The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

Esteban José Martinez's List
(1789)

In 1789, Spain attempted to assert its authority over settlement and trade on the Pacific coast of North America by seizing two English vessels. Esteban José Martinez [1742-1798], second pilot on the Santiago, was directly involved in this "Nootka Controversy", and became captain of one of the seized ships, the Princess Royal, renamed the Princesa Real. He collected his vocabulary during his return voyage from Nootka Sound, explaining in his diary,
This vocabulary comes from the Indian [Hawaiian] whom I have on board named José Mariano (alias) Matutaray. It is apparent in him that the natives of those islands use very few letters of the alphabet. His pronunciation is facile and they have many terms comparable to those of the language of the islands of Tahiti.
The Hawaiian "Matutaray" had been taken prisoner on the other seized ship, the Argonaut, and, judging from the consistent use of t and r on the word list (rather than k and l), he probably came from Kauaʻi or Niʻihau.

adapted from Albert J. Schütz, "Voices of Eden" pp. 36-37, and A. Grove Day, "An Early Hawaiian Vocabulary"

analyzed and annotated by Edgar Knowlton


click on column heading to sort

#list wordmodern Hawaiianlist glossSpanish
1.Aru aruʻaluʻalubodyCuerpo
2.Y óʻiʻoflesh, meatCarne
3.TotokokobloodSangre
4.Omoti___hatSombrero
5.Tepóke poʻoheadCabeza
6.Raóbojolauohohair of the headCabello o pelo
7.Jerayhe laeforeheadFrente
8.TuamatakuʻemakaeyebrowCejas
9.Riji-rigilihilihieyelash, eyelidPestañas
10.OnojóʻōnohieyeballOjos
11.Jeyjuhe ihunoseNarices
12.PaparinapapālinacheekCarrillo
13.PopoyaopepeiaoearsOrejas
14.Reje-rejelehelehelipsLabios
15.GuajawahamouthBoca
16.NijonihoteethDientes
17.Jetuike kuʻimolarMuelas
18.Jereroke lelotongueLengua
19.AguayʻauwaechinBarba [barbila]
20.Humi-humiʻumiʻumibeardLas barbas del hombre
21.MamatanimakuakānefatherPadre
22.MatuaginemakuahinemotherMadre
23.Majana(māhana 'twins')sonHijo
24.Mopuna(moʻopuna 'grandchild')daughterHija
25.Tayta-hinukaikaina ('younger same-sex sibling')brotherHermano
26.Taytu-hanakaikuaʻana ('older same-sex sibling')sisterHermana
27.Jejatuhe hōkūthe starsLas estrellas
28.Jerake the sunEl sol
29.Jeraputake pukathe sun comes outEl sol sale
30.Jeratomoke komo ('sinks')the sun setsEl sol se pone
31.Marcemarrmamālamalama ('light')dayDia
32.Ajiajéahiahi ('evening')nightLa noche
33.Poerepōʻeledark nightNoche oscura
34.Ynégineyi nehineiyesterdayAyer
35.Anóao ('light, day')todayHoy
36.AboboʻapōpōtomorrowMañana
37.Yutai uka ('to inland')landTierra
38.Jetayke kaithe seaLa mar
39.Pupujipupuhi ('burn')fireEl fuego
40.MatanimakaniwindEl viento
41.Puaypūʻāʻī ('Adam's apple')neckEl pescuezo
42.PojivepoʻohiwishouldersLos hombros
43.Rima-rimalimalimaarmsLos brazos
44.Tue-tuekuʻekuʻeelbowsLos codos
45.Peajipeʻahi ('the open hand')handsLas manos
46.Taguarimaka poho limathe palm of the same (hands)La palma de dicha
47.Jatuake kua ('back')the back of the same (hands)El revés de dicha
