The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

Joseph P. Gaimard and Jacques Arago's List
(1819)

The Uranie, a French ship commanded by Capt. Louis de Freycinet, was engaged in an exploring and scientific voyage, the principal object of which "…was the investigation of the figure of the earth, and of the elements of terrestrial magnetism ...". It arrived in Hawaii on August 8, 1819 and left August 30. Jacques Arago held the position of draftsman on the voyage.

In his narrative, Arago included a note of appreciation for Joseph P. Gaimard, "second surgeon" aboard the Uranie, that justifies including him not only a co-author, but as one who deserves first billing for the linguistic material. About ten years later, Gaimard was a member of the Dumont d'Urville expedition, again collecting words from Pacific languages.

adapted from Albert J. Schütz, "Voices of Eden" pp. 38-39.

analyzed and annotated by Albert J. Schütz


click on column heading to sort

num.list wordmodern Hawaiianlist gloss
1.Po-hopoʻoHead
2.La-hélaeForehead
3.MakamakaEye
4.KouamakakuʻemakaEye-brow
5.RiriilihilihiEye-lashes
6.Onoe, or Onoiʻōnohi ('eyeball') ʻūpoʻi maka ('eyelid')Eye-lid
7.IouihuNose
8.Ouka ioupuka ihuNostril
9.Oua-hawahaMouth
10.Léréeh or LérichleheleheLips
11.Niou or NiohounihoTooth
12.Niou ririniholiʻiliʻi ('small tooth') niho ʻaki ('incisors')Incisors
13.Niou noui or kouiniho nui / kuʻiGrinder
14.AréroualeloTongue
15.Paparénapāpālina ('cheek')Neck
16.PéïahouhpepeiaoEar
17.Oumi-oumihʻumiʻumiBeard
18.Aouhé or Aou-aiʻauwaeChin
19.Aï, Pouhahior, or Nihouʻāʻī, pūʻāʻīNeck
20.Oumouma or OumaoumaumaumaBreast
21.Opou or ObouʻōpūBelly
22.pico or picoupikoNavel
23.Oua-hiouwaiūBreast
24.Poivi or Pouarépoʻohiwi, ___Shoulder
25.IviréïiwileiCollarbone
26.Oé-OéhoehoeShoulderblade
27.IbikoumoiwikuamoʻoBackbone
28.Kioua or Kouamokua, kuamoʻoBack
29.Kikar'kīkalaLumbar region
30.PapakourépāpākolePosteriors
31.KoékohePrivate parts of a female
32.Pané-Pané or aïpaninpai, aiSexual connection
33.Rima-RimalimalimaArm
34.Poë-hépoʻēʻēArmpit
35.Aï Rima? ʻami limaElbow-joint, bend of the arm
36.Akarimaʻeke ('shrink') lima ('hand')Fist
37.Kouarimakua limaBack of the hand
38.Pohorimapoho limaPalm of the hand
39.Rima Nouhilima nuiThumb
40.Mekipoïlimameke poi / miki poiFore-finger
41.Piréhou? pili ___Middle-finger
42.PiripiliRing-Finger
43.Limeïkilima ikiLittle finger
44.Maïo-houmaiʻao, māiʻuʻuNail
45.OuhaʻūhāThigh
46.KourikuliKnee
47.Ouha-OuhaïwāwaeLeg
48.Orou-OrouʻoloʻoloCalf of the leg
49.Kapouaï-oua-ouaïkapuaʻi ('foot sole, foot print')Foot
50.Okoua-oua-ouaïkuʻe wāwaeInstep
51.Poho-oua-ouaïpoho wāwaeSole of the foot
52.Poupou-oua-ouaïpuʻupuʻu wāwaeAnkle
53.Kasué-kaué-ouaouakuʻekuʻe wāwaeHeel
54.Riké-riké___Toe
55.Oua-oua-nouïwāwae nuiGreat-toe
56.Mana-mana-nouïmanamana nuiSecond-toe
57.Manéa nouï___ nuiThird-toe
58.Manéa nouï___ nuiFourth-toe
59.Mané éhï___Fifth-toe
60.Koué-KouékuʻekuʻeElbow
61.Ouriou-Riou, or RiouriouʻO LiholihoName of the present King
62.Erinouhialiʻi nuiKing
63.AïpouipuCalebash
64.PaparépāpaleHat
65.Pahpā₃ ('pearl shell hook')Fish-hook
66.Poumahpuna₂ ('coral, lime, plaster, whitewash')Chalk
67.PapipipāpipiFruit of a cactus
68.Kenou___Canoe
69.Toua-o, or Pipépi___, pipipiCerithium, shell of which bracelets are made
70.Roré? loleString by which it is fixed to the wrist
71.Créahouaré___ huali ('shining ___')Ring
72.RoréloleFemale apparel
73.Ouaïtaï nouʻo wai ka inoaWhat is the name of that?
74.AoukéoukéhāʻukeʻukeSea-egg with points
75.Manana or Maïamanana ('sweet potato'), maiʻaBanana
76.Ouraula ('lobster')Banina serrata (crustac.)
