.   ElCat / Ethno
200 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1911. Strong, W. M. 1911. Notes on the languages of the north-eastern and adjoining divisions. Annual Report for the year ending 30th June 1911. 203-217.

DORIG, Wetamut, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Gaua Island.   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC

DUWET, Guwet, Guwot, Waing. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province. Spoken inland from the Huon Gulf, north of Lae, in the lower Busu River area.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (60%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Holzknecht, S 2001, 'Number and person in the Duwet language of Papua New Guinea: the obsessive case of number', in A. Pawley, M. Ross and D. Tryon (ed.), The Boy from Bundaberg: Studies in Melanesian Linguistics in Honour of Tom Dutton, Pacific Linguistics, Canberra, pp. 175-192.

ELU, Admiralitäts-inseln. Papua New Guinea, Manus Island.   ElCat / Ethno
216 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

EMAE, Emwae, Mae, Mwae, Emai, Mai. Vanuatu, Shepherd Islands (Emae).   ElCat / Ethno
400 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1962. Capell, Arthur. 1962. The Polynesian Language of Mae (Emwae), New Hebrides. (Te Reo Monographs, 2.) Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand. 55pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

FAGANI, Faghani, Südliche Salomons-Inseln. Solomon Islands, San Cristobal Island.   ElCat / Ethno
900 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)
Texts: OLAC

FORTSENAL, Kiai. Vanuatu, Samna Island.   ElCat / Ethno
450 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1989. Ludvigson, Tomas. 1989. Vara Kiai: a Kiai wordlist. Auckland [N.Z.]: Department of Anthropology, University of Auckland. 104pp.

GAO, Nggao. Solomon Islands, Kaloka Ward, eastern Santa Isabel Island.   ElCat / Ethno
~900 speakers, Threatened (100%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)
Texts: OLAC

GWEDA, Garuwahi. Papua New Guinea, Alotau District, Milne Bay Province, tip of Cape Vogel.   ElCat / Ethno
26 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Wordlists compiled in 1973,1997 (comparative wordlists for Gweda, Taupota and Wedau, 190 entries) and 2001 (Gweda and Taupota only): held in SIL technical library, Ukarumpa, PNG.
Summary:

Gweda, also known as Garuwahi, is spoken in the Milne Bay Province, at the tip of Cape Vogel in Papua New Guinea. Gweda belongs to the underdocumented Taupota sub-group, along with eight other languages. While there are wordlists, phonological data, and sociolinguistic data, this language has no published grammar. There are approximately 26 speakers of this Severely Endangered language. The speaker population is reported as a single family made up of two older adults and their children and grandchildren. (ELCat; Grimes 2001) Wurm (2007) reports that there is language pressure from Tok Pisin and that the speakers of Gweda are also bilingual in Wedau, a large, related language spoken to the west. Of the nine languages in the Taupotu sub-group, only two appear on ELCat -- Gweda and Yakaikeke (Endangered) -- despite all of the languages reportedly having very high lexical similarity.

Grimes, Barbara F. "Global language viability." Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim, Lectures on Endangered Languages 2 (2001): 45-61.

Wurm, Stephen A. "Australasia and the Pacific." encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages (2007): 425.

Note:

Gweda Organised Phonology Data (OPD). Heineman, Paul (consultant); Knauber, Martin (consultant). 2001. SIL Language and Culture Archives.

Alemán, Laura. 2001. Sociolinguistic survey of the Taupota and Gweda languages. 46pp.

HAEKE, Aeke, 'Aeke, Haeake, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, South shore of the island, one third the way from the western tip, near Kone’ village.   ElCat / Ethno
100 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.

HAHON, Hanon. Papua New Guinea, Spoken various villages in Bougainville Province.   ElCat / Ethno
3,000 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

HAVEKE, Aveke, 'Aveke, Neukaledonien, Hawke, Hmwaveke. New Caledonia, .   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: See Hmwaveke. This might be a dialect?

HAWAIIAN, 'Ōlelo Hawai'i, 'Ōlelo Hawai'i Makuahine. United States of America, Hawai’i.   ElCat / Ethno
2,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1979. Elbert, Samuel H. and Pukui, Mary K. 1979. Hawaiian grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. xvii+193pp.
Dictionary: 1986. Pukui, Mary Kawena and Elbert, Samuel H. 1986. Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English, English-Hawaiian. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. xxvi+572pp.
Texts: OLAC

HIW, Hiu, Torres, Torres Island. Vanuatu, .   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Note: François, Alexandre. 2010. Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral in Hiw: Resolving the ambiguity of a complex segment. Phonology 27. 393-434. François, Alexandre. 2007. Noun articles in Torres and Banks languages: Conservation and innovation. In Siegel, Jeff and Lynch, John and Eades, Diana (eds.), Language description, history and development: linguistic indulgence in memory of Terry Crowley, 267-280. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

HMWAVEKE, Moaveke, Fête, Faa Feta, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, .   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: Campbell, Maryline Ebeth. 1987. The phenomenon of spreading in Fa Tieta, a language of New Caledonia. Arlington: University of Texas. Arlington: Ann Arbor: UMI. 140pp. (Bibliography: leaves 128-133 file-name on CD-ROM: 1331088, s. CD-ROM "University of Texas at Arlington M.A. Theses").

HOAVA, Hoava-Kusaghe. Solomon Islands, New Georgia.   ElCat / Ethno
~2,360 speakers, Threatened (60%)
Grammar: 2003. Davis, Karen. 2003. A Grammar of the Hoava Language, Western Solomons. (Pacific Linguistics, 535.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. xvi+332pp.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

KAIEP, Samap. Papua New Guinea, East Sepik Province.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2005. Foley, William. 2005. Sepik language materials: Murik, Kis, Buna, Mandi, Muniwara, Bungain, Kaiep Word lists, paradigm, sentences. Online resource
Texts: OLAC
Note: Foley has an online resource deposited in PARADISEC, includes five cassette tapes of PNG recordings from 2005. One tape has a word list of Kaiep which includes one hour of audio recording.

KANDAS, King. Papua New Guinea, Soutwest coast of New Ireland.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Arthur Capell 1999: 1-page word list

KANINUWA, Kaokao, Wataluma. Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.   ElCat / Ethno
360 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2012. Kassell, Alison. 2012. A Sociolinguistic Profile of the Kaninuwa Language Group [wat]. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2012-035. ii+22.
Texts: OLAC

KAPINGAMARANGI, Kirinit. Federated States of Micronesia, Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei islands, Caroline Islands.   ElCat / Ethno
3,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1948. Elbert, S. 1948. Grammar and comparative study of the language of Kapingamarangi, texts, and word lists. Washington?
Dictionary: 1974. Lieber, M. D. & K. H. Dikepa. 1974. Kapingamarangi lexicon. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai'i.
Texts: OLAC
Note: SPKRS: 3,000 (1995 SIL). 1,000 on Kapingamarangi and 2,000 in Pohnrakied village on Pohnpei.

KARORE, Papua New Guinea, South coast of New Britain.   ElCat / Ethno
550 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Chowning, Ann. 1996. Relations among languages of West New Britain: an assessment of recent theories and evidence. In Ross, Malcolm D. (ed.), Studies in Languages of New Britain and New Ireland, I: Austronesian Languages of the North New Guinea Cluster in Northwestern New Britain, 7-62. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

KAYUPULAU, Kajupulau. Indonesia, Irian Jaya.   ElCat / Ethno
50 speakers, Severely Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and Voorhoeve, C. L. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages (Part I). (Irian Jaya Source Material No. 4 Series B, 1.) Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.
Note: Theoretically there is a work on what looks like the morphology of the language, thought I can’t find it in any libraries, nor does Glottolog list a page count.

KIS, Papua New Guinea, .   ElCat / Ethno
220 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Laycock, Donald C. 1976. Austronesian Languages: Sepik Provinces. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 399-418. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

KOKOTA, Solomon Islands, Santa Isabel Island.   ElCat / Ethno
1,200 speakers, Threatened (60%)
Grammar: 2009. Palmer, Bill. 2009. Kokota Grammar. (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, 35.) Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 422pp.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

KONOMALA, Papua New Guinea, Katanga Island.   ElCat / Ethno
800 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

KORO, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, .   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

KOSRAEAN, Kusaie, Kosrae. Federated States of Micronesia, .   ElCat / Ethno
8,570 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1975. Lee, Kee-dong. 1975. Kusaiean reference grammar. (Pali Language Texts Micronesia.) Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. xv+417pp. (Includes index).
Dictionary: 1976. Lee, Kee-dong. 1976. Kusaiean-English dictionary. (Pali language texts : Micronesia.) Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. xiii+317pp.

