The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

William Ellis: Artemas Bishop's List
(1825)

William Ellis (1794–1872) was an English missionary and author. He traveled through the Society Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Madagascar, and wrote several books describing his experiences. He first arrived in Honlulu on April 16, 1822, with a small group from Tahiti, returning in August. He brought his family to Hawaii, arriving on the Active on February 4, 1823. In June 1823 Ellis joined American Missionaries on a tour of the island of Hawaiʻi, to investigate suitable sites for mission stations. Returning to Honolulu, he learned the Hawaiian language, transcribed the language into a roman alphabet and helped set up a printing press. In August 1824, because of his wife's poor health, he returned to England, where he published his narrative of his travels in Hawaii.   (adapted from Wikipedia: William Ellis)

In one of the appendices to the book, he included a list of 248 Hawaiian words with English glosses, based on "a larger vocabulary… prepared by the Rev. Artemas Bishop (1795-1872), the American Missionary… A copy of the original manuscript was procured by Mr. Pickering early in 1825, and has [been] obligingly lent…"

However, Bishop was unaware of the publication, and wrote to the ABCFM, Boston, in November, 1826, "…I was not a little surprised to find extracts from a very imperfect & faulty vocabulary… which I should have been unwilling to have any part published without corrections…" Bishop listed 61 forms to be corrected, ending his letter, "I regret very much that the few words taken from my vocabulary should need so many corrections … the greatest source of error was mistaking one letter for another…" Future editions of Ellis's book published a much shorter list, not coinciding with the original. (see references)

adapted from Albert J. Schütz, "Voices of Eden" pp. 214-16.

In the list below, Bishop's corrections have been made, and original words indicated in square brackets. Many glosses have been corrected. Numerous examples of 'u' misread as 'a' can be found, which, among other misinterpretations, suggest that Ellis's understanding of Hawaiian was inferior to Bishop's...

