|Pukui & Elbert - 1986
Māmaka Kaiao - 2003-10
Lorrin Andrews - 1865
ʻaʻaliʻi [ʻaʻa·liʻi]. n. native hardwood shrubs or trees (Dodonaea, all species), 30 cm to 10 m
aʻe₁. n. several native trees, the soapberry (Sapindus saponaria f. inaequalis), and all species of Zanthoxylum (also known as Fagara, Zanthoxylum having yellowish wood formerly used for digging sticks and spears); seeds of all (largest in the soapberry) are black, round, and used for leis. also mānele. [PPN *ake, tree sp]
akaaka₃, akaka. n. a downy, thorny branching plant (Solanum aculeatissimum), 30 to 90 cm high, from tropical America. It bears round scarlet fruits 2.6 em in diameter, which are strung for leis. also kīkānia lei. (Neal 742–3)
aliʻipoe [aliʻi·poe]. n. the ornamental cannas (Canna indica, forms and hybrids), large tropical American herbs, with large oval or narrow leaves and large red or red and yellow flowers. The round black seeds are worn in leis and are also placed in fruit shells of the laʻamia for hula rattles. Cannas are both cultivated and wild in Hawaiʻi. also liʻipoe. (Neal 263–4)
ʻawapuhi keʻokeʻo [ʻawa·puhi keʻo·keʻo]. n. the white ginger (Hedychium coronarium), a large herb from India, both wild and cultivated in Hawaiʻi. White fragrant flowers, popular for leis and perfume, are borne in heads at tips of leafy stems. (Neal 252–3)
haku [ha-ku]. To arrange or tie feathers in a kahili; to make a wreath or lei; e haku i ka lei; e haku oe i lehua. Laieik. 146.
hala₃. n. the pandanus or screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), native from southern Asia east to Hawaiʻi, growing at low altitudes, both cultivated and wild. It is a tree with many branches, which are tipped with spiral tufts of long narrow, spine-edged leaves; its base is supported by a clump of slanting aerial roots. The pineapple-shaped fruits are borne on female trees whereas the spikes of fragrant, pollenbearing flowers are borne separately on male trees. Many uses: leaves (lau hala) for mats, baskets, hats; the yellow to red fruit sections for leis, brushes; male flowers to scent tapa, their leaflike bracts to plait mats (see hīnano). (Neal 51) The aerial root (uleule) tip is a good source of vitamin B and cooked in ti leaves was used medicinally, although unpleasant tasting. The tree is called pū hala. The hala lei is much liked today but formerly was not worn on important ventures because hala also means failure. For the same reason some persons will not compose songs about hala. Types of hala are listed below. Pineapples are hala plus qualifier. [(AN) PPN *fara, pandanus]
hala ʻīkoi [hala ʻī·koi]. n. a variety of hala with keys 7 cm long, lemon-colored at base, changing abruptly to bright-orange in upper half; when cut for leis, a rim of orange is left at top of each key used.
hala kea. n. said by some Hawaiians to be a native variety of pineapple; plant spreading vinelike; leaves with thorny edges; fruit plain green when unripe, yellow when ripe, small, fragrant, good-tasting; pieces of the skin were used for hat leis. lit., white hala. (HP 214)
hala pia. n. an indigenous variety of pandanus, with keys 4 cm long, canary-yellow and small; head small, about 15 by 12 cm., used in medical prescription and for exorcising evil spirits. It was much prized for leis.