KOVE, Kaliai-Kove. Papua New Guinea, New Britain.   ElCat / Ethno
6,750 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 2013. Sato, Hiroko. 2013. Grammar of Kove: an Austronesian language of the West New Britain province, Papua New Guinea. University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. 452pp.
Word List: 2011. Carter, John and Carter, Katie and Grummitt, John and MacKenzie, Bonnie and Masters, Janell. 2011. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Malalamai [mmt] Language Area. (SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2011-049.) SIL International. 57pp.

LABEL, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province.   ElCat / Ethno
140 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1930. Peekel, Gerhard, 1930. Grammatische Grundzüge und Wörterverzeichnis der Label- Sprache. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen, 20. 10-34, 92-120.
Word List: 1930. Peekel, Gerhard, 1930. Grammatische Grundzüge und Wörterverzeichnis der Label- Sprache. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen, 20. 10-34, 92-120.
Texts: OLAC
Note: SPKRS: 140 (1979 census)

LABU, Labu', Labo, Hapa. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province, Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali.   ElCat / Ethno
1,600 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1984. Siegel, Jeff. 1984. Introduction to the Labu Language. Canberra: Australian National University. 83-159.
Word List: 1984. Siegel, Jeff. 1984. Introduction to the Labu Language. Canberra: Australian National University. 83-159.
Texts: OLAC

LAKON, Lakona, Lakona Bay, West Gaua, Gaua, Gog, Vure, Vurē, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Banks Group, Gaua island.   ElCat / Ethno
800 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1999. Capell, Arthur. 1999. Banks islands languages map and comparative wordlist.
Note: The wordlist from Capell looks really minimal. Not sure if date is accurate, but this is the date listed in OLAC and PARADISEC, where it is stored. Glottolog also lists a 4-page description from Codrington (1885).

LAMAP, Port Sandwich. Vanuatu, Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
1,200 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1974. Charpentier, Jean-Michel. Langue de Port-Sandwich. Université de Bordeaux III.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

LAREVAT, Larëvat, Laravat, Mallicolo. Vanuatu, Central Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
750 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1999. Arthur Capell. 1999. Laravat - Winiv-Lambumbu comparative vocabulary. In Paradesic: 11 page manuscript. oai:paradisec.org.au:AC2-VMAL101
Texts: OLAC

LEHALI, Teqel, Tekel. Vanuatu, Ureparapara Island.   ElCat / Ethno
250 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

LEMERIG, Sasar, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Vanua Lava.   ElCat / Ethno
10 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Summary: Lemerig, also knowns as Sasar or Banks-Inseln, is a severely endangered Austronesian language spoken on the island of Vanua Lava in Torba Province, Vanuatu. Lemerig belongs to the Torres-Banks linkage in the Central-Eastern Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family (Hammarström et al. 2014). The ethnic population of the Lemerig remains unknown. However, this language, according to Tryon (2010), is now spoken by only 10 speakers in the villages of Vatrata, Lesa and Mbek and is no longer acquired by children. It is not clear which language the Lemerig have shifted to. Little is known about the grammatical aspects of Lemerig since it has no grammar descriptions or dictionaries. There is only a 5-page word list published by Tryon in 1976. Based on Lewis et al. (2014), Lemerig is closely related to Vurës [msn] and Veraʻa [vra], the latter of which is classified as being endangered in ELCat. References: Endangered Languages. 2012. The Linguist List at Eastern Michigan University and The University of Hawaii at Manoa. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com. Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. Glottolog 2.3. http://glottolog.org/. Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 17th ed. Dallas, TX: SIL International. www.ethnologue.com. Lynch, John, Malcolm D. Ross & Terry Crowley. 2011. The Oceanic Languages. New York: Routledge. Tryon, Darrell. 2010. The endangered languages of Vanuatu. In Gunter Senft (ed.), Endangered Austronesian and Australian Aboriginal languages: essays on language documentation, archiving, and revitalization. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

LENKAU, Papua New Guinea, Manus Province.   ElCat / Ethno
250 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC

LIKI, Moar. Indonesia, Pulau Liki (small island north of Papua province).   ElCat / Ethno
11 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2005. Lee, Hope and Sawi, Agustina. 2005. Survey report on the Sobei related languages in Sarmi country, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

LIKUM, Admiralitäts-inseln. Papua New Guinea, West Manus Island.   ElCat / Ethno
80 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Unpublished Swadesh list (14 p.) deposited in the Kaipuleohone archive by Robert Blust
Texts: OLAC
Summary: Likum is a severely endangered language spoken in the western part of Manus island. Manus island lies to the north of New Guinea, politically a part of Papua New Guinea. Lynch, Ross and Crowley (2002) classify Likum is a member of the Manus linkage, a constituent of the Admiralties subgroup of Oceanic. Even though Admiralties is a primary subgroup of Oceanic, reliable documentation is difficult to find, making documentary research on languages like Likum especially important. Likum has low speaker numbers, and the Ethnologue reports that the people who do speak it are bilingual in the neighboring Nyindrou (or Lindrou). Nyindrou (also a member of the Manus linkage; Lynch et al. 2002) has 4,200 speakers and completely surrounds the small region where Likum is spoken. Nyindrou is used in the educational system, though it is not clear from available resources what the language situation is like for younger Likum people. Furthermore, Nyindrou is not the only threatening language: Likum is also at risk from Tok Pisin, which has been steadily growing in use across Papua New Guinea. One typologically interesting fact is that a number of the languages of Manus island are reported to have prenasalized trills, relatively rare segments which are of great interest phonetically, phonologically and historically (Blust 2007). Obtaining more accurate documentation on the languages of Manus island is very important for obtaining a clear perspective on the phonetic and phonological properties of these segments. Even the languages of Manus which do not contain prenasalized trills are important for reconstructing the history of the subgroup and illuminating the behavior of such segments in borrowings and contact. While Likum itself has not been reported to have prenasalized trills, because of the limited amount of data available, additional research is definitely needed to determine the nature of the language with a greater degree of certainty. References: Lynch, John, Malcolm D. Ross & Terry Crowley. 2011. The Oceanic Languages. (Routledge Language Family Series). New York: Routledge. Blust, Robert. 2007. The prenasalized trills of Manus. In Jeff Siegel, John Lynch and Diana Eades (eds.), Language description, history and development: Linguistic indulgence in memory of Terry Crowley, 297-311. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Other information from ELCat, as well as the Ethnologue: Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 17th ed. Dallas, TX: SIL International. www.ethnologue.com.

LONGGU, Logu, Südliche Salomons-Inseln. Solomon Islands, Northeast coast of Guadacanal.   ElCat / Ethno
1,500 speakers, Threatened (40%)
Grammar: 2011. Hill, Deborah. 2011. Longgu Grammar. München: Lincom Europa.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

LONWOLWOL, Craig Cove, Fali, Ranting, West Ambrym. Vanuatu, .   ElCat / Ethno
600-1,200 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1971. Paton, W. F. 1971. Ambrym (Lonwolwol) Grammar. (Pacific Linguistics: Series B, 19.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. 139pp. (Based on 1942 The language and life of Ambrym, an island in the New Hebrides, PhD U Melbourne.)
Dictionary: 1973. Paton, W.F. 1973. Ambrym (Lonwolwol) dictionary. Canberra: The Australian National University.

LOREDIAKARKAR, Shark Bay. Vanuatu, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
10-99 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Note: Note: Ethnologue lists Lorediakarkar as separate from Shark Bay (ssv).

LÖYÖP, Lehalurup, Ureparapara, East Ureparapara, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Ureparapara, Lehalurup.   ElCat / Ethno
[unknown # spkrs], Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University
Texts: OLAC

MAGORI, Magore. Papua New Guinea, Eastern part of Central Province. Spoken on the eastern end of Table Bay, on the lower Bailebo-Tavenei River.   ElCat / Ethno
~200 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Dutton, Tom E. 1976. Magori and Similar Languages of South-East Papua. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 581-636. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Texts and lexical resources only documented in audio format, by Tom Dutton Dutton, Tom E. 1976. Magori and Similar Languages of South-East Papua. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 581-636. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. (?)

MAII, Mae-Morae, Mafilau, Mkir. Vanuatu, Epi island.   ElCat / Ethno
180 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1996. Tryon, Darrell T. 1996. Mae-Morae and the languages of Epi (Vanuatu). In Oceanic studies: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Oceanic Linguistics, ed. by John Lynch and Fa'afo Pat, 305–318. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. Canberra: ANU.
Texts: OLAC

MALALAMAI, Bonga. Papua New Guinea, Madang Province. Spoken on the Rai Coast of Astrolabe Bay, near Saidor.   ElCat / Ethno
~150 speakers, Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2012. Carter, John and Carter, Katie and Grummitt, John and MacKenzie, Bonnie and Masters, Janell. 2012. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Mur Village Vernaculars. (SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2012-043.) SIL International. 90pp.
Note: A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Malalamai [mmt] Language Area. Carter, John; Carter, Katie; Grummitt, John; MacKenzie, Bonnie; Masters, Janell. 2011. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2011-049. (57 p.)