77.Pou. The animal Io-Pou, ʻiʻo Large Vice, (shell)
78.Poulépi or Réo ipūleho, leho ('cowrie')Cypraea [cowrie]
79.OhourépiʻōlepeBivalve ridgy shell
80.Oé-aïʻōkaʻi ('moth')Sphinx [hawk moth]
81.MohomoʻoGecko, species of lizard
82.Pinaounaonao ('ant')Myrmeleon [ant lion]
83.Tanacapa___Ichneumon [fly]
84.PoupoupūpūBulimus, univalve shell
85.ManoumanuBird
86.OuanawanaSea-egg
87.KoréakōleaSnipe
88.AhamahʻaʻamaBrown crab with some white points
89.Corérévas? pololiaSea-blubber [jellyfish]
90.AounouïuhuBalistes [triggerfish or file fish]
91.ObibiʻōpihiPatella
92.RimoulimuA new Polyupus, with tubes pierced at the end
93.AdodouéhākuʻekuʻeSmall black sea-egg (echinus atratus)
94.Ouré, or OuraulaPalinurus, (crustac.)
95.ErépiʻelepīBrown crab
96.Erérpiʻelelū ('cockroach')Xakerlat
97.O-OuʻōʻōSparrow, with yellow head
98.Coréa Ouririkōlea ʻuliliBird of the Hymantopus species, with a long greyish bill
99.Rouhi___Small yellowish woodpecker
100.ErépéïoʻelepaioGnat-catcher, spotted black and white, brown back
101.Ha-aʻāʻā ('booby bird')Brown Albatross
102.AraïʻalaeWater-hen
103.Pinahoupinao ('dragonfly')Libellula
104.PouDolium, univalve shell
105.PouéhoupueoOwl
106.Oura-Louapulelehua ('butterfly')Brilliant sphinx [moth]
107.Ou nihiʻūhiniGrasshopper
108.Kakiki___Cypraea [cowrie]
109.Papaïpāpapa ('coral reef')Small coral
110.TaokaoGoat
111.ToroakoloaDuck
112.Nounounūnū₃ ('trumpet fish')Syngnathus [seaweed pipefish]
113.Inaréa noucoeirihīnālea nuku ʻiʻiwi ('wrasse')Fistularia tabaccaria (fish)
114.Maï-iimāʻiʻiʻi ('surgeonfish')Balistes
115.Marémale ('young uhu')Blackish labrus
116.KarakalaNaso, with a white border
117.NéhounehuSmall silver fish
118.Orouma Mahaouvetamoano, weke ('goatfish')Elegant labrus, with a red stripe, bordered with violet on each side; reddish candal fin
119.Opouréʻōpule ('wrasse')Labrus, with white spots
120.A-ourou-ourouhāʻulaʻula ('reddish')Reddish labrus
121.Obouéʻoʻopu hue ('balloon fish')Large fish of Owhyhee
122.Aounonouhienenue ('pilot fish')Balistes niger
123.Raou-ahoulauhauYellow chetodon [butterfly fish]
124.Mamamohmamamo ('sergeant fish')Chetodon, with black vertical stripes
125.AouracʻaunakiPiece of wood to light the fire
126.Aourimaʻau limaPiece of wood to rub with
127.Aoupéna? ʻupena ('net')Thread which serves as tow
128.Taoutilau ('ti leaf')Leaves of the tree, from whose root ava is made
129.AnouénouéānuenueRainbow
130.IrouhiluLabrus, with a blackish dorsal fin
131.Ouralhulali ('sea cucumber')A fish, with a flat head
132.Titiikikiki ('small ʻōpakapaka')Chetodon, with yellow and black stripes
133.OuahoukéwaukePaper mulberry
134.PakapakaTobacco
135.Papaïépapaia (hēʻī, mikana)Papay-tree
136.ToauroulouluFern palm-tree
137.Koahoukoa, koaiʻaLarge tree, with yellow blossoms
138.Ioa___Double canoe
139.Oïaʻōhiʻa ('type of wood')Cross pieces, arched, which unite the double canoes
140.EaouʻiakoStraight cross pieces
141.Néhou or NihouniuCocoa-nut tree
142.CoucouïkukuiA kind of fruit which tastes like rancid or rotten nuts
143.EbouipuVases made of calebashes
144.OronaolonāSmall cord
145.OoohoHair
146.Akiékiʻekiʻe ('tall')Tail
147.To or TohouSugar cane
148.Mahoumauʻu ('grass')Sea-weed
149.PiripiliFine straw which covers the cabins
150.Aré-Taméhaméhaaliʻi KamahamehaPowder-box
*)
151.MaromaloGirdle
152.Léhi-halalei halaNecklace made of the fruit of the Pandanus
153.Ipou-o-kio-kioipu hōkiokioMusical instrument made of the calebash
154.Ipoutou-lavé? ipu kuha lawe ('gourd spit take')Spitting box
155.PoépoiGround taro
156.Oiaou or Atoua? heiau, akuaPlaces where hogs, bananas, & c. are
157.MamomamoCrown of yellow feathers
