The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

J.S.C. Dumont d’Urville's List
(1834)

Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French explorer, naval officer and rear admiral, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. He visited the Pacific on a voyage round the world in 1826-1829, and published a comparative study of six Austronesian languages: Malagasy, Malay, Māori, Tongan, Tahitian, and Hawaiian, using predominately published sources. The following is a translation of the section regarding Hawaiian in the text accompanying his Vocabulary:
Our resources for the dialect of Hawaii or the Sandwich Islands were much more limited. We had to content ourselves with what we found in Anderson's vocabulary, and a number of words collected and disclosed by Mr. Gaimard. In poring carefully over the narration of Ellis on his stay in Hawaii, we were able to add another hundred of so words to the first list, and to verify those from other sources.1

(1Not long ago we were shown a fairly extensive Hawaiian vocabulary, but we were not allowed to make use of it, which would have otherwise allowed us to complete the Hawaiian list in our comparative vocabulary. This is all the more unfortunate because the person who collected the vocabulary does not seem willing to publish it himself. So we must therefore wait until the English Missionaries finally provide what they have long promised.)

"Observations on the dialects of the Polynesian Language", pp. 265-66. (original text below)

analyzed and annotated by Laiana Wong


click on column heading to sort

num.list wordmodern Hawaiianlist glossFrench
1.Hi, iito, towardA
2.Hanauhānaugive birthAccoucher
3.HahahanaactionAction
4.PihipiliadhereAdhérer
5.PororipōlolifamishedAffamé
6.Arohaalohalike, loveAimer
7.PelapēlāthusAinsi
8.Makanimakaniair, windAir
9.Hereheleto goAller
10.Ouna, ava___, ʻawabitterAmer
11.OhahoafriendAmi
12.Koumou? kumu ('base, bottom, source')anusAnus
13.RahaulāʻautreeArbre
14.Houtihoutihukihukipull out, tear outArracher
15.NohonohositAsseoir(s')
16.Atira? a kena ('until quenched')enoughAssez
17.Ariaaliato waitAttendre
18.Paha? paʻa*blindAveugle
*perhaps - paʻa ka maka 'shut, closed eyes'
19.OheʻohebambooBambou
20.Oumi oumiʻumiʻumibeardBarbe
21.Pepehipepehito beatBattre
22.Nouïnuimuch, plenty, lotsBeaucoup
23.Teou teou, keo keo, keakeʻokeʻowhiteBlanc
24.Nakea___white menBlancs (hommes)
25.Inouinuto drinkBoire
26.Rahaulāʻauwood, forestBois
27.Maï, taïmaikaʻigoodBon
28.WahawahamouthBouche
29.Hounahūnāto hideCacher
30.Mariemāliecalm, quietCalme
31.Laelaepromontory, headlandCap, pointe
32.Maromalo ('loincloth')beltCeinture
33.TerakēlāthatCela
34.Raaulau ('four hundred')one hundredCent
35.HoïahoʻicertainlyCertainement
36.Merimeleto singChanter
37.PapalepāpalehatChapeau
38.VerawelahotChaud
39.Eri, alihi, kanakiraaliʻi, ___high chiefChef, grand
40.La wouhou, oholauoho, ohohairCheveux
41.IlioʻīliodogChien
42.MeameathingChose
43.Rani, lanilanisky, heavenCiel
44.RimalimafiveCinq
45.Niauniu / nīʻau ('midrib of frond')coconutCoco (noix)
46.NahonaʻauheartCoeur
47.TourakaularopeCorde