analyzed and annotated by Laiana Wong,
Bishop's corrections added by Trussel


click on column heading to sort

num.list wordmodern Hawaiianlist gloss
1.Aaand
2.Arakoualakō₁ ('to drag, pull along')to drag
3.Akeaketo desire
4.Akiʻakito bite, as, to bite off thread
5.A-Aʻaʻāa stone, stony
6.Amitaʻāmika ('relish'; cf. Andrews: amika, 'to desire food or drink')to desire food or drink
7.Aaaaʻa₂ ('joyous hospitality')social, friendly, hospitable
8.Aeʻaeyes
9.Aiʻain. food, v. to eat
10.Aiʻāʻīthe neck
11.Aiaaiathere
12.Aoʻao₃ ('ship's biscuit'), ao₁ ('daylight'), ao₃ ('world'), ʻau₃ ('handle')bread, daylight, the world, a handle
13.Auau₂ ('current'), ʻau₁ ('swim')n. current, tide, v. to swim
14.AuauI
15.Auau [Anau]ʻauʻauto bathe, to touch the body
16.Aihamuʻai hamuto eat voraciously the refuse food
17.Aihueʻaihuev. to steal, n. a thief
18.Aikaneaikānea friend of the same sex, who is in the habit of giving and receiving on terms of friendship and civility
19.Ainaʻāinaland, island, country, farm, lot
20.Aipupuuʻāʻīpuʻupuʻuone who serves another for his food, a servant
21.A i luna [Aulana]ai luna ('up there')these above
22.Aonoʻaonosix
23.Aoheʻaʻohenot
24.Aumoeaumoemidnight, or a very late hour
25.Aupuniaupunikingdom, state of peace, undisturbed state of a nation
26.Auwaeʻauwaethe chin
27.Ahaʻahā ('four')four, in number [sour]
28.Ahaoleloʻahaʻōlelo ('legislature, talking group')a deliberative body, to consult together in a body, to put to trial in presence of a council, Judgment
29.Ahiahifire
30.Ahiahiahiahievening
31.Ahituʻahikuseven
32.Ahoahothe breath, patience, kindess, forbearance
33.Ahupuaaahupuaʻa ('land division')a small division of land with houses. (Kulanakauhale is a city)
34.Akaakaakākaclear, intelligible, transparent
35.Akahiʻakahione, first
36.Akakaʻakāka ('clear'), kaka ('rinse')to cleanse
37.Akamaiakamaisagacious, skilful, expert, wise, intelligent, ingenious, artful
38.Akeaākeawide, broad
39.Akolu or Akoruʻakoluthree, third
40.Akuaakuaa deity, God, spirit, any supernatural being, any object of religious homage
41.Akua la puakua lapu (kiapolō)an evil spirit, the devil (Kebilo.)
42.Alaalato wake, to watch, to be careful
43.Alalaʻalalāto cry
44.Alakaialakaʻito lead, to conduct, to guide
45.Alanaʻālanaan offering
46.Alaniʻalanithe orange
47.Aleʻalea wave, a billow
48.Aleloalelothe tongue
49.Alii [or arii]aliʻiking, chief, & c.
50.Alima, or Arimaʻalimafive
51.Alua, or Aruaʻaluatwo
52.Anaanacavern, cave, sepulchre
53.Anianianianiglass
54.Anoʻānōnow
55.Anahulu [Ana hura]anahulua period of ten days
56.Anuenueānuenuethe rainbow
57.Apopoʻapōpōtomorrow
58.Arohaalohathe common salutation at meeting and parting; affection, love, gratitudew, thanks, sympathy, pity, gried
59.Aroha oealoha ʻoelove to you, peace to you
60.Avaawaa valley, a harbour, a passage between two reefs
61.Awawaawāwaa valley
62.Avaruʻawalueight
63.Bono, or ponoponotrue, right, straight, correct, proper
64.Bakapakatobacco
65.Botipokia boat
66.Bukepukea book
67.EʻēYes; in answer to a question, and in acknowledging the common salutation
68.eeeʻeto mount, to leap upon
69.Eeuʻeleuready, quick, expert, diligent; also foolhardy, headstrong, & c.
70.Eu? ʻeu ('to crawl along')to go, to march
71.Ehaʻehāfour
72.Ekeuʻēkeua wing
73.Ekekeuʻekekeua pair of wings
74.Emoʻemo ('delay')slow
75.Emooreʻemo ʻoleshortly, soon
76.Haaheo [haahe]haʻaheoproud, magnificent
77.Haawihāʻawito give, to forgive
78.Haehaea flag, the colours of a ship
79.haihaʻito tell, to relate
80.Hoihoi [Haihai]hoihoito rejoice in, to be pleased with
81.Haohaoiron
82.Haumanahaumānascholar, disciple
83.Haku [Haka]hakulord, chief
84.Halehalehouse
85.Halilihāliʻito spread a table
86.Hanaihānaito feed
87.Hanau [Haanaa]hānauto be born
88.Hanikahainakāa handkerchief
89.Hawawahāwāwāfoolish
90.Hea, or Kahea [Hahea]hea, kāheato call
91.[Heao]he aʻo ('learn'), he ao ('cloud')v. to learn, n. a cloud
*Bishop: omit, no such word
92.[Heamihi]hea mihi ('call of repentence') ? he maikaʻigood
*Bishop: omit, no such word
93.[Heina]he inudrink
*Bishop: omit, no such word
94.Hekilihekilithunder
95.Heleuma [Heleama]heleumaan anchor
96.He 'lii moku [He' lii moka]he aliʻi mokua ship-captain
97.Heohohe ohohair
98.Hewa, or hevahewawrong, improper, sinful; n. sin, error
99.Hewilahe uilalightning
100.Hiamoehiamoeto sleep
101.Hiapohiapoonly begotten
102.Hiilanihiʻilanito exalt
103.Hiuhiu₁ ('haul energetically with ropes')to pull upon a sail or anchor
104.Hinanahīnaʻia basket
105.Hoahanauhoahānaua cousin; relative
106.Hoeulehoe ulirudder, helm
107.Hōkū [Hoka, or Hota]hōkūa star
108.Honihonito join noses
109.Honuahonuaearth
110.Horoiholoito wash
111.Hoomakaukauhoʻomākaukauto prepare
112.Hokekehaʻukeke ('to shiver')cold, shivering
*Bishop: omit, not such word in that use
113.Huehue, ʻaihuea thief
114.Iaiʻa ('fish'), ia ('he, she, it')fish; also, he, she, it