MALFAXAL, Naha'ai. Vanuatu, Southern Malakula.   ElCat / Ethno
1,100 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC

MANGAREVA, Mangarevan. French Polynesia, Gambier Islands, Mangareva Island, Rikitea settlement.   ElCat / Ethno
300-400 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Sketch Grammar: 1908. Janeau, Vincent. 1908. Grammaire et dictionnairemangaréviens. Braine-le-Comte: Imprimerie Zech et Fils.
Dictionary: 1899. Tregear, Edward. 1899. Mangareva dictionary, Gambier islands. Wellington: Government Printer.
Texts: OLAC

MAORI, New Zealand Maori, Māori. New Zealand, .   ElCat / Ethno
60,260 speakers, Vulnerable (20%)
Grammar: 2007. Harlow, Ray. 2007. Maori: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Dictionary: 2006. Tirohiakimihia: a Maori learner dictionary. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Other grammars and dictionaries exist, but I included the most recent.

MARAGUS, Maragaus, Mallicolo, Tape. Vanuatu, Central north Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
15 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Sketch Grammar: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Tape: A declining language of Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
Word List: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Tape: A declining language of Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Crowley (2006): 216 pp., including 108 pp. grammar and 49 pp. lexicon

MARINO, Naone, North Maewo, Sunwadia, Suñwadia. Vanuatu, North Maewo.   ElCat / Ethno
~500 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 2011. Henri, A. 2011. Le sūnwadia: Éléments de description d'une langue du Vanuatu. Leuven: Peeters.
Word List: 2011. Henri, A. 2011. Le sūnwadia: Éléments de description d'une langue du Vanuatu. Leuven: Peeters.
Texts: OLAC

MASIMASI, Indonesia, Papua.   ElCat / Ethno
10 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and Voorhoeve, C. L. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages (Part II). (Irian Jaya Source Material No. 5 Series B, 2.) Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.
Summary: Masimasi is a Sarmi language spoken in Indonesian Papua, specifically Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. According to data sourced from 2005, it has 10 remaining native speakers. The community is mainly are followers of Christianity and traditional religions.The other Sarmi languages are also at risk at the very least.

MAVEA, Mav̋ea, Mafea. Vanuatu, Mavea Island.   ElCat / Ethno
32 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Grammar: 2011. Guérin, Valérie M. P. R. 2011. A grammar of Mavea: An Oceanic language of Vanuatu. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, No. 39. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i press. (424pp.)
Dictionary: 2009. Guérin, Valérie M. P. R. 2009. Mavea-English-Bislama Dictionary.
Note: Dictionary available online

MEA, Ha Mea, Hameha,Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, .   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Ethnologue considers this language a dialect of Tîrî (ISO cir). If we count this there is a grammar (Osumi, Midori. 1995. Tinrin Grammar. (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, 25.) Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.) and a dictionary (Grace, George William. 1976. Grand Couli dictionary (New Caledonia). (Pacific linguistics Series C, 12.) Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.)

MINDIRI, Papua New Guinea, Madang Province. Spoken on the Rai Coast of Astrolabe Bay, west of Saidor, and immediately west of Dein.   ElCat / Ethno
~90 speakers, Endangered (60%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Z'graggen, John A. 1975. The Languages of the Madang Districty, Papua New Guinea. (Pacific Linguistics: Series B, 41.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. 156pp.

MOKERANG, Mokareng, Mokoreng. Papua New Guinea, Manus Province.   ElCat / Ethno
200 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1975. Smyth, W. E. 1975. Comparative wordlists of the Admiralty Island languages. In Johannes A. Z'graggen (ed.), WPNGL 14:117-216.
Texts: OLAC

MOKILESE, Mokil, Mwoakilese, Mwoakiloa. Federated States of Micronesia, Mokil Atoll, Pohnpei State.   ElCat / Ethno
1,230 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1976. Harrison, Sheldon R. 1976. Mokilese reference grammar. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai'i.
Dictionary: 1977. Harrison, S. 1977. Mokilese-English dictionary. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai'i.
Texts: OLAC

MONO, Mono-Alu, Alu. Solomon Islands, Shortland Island, near Bougainville, in the Bougainville strait.   ElCat / Ethno
3,340 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1986. A grammatical analysis of Mono-Alu (Bougainville straits, Solomon Islands). Joel L. Fagan. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics B-96
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)
Note: TEXT: Mono-Alu Folklore (Bougainville strait, Western Solomons). Gerald Camden Wheeler. 1972. New York: Benjamin Blom NOTE: Fagan 1986 is a short grammatical analysis in the Case Grammar and Lexicase frameworks. It might not be very useful as a general grammatical description. It does contain a number of example sentences and although the text is theory based, it is not completely unapproachable as a result. Wheeler 1972 is an excellent book of stories and songs in Mono-Alu with English summaries and sentence level translations. There is a vocabulary in an End-note format (some words in the text are numbered and correspond to definitions in the “notes” section at the end of the book).

MOROUAS, Moruas. Vanuatu, Central Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. Canberra: ANU.

MORTLOCKESE, Mortlock, Nomoi. Federated States of Micronesia, Mortlock Islands, Chuuk State; Pakin Atoll, Pohnpei State; Sokehs Island, Pohnpei State.   ElCat / Ethno
5,900 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1899. Schmidt, Wilhelm. 1899. Zur Grammatik der Sprache der Mortlock-Insel. WZKM XIII, 330-343.
Word List: 1983. Jackson, F. 1983. The internal and external relationships of the Trukic languages of Micronesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa dissertation.
Texts: OLAC

MOTA, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Mota Island.   ElCat / Ethno
700 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1877. Codrington, Robert. 1877. A Sketch of Mota grammar. London: Gilbert & Rivington. 57pp.
Dictionary: 1896. Codrington, Robert and Palmer, Jim. 1896. A dictionary of the language of Mota, Sugarloaf Island, Banks Islands. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 343pp.
Texts: OLAC

MOTLAV, Motalava, Mwotlap, Mwotlav. Vanuatu, Banks Group, Mota Lava (Saddle) island.   ElCat / Ethno
2,100 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
Grammar: 2001. François, Alexandre. 2001. Constraintes de Structures et Liberté dans l'organisation du Discours: Une description du Mwotlap, langue océanienne du Vanuatu. Université Paris-IV Sorbonne. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Paris-IV Sorbonne. 1075pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. Canberra: ANU.
Texts: OLAC

MPOTOVORO, Botovro. Vanuatu, Spoken on the far north coast of the large island of Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
430 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC

MUSOM, Misatik. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province, eastern Markham Valley. Spoken in the southwestern corner of the Huon Peninsula, north-northwest of Lae town, on the western bank of the Busu River.   ElCat / Ethno
219 speakers, Endangered (60%)
Sketch Grammar: 1979. Musom morphology and grammar sketch. Holzknecht, Susanne. 1997. Materials on Languages in Danger of Disappearing in the Asia-Pacific Region 1: Some Endangered Languages of Papua New Guinea: Kaki Ae, Musom, and Aribwatsa.
Word List: 1997. Holzknecht, Susanne. 1997. Musom word list. In Wurm, S.A., Materials on Languages in Danger of Disappearing in the Asia-Pacific Region No.1: some endangered languages og Papua New Guinea: Kaki Ae, Musom, and Aribwatsa. (Pacific Linguistics D, 89.) Canberra: ANU.
Texts: OLAC

MUSSAU-EMIRA, Emira-Mussau, Musau-Emira, Mussau, Musao. Papua New Guinea, Mussau or St Matthias Islands, northwest of the northwestern end of New Ireland.   ElCat / Ethno
3,651 speakers, Threatened (60%)
Grammar: 2007. Mussau grammar essentials. Brownie, John. 2007. Data papers on Papua New Guinea languages (221 p.)
Word List: 1984. Blust, Robert. 1984. A Mussau vocabulary, with phonological notes. Pacific Linguistics A–69:159–208.
Note: Unpublished Swadesh list (14 p.) deposited in Kaipuleohone by Robert Blust

MWATEBU, Papua New Guinea, Normanby Island.   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Lithgow, David. 1992. Language change on Fergusson and Normanby islands. In Dutton, Tom (ed.), Culture change, language change: Case studies from Melanesia, 27-47. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

NAFI, Sirak. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province.   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (60%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

NAGU, Engdewu, Nanggu. Solomon Islands, Spoken in several settlements on the southern coast of Santa Cruz.   ElCat / Ethno
206 speakers, Severely Endangered (80%)
Grammar: 2013. Vaa, Anders. A Grammar of Engdewu. An Oceanic language of Solomon Islands. Doctoral thesis, U. of Oslo, Norway.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

NAMAN, Litzlitz, Litzlitz-Visele, Mallicolo. Vanuatu, Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
15-20 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Grammar: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Word List: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Crowley (2006): including 196 pp. grammar and 51 pp. lexicon

NAMONUITO, Namon Weite. Federated States of Micronesia, .   ElCat / Ethno
940 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1968. Quackenbush, Edward Miller. 1968. From Sonsorol to Truk: A Dialect Chain. University of Michigan. 226pp.