48.Kinokinobody, trunkCorps, tronc
49.ʻāʻīneckCou
50.IbouipucupCoupe, tasse
51.OtiʻokicutCouper
52.Rere? lele ('jump, fly')to runCourir
53.Tipi? kipi ('to dig with sharp tool')knifeCouteau
54.OpaïʻōpaecrabCrabe
55.Oumaï? imu, umu, ʻoma ('oven')cooking, kitchenCuisine
56.OuwhaaʻūhāthighCuisse
57.I rotoi lokoin, insideDans, dedans
58.OurahuladanceDanse
59.No, ono, oofDe
60.KouuprightDebout (être)
61.Wawahiwāwahitear, ripDéchirer
62.Apa? hape ('mistake' Maori)fault, errorDéfaut
63.Rahoui, tabou? rāhui (Tah.), kapunot permittedDéfendu, non permis
64.AboboʻapōpōtomorrowDomain
65.NihiounihotoothDent
66.RoualuatwoDeux
67.Ake, makeake, makedesireDésirer
68.Diro, raroi lalounderDessous
69.Nouna, rounai lunaaboveDessus
70.AkouaakuagodDieu
71.Ourou, oumiʻumitenDix
72.Lehoulehuten thousandDix mille
73.Oto giveDonner
74.Omaï maigive meDonne-moi
75.Mohemoeto sleepDormir
76.Mahimaui ('bruise')painfulDouloureux, pénible
77.Nolou nolounolunolusoftDoux
78.VaïwaiwaterEau
79.WilauilalightningÉclair
80.Roheloheto listenÉcouter
81.Mirou, akea___abode of happiness, Elysium, paradiseÉlysée, paradis
82.Kaïkaï, tamakeiki, kamachildEnfant
83.Rere? lelerun away, escapeEnfuir(s')
84.Roheloheto hearEntendre
85.Po ivipoʻohiwishoulderÉpaule
86.Waneʻuhanespirit, natural feelingEsprit, naturel
87.Kapakapafabric from bark of treeÉtoffe en écorce d'arbre
88.HitouhōkūstarÉtoile
89.Ho orihaolestranger, foreignerÉtranger
90.Hahahanato act, to doFaire, agir
91.Wahinewahinefemale, womanFemelle, femme
92.AhiahifireFeu
93.RaulauleafFeuille
94.Kama itikamaikisonFils
95.Pari, pa kawapali ('cliff'), ('enclosure') kaua ('war')fortress, strongForteresse, fort
96.HehenahehenamadnessFou
97.Teïna, touanakaina, kuaʻanabrotherFrère
98.Anou, hokeka, toeanu, ___, koʻecoldFroid
99.Ma___palm leafFronde
100.RaelaeforeheadFront
101.NouïnuibigGrand
102.Ola, ouraola, hoʻōlato cureGuérir
103.Tawakaua ('war') / koa ('warrior')warriorGuerrier
104.TohikoʻiaxHache, herminette
105.Matau, pamakau, ('pearl shell fishhook')hookHameçon
106.Ineineïi nehineiyesterdayHier
107.Tanata, kanakakanakamanHomme
108.Narounaluswell, surgeHoule
109.VarouwalueightHuit
110.Iouneii ʻaneʻihereIci
111.OuhiuhiyamIgname
112.MokoumokuislandIle
113.Hohoʻōʻōcultivating toolInstrument pour la culture
114.WawaïwāwaelegJambe
115.Wau, auwau, auI, meJe, moi
116.Papa ringapāpālinacheekJoue
117.AhoaodayJour
118.Terera? ma laila, kēlā ('that')there
119.Hou, waïaū, waiūmilkLait
120.AieihespearLance, pique
121.RerouʻōlelolanguageLangage
122.Ererouelelo, alelotongueLangue
123.He, keke, hethe, aLe, un
124.Toustand upLever (se)
125.MohomoʻolizardLézard
126.NoanoafreeLibre
127.WahiwahiplaceLieu
128.Mohena, mohengamoenabed, sleeping matLit, natte pour dormir
129.TahitiKahikifarLoin
130.RoaloalongLong, étendu
131.Ia, nanaia, nāna ('for or by him')him, heLui, il
132.Mahina, maramamahina, malamamoonLune
133.Tawakauato fight againstLutter, combattre
134.Limalima, rimalimalima, limahandMain
135.Aheneïaʻe nei ('just-(in time)')now, present, at the momentMaintenant
136.Hare, halehalehouseMaison
137.Mahimaʻiill, illnessMal, maladie
138.MahimaʻisickMalade
139.Hou? waiūbreastMamelle
