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Kepano's

Combined
Hawaiian Dictionary

for browsers


with a concordance of example sentences
and numerous topical lists


based on


Hawaiian Dictionary

by Mary Kawena Pukui & Samuel H. Elbert

(1986)
 

Māmaka Kaiao

A Modern Hawaiian Vocabulary

(2003 +2010 addendum)


A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language

by Lorrin Andrews

(1865)


and other sources

caution: work-in-progress

Introduction

Ulukau
The well-known and prodigious online Hawaiian data repository, Ulukau, besides its extensive collection of Hawaiian texts, provides access (at wehewehe.org) to digital editions of the four major Hawaiian-English dictionaries, Andrews (And.) [1865], Andrews-Parker (AP) [1922], Pukui & Elbert (PE) [1986], and Māmaka Kaiao (MK) [2003], both as pdf pages and html (text). The site provides a search form that can display results from these dictionaries, and access to the MK addendum [2010] as well.

For students of Hawaiian, PE has been, since publication, the essential lexical resource, but since numerous additional words, including new coinages, appear in MK, the two are frequently used together. However, as the dictionaries are alphabetized differently, looking up a word in the two bound volumes can be an inconvenient process. And as the addendum to MK is only available online, (though not included in the search engine), Ulukau's search form often provides the most expedient look-up method. Further, Ulukau provides access to the AP dictionary via the same form.

CHD
While truly a powerful tool, there are limitations to this search-form approach. Entries are only visible one at a time, and must be manually extracted for comparison. The serendipity factor of browsing the printed page is missing, cross-references are not linked, and the visual display is daunting, mirroring the often dense printed paragraph. Because of the availability of the digital data at Ulukau, the potential was recognized for implementing a combined Hawaiian dictionary in browsable form, whereby corresponding entries from PE, MK and And. could be viewed simultaneously, along with adjacent entries. That was the concept that led to the CHD, begun early in 2011.

Adding Pukui & Elbert
To begin, an expanded version of PE was produced, to serve as the scaffolding for the inclusion of MK and And. In PE, perhaps as a space-saving measure, different, numbered meanings were included under a single headword. For the CHD, these were extracted as subscripted headwords (for the most part corresponding to the PE numbering). Example sentences and phrases, listed "run-on" in the dictionary, were redisplayed as lists. While PE lists most hoʻo- forms under their base forms, MK and And. do not, and so the PE hoʻo- forms were extracted from their bases and listed under h as well. The PE English-Hawaiian dictionary was examined, and Hawaiian glosses that did not appear as headwords in the Hawaiian-English were added as headwords, shown in a distinctive font and color. Spelling variations appearing in the English-Hawaiian dictionary were also noted.

Expanded entries, External links
Considerations of space, of primary concern to publishers of print editions, have generally been ignored, and so, where possible, the numerous entries glossed simply as "same as x" or "see x" have been expanded to include some or all of the definition at the target entry. Cross-references have been made into links connecting to the targeted headword. Links to texts available online, such as at Ulukau, like Place Names of Hawaiʻi or the Bible, link directly to the corresponding chapter or section of the online text.

Hyphenization, Capitalization
Hyphenization and measure-marking have been moved from the headwords into following square brackets, and hyphenization has been removed from words and names in entries, complying with revised spelling standards. Headwords with two spelling forms have been made into separate entries, etc. Definitions have been changed from sentence capitalization to lower-case initial, except in cases of actual uppercase initials. Minor regularization of this sort has been done throughout.

Integrating Māmaka Kaiao
Once the basic structure of the revised PE dictionary was established, Māmaka Kaiao entries, including the addendum (indicated by "+"), were integrated, using the PE alphabetization. Where the words were the same, the MK word was inserted as a sub-entry. Where the MK word was new, but one or more PE entries for a similarly spelled word were present, a new subscripted headword was created. Otherwise, the new MK word simply became a new entry, listed in the standard alphabetical order. To distinguish MK material, it is displayed in a unique color. Where MK examples were added to existing PE headwords, the glosses are displayed in that color as well.

Integrating Andrews
A similar process was followed for Andrews. The 1865 edition was used (with a link to corresponding PDF pages of AP at the top of each page), because of the relative incompatibility of the separate listings for single forms by part of speech in AP, and the primacy of the original dictionary. And. material is treated slightly differently. Its display is optional — it can be hidden by clicking the "hide" button at the top of each page, resulting in a smaller page, and thus more responsive navigation. It too is shown in a distinctive color, and a slightly smaller font size. As with the MK words, And. words are shown as subentries below PE and/or MK where they appear to match. And. words that do not match are listed, but are not given full headword status, with no subscripts.

English-Hawaiian, Linking, Concordance, Indexes
Once the basic combined dictionary was in place, a number of analytical features were added. The English-Hawaiian dictionaries of PE and MK were integrated and linked to the main Hawaiian-English dictionary. The words in the appx. 15,000 examples sentences and phrases were extracted into a concordance, linking back to the main dictionary, while the words in the sentences themselves link to the concordance. Alphabetical and reverse alphabetical indexes were added, allowing scanning through large numbers of headwords at one line per word.