hoʻoheito snare, tangle, rope, lasso; to beset with difficulties; to infatuate, be enraptured
hili₁. nvt. to braid or plait, as a lei or candlenuts; a braid, plaiting, string. see lei hili, pahili. [(AN) PPN *firi, braid (i.e. interlace three or more flexible elements to form e.g. a rope), a technique sometimes referred to as plaiting)]
hinahina₃ [hina·hina]. n. native heliotrope (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum), a low, spreading beach plant, with narrow, clustered, silvery leaves and small, white, fragrant flowers. As designated by the Territorial legislature in 1923, it represents Kahoʻolawe in the leis of the islands; it is used for tea and medicine. Called nohonoho puʻuone on Niʻihau. (Neal 717) [(CE) PPN *sina-sina, a plant]
hiʻuiʻa [hiʻu·iʻa]. n. fishtail fern (Nephrolepis biserrata cv. furcans), a kind of sword fern, with forked divisions (pinnae). In Kaʻū, leis are made by combining pinnae of this fern (or whole frond) with flower sprays of wāpine (lemon verbena). (Neal 14, 15)
huaʻulaʻula. n. the red sandalwood tree (Adenanthera pavonina), from parts of tropical Asia and Malaysia, of moderate height and with rather widespreading branches. The tree is planted in parks, and its round, lens-shaped, red seeds are used for leis, and their long, yellow-lined pods for decorative arrangements. (Neal 414)
huluokaʻauhelemoa [hulu-o-kaʻau·hele·moa]. n. a moss said to grow only in Pālolo Valley, Honolulu, named for Kaʻauhelemoa, a legendary cock defeated in battle by a hen. She pulled out his feathers, which fell and became this moss. It is used in leis.
Iadj. He poo ieie no Hilo; a kind of lei for the head used by Hilo people.
ʻilima₁. n. small to large native shrubs (all species of Sida, especially S. fallax), bearing yellow, orange, greenish, or dull-red flowers; some kinds strung for leis. The flowers last only a day and are so delicate that about 500 are needed for one lei. Fruits of maʻo (Abutilon grandifolium), when green and soft, are used with ʻilima leis, one fruit at each end of the lei ; or the pale-green, cap-like calyx of the ʻilima flower is used. A mild laxative for babies is made by squeezing out the juice of flowers; this is called kanakamaikaʻi. The ʻilima was designated in 1923 by the Territorial Legislature as the flower of Oʻahu. It is related to the hibiscus. See songs, nōweo, pue₁. cf. ʻāpiki. (Neal 552–3)
kāʻeʻe₁. n. a sea bean (Mucuna gigantea), native from southeast Asia, east into Polynesia, a high-growing vine, bearing greenish flowers and large pods, each pod containing two to four round and flattened seeds, black-spotted or brown. In Hawaiʻi, the seeds, known as pēkaʻa, are found on the beaches, and are used medicinally for their strong purgative effect and are also strung for leis. (Neal 462)
kāʻei. var. of kāʻai;
kāhili₃ [kā·hili]. n. a small tree (Grevillea banksii) from Australia, related to the silky oak, ʻoka kilika, but the leaves with fewer subdivisions and the flowers red or cream-white. This is a later application of kāhili to a plant. Flowers not used for leis on head or around neck because of it irritating hairs, but made into leis for hats by sewing alternate rows of flower clusters and own leaves on pandanus band. see haʻikū. (Neal 321)
kākalaioa₂ [kā·kalai·oa]. n. gray nickers (Caesalpinia major, misidentified locally as C. crista), a straggly bramble, a pantropical vine indigenous to Hawaiʻi, with thorny branches and leaf stems and with small yellow flowers. Within each large spiny pod are two or three gray marble-like seeds, which are used for leis, also powdered for medicine. also hihikolo. (Neal 433) [PPN *tala-ʻa-moa, a bush (caesalpinia sp.): *tala(tala)-qaa-moa]
Kalehuawehe [Ka-lehua-wehe]. n. name of a surf at Waikīkī. lit., the opening lehua, said to be so named when the taboo on surfing at Waikīkī was broken by a young chief from Mānoa who removed his lehua lei and gave it to the daughter of Chief Kākuhihewa, who had been the only one permitted to surf there; the taboo was broken when the princess accepted the lei.
kāmakahala [kā·maka·hala]. n. all species of a native genus (Labordia) of forest trees and shrubs. According to William Hillebrand, three species with orange flowers were used in leis for chiefs. see nīoi kāmakahala.