140.Haï, païnaʻai, pāʻinato eatManger
141.Apa? ʻapa ('to delay, waste time')to miss, to fail, to go wrongManquer
142.Waï lepowai lepomarsh, bog, swampMarais
143.TanekānehusbandMari
144.Hinoʻinowicked, evil, badMéchant, mauvais
145.Houïhuimixture, mingling, blendingMélange
146.Taï, kaï mitikai, kai miki ('receding sea')seaMer
147.Modoua vahinimakuahinemotherMère
148.Kou, naaukoʻu, naʻumine, myMien, mon
149.Rotolokomiddle, interiorMilieu, intérieur
150.ManomanothousandMille
151.Rahoi, dehoi? lahilahithin, slimMince
152.MonamaunamountainMontagne, mont
153.Mate, makemakedeadMort
154.NaronaloflyMouche
155.OnoʻonimovementMouvement
156.Parapalaripe, to ripenMûr, mûrir
157.OuʻauswimNager
158.Maoremaolinative, indigenousNatif, indigène
159.Ahouʻahu, ʻaʻahumat, mattingNatte
160.Tapakapabark matNatte en écorce
161.IvaiwanineNeuf (nombre)
162.HiouihunoseNez
163.Rana kira (vainqueur)lanakila (conqueror)noble, lordNoble, seigneur
164.Ere ere, eleleʻeleʻeleblackNoir
165.InoainoanameNom
166.PitopikonavelNombril
167.Aoe, aoreʻaʻohe, ʻaʻoleno, negationNon, négation
168.Kawa, mawakāua, māuawe, us (dual)Nous (duel)
169.Kakou, matoukākou, mākouwe (plural)Nous (pluriel)
170.Hopouaʻōpuacloud, haze, mist, gloom, shadow, (dejection)Nuage
171.Ponight, darknessNuit, ténèbres
172.Pouripouliobscure, darkObscur
173.Mata, kaonohimaka, ka ʻōnohieye, eyesOEil, yeux
174.ManoumanubirdOiseau
175.Maroumalushadow, shadeOmbre
176.MaïaomaiʻaofingernailOngles (de la main)
177.Pepe idopepeiaoearOreille
178.IviiwiboneOs
179.Tehea___ heawhere?Où?
180.ʻaeyesOui
181.OhehoepaddlePagaie
182.Pahoupahu ('box')palisade, fence inPalissade
183.Naïou, nawaï___perfume, odor, scentParfum
184.OreroʻōlelospeakParler
185.Ho, oʻō ('to answer')particle corresponding to thisParticule répondant à c'est
186.Wahiwahi ('place, site')sectionPartie
187.Halahalato depart, to be offPartir
188.Ouharaʻualasweet potatoPatate douce
189.IriʻiliskinPeau
190.OureulepenisPénis
191.Modoua tanemakua kānefatherPère
192.Ou outou, itiʻuʻukusmall, tinyPetit, mince
193.Matahoumakaʻufear, faint heartedPeureux, lâche
194.PahapahaperhapsPeut-être
195.WawaewāwaefootPied, patte
196.Poure? pali ('cliff, precipice')rock, high, steep cragPierre, rocher
197.Vahawaʻacanoe, shipPirogue, navire
198.Mimimimito piss, to make waterPisser
199.Rehaleʻato be pleased, to approve, acceptPlaire, agréer
200.RehaleʻapleasurePlaisir
201.Papapapaboard, plankPlanche
202.Aweto weep, to moanPleurer, gémir
203.OuauarainPluie
204.Ourou manouhulu manufeatherPlume
205.OhoohohairPoils
206.Koïra? ʻoipoint, pointedPointe, pointu
207.IhaiʻafishPoisson
208.Oumaumachest, breastPoitrine
209.IbouipupotPot
210.HoutouʻukulousePou
211.Moamoahen, fowlPoule
212.RepolepodustPoussière
213.Haohaoto take, snatch, seizePrendre, saisir
214.Tahouna, kahounekahunapriest, who knowsPrêtre, qui sait
215.Poulepuleto prayPrier
216.Oukouukuprice, valuePrix, valeur
217.Tabou, tafoukapuprohibitedProhibé, interdit
218.Roualuawell, pit, shaftPuits
219.HaafourQuatre
220.Te tahikekahia few, someoneQuelque, quelqu'un
221.Wawahiwāwahi ('to shatter, break')quarrel, brawlQuerelle