NARANGO, Vanuatu, Southern Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

NASARIAN, Mallicolo. Vanuatu, Southcentral Malekula Island.   ElCat / Ethno
<20 speakers, Critically Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1982. Charpentier, J. M. 1982. Atlas linguistique du Sud-Malakula (Linguistic atlas of South Malakula) (Vanatu). Paris: SELAF.
Summary: Nasarian is a critically endangered Oceanic language spoken on the southern central Malekula Island of Vanuatu. The name of this language, according to Charpentier (1982:43), is a nominalization of the word for ‘speak’. Before 1949, the Nasarian people were lived inland, approximately three hours’ walk away from the coast. After War World II, the original population moved to various coastal villages, and about half of them came down to reside in the coastal village of Tavendrua (Dixon Reef). While most groups have shifted to the languages of their new locations, the members of latter group maintained their ancestral language. Five native speakers were reported in 1980 by Charpentier (1982), and the number may be considerably fewer now, since most speakers have largely shifted to related larger languages like Letemboi, its southern neighbor, and Labo, its eastern neighbor (Moseley 2008)). Lynch (2001) notes that a small number of speakers of an unidentified language in Lawa‘ village may be Nasarian. No literacy in this language, and not much data available other than a word list collected by Charpentier (1982) along with a brief language description. A shorter vocabulary list supplied by Charpentier can be found in Tryon (1976), too. References: Charpentier, J. M. 1982. Atlas linguistique du Sud-Malakula (Linguistic atlas of South Malakula) (Vanatu). Paris: SELAF. Lynch, John. 2001. Languages of Vanuatu : A new survey and bibliography. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. Moseley, Christopher. 2008. Encyclopedia of the World’s Endangered Languages. London and New York: Routledge. Tryon, D. T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: An internal classification. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

NAUNA, Naune, Admiralitäts-inseln. Papua New Guinea, Manus Province.   ElCat / Ethno
100 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List:
Texts: OLAC
Summary: Nauna is spoken on Nauna island in Manus Province of Papua New Guinea by an estimated 100 speakers. ELCat lists that it is severely endangered with a certainty of 20%. It is a member of the Southeast Admiralty Island subgroup of Oceanic. There is little published information about speaker demographics, except that the speakers are reportedly bilingual in the larger Titan language. There is also pressure on the language by Tok Pisin, the local lingua franca. There are no published grammars or dictionaries. There are, however, archived field notes and audio recordings of Swadesh list items available in Kaipuleohone by Robert Blust. There is little known about the grammar of the language. Nauna is closely related to Penchal, Lou, Lenkau, Bauluan, and Pam languages.
Note: No published word list, but Bob Blust has some notebooks with Swadesh items deposited on Kaipuleohone.

NAURUAN, Nauru. Nauru, Nauru.   ElCat / Ethno
6,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1993. Kayser, Alois. 1993. Nauru Grammar. Yarralumla: Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany. 256pp.
Word List: 1974. Nathan, Geoffrey S. 1974. Nauruan in the Austronesian Language Family. Oceanic Linguistics 12. 479-501.
Texts: OLAC

NAVWIEN, Vanuatu, Southwestern corner of Malekula, near Malfaxal settlement.   ElCat / Ethno
5 speakers, Critically Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1982. Charpentier, Jean-Michel. 1982. Atlas linguistique du Sud-Malakula (Vanuatu): Linguistic atlas of South Malakula (Vanuatu). (Langues et cultures du Pacifique, 2.) Paris: SELAF. 908pp. (2 vols.)

NEKU, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, New Caledonia.   ElCat / Ethno
220 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: Has same alternate name as Nemi Osumi, Mitori. 2004. The Posessive Structures of Neku Compared with Tinrin. In Norio, Shibata and Shionoya, Toru (eds.), Kan minami Taiheiyoo no gengo 3 [Languages of the South Pacific Rim 3], 135-154. Suita: Faculty of Informatics, Osaka Gakuin University.

NEMI, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, New Caledonia.   ElCat / Ethno
320 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary. 1982. Haudricourt, André-Georges and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise. 1982. Dictionnaire Thématique des Langues de la région de Hienghène (Nouvelle-Calédonie): Pije -- Fwâi -- Nemi -- Jawe. (LACITO-Documents: Asie-Austronèsie, 4.) Louvain: Peeters. 285pp.

NESE, Matanvat. Vanuatu, Malekula.   ElCat /
15 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Sketch Grammar: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Nese: a diminishing speech variety of Northwest Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Word List: 2006. Crowley, Terry. 2006. Nese: a diminishing speech variety of Northwest Malakula (Vanuatu). Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Note: ISO: LINGUIST list Code: 08o Crowley (2006): 94 pp., including 42 pp. grammar and 35 pp. lexicon

NEVERVER, Lingarak, Nevwervwer, Bushman’s Bay, Mallicolo. Vanuatu, Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
560 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
Grammar: 2008. Barbour, Julie Renee. 2008. A Grammar of the Neverver language of Malakula (Vanuatu). PhD Thesis. The Universityof Waikato.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrel T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: An internal classification. Canberra: Pacific languages.
Note: Fieldwork done by Julie Barbour. Her grammar contains a write up of a previously unpublished wordlist from the 1930s.

NGATIK MENʻS CREOLE, Micronesian Pidgin, Ngatik Men's language. Federated States of Micronesia, Ngatik Island, Sapwuahfik Atoll, Pohnpei State, FSM.   ElCat / Ethno
15-30 speakers, Severely Endangered (100%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC

NGATIKESE, Federated States of Micronesia, Sapwuahfik Atoll, Pohnpei State.   ElCat / Ethno
~700 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC
Note: pon ISO code is for Pohnpeian, which Ngatikese still falls under. Ngatikese may get its own code later on

NINDE, Labo, Mewun, Meaun, Nide. Vanuatu, Malekula.   ElCat / Ethno
1,100 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC
Note: Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the Meaun language. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 293-301. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NIUE, Niuean. Niue, Niuē.   ElCat / Ethno
7,990 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1907. A vocabulary and grammar of the Niuē dialect of the Polynesian language. Edward Tregear and S. Percy Smith. Wellingtion: John Mackay, Government Printer.
Dictionary: 1907. A vocabulary and grammar of the Niuē dialect of the Polynesian language. Edward Tregear and S. Percy Smith. Wellingtion: John Mackay, Government Printer.
Texts: OLAC
Note: The grammar is very short, only 11 pages, and quite old. The vocabulary list is much longer, 115 pages, and includes definitions and example sentences. Also, there are quite a number pedagogical books available in Niuean for Niueans.

NOKUKU, Nogugu. Vanuatu, Spoken on the western side of the northern peninsula on the island of Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1926. Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the Nogugu language. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 384-401. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

NORTH AMBRYM, Vanuatu, Ambrym Island.   ElCat / Ethno
5,250 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 2012. Franjieh, Michael James. 2012. Possessive classifiers in North Ambrym, a language of Vanuatu: explorations in Semantic classification. SOAS, University of London. 406pp. (Grammar sketch pp. 39-177)
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Note: Dialects: Magam, Olal; dictionary by Paton (1973) on Lonwolwol (= West Ambrym)

NUKUORO, Nukoro, Nuguor. Federated States of Micronesia, Nukuoro Island.   ElCat / Ethno
900 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1965. Carroll, Vern. 1965. An Outline of the Structure of the Language of Nukuoro. Journal of the Polynesian Society 74. 192-226, 451-472. Wellington, N.Z.: Polynesian Society. ("Supplement to the Journal of the Polynesian Society" "Reprinted from the Journal of the Polynesian Society, volume 74, no. 2 and 4, 1965" Bibliographical footnotes).
Dictionary: 1973. Carroll, Vern and Topias Soulik. Nukuoro Lexicon. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Note: A substantial dictionary of 833 pages.