115.Iakoʻiako₂ ('forty tapas, canoes, feathers')forty
116.Iheihea spear
117.Iheaināhea ('when past') āhea ('when future')when
118.Ihoihov. to descend; adv. recently, lately, just now
119.Ihuihuthe nose
120.Ihu loihiihu lōʻihilong nose
121.Ioleʻiolemouse
122.Ikaika, or itaitaiikaikastrong, powerful
123.Ikeʻiketo see, to perceive, to understand
*I have just seen your letter. Ua ʻike iho nei au i ka palapala; I understand even all your letter. Ua ʻike au a pau loa i ko palapala.
124.Ilaila [Ilaida, or Ilaila; Iraida, or Iraira]i lailathere
125.Iliahiʻiliahisandal-wood
126.Iliʻiliskin, bark, rind
127.Ilioʻīlioa dog
128.Iloiloa worm
129.Imi [Imo]ʻimito seek, to search after
130.Imuai muabefore
131.Inainainainato hate, to be angry
132.Ineinainainato despise
*Bishop: omit, it is the same as Inaina
133.Inehineii nehineiyesterday
134.Inoʻinoadj. bad, vile, wicked, sinful; n. iniquity, depravity; also, a blow, a squall, a storm
135.Inoinoʻinoʻinovery bad
136.Inoainoaa name
137.InuInuto drink
*Drink ye the good water. E inu ʻoukou i ka wai ʻono
138.Ivi, or Iwiiwibone, shell, the hard part of a cane
139.Ivipoiwi poʻo ('head bone, skull')the skull
140.Kaikai₁ ('sea'), kai₃ ('My, how much! How very! How terrific!')n. the sea; adj. great, intense
141.Kaikaikeikaikapowerful
*Bishop: omit, substitute ikaika
142.Kaikaina [Kaikaine]kaikainaa younger brother of a brother or younger sister of a sister
143.Kaikunanekaikunānethe brother of a sister
144.Kaikuwahinekaikuahinethe sister of a brother
145.Kao [Kae]kaoa goat
146.Kaua [Kaaa]kauawar
147.Kaukamakaʻukamaa cucumber
148.Kahakaikahakaithe beach, the sea shore
149.Kahunakahunaa priest
150.Kamaakāmaʻashoes
151.Kamailiokamaʻilioconversation
152.Kaniaikaniʻāʻīthe throat
*Bishop: omit, Ai is throat
153.Kanakakanakaman
154.Kalakālā ('dollar') (cf makakāʻalā)a dollar; also applied to spectacles called makakala
155.Kapikikapikia cabbage
156.Keiki papakeiki papaa resident
157.Keikimahinekaikamahinea daughter
158.Keikikeikia child, a son
159.Keikuanakaikuaʻanaan elder brother
160.Koakoaa soldier
161.Kokokokoblood
162.Kulinakūlinamaize
163.Kuahivikuahiwia mountain
164.Kuonokūʻonoa bay
165.Kupunekanekupuna kānea grandfather
166.Kupunewhainekupuna wahinea grandmother
167.Kupapaukupapaʻua corpse
168.Laa [Lau]laua leaf
169.lawoholauohohair
170.Leoleoa voice
171.Lii [Liia]cold
172.Liolioa horse
173.Lipilipiaxe or hatchet
174.Lima [Limalima]limathe hand
175.Lolelolecloth
176.Mahinamahinathe moon
177.Maitaimaikaʻigood
178.Makamakathe eye
179.Makemaketo die
180.Manavamanawatime
181.Manomanōa shark
182.Meameaa thing
183.Moanamoanathe ocean, applied only to the broad expanse of waters
184.Monimonito swallow
185.Muliwai [Muluwai]muliwaia river
186.Naunāu ('for you, by you...')thou
187.Naianaiʻaa porpoise
188.Naninanibeautiful, handsome
189.Niho, or Ninonihoteeth
190.Nihinihi [Ninehi]nihinihi ('petals')circular
191.Nuinuigreat
192.Nuinuinuinui (Andrews: 'to be large, very great')very large
193.Oia [Oe ala]ʻo iahe, she, or it
194.Oeʻoethou
195.Oe Neʻo ia neithou
*Bishop: omit
196.Oiʻoisharp
197.Oiaiʻoiaiwhilst
198.Oi ihooi₁ ihoto descend
199.Ohanaʻohanaa brood of any living creatures of one sort (ohua is the word for family)
200.Ohule [Ohale]ʻōhulebaldheaded
201.Ohiʻohito gather, to collect together, as food
202.Ohiaʻōhiʻaapple
203.Olaolan. life, salvation; v. to be safe, to be alive
204.Onaʻonadrunken
205.Olula [Olala, or orara]ʻōluloperson shipwrecked
206.Umauma [Omaoma]umaumabosom
207.Onoheʻōnohithe eyeball
208.Opuʻōpūthe belly
209.Oreoreʻōleʻōle₂ ('rant')a noise
*Bishop: no such word for noise
210.Lohe [Orohe]lohe ('hear')to hear
211.Lono [Orono]lono ('news, report')to regard
212.Oukou [Oukoa]ʻoukou ('you three or more')you
213.Ououthou, thine
214.Pahipahiknife, sword
215.Paa pupaʻapūaltogether
216.Pepeiao [Pepeido]pepeiaothe ear
217.PerikanePelekaneBritain
218.Ponight
219.poopoʻothe head
220.Poeleelepōʻeleʻeledarkness
221.Poulipōulido [dark]
222.Puoa [Puola]pūʻoʻa ('tomb')a tomb, enclosed with long poles in the manner of a cone. [comb]
223.Ranakiralanakilaa conqueror
224.Tamaitikamaikia son
225.Uūthe breasts, milk, & c.
226.Ualaʻualapotatoes
227.Uaoʻuaoto interpose between two parties at a variance, to intercede
228.Ua [U'a]uarain
229.Ue [Uee]to cry
230.Uharuuhalu (Andrews: 'hungry; weak from hunger')hungry
231.Uhaneʻuhanea spirit, the soul
232.Ukana waiwaiukana waiwaigoods, commodities
233.Uku [Uka]ukuwages, compensation
234.Ulaʻulared
235.Umeteʻumekea calabash
236.Umiʻumiten
237.Umikamariiʻumi kamaliʻiinfanticide
238.Umu [Uma]umu = imu ('underground oven')a place for baking, an oven
239.Upena [Upine]ʻupenaa net
240.Watime
241.Wahie [Wahia]wahie ('firewood')wood
242.Waiwaiwater
243.Waia [Waiu]waiūmilk
244.Wahawahamonth [mouth]
245.Walaau [Walaaa]walaʻau ('talk, speak, shout')noise
246.Waimakawaimakatears
247.Wainawainawine
248.Witi, or Witiwitiwikiwikiquick, swift