Topical Lists
A topical section was created, currently displaying over forty topics, so that, for example, fish, plant, or insect lists can be examined with their full definitions. Red-letter headwords were added to show "basic vocabulary" — words appearing in the vocabulary lists of two or more of the major Hawaiian pedagogical grammars. (The full list is also included as a topic in the topical listings, Basic Vocabulary.) New words have been added from current literary sources, etc., again, colored distinctively, with sources indicated. Other non-obvious topics include English Loanwords, Gazetteer, ho-causatives, -na words, ke-words, Names, and Suffixes...

Reconstructions
PE includes appx. 2,000 proposed reconstructions of earlier forms of the Hawaiian word in the Austronesian language family. In 2010, a significant resource, POLLEX (Polynesian Lexicon Project Online) was moved online, including nearly 5,000 reconstructions based on nearly 70 Polynesian languages, including Hawaiian. This data has been used to update the appx. 1,250 PE reconstructions corresponding to POLLEX forms, and an additional 700 or so reconstructions have been added. Although the reconstructed glosses were not shown in PE, they now appear in the entries, and each reconstruction is linked to its page in POLLEX, so that the entire comparison can be viewed at a mouse click. The over 2,700 entries showing a reconstruction have also been extracted into the topical listing, Reconstructions. These includes both PE entries found in POLLEX and those that aren't.

Illustrations
Thus far, appx. 200 images have been added to illustrate entries, particularly for plants, birds, and fish. These are shown as small thumbnail images at the head of the entry, which are links to larger images and the image source, linked to the online page where additional scientific and descriptive information about the item can be found.

Derived form sets
For a small but growing number of words, sets of derived forms have been extracted, listing all entries for words containing a base form. The derivational lists can be accessed via the "s" links on all words contained therein.

ʻŌlelo Noʻeau
Hundreds of example sentences in PE are listed in Mary Kawena Pukui's (1983) ʻŌlelo Noʻeau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings, which was published after the dictionary. This source is now indicated along with the ʻŌlelo Noʻeau index number, e.g. (ON 250).

Hawaiian language glosses
Numerous entries are followed by [bracketed] Hawaiian glosses. These are from glossaries at the backs of various Hawaiian language books published and posted online by Hale Kuamoʻo, as aids to the reader. (As such, they may often represent "narrow" meanings of the words, specific to those texts.) The subscripted numbers following the brackets indicate the online source texts for the glosses, which can be found on the Hawaiian Gloss Source Texts page, along with links to the texts.

Work in progress
The CHD is a work in progress, and many of these modifications are ongoing. The current revision date is displayed at the top of each page. Email comments are welcomed.

links       concordance       external Links       Pukui & Elbert       Māmaka Kaiao       Andrews       etymology      
Andrews-Parker       The earliest Hawaiian wordlists      
use the top menus to navigate

click on a cover for details
(Entries from these dictionaries have been modified and rearranged.
See Ulukau or Google Books for images of printed pages as published.
Headwords from the Hawaiian Dictionary are also links to page images.)

Links

The CHD is heavily linked. Almost every Hawaiian word is a link to its entry in the dictionary, the concordance, or to other online texts. Since the dictionary makes extensive use of cross-referencing, you can easily "follow the trail" of references like... cf, see, see also, same as, redup. of, hoʻo-, etc. (using your browser's BACK button to return to where you began).

CAUTION: Page loads may be slow... Because all the words for each index letter are on one "page", links to large pages (k,p,h...) may take a few seconds as the page loads. (Links on the same page should be almost instant.) Depending on the computer, the browser, and the connection, the time will vary... so please be patient. (Suggestion: use the latest version of your browser, and watch its loading indicator or progress bar before clicking the link again.)

Pukui & Elbert: Hawaiian Dictionary - 1986

Pukui & Elbert is the standard Hawaiian-English, English-Hawaiian dictionary of today, often referred to simply as "the dictionary". It forms the basis for entries in CHD. When they occur, corresponding entries from Māmaka Kaiao and Andrews are shown as subentries. Statistics on the Counts page refer to this volume. The most recent edition was 1986. The Hawaiian-English section was first published in 1957, followed by editions of 1961 and 1965. The English-Hawaiian was first published in 1964, the Hawaiian Dictionary, containing both, in 1971, 1973, and the Revised and Enlarged edition in 1986.

editions, introductions

Māmaka Kaiao - 2003 (+2010)

Entries from Māmaka Kaiao are shown in this color.
"A compilation of Hawaiian words that have been created, collected, and approved by the Hawaiian Lexicon Committee from 1987 through 2000." These are words recommended by the language board to bring the modern Hawaiian vocabulary up to date. First published in 1996, then in 1998, and the latest edition, in 2003. Māmaka Kaiao includes loan words in non-standard Hawaiian spelling. The index to these is shown below the regular index at the top of each dictionary page. Māmaka Kaiao words are not included in the counts.