NUMBAMI, Siboma, Sipoma. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province.   ElCat / Ethno
270 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC
Note: No single grammar per se, but Joel Bradshaw has written a good deal on various aspects of the language: Bradshaw, Joel. 1978. The Development of an Extra Series of Obstruents in Numbami. Oceanic Linguistics 17. 39-76. Bradshaw, Joel. 1982. Genitives and relatives in Numbami, a New Guinea Austronesian language. In Carle, Rainer (ed.), GAVA': Studien zu austronesischen Sprachen und Kulturen Hans Kähler gewidmet, 123-139. Berlin: Reimer. Bradshaw, Joel. 1993. Subject relationships within serial verb constructions in Numbami and Jabêm. Oceanic Linguistics 32. 133-161. Bradshaw, Joel. 1997. Null Subjects, Switch-Reference, and Serialization in Jabêm and Numbami. Oceanic Linguistics 38. 270-296. Bradshaw, Joel. 2006. Grammatically Marked Ideophones in Numbami and Jabêm. Oceanic Linguistics 45. 53-63.

NUMÈÈ, Nââ Numèè, Kapone, Touaouru, Ouen, Kwenyii, Kunie, Tuauru, Duauru, Uen, Wen, Naa-Wee, Neukaledonien, Xere, Truaru. New Caledonia, South end of island, Isle Ouen, Isle of Pines.   ElCat / Ethno
1,810 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: Different speaker numbers found 1,810 (ELCat), 1,814 (ELCat), and 2180 (Ethnologue). Ethnologue shows this language has a grammar, but couldn’t find. Sophie Rendina awarded HRELP grant 2008, possibly still working?

ORMU, Indonesia, Spoken in the northeastern north coast area of Irian Jaya, just west of Jayapura.   ElCat / Ethno
600 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 1997. Purba, T. and Paidi, Y. and Kainakainu, B. 1997. Morfologi Bahasa Ormu. Jakarta: Projek Penelitian Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah. xv+363pp. (in Indonesian)
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and Voorhoeve, C. L. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages. Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.
Texts: OLAC

ʻÔRÔÊ, Orowe, Boewe, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, South Province, west coast.   ElCat / Ethno
590 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1991. Fennig, Charles and Fennig, Carol. 1991. Lexique préliminaire de la langue 'Ôrôé. 42pp.
Texts: OLAC
Note: There is a phonology sketch: Lee, Richard Henry Crispin. 1994. The Phonology of Orowé: A New Caledonian Language. La Trobe University. 122pp.

OROHA, Mara Ma-Siki, Oraha, Südliche Salomons-Inseln. Solomon Islands, Southern end of South Malaita Island.   ElCat / Ethno
38 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1927. Ivens, W. G. 1927. A Study of the Oroha Language, Mala, Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 4. 587-610.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp.
Texts: OLAC

OUMA, Papua New Guinea, Labu town, 230 Km southeast of Port Moresby.   ElCat / Ethno
4 speakers, Critically Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Dutton, Tom E. 1976. Magori and Similar Languages of South-East Papua. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 581-636. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

PÁÁFANG, Federated States of Micronesia, Oroluk Atoll, 340 Km west-northwest of Pohnpei.   ElCat / Ethno
1,320 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1968. Quackenbush, Edward Miller. 1968. From Sonsorol to Truk: A Dialect Chain. University of Michigan. 226pp.

PAPANA, Papua New Guinea, The Autonomous Region of Bougainville.   ElCat / Ethno
106 speakers, Severely Endangered (100%)
Grammar: Forthcoming. Smith, Ellen. Documenting Papapana, a highly endangered Northwest Solomonic language of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. The Uni-versity of Newcastle dissertation (forthcoming).
Word List: 2007. Palmer, Bill. 2007. Papapana draft dictionary. Online resource (with 197 entries)
Note: Based on the project summary, Smith’s thesis should include at least a word list and a grammatical description of Papapana, but it is not published yet. Metadata is available in ELAR. Palmer’s draft dictionary has 197 entries with last updated date on 2007.

PAPITALAI, Admiralitäts-inseln. Papua New Guinea, Manus Province, Naringel and Papitalai, Los Negros island.   ElCat / Ethno
520 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2014. Blust, Robert. 2014. Swadesh List (Kaipuleohone)
Note: Jessica Cleary-Kemp awarded HRELP grant 2010, still working on a description.

PENRHYN, Tongareva, Mangarongaro, Penrhynese. Cook Islands, Spoken on Penrhyn island, the northern most island in the Cook Islands. It is an atoll with two inhabited villages, Omoka and Tetautua.   ElCat / Ethno
~500 speakers, Severely Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 1968. Yasuda, Ayako. 1968. The structure of the Penrhyn phrase. Manoa: University of Hawaii. 168pp.
Dictionary: 2003. Shibata, Norio. 2003. Penrhyn-English dictionary. Osaka: ELPR. xiv+237pp.

PIAMATSINA, Vanuatu, Western Peninsula at Big Bay, Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

PIJE, Pinje, Pindje, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, .   ElCat / Ethno
160 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1982. Haudricourt, André-Georges and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise. 1982. Dictionnaire Thématique des Langues de la région de Hienghène (Nouvelle-Calédonie): Pije -- Fwâi -- Nemi -- Jawe. (LACITO-Documents: Asie-Austronèsie, 4.) Louvain: Peeters. 285pp.

PINGELAPESE, Pingelap, Pingilapese. Federated States of Micronesia, Pingelap Atoll,Pohnpei State; Pohnpei Island, Pohnpei State.   ElCat / Ethno
3,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1989. Good, Elaine and Weldis Welley. A preliminary grammar sketch, text and vocabulary of Pingelapese. Papers in Kosraean and Ponapeic, pp.1-114. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Series C-No 112.
Dictionary: 2012. Hattori, Ryoko. 2012. Preverbal particles in Pingelapese: A language of Micronesian. University of Hawaiʽi at Mānoa dissertation.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Ryoko Hattori’s dissertation includes a 4,000+ dictionary in the appendix.

PIU, Sanbiau, Lanzog, Kuruko. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province, upper Watut river.   ElCat / Ethno
100 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Hooley, Bruce A. 1971. Austronesian languages of the Morobe District, Papua New Guinea. Oceanic Linguistics 10. 79-151. ([Chapter 2 and Appendices A and B of PhD Dissertation]).

POLONOMBAUK, Vanuatu, Southeast Santo island.   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Endangered (60%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

PUKAPUKA, Pukapukan, Bukabukan. Cook Islands, Pukapuka island.   ElCat / Ethno
2,030 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1993. Teingoa, W.A. Introduction to the Pukapukan language. Hamilton, New Zealand: Outrigger Publishers.
Dictionary: 1991. Beaglehole, Earnest and Pearl. Pukapukan Dictionary Manuscript. Pukapukan Dictionary Project. Department of Anthropology, University of Auckland.
Note: The dictionary is of a moderate size, but the entries are more detailed than a wordlist. A substantial dictionary for the language has not been published. The grammar is pedagogical.

PULUWATESE, Puluwat. Federated States of Micronesia, Polowat.   ElCat / Ethno
1,360 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1974. Elbert, Samuel H. Puluwat Grammar. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Dictionary: 1972. Elbert, Samuel H. Puluwat Dictionary. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Note: The grammar is very well done. Just over 135 pages but very detailed. The dictionary is similarly well done, and is of moderate length.

PWAAMEI, Poamei, Pwamei, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, Northern New Caledonia.   ElCat / Ethno
220 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.

PWAPWÂ, Poapoa, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, .   ElCat / Ethno
16 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Summary: Pwapwâ, (alternatively Poapoa or Neukaledonien) is a language spoken in New Caledonia. Pwapwâ belongs to New Caledonian-->Northern New Caledonian-->North Northern Caledonian. As of the census taken in 1996 there are 16 speakers of the language. It is severely endangered, and is surrounded by not only several other New Caledonian languages, but also faces significant pressure from French. This language is in serious need of documentation, as not much information is currently available, and no dictionaries or grammars exist for the language. However, there are several grammars of neighboring languages.

RAKAHANGA-MANIHIKI, Manihiki-Rakahanga. Cook Islands, Manihiki.   ElCat / Ethno
320 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: http://pollex.org.nz/language/manihiki-mauke-rakahanga/
Texts: OLAC

RAPA, Rapan, Rapa Iti. French Polynesia, Rapa Iti.   ElCat / Ethno
50 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Grammar: forthcoming. Walworth, Mary. forthcoming. The Language of Rapa Iti: A grammar of a language in change. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa.
Word List: 2006. Kieviet, Paulus and Antje Kieviet. 2006. Lexique Rapa-Francais. SIL International.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Text Collection: Ghasarian, Christian and Alfred Make. 2008. Légendes de Rapa Iti. Tahiti: Au Vent Des Iles.