kaunaʻoa₁. n. a native dodder (Cuscuta sandwichiana), belonging to the morning-glory family, a leafless, parasitic vine, growing densely on other plants. The numerous, slender, orange stems are used for orange leis to represent the island of Lānaʻi, as designated by the Territorial legislature in 1923. (Neal 710–1) [(CE) PPN *tainoka, a plant (cassytha filiformis) (problematic)]
kīkā₅ [kī·kā]. n. the cigar flower (Cuphea ignea), from Mexico, a small, smooth shrub with narrow, red, tubular, odorless flowers nearly 3 cm. long. The flowers are used for leis. also pua kīkā. (Neal 617–8)
kīkepa₂ [kī·kepa]. vi. to lean over to one side, to cover one side; to turn to the side; to place in a one-sided manner; on the side, as a tapa or lei worn over one shoulder and under the opposite arm.
koa haole. n. a common roadside shrub or small tree (Leucaena leucocephala), from tropical America, with pinnate leaves, round white flower treads, and long, flat, brown pods; closely related to the koa. The small brown seeds are strung for leis, purses, mats; plants used for fodder. lit., foreign koa. also ēkoa, lilikoa. (Neal 411–2)
kuʻu₃. poss. my, mine (this form may replace both kaʻu and koʻu; it is frequently used before ipo and lei and kinship terms and expresses affection. (Gram. 8.4, 9.6) [(CE) PPN *taku, my (neutral category of possession)]
hoʻolāleito gather together, as flowers
lalei [la-lei]. s. A bunch or cluster of things, as grapes. See kaulalei.
lani₂. nvs. very high chief, majesty; host (Isa. 34.4) ; royal, exalted, high born, noble, aristocratic. This meaning is most common in personal names, as Leilani, royal child or heavenly lei; Pualani, descendant of royalty or heavenly flowers. cf. kamalani, kuhilani.
hoʻolani₁to treat as a chief; to render homage to a chief; to act as a chief; to enjoy the position and prestige of a high chief
Kalanianaʻole.The incomparably exalted one. (name)
lauaʻe₁, lauwaʻe [lau·aʻe]. n. a fragrant fern (Phymatosorus scolopendria syn. Microsorium scolopendria); when crushed, its fragrance suggests that of maile; famous for its fragrance on Kauaʻi (see lauaʻe₂). Pieces were strung in pandanus leis between the keys. see chant, punia. (Neal 27)
leholeho [le-ho-le-ho]. s. See leileho. A small delicate shell fish of the leho kind, whitish, mixed with yellow and gray, used for leis for the wrist or neck; a string of small lehos. v. To string lehos for leis.
hoʻoleito put a lei on oneself or on someone else; to crown
LeilaniRoyal child, heavenly lei. (name)
lei. v. To put around the neck, as a wreath; to tie on, as one's beads. See the substantive. To put on an ensign or badge, as an officer in battle; ma ka la kaua, lei no ke alii i ka niho palaoa. A crown for the head. See leialii. lei bipi, the bow of an ox yoke; the garland for crowning a god. Any external ornamental work. Puk. 25:11. NOTE—The leis of Hawaiians were made of a great many materials, but the lauhala nut was the most valued on account of its odoriferous qualities. See leihala.
leialii [lei-a-lii]. s. Lei and alii, a chief. A crown, i. e., a king's lei. FIG. Pilip. 4:1. A diadem. Isa. 62:3. See papalealii.
leihala [lei-ha-la]. s. Lei, wreath, and hala, the pandanus. A lei made of the hala fruit, which is odoriferous; he leihala oe ma ka a-i o ka poe naauao, thou art a hala wreath on the neck of the wise.
leilima [lei-li-ma]. s. A species of lei; he leiapiki. See leialima.