REFERENCES

Ellis, William. 1825. A Journal of a Tour around Hawaii, the Largest of the Sandwich Islands by a Deputation from the Mission on Those Islands. Boston: Crocker and Brewster. xii, [13]–264 pp. ["The following Journal was drawn up by Mr. Ellis, from minutes kept by himself, and by his associates on the tour (Asa Thurston, Charles S. Stewart, Artemas Bishop, Joseph Goodrich), who subsequently gave it their approbation" (p. vii). In this edition, the comments on the language (pp. 243–52) are confined to a short discussion of the alphabet, including "interchangeable letters." The word list is the fuller one (248 items, based on vocabulary collected by Artemas Bishop and used without his permission), with italicized forms matching those in Catherine the Great’s "radical words," and a very large number of mistakes and misprints. "General remarks on the Polynesian language. Copied from the Introduction to a Grammar of the Tahitian Dialect of the Polynesian Language printed by the English Missionaries at the Society Islands, in 1823," pp. 252–54. "Vocabulary of the Fejeean language," from John Pickering’s copy of William P.Richardson() 's word list, collected in 1811, pp. 254–58. In the 1826 edition (London), the Appendix was expanded considerably to include a discussion of the language family, the alphabet, "defects" and "excellencies" of the language, and a grammatical sketch. The word list was corrected and shortened to seventy-four words, including hokú ‘star’, with the final long vowel marked with an acute accent. The 1979 edition, based on the 1827 edition, includes on the title page: With an introduction by Thurston Twigg-Smith and an introduction to the new edition by Terence Barrow, Ph.D. Rutland, VT, & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company. xxiv, 363 pp. [In the appendix, "Remarks on the Hawaiian language" (pp. 334–42), approximately three pages of pronoun paradigms have been omitted.]