RAPA NUI, Easter Island, Pascuense, Rapanui, Öster-Insel Sprache. Chile, Easter Island, Rapanui.   ElCat / Ethno
~2000 speakers, Threatened (80%)
Grammar: 2012. Du Feu, Veronica. Rapanui: A Descriptive Grammar. Routledge, 2012.
Dictionary: 1960. Diccionario y gramatica de la lengua de la Isla de Pascua: pascuense-castellano, castellano-pascuense . Fuentes, Jordi (1960) · Editorial Andres Bello

RAROTONGAN, Cook Island, Cook Islands Maori, Kuki Airani, Maori, Rarotongan-Mangaian, Rarotonga. Cook Islands, .   ElCat / Ethno
33,220 speakers, Vulnerable (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1974. Pearson, N. W. I. 1974. Aitutakian: partial description based on case. University of Auckland. 214pp.
Dictionary: 1996. Cook Islands Maori dictionary : with English-Cook Islands Maori finderlist. Buse, Jasper. 1996. Pacific linguistics. Series C ; no. 123

RATSUA, While Ratsua is listed in Ethnologue as a dialect of Hahon [hah], it is in fact a separate language.. Papua New Guinea, Ratsua is spoken in 9 small settlements with 4 to 5 families per settlement. Bougainville Island, Bougainville Province, Papua New Guinea.   ElCat / Ethno
~200 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Note: Bill Palmer is a resource for this language. Research underway: http://www.hrelp.org/grants/projects/index.php?projid=383

REPANBITIP, Vanuatu, Inland on southeast Malekula Island.   ElCat / Ethno
90 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

RIRIO, Solomon Islands, Choiseul.   ElCat / Ethno
18-79 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1999. Comparative vocabulary of Solomon Islands languages. Unknown compiler. Arthur Capell (compiler); Peter Newton (depositor). 1999. Pacific And Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (PARADISEC).
Note: The word list is an archived document and can be found in the OLAC records for this language. Additionally in the OLAC records are a variety of other archived primary sources and later publications that include the Ririo language in them but all of these were created between 1900 and 1978.

RORIA, Vanuatu, Central Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
75 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Summary: Roria is spoken in Vanuatu, on the island of Espiritu Santo (coordinates -15.358, 166.898). There is a wordlist in Tryon (1976) but no additional linguistic documentation. The language is part of the Central Santo group, which includes the languages of Fortsenal and Morouas, none of which have any documentation beyond a few wordlists. Roria is likely severely endangered, with only 75 speakers reported in the 1970’s. Bislama is the national language, and the language of education. One may speculate on the impact of Bislama on Roria, however, without more research any vitality rating is highly uncertain.

SAKAO, Hog Harbour, Santo, Sakau. Vanuatu, Vanuatu.   ElCat / Ethno
4,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 2002. Crowley, Terry. 2002. A grammar sketch of Sakao. In Lynch, J. and T., Ross, M. Crowley, (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 599-607.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

SALIBA, Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province, China strait, Sariba and Rogeia islands, mainland across from Rogeia island.   ElCat / Ethno
2,500 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 2004. Oetzel, Rainer and Oetzel, Sabine. 2004. Saliba grammar essentials. 220pp.
Word List: Lithgow, David. 1987. Language change and relationships in Tubetube and adjacent languages. In Laycock, Donald C. and Winter, Werner (eds.), A world of language: Papers presented to Professor S. A. Wurm on his 65th birthday, 393-410. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Text: Oetzel, Rainer. 1998. Saliba wasadi yo pilipilidaidi (Saliba stories and legends) [storybook]. 46pp.

SATAWALESE, Federated States of Micronesia, Satawal, Yap State.   ElCat / Ethno
460 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Grammar: 2007. Roddy, Kevin M. 2007. A sketch grammar of Satawalese, the language of Satawal Island, Yap State, Micronesia. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. 212pp.
Word List: 1983. Jackson, Frederick Henry. 1983. The Internal and External Relationships of the Trukic Languages of Micronesia. University of Hawai'i. Ann Arbor: UMI. 481pp.
Texts: OLAC

SEKE, Ske. Vanuatu, Pentecost Island.   ElCat / Ethno
600 speakers, Threatened (100%)
Sketch Grammar: 2014. Johnson, Kay. 2014. Static spatial expression in Ske: an Oceanic language of Vanuatu. PhD Thesis. SOAS, University of London.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrel T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: An internal classification. Canberra: Pacific languages.
Note: Recent fieldwork done by Kay Johnson. Johnson has promised a dictionary as one of her research products. The word list by Tryon is considered to be of dubious quality by Johnson (2014). Seke is otherwise undocumented.

SENGSENG, Asengseng. Papua New Guinea, West New Britain Province. Spoken in the southwest interior, in the Amgen River area.   ElCat / Ethno
1,750 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1978. Chowning, Ann. 1978. Comparative grammars of five New Britain languages. In Wurm, Stephen and Carrington, Lois (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Fascicle 2, 1129-1157. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Word List: 1928. Chinnery, E. W. P. 1928. Certain Natives in South New Britain and Dampier Straits. (Territory of New Guinea Anthropological Report, 3.) Melbourne: H. J. Green, Government Printer. 95pp.

SEPA, Papua New Guinea, Madang Province. Spoken on the coast south of Manam Island around Bogia.   ElCat / Ethno
~200 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Laycock, Donald C. 1976. Austronesian Languages: Sepik Provinces. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 399-418. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

SERA, Ssia, Serra. Papua New Guinea, Sandaun Province. Spoken in one village on the northwestern coast of Papua New Guinea, to the west of the area originally occupied by the Sissano language.   ElCat / Ethno
510 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Laycock, Donald C. 1976. Austronesian Languages: Sepik Provinces. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 399-418. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC

SHARK BAY, Vanuatu, Santo, and Shark Bay Coast.   ElCat / Ethno
800 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

SISSANO, Sisano, Sinano, Sinama. Papua New Guinea, Sandaun Province, Aitape District, around Sissano.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Laycock, Donald C. 1976. Austronesian Languages: Sepik Provinces. In Wurm, Stephen A. (ed.), New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study Vol 2: Austronesian Languages, 399-418. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC

SOBEI, Biga, Imasi, Liki. Indonesia, Spoken on the central north coast of Irian Jaya, at Ahus and at Sarmi, and in various dialectal forms on islands to the north of Sobei and Sarmi.   ElCat / Ethno
1,850 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Sketch Grammar: 2002. Sterner, Joyce and Ross, Malcolm. 2002. Sobei. In Lynch, John and Ross, Malcolm and Crowley, Terry (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 167-185. Richmond: Curzon.
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and Voorhoeve, C. L. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages. Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.
Texts: OLAC

SONSOROL, Sonsorolese, Sonsorol-Tobi. Palau, Sonsorol, Pulo Anna, Merir islands.   ElCat / Ethno
>600 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Grammar: 1969. Capell, Arthur. 1969. Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of Sonsorol-Tobi. (Oceania Linguistic Monographs, 12.) Oceania Linguistic Monographs No. Sydney: University of Sydney. 224pp.
Word List: 1969. Capell, Arthur. 1969. Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of Sonsorol-Tobi. (Oceania Linguistic Monographs, 12.) Oceania Linguistic Monographs No. Sydney: University of Sydney. 224pp.
Texts: OLAC

SOUTH MARQUESAN, Marquesan, Marquesas-Inseln Sprache, Marquesas. French Polynesia, Marquesas Islands.   ElCat / Ethno
1000-2000 speakers, Threatened (100%)
Sketch Grammar: 2002. Lynch, John. 2002. A grammar sketch of Marquesan. In Lynch, J. and Ross, M. and Crowley, T. (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 865-876.
Word List: 1987. Tryon, Darrell T. 1987. The Marquesan Dialects: A First Approach. In Laycock, Donald C. and Winter, Werner (eds.), A World of Language: Papers presented to Professor Wurm, Stephen A. on his 65th Birthday, 669-681. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Texts: OLAC
Note: It's unclear whether Tryon's piece contains a proper wordlist.