lei palaoa. n. ivory pendant, originally probably whale's tooth, rarely of stone or wood, later also of walrus tusk; necklace of beads of whale's teeth; today, any pendant shaped like the old whale-tooth pendant, such as of beef bone. lit., ivory lei.
leipapahi [lei-pa-pa-hi]. s. Lei with the qualifying words. Different sorts of leis, or leis made from different materials. s. A kind of lei. See leiapiki.
lei pūpū [lei pū·pū]. n. shell lei, the most famous being from Niʻihau, especially kahelelani and momi. These leis represent Niʻihau in the leis of the islands, as designated in 1923 by the Territorial legislature.
maiʻa mālei ʻula [maiʻa mā·lei ʻula]. n. a Hawaiian variety of banana, common both cultivated and wild in the uplands. Fibers of the stalk are used for stringing flowers for leis with a coconut-leaf needle (mānai). Ripening fruit changes from maroon (ʻula) to green to yellow; the flesh is orange, edible only when cooked. also maiʻa mālai ʻula, maiʻa mānei ʻula, maiʻa mānai ʻula. (HP 176)
maile₁. n. a native twining shrub, Alyxia olivaeformis. St-John, 1975a, described four forms of maile based on leaf size and shape. They are believed to be sisters with human and plant forms and are listed below. They were considered minor goddesses of the hula. maile kaluhea is also believed by some to be a sister. see moekahi, māpu, palai₁, and chants, līhau and ʻū₁. The maile vine has shiny fragrant leaves and is used for decorations and leis, especially on important occasions. It is a member of the periwinkle family. Laka, goddess of the hula, was invoked as the goddess of the maile, which was one of five standard plants used in her altar. (Neal 690–1) [PPN *maile, a fragrant vine or shrub (alyxia sp.)]
maile haole. n. the myrtle (Myrtus communis), an aromatic shrub from the Mediterranean region and western Asia, a favorite garden plant in many countries, and formerly used in Rome for wreaths to crown the victor. The leaves look like those of maile and formerly were used by Hawaiian for leis like maile, the bark being stripped from the stems in the same way, with teeth holding one end. (Neal 631)
maʻo₄. n. the hairy abutilon (Abutilon grandifolium), a weedy, hairy, South American shrub, with large, broad leaves, orange, ʻilima-like flowers, and ten-parted, black, dry fruits. When green and soft, these fruits are used in making ʻilima leis, one for each end of the lei. (Neal 550)
mauʻu Kaleponi [mauʻu kale·poni]. n. the yellow foxtail (Setaria geniculata), a weedy tropical American grass. The yellow or brownish, cylindrical flower heads are smooth and soft, and in Hawaiʻi are used for leis on hats. lit., California grass. (Neal 75)
mauʻu lei. n. the swollen finger grass (Chloris inflata), an annual weedy grass from tropical America, 30 to 60 cm high. Two to eleven feathery, purplish flower spikes radiate from the top of the stem; they are used for hat leis. (Neal 69)
melia. n. all species and varieties of plumeria (Plumeria) or frangipani, small, broad-topped trees, from tropical America, grown ornamentally, the flowers being one of the commonest kinds for leis. The thick, stiff branches bear long leaves and many five-parted, tubular, fragrant flowers, which are white and yellow, pink to rose. cf. pua mēlia, plumeria... probably Eng.. (Neal 688)
mikilana, misilana [miki·lana]. n. the Chinese rice flower (Aglaia odorata), a shrub or small tree in the mahogany family, from south China and Indo-China, grown ornamentally for the handsome leaves and fragrant flowers, which are tiny, round, and yellow; clusters of them are used for leis. (Gram. 2.9) perhaps Chinese mei-sui-lan. (Neal 493)
mokihana₁ [moki·hana]. n. a native tree (Pelea anisata), found only on Kauaʻi, belonging to the citrus family. The small, leathery, cube-shaped, anise-scented fruits, which change from green to brown, are strung in leis; they represent Kauaʻi in the leis of the islands, as designated in 1923 by the Territorial legislature. The large leaves are also fragrant. (Neal 478)
nani ahiahi [nani ahi·ahi]. n. the four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa), from tropical America, a shrubby herb with fragrant, red, white, yellow, or striped flowers, opening in late afternoon, and used by Hawaiians for leis in the evening. The plants have medicinal properties. lit., evening beauty. also pua ahiahi. (Neal 335–6)
hoʻonuʻato heap up; to give generously and continuously; to indulge, as a child; surging, rising in swells, as the sea
hōʻohuto form mist; misty, etc
Kalaniʻōpuʻu.The whale-tooth pendant high chief. (name of a chief)
ʻōʻū₃. n. a finch-like Hawaiian honey creeper (Psittirostra psittacea), with an almost parrot-like bill, endemic to the main Hawaiian Islands, but becoming very rare. Its green feathers were used for making cloaks and leis. see ex., kuaola. cf. ʻōʻū lae oʻo, ʻōʻū poʻo lapalapa. rare.