158.nocounukuNeak
159.Oua-hawahaTongue of a bird
160.PékékéoupekekeuWing
161.VavaiwāwaeFoot or claw
162.PoupouapuapuaTail
163.OpouhouʻōpūBelly
164.Ouma-oumaumaumaBreast
165.Véri-Vériwelowelo ('float'), weliweli ('dreadful')Float
166.AounoamaCurved pieces, which sustain the float abaft
167.AtéaʻākeaTransom, large knee, or piece of wood which terminates each extremity of the canoe
168.Touno? nohona waʻaBenches for the rowers
169.Touno-toé___ hoePaddle
170.Ohoupou, kiaMast
171.PéapeʻaSail
172.EbouipuCalebash to bail out water
173.Pépéïahoupapa ___ hoePlank where the rowers sits
174.ToakoaPrincipal part of the canoe
175.AaʻahaCord which fastens the pieces of the canoe
176.OulouʻuluBread-fruit tree
177.EeiahʻōhiʻaTomato or love-apple
178.PoaMelon
179.MacanamakanaAny present
180.AhoréʻaʻoleNo I won't
181.TourinakūlinaMaize
182.ParorokāloloA liquor for rubbing the hair
183.Païtouïtouïpāʻū ('skirt') kuʻikuʻi ('joined') kuikui ('strung together')Waist-cloth of a woman
184.ʻie ('a vine')*Helmet of a warrior from the Sandwich Islands
*perhaps woven into shape for a helmet
185.Péaï, or Léourou, or MahouroupeʻahiFan
186.Eiéhe iʻePiece of wood with which they beat the bark of the paper mulberry tree to make cloth
187.Ek-kouahe kuaWood on which it [kapa] is beat
188.Makaou___Grape
189.Okéou inaïhōkeo ___ inuCovered calebash
190.Poachou or PoatupōhakuStone hammer
191.ahiFire
192.Agounigouniʻākulikuli kula ('purslane')Purslain
193.Toaïékoaiʻe ('type of tree like koa') kakaka ('bow')Bow
194.PouapuaArrow
195.Mamanémāmane ('hard wood')*Arrow-head
*parhaps used for this thing
196.Mamanémāmane ('hard wood')*Great spear
*parhaps used for this thing
197.Ouléi, Toaïéʻūlei, koaiʻePointed stick like a spindle,used at a game
198.MouhénamoenaMat
199.NoonohoBench
200.Paoupahu ('box, trunk')Trunk
201.Lapalapalapalapa ('many ridged')Square bottle
202.OmoréʻōmoleRound bottle
203.Omoré anéanéʻōmole anianiWhite chrystal decanter
204.Ti-ia anéanékīʻaha anianiCup
205.MakaïlémakahikiYear
206.Ma aïna, or Taïromahina, kāʻeloMonth
207.CoKū₁₀First day of the month
208.MeïtéïmaikaʻiGood: it is well: it is good
209.OuaïnéwahineWoman
210.Aloa or Aro-haalohaGood-day; I love you well
211.AboboʻapōpōTo-morrow
212.Cacaou or TataoukākauTattooing
213.Ahaï or AtaïʻakahiOne
214.ArouaʻaluaTwo
215.AcorouʻakoluThree
216.A-haʻahāFour
217.ArimaʻalimaFive
218.AonoʻaonoSix
219.Aïkon* or Aïton*ʻahikuSeven
*231 Aïkou Kanaa)
220.A-ouarouʻawaluEight
221.AïwaʻaiwaNine
222.Oumiʻumiten
223.Oumi Koumou Makaïʻumi kumamākahiEleven
224.Oumi Koumou Marouaʻumi kumamāluaTwelve
225.Oumi Koumou Macorou, & c.ʻumi kumamākoluThirteen
226.KanarouakanaluaTwenty
*iwakālua today
227.kanakoronakanakoluThirty
228.KanaakanahāForty
229.Aroua Kanaaʻalua kanahāFifty
230.Aono Kanaaʻaono kanahāSixty
231.Aïkou Kanaaʻahiku kanahāSeventy
232.A-Ouarou Kanaaʻawalu kanahāEighty
233.Aïva Kanaaʻaiwa kanahāNinety

REFERENCES

Arago, Jacques. 1823. Narrative of a Voyage Round the World in the Uranie and Physicienne Corvettes, commanded by Captain Freycinet, during the years 1817, 1818, 1819, and 1820 ... London: Treuttel and Wurtz. Reprinted in 1971 as Bibliotheca Australiana no. 45, New York: Da Capo. xxx, 285, 297, [2]. [Translation from the French original. Vocabulary of 236 words and some brief notes on consonant alternation, pp. 291–94.]

Arago, Jacques. 1839–1840. Souvenirs d’un aveugle. Voyage autour du monde par m. J. Arago, ouvrage enrichi de soixante dessins et de notes scientifiques. 5 vols. Paris: Hortet et Ozanne. [Duplicates the list found in the the 1823 publication, v. 4, pp. 402–10.]