SOUTH WEST BAY, Sinesip, Seniang, Na'ahai, Mallicolo, Nahavaq. Vanuatu, South West Bay area of Malakulu.   ElCat / Ethno
700 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Grammar: 2009. Dimock, Laura Gail. 2009. A grammar of Nahavaq (Malakula, Vanuatu). Victoria University of Wellington. 300pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

SOWA, Vanuatu, West coast of central southern Pentecost Island.   ElCat / Ethno
20 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

SYE, Erromanga, Sie, Se. Vanuatu, Erromango Island.   ElCat / Ethno
1,900 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1998. Crowley, Terry. 1998. An Erromangan (Sye) Grammar. (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, 27.) Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. xiii+294pp.
Dictionary: 2000. Crowley, Terry. 2000. An Erromangan (Sye) dictionary. (Pacific Linguistics, 508.) Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. xxxi+250pp.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Also sketch grammar by Crowley: Crowley, Terry. 2002. A grammar sketch of Sye. In Lynch, J. and T., Ross, M. Crowley, (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 694-722. The Crowley 1998 grammar seemed more complete

TAMAMBO, Malo, Tamabo. Vanuatu, Malo Island.   ElCat / Ethno
3,000-4,000 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
Grammar: 1997. Jauncey, Dorothy. 1997. A Grammar of Tamambo, the Language of Western Malo. Australian National University.
Dictionary: 2011. Jauncey, Dorothy. 2011. Dictionary of Tamambo, Malo.
Texts: OLAC

TAMBOTALO, Vanuatu, Inland of southeast Espiritu Santo Island.   ElCat / Ethno
50 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

TANAPAG, Northern Carolinian, Tallabwog, Talaabwogh, Sprache der Marianen. Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan.   ElCat / Ethno
4,400 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1968. Quackenbush, Edward Miller. 1968. From Sonsorol to Truk: A Dialect Chain. University of Michigan. 226pp.
Note: Ethnologue lists 10 speakers!

TANEMA, Tanima. Solomon Islands, Temotu Province, Vanikolo Island, Emua village.   ElCat / Ethno
4 speakers, Critically Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University
Texts: OLAC
Note: A short essay comparing some grammatical features among Vano, Tanema, and "Lovono" (included here as an alternate name for Vano): François, Alexandre. 2009. The languages of Vanikoro: three lexicons and one grammar. In Evans, Bethwyn (ed.), Discovering history through language: Papers in honour of Malcolm Ross, 103-126. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. Primary texts are in French.

TANIMBILI, Tanibili, Nyisunggu. Solomon Islands, Eastern Utupua Island.   ElCat / Ethno
50 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp.

TARPIA, Tarfia, Sufrai. Indonesia, Spoken in the northeastern coast area of Irian Jaya, west of Sentani Lake.   ElCat / Ethno
564 speakers, Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1992. Smits, Leo and Voorhoeve, C. L. 1992. The J. C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya languages A: Austronesian languages. Leiden-Jakarta: DSALCUL/IRIS.

TASMATE, Vanuatu, West Santo Island.   ElCat / Ethno
[unknown # spkrs], Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University

TEANU, Buma, Puma. Solomon Islands, Vanikolo Island.   ElCat / Ethno
60 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 2002. Tryon, Darrell. 2002. Buma. In Lynch, John and Ross, Malcolm and Crowley, Terry (eds.), The Oceanic Languages, 573-586. Richmond: Curzon. 14 pp.
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)
Texts: OLAC
Note: From ELCat: “350 speakers (170 adults) reported in 1989. Recent reports mention 60 speakers including 20 children”

TENIS, Tench. Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province, Tench Island.   ElCat / Ethno
30 speakers, Severely Endangered (40%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Summary: Tenis (also known as Tench) is spoken on Tench Island in New Ireland Province (PNG), a tiny island of only 500m width, located at 80km north of the Northern tip of New Ireland. The language belongs to the St. Mathias group, a first-order subgroup of Oceanic. The only other member of this group is Mussau-Emira which is spoken on two islands bearing the same names, located some 70km to the west of Tench Island. The Tenis language is severely endangered, with only 30 speakers remaining (Wurm 2000). The total population of Tench Island is around 1,000 (Findlay 2013). Speakers can also be found in the town of Kavieng, the capital of New Ireland. Tenis speakers are highly bilingual in and shifting towards Mussau-Emira, which is itself endangered (Wurm 2007). Cross-linguistic marriages are common, and children tend not to learn Tenis. Community members also shift towards Tok Pisin. Tenis is completely undocumented. However, its sister language Mussau-Emira has both a published and openly accessible grammar (John 2007) and a 570-item word list (Blust 1984). Mussau-Emira shows many typically Oceanic features, such as SVO word order, prepositions, and distinctive direct and indirect types of possession. Yet, it also shows some remarkable and more unusual traits, such as phonemic length not only in vowels but also in consonants (with geminates even in word-initial position!), a 5-way number distinction (singular, dual, trial, paucal, plural), as well as 7 classes of pre- and post-nominal number-classifiers and 14 classes of possessive classifiers. Due to its geographic isolation, Mussau-Emira has had little influence from surrounding languages and is quite different from the languages of closeby Manus and New Ireland. At this point, it is unclear how similar to or different from Mussau-Emira Tenis is. Even just because of their prominent position in the Oceanic language tree, the languages of the St. Mathias group are considerably important in the study of the history of Oceanic languages. Besides, Tenis is severely endangered and has not yet been documented, at all. On top of that, we can expect to find typologically intriguing features in Tenis. All of these factors make Tenis the top priority in the documentation of Oceanic languages.

TEOP, Teapu. Papua New Guinea, Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Tinputz district, northeast.   ElCat / Ethno
5,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 2007. Mosel, Ulrike, and Yvonne Thiesen. "The Teop sketch grammar. Kiel: University of Kiel." (2007): 521.
Dictionary: 1999. Mosel, Ulrike. Teop-English dictionary. Eigendruck, 1999.

TEREBU, Terepu, Turupu, Turubu. Papua New Guinea, East Sepik Province, Taul coast southeast, Turubu village.   ElCat / Ethno
130 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

TIALE, Malmariv. Vanuatu, norther central Espiritu Santo Islands, on the middle Jordan River.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

TOBATI, Jotafa, Yotafa, Yautefa, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Enggros, Tobwadic. Indonesia, Spoken in Jayapura Bay, close to Jayapura, the capital of Irian Jaya, especially southeast of it.   ElCat / Ethno
<100 speakers, Severely Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 1999. Purba, Theodore. 1999. Sintaksis bahasa Tobati: laporan penelitian. Jayapura: Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Cenderawasih. 326pp. (in Indonesian)
Word List: 1995. Fautngil, Christ. 1995. Bahasa-Bahasa di daerah Jayapura: Satu Kajian Dialektologi. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia. 384pp.(in Indonesian)

TOBIAN, Tobi, Hatohobei. Palau, Tobi Island.   ElCat / Ethno
22 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1968. Quackenbush, Edward Miller. 1968. From Sonsorol to Truk: A Dialect Chain. University of Michigan. 226pp.
Texts: OLAC

TOKELAUAN, Tokelau, Fakaafo. Tokelau; New Zealand, .   ElCat / Ethno
8,000 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1993. Hooper, Robin. 1993. Studies in Tokelauan Syntax. University of Auckland.
Word List: http://www.ling.hawaii.edu/ldtc/languages/tokelau/swadesh.html
Note: There is an older grammar that is downloadable: Sharples, Peter R. 1976. Tokelauan Syntax. University of Auckland. The LDTC website has a Swadesh list!!!

TOLOMAKO, Big Bay, Marina, Tolomako-Jereviu. Vanuatu, Espiritu Santo.   ElCat / Ethno
450 speakers, Endangered (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1926. Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the language spoken in the Bay of SS. Philip and James. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 401-416. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 16 pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Texts: OLAC

TUAMOTUAN, Pa’umotu. French Polynesia, Tuamotu Archipelago.   ElCat / Ethno
14,400 speakers, Vulnerable (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 1970. Kuki, Hiroshi. 1970. Tuamotuan phonology. (Pacific Linguistics: Series B, 17.) Canberra: Austrailan National University. ix+119pp. (Bibliography: p. 112-119).
Dictionary: 1964. Stimson, John Francis and Marshall, Donald Stanley. 1964. A dictionary of some Tuamotuan dialects of the Polynesian language. The Hague: by the Peabody Museum of Salem, Massachusetts, and Het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 623pp.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Kuku 1970 is not a grammar per se, but is 128 pp. of phonological description

TUTUBA, Vanuatu, Tutuba Island.   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Threatened (60%)
Grammar: 2008. Naito, Maho. 2008. A Descriptive Study of the Tutuba language. Tokyo University. 514 pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)
Note: Naito’s grammar is in Japanese.