pahapahaopolihale [paha·paha-o-poli·hale]. n. a kind of pahapaha said to be found only at Polihale, Kauaʻi; after drying it was believed to revive when immersed in sea water; it was made into leis. (FS 103)
paikauleia [pai-kau-lei-a]. s. Paikau and lei, a wreath, and a for ia, passive, wreathed. A woman that puts on a lei so as to signify that she is for sale; an abandoned woman going from place to place; a tattler.
paʻiniu [paʻi·niu]. n. some native Hawaiian lilies (Astelia spp) with long, narrow, silvery or tan leaves forming rosette-shaped plants growing either on the ground or perching on trees. Small yellow or greenish flowers develop in a panicle on a stalk shorter than the leaves. Formerly, Hawaiians braided hat leis out of the shiny outer layer of the leaves and wore them as a sign that they had visited Kīlauea Volcano, where one species is common. Also used, rarely, for house thatch (For. 5:655) . (Neal 192)
pala₇. n. a native fern (Marattia douglasii), with a short trunk and large, long-stemmed, much divided, dark-green fronds. In time of famine, the thick, starchy, hoof-shaped bases of the frond stems, which cover the short trunk, were eaten after being baked in an imu over night. The mucilaginous water resulting from slicing and soaking the raw stems in water was used medicinally. Pieces of the fronds mixed with maile leis enhanced their fragrance. The fern was used also in heiau ceremonies. (Neal 6, 7) [(EO) PPN *pala, tree-fern sp]
paukū₁ [pau·kū]. nvs.
pīkake₁ [pī·kake]. n. the Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac), introduced from India, a shrub or climber, with rounded, dark-green leaves and small, white, very fragrant flowers used for leis. Since Princess Kaʻiulani was fond of both these flowers and her peacocks (pīkake), the same name was given the flowers. (Neal 680)
ponimōʻī [poni·mōʻī]. n. the introduced carnation or pink (Dianthus caryophyllus), a plant widely cultivated for its attractive and spicy-fragrant flowers, one of the commonest flowers used for leis. The Hawaiian name resulted from confusing the English name with "coronation". (Neal 345–6)
pōniu₃ [pō·niu]. n. the balloon vine or heartseed (Cardiospermum halicacabum), a slender, herbaceous, tropical vine, with finely subdivided leaves, small white flowers, and 2.5 cm-wide balloon-like fruiting capsules, each with three seeds (black with a white heart-shaped scar). Hawaiians formerly used the whole plant as a magic remedy for dizziness, wearing it as a lei and eating a little, before throwing it away into the ocean. also haleakaiʻa, ʻinalua, pōhuehue uka. (Neal 532) [(FJ) PPN *pooniu, a plant (cardiospermum halicacabum)]
pōpōlehua [pō·pō·lehua]. n. an ixora (Ixora casei) from Kosrae (Kusaie Island), a shrub ornamentally for its large round clusters of red flowers, which are used for leis. Each flower has a narrow red tube about 5 cm long, tipped with four short lobes. (Neal 802)
pua hōkū hihi [pua hō·kū hihi]. n. the waxflower (Hoya bicarinata), an ornamental vine from Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji, in the milkweed family. Leaves are thick, broad-oval, paired, at their bases bearing short clusters of waxy, fragrant, white and pink, star-shaped flowers used for leis. lit., entangled star flower. (Neal 700)