222.Ape, taroʻape ('taro-like plant'), kaloArum rootRacine d'Arum
223.Ti ('ti plant')Dracaena rootRacine de Dracaena
224.Hioreʻiolerat, mouseRat, souris
225.Miri mirimilimilito look atRegarder
226.Mango, manomanōsharkRequin
227.Ataʻalato laughRire
228.Kaha kaï, outakahakai, o ukashore, beachRivage, plage
229.Wati, motouwāhi, haki / mokuto breakRompre, brisé
230.Oura ouraʻulaʻularedRouge
231.Ara nouï, alaalanui, alaroadRoute
232.OneonesandSable
233.Taboukapuholy, inviolableSacré, inviolable
234.Repolepodirty, slovenly, untidySal, malpropre
235.Oniani ('beckon')salute, bow, cheer, to wave to , hailSaluer
236.KokokokobloodSang
237.OraolahealthSanté, salut
238.Naromaloʻodry, to drySec, sécher
239.PataïpaʻakaisaltSel
240.HitouhikusevenSept
241.Manaamana₇ ('a taboo house in a heiau')tomb, place to receive religious objects, altarSépulcre
242.OnoonosixSix
243.Ahai ahaiahiahieveningSoir
244.Ra, lasunSoleil (lumière du)
245.Ana, kanaāna, kānahisSon, sien
246.Ponoponosure, certainSûr, certain
247.Inoʻinostorm, hurricaneTempête, ouragan
248.Hena, honouaʻāina, honuaearth, groundTerre, terrain
249.PohopoʻoheadTête
250.Hoe, kauʻoe, kāu ('your')youToi, tu
251.BouoapūʻoʻatombTombe
252.HetirihekilithunderTonnerre
253.MariemālietranquilTranquille
254.Poutapukato cross, to go over or throughTraverser
255.ToroukoluthreeTrois
256.Pouta, boukapukaholeTrou
257.Tahi, kahikahioneUn
258.Hou maïhōʻea maito comeVenir
259.Matani, makani, ahomakani, ahe, aho ('breath')wind, breezeVent
260.OpouʻōpūbellyVentre
261.Ponoponotruth, trueVérité, vrai
262.Matemakeface, countenanceVisage, figure
263.HaïʻaifoodstuffsVivres
264.Ike, iteʻiketo seeVoir, aperce-voir
265.Horouaʻoluayou (two)Vous (duel)
266.Oukouʻoukouyou (plural)Vous (pluriel)
267.Ponoponotrue, exactVrai, exact
268.Hoouhoudrill, bore, augerVrille, foret
269.Onohi (prunelle)ʻōnohieye, look, pupilYeux, regard

REFERENCES

Dumont d’Urville, J .S. C. 1834. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe, éxecuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826—1827—1828—1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont(d) 'Urville. Paris: Ministère de la Marine. [Word list: pp. 196–306.]

Considérations sur les dialectes de la langue Polynésienne, pp 265-66.

Nos ressources pour le dialecte hawaii ou des îles Sandwich ont été bien plus limitées. Il a fallu nous contenter de ce que nous avons trouvé dans le vocabulaire d'Anderson, et d'un certain nombre de mots recueillis et communiqués par M. Gaimard. En compulsant attentivement la narration d'Ellis sur son séjour à Hawaii, nous avons réussi à ajouter une centaine de mots à cette première liste, et à vérifier ceux qui provenaient d'autres sources.1

(1Naguère on nous a montré un Vocabulaire hawaii assez étendu, mais on n'a point voulu nous permettre d'en prendre communication, ce qui nous eût mis à même de compléter la liste d'Hawaii dans notre Vocabulaire comparatif. Cela est d'autant plus fâcheux que la personne qui a recueilli ce Vocabulaire ne parait pas disposée à le publier elle-même. II faudra donc attendre que les Missionnaires anglais donnent enfin celui qu'ils promettent depuis longtemps.)