TUVALUAN, Ellice, Ellicean, Tuvalu. Tuvalu, .   ElCat / Ethno
9,000 speakers, Vulnerable (80%)
Grammar: 2000. Besnier, Niko. 2000. Tuvaluan: a Polynesian language of the Central Pacific. (Descriptive Grammars Series.) London & New York: Routledge
Dictionary: 2001. Jackson, Geoffrey W. 2001. Tuvaluan dictionary: Tuvaluan-English, English-Tuvaluan. Suva, Fiji: Geoff & Jenny Jackson. 448pp.
Texts: OLAC
Note: 1945 Grammar by Donald Gilbert Kennedy online:

ULITHIAN, Federated States of Micronesia, Ulithi, Ngulu, Sorol, Fais islands, eastern Caroline Islands.   ElCat / Ethno
3,075 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1980. Sohn, Ho-min, Bender, Byron. 1980. A Ulithian Grammar. (Pacific linguistics :Series C, Books, 27.) Canberra: Australian Natl. Univ.
Word List: 1983. Jackson, Frederick Henry. 1983. The Internal and External Relationships of the Trukic Languages of Micronesia. University of Hawai'i. Ann Arbor: UMI. 481pp.
Texts: OLAC

URA, Aryau, Arau. Vanuatu, Erromango.   ElCat / Ethno
6 speakers, Critically Endangered (100%)
Grammar: 1999. Crowley, Terry. 1999. Ura: a disappearing language of Southern Vanuatu. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 156.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. xiii, 226 S.pp.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography
Texts: OLAC
Note: From ELCat: “There were only a handful of speakers in their 70's and 80's in the late 1990's. It is unlikely that the language is still being used today.”

VAEAKAU-TAUMAKO, Pileni, Pilheni, Taumako. Solomon Islands, Spoken in the Reef and Duff Islands in Temotu Province.   ElCat / Ethno
1,662 speakers, Vulnerable (100%)
Grammar: 2011. A Grammar of Vaeakau-Taumako . Åshild Næss and Even Hovdhaugen (2011) · Walter de Gruyter
Word List: 1983. Tryon, Darrell T. and Hackman, B. D. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 72.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. viii+490pp. (Bibliography: p. 483-490.)

VAMALE, Moaeke, Hmwaeke, Pamale, Neukaledonien. New Caledonia, North Province.   ElCat / Ethno
150 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1946. Leenhardt, Maurice. 1946. Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLVI.) Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. 697pp.
Note: Wordlist in Leenhardt according to glottolog

VANO, Vanikoro, Vanikolo, Lovono. Solomon Islands, Temotu Province, Vanikolo Island, Lale and Lavaka villages.   ElCat / Ethno
5 speakers, Critically Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1876. Lesson, P.-A. 1876. Vanikoro et ses inhabitants. Revue d'Anthropologie 5. 252-272.
Note: A short essay comparing some grammatical features among Vano, Tanema, and "Lovono" (included here as an alternate name for Vano): François, Alexandre. 2009. The languages of Vanikoro: three lexicons and one grammar. In Evans, Bethwyn (ed.), Discovering history through language: Papers in honour of Malcolm Ross, 103-126. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

VEHES, Buasi, Vehees. Papua New Guinea, Morobe Province, near the coast between Salamaua and Lae. 1 village.   ElCat / Ethno
70 speakers, Severely Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1971. Hooley, Bruce A. 1971. Austronesian languages of the Morobe District, Papua New Guinea. Oceanic Linguistics 10. 79-151. ([Chapter 2 and Appendices A and B of PhD Dissertation]).
Texts: OLAC
Summary: Vehes is spoken near the coast in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea between Salamaua and Lae. 1 villages. It is in the Huon Gulf family. The language has approximately 70 speakers and faces outside pressure from neighboring languages Buang Mapos and Buang Mannga and from regional lingua franca, Tok Pisin. There is no literacy in the language. Closely related languages Dengala and Piu are also endangered.

VERAʻA, Vatrata, Vetrat, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Vanua Lava Island.   ElCat / Ethno
275 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.
Texts: OLAC
Note: No word list or grammar per se, but Vera'a seems to have been written about somewhat in comparative works: François, Alexandre. 2007. Noun articles in Torres and Banks languages: Conservation and innovation. In Siegel, Jeff and Lynch, John and Eades, Diana (eds.), Language description, history and development: linguistic indulgence in memory of Terry Crowley, 267-280. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. François, Alexandre. 2005. Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen Northern Vanuatu languages. Oceanic Linguistics 44. 443-504. Lynch, John and Crowley, Terry. 2001. Languages of Vanuatu: a new survey and bibliography. (Pacific Linguistics, 517.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. xiv+187pp.

VINMAVIS, Lambumbu, Mallicolo, Neve'ei. Vanuatu, Vinmavis village, 'Aran, Lowisal, Tisvel Point, Loloang, Vilmbil, Longarakh, Khatbol.   ElCat / Ethno
500 speakers, Endangered (40%)
Grammar: 2007. Musgrave, Jill. 2007. A grammar of Neve'ei, Vanuatu. (Pacific Linguistics, 587.) Canberra: Australian National University. x+146pp. (Also as MPhil 2001 Hamilton: University of Waikato).
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

VURËS, Mosina, Mosin, Banks-Inseln. Vanuatu, Banks Group, Vanua Lava island.   ElCat / Ethno
1,051 speakers, Threatened (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

WAB, Som. Papua New Guinea, Madang Province. Spoken on the north coast of the Huon Peninsula, near Saidor.   ElCat / Ethno
120 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2012. Carter, John and Carter, Katie and Grummitt, John and MacKenzie, Bonnie and Masters, Janell. 2012. A sociolinguistic Survey of the Mur Village Vernaculars. (SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2012-043.) SIL International. 90pp.

WAILAPA, Vanuatu, Southwest Santo Island.   ElCat / Ethno
100 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

WHITESANDS, Napuanmen, Whitsands. Vanuatu, Tanna.   ElCat / Ethno
7,500 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Sketch Grammar: 2009. Hammond, Jeremy. 2009. The grammar of nouns and verbs in Whitesands, an oceanic language of Southern Vanuatu. University of Sydney.
Word List: 2012. Nehrbass, Kenneth. 2012. A Comprehensive Comparison of Lexemes in the Major Languages of Tanna, Vanuatu. (SIL e-Books, 34.) SIL International
Texts: OLAC

WOLEAIAN, Lamotrek. Federated States of Micronesia, Micronesia.   ElCat / Ethno
1,630 speakers, Threatened (20%)
Grammar: 1975. Woleaian Reference Grammar. Sohn, Ho-min. 1975. University of Hawaii Press.
Dictionary: 1976. Woleaian-English Dictionary. Sohn, Ho-min; Tawerilmang, Anthony F. 1976. The University Press of Hawaii.
Texts: OLAC
Note: Alternate name on OLAC but listed as dialect variant on ELCat.

WUSI, Wusi-Kerepua. Vanuatu, Vanuatu.   ElCat / Ethno
300 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1976. Tryon, Darrell T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: an internal classification. (Pacific Linguistics: Series C, 50.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. v+545pp. (Bibliography: p. 541-545.)

YAKAIKEKE, Iakaikeke. Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.   ElCat / Ethno
100 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1997. Budita, Timothy. 1997. SIL Survey wordlist of Yakaikeke of Diruna.
Note: Alternate name on OLAC but not ELCat.

YAMNA, Sunum. Indonesia, Papua.   ElCat / Ethno
560 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 2005. Lee, Hope and Sawi, Agustina. 2005. Survey report on the Sobei related languages in Sarmi country, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia.
Note: Alternate name listed on OLAC but not ELCat.

YARSUN, Indonesia, Island off the north coast of Papua, Just east of the Biri river.   ElCat / Ethno
200 speakers, Endangered (20%)
No Grammar.
No Dictionary.

ZAZAO, Jajao, Kilokaka. Solomon Islands, Santa Isabel Island.   ElCat / Ethno
10 speakers, Critically Endangered (80%)
No Grammar.
Word List: 1953. Napu, Ben. 1953. A vocabulary of the Kilokaka language, Santa Ysabel, Solomon Islands. Journal of Austronesian Studies 1. 139-144.
Texts: OLAC
Note: From ELCat: “Current situation unknown. Appears to have formerly been the language of Kilokaka village. However, Kilokaka is now a Blablanga speaking community due to encroachment of that neighboring language. A wordlist collected at the beginning of the 20th century (Napu 1953) seems to be a different language to Blablanga, and a list collected in the 1960s or 1970s (Tryon & Hackman) also appears different to north coast Blablanga, but less so. Ethnologue gives a figure of 10 speakers in 1999 which is plausible. Kilokaka is now Blablanga speaking, but it is possible a very small number of speakers may remain.” Ray has a “grammar,” but it is just 2 pp., and is taken directly from Napu’s wordlist: Ray, Sidney H. 1926. Grammar of the Kilokaka language. In A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages, 532-533. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.