pua kalaunu. n. the crown flower (Calotropis gigantea), a large shrub, native from India to the East Indies, belonging to the milkweed family. The crown-shaped flowers, white or lavender, are commonly used for leis, and the plants for hedges in dry areas. called liliʻu on Niʻihau. (Neal 698–9)
pua kenikeni, puakenikeni [pua keni·keni]. n. a shrub or small tree (Fagraea berteriana), from the South Pacific, grown ornamentally for foliage, flowers, fruit. The flowers are 5 cm long, white, changing to orange, fragrant, and used for leis. The 2.5 cm-wide berry is orange or red. lit., ten-cent flower, so-called because at one time the flowers are said to have sold for ten cents each. (Neal 682)
pūkāmole [pū·kā·mole]. n. a low, shrubby plant (Lythrum maritimum) native to Peru, with slender branches and small narrow leaves. Sometimes the bark is stripped off and wound around leis for its mild fragrance and small pink flowers. It belongs to the crape myrtle family. Some persons qualify the name by lau liʻi and lau nui. also nīnika. (Neal 617)
pūkiawe₁ [pū·kiawe]. n. the black-eyed Susan (Abrus precatorius), a slender climbing legume, long known in the tropics, especially for its small round red and black seeds, which are used for leis, rosaries, and costume jewelry. Though the seeds are edible when cooked, when raw and broken they are poisonous. Flowers are small, light-colored; leaves small, compound. Also pūpūkiawe, pūkiawe lei, to distinguish from pūkiawe₂ and pūkiawe ʻulaʻula on Niʻihau. (Neal 455–6)
pūʻoheʻohe. n. Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi), a coarse, branched grass closely related to corn, growing in many tropical regions, either wild or cultivated. It is an annual, .3 to 1.8 m high, with long, pointed leaves, and, at stem tips, hard, round, beadlike seeds—black, gray, or white—which are used for leis, mats, food, medicine. also kūkaekōlea, ʻoheʻohe, pūpū kōlea. (Neal 80–1)
umaumalei [uma·uma·lei]. n. a fish similar to but darker than the palani or pualu. It has bright orange-red spots around the gills and side fins and at the base of the caudal fin where the spike is set. lit., lei [for the] chest.
ʻuo₁, ʻuwo. nvt. a group of feathers tied together in a small bunch, to be made into a feather lei or cloak; to tie thus; to tie into a lei; to string on a needle; to splice, interweave, as strands of a rope; seizing turns in lashing. PCP *kuo.
wāpine, vabine [wā·pine]. n. the lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), a South American shrub, with rough lemonscented, narrow leaves, and small white or lavender flowers in spikes. Formerly the plant was a favorite in Hawaiian gardens, and was used in leis. Eng. (Neal 724)
wilelaiki [wile·laiki]. n. the Christmas-berry tree (Schinus terebinthifolius), a rather small tree, from Brazil, the leaves compound, each leaf having about seven leaflets, the flowers whitish, small, in large bunches, the small red fruits of the female tree abundant, resembling those of the pūkiawe. Named for Willie Rice
wiliwili₂ [wili·wili]. n. a Hawaiian leguminous tree (Erythrina sandwicensis, formerly called E. monosperma), found on dry coral plains and on lava flows, somewhat spiny, with short thick trunk. Each leaf has three ovate leaflets; flowers are clustered near branch ends and range in color from red to orange, yellow, white; pods contain red, oblong seeds, used for leis. The wood is very light and formerly was used for surfboards, canoe outriggers, net floats. see ex. pua₁. (Neal 458–60)