The June, 2010 Addendum to Māmaka Kaio, published online at Ulukau, adds appx. 700 entries. (These entries are marked with a small symbol: [+] at the end of the entry.)

editions, introductions

A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language
by Lorrin Andrews - 1865

Entries from Andrews 1865 are shown in this color.
This was essentially the predecessor to Pukui and Elbert, first published in 1865, and revised by Henry H. Parker in 1922. The re-issued 1865 edition (2003) was used for the CHD.
NOTE: To turn off display of the Andrews entries click the "hide Andrews" link at the top left of the dictionary pages. These entries are from the mid-19th century, about 150 years ago, and should be considered "of historical interest". They may not reflect actual or current Hawaiian language. As far as possible, they have been listed as subentries of the corresponding forms in Pukui & Elbert.

editions, introductions

Pukui & Elbert examined the Andrews dictionary in great detail, as explained in the prefaces to earlier editions of the dictionary (but not the Revised and Enlarged). Click here for the complete prefaces, here for the sections about Andrews dictionary.

Andrews-Parker [1922]

The Parker revision of Andrews dictionary is accessible in pdf form, linked letter-by-letter here and at the top of each dictionary page.

A     E     H     I     K     L     M     N     O     P     U     W

Review of the Andrews-Parker dictionary
by Herbert Williams, Journal of the Polynesian Society 35(3): 248-54. 1926
(scanned version)

Concordance

The concordance is an index to all the words appearing in the examples, primarily from Pukui and Elbert. There are over 11,300 examples, containing over 52,000 words. Of these, some 7,000 are unique. Words in the examples in the dictionary listing are links to the concordance. (In the concordance, up to the first seven examples are shown. If there are more than seven, the word is followed by a link in the left column marked "MORE", which brings up a page with the additional forms. To the right of each example is a link to the dictionary entry which contained the example.)

External links

Most references, like (Neal 635), are links to the entry on the reference page,
but many are links to the actual source document on Ulukau...
(Gram...) links are to the corresponding chapter in Hawaiian Grammar (Ulukau)
Most place names link to the corresponding letter in Place Names of Hawaii (Ulukau).
Books of the Bible, like (Mar. 7.34) link to the Hawaiian Bible (Ulukau).
and more.
These online sources can also be accessed directly from the reference page.
Additionally, other, "experimental" links may be found... under development.
Click on the headword of an entry for a pdf (image) of the dictionary page where the entry is found.

The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

for lovers of Hawaiian

As soon as I started reading Pukui and Elbert's dictionary, I began to imagine it 'datafied' – transformed into a relational database for an online hyper-dictionary – with entries separated out from paragraphs, examples arranged in an accessible way, cross-references connected... semantically similar entries grouped together...

Inspired by the students and teachers I met on my visit to the wonderful Nāwahīokalaniʻōpuʻu School and Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani College at Hilo, in February, 2011... I developed the database I'd imagined, and it has begun to produce – the hyper-linked Hawaiian-English dictionary, a concordance of the examples, some topical lists, links to online references... and... much more to come.

I hope you enjoy it as much as I do.

(It may be deceptively polished-looking – but this is actually still at an early stage of development, and fairly "rough around the edges". Please email me if you notice errors or problems, or have other comments...)

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Kauakūkalahale Index

Papa kuhikuhi kikoʻī no nā kolamu ʻo Kauakūkalahale

Kauakūkalahale is a Hawaiian language newspaper column, appearing weekly on Saturdays in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser since June 18, 2010. It began in the Honolulu Star-Bulletin on October 27, 2002, appearing weekly on Sundays (until the last two weeks of 2008, Saturdays thereafter), until June 12, 2010, when the Honolulu Advertiser and the Star-Bulletin merged.

Edited by K. Laiana Wong and R. Kekeha Solis, of the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa, each column (appx. 600 words) includes a brief English synopsis. As of July 19, 2014, 613 consecutive weekly columns had appeared (not published Feb. 14, 2009). Column topics are eclectic, usually related to the Hawaiian community, but including world news and sports, etc.

Over 100 authors have contributed, with over 400 of the articles divided among four, Kekeha Solis (178), Kūpopou (152), Laiana Wong (117), and Keao NeSmith (47). (as of July 19, 2014)

All of the columns appeared online, and almost all can be accessed in the newspaper archives via links in the index. (Some two dozen not available in the archives are linked to scans of the original newspaper columns.) Star Bulletin archived pages from 9/28/2008-6/5/2010 are apparently "working copies" of the columns, and do not show the author's name, nor necessarily the correct publication date of the print edition. Authors and correct dates are shown in the index.


Marshallese-English
Austronesian Comparative
Kiribati-English
Pohnpeian-English

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