48.Nimanuylima nuithumbDedo pulgar
49.Pirimay(lima kuhi)index fingerEl dedo indice
50.Gua hina(manamana) waenamiddle fingerEl dedo de enmedio
51.Turoto(kūloko 'inside')ring fingerEl dedo del anillo
52.Rimaytilima ikilittle fingerEl dedo pequeño
53.MayaomaiʻaonailsLas uñas
54.Huma-humaumaumachestEl pecho
55.Tuomókuamoʻo ('backbone, spine')backLa espalda
56.OpúʻōpūbellyLa barriga
57.HujaʻūhāthighsLos muslos
58.Turi-turikulikulikneesLos rodillas
59.Oro-oroʻoloʻolo (wāwae 'calf of the leg')legLa pierna
60.TapuaykapuaʻifootEl pie
61.Taguamo___toesLos dedos del pie
62.TanatakanakamanHombre
63.GuajinewahinewomanMujer
64.Herematureʻelemakuleold manViejo
65.Ruagineluahineold womanVieja
66.TahitikeikiboyMuchacho
67.TahitimajinekeikimahinegirlMuchacha
68.Papanojopapa noho ('bench')chairSilla
69.Ypúipu ('vessel, container')chest or trunkCaja o baúl
70.Jamama(hāmama 'open')inkwellTintero
71.Lepolepo ('dirt, earth')sandbox (for blotting ink)Salvadera
72.Oneteaone kea ('white sand')fine sandArenilla
73.YpututuyipukukuicandlestickUn candelero
74.Tutuykukui ('lamp')candleUna vela
75.Jeagihe ahi ('fire')the light of the candleLa luz de una vela
76.UpaʻupāscissorsUnas tijeras
77.TuykuineedleUna aguja
78.Ajoaho ('line, cord')threadHilo
79.TotoykoʻekoʻecoldFrio
80.Mejanamehana ('warmth')heatCalor
81.AguajiaʻāwelahotCaliente
82.Jeuguajihe uahismokeEl humo
83.Poay(pōʻai 'circle')keyUna llave
84.Jo-uhire(hōʻuwī 'twist')lockUna cerradura
85.Ju-ayhuʻe ('uncover, expose, open')openAbre
86.Papanipapani ('shut off, block')closeCierra
87.Teateokeʻokeʻo ('white')paperPapel
88.Jurumanohulu manufeather (pen)Una pluma
89.Tuono(kūʻono 'inside corner')jar, potUna olla
90.Jepahe a plate or panUn plato o cazuela
91.Oti-otiʻokiʻoki ('cut, prune')a carpenter's sawUna sierra de carpintero
92.Jonoy___chiselUn escopio
93.Toyti-pi___brushUn cepillo
94.AmanahāmalehammerUn martillo
95.Juo-ayhue waigourd, water pitcherUn bule
96.MaginamahinamoonLa luna
97.Joata MaginaHoaka mahina (Hoaka '2nd day of the month')the moon risesLa luna se sale
98.Tutagi MaginaKūkahi mahina (Kūkahi '3rd day of the month')the moon setsLa luna se pone
99.Titookīkoʻo ('chord of an arc, bent bow')arc, bowArco
100.PanapanaarrowFlecha
101.Rerelele ('fly, sail through the air')shoot an arrowDisparar la flecha
102.Pajopaheʻelance, spearLanza
103.Pajoapāhoa ('short dagger')knifeCuchillo
104.Pajipahi ('knife')folding knife, razorNavaja
105.O-otiʻoʻokito cutCortar
106.O-oʻōʻō (' to pierce, lance, poke')to kill or woundMatar o herir
107.Jepuhe gun or musketFusil o escopeta
108.Onepajúone pahu ('sand' + 'box')powderPólvora
109.Pojatupōhaku ('rock, stone')bullet, canon ballBala
110.Tahurakaulastring or ropeCordel o cuerda
111.Majiorimahiolefeather helmetMorrión de pluma
112.Ujimayuhi moe ('bed spread')feather cloakManto de pluma
113.Aju-uraʻahu ʻulafeather capeEsclavina de pluma
114.Tuy-tuykuʻikuʻigive blows (to box)Dar de golpes
115.Memerimemele ('sing')songUna canción
116.Jurahuladance or dancingDanza o baile
117.JatirihekilithunderTrueno
118.Jeu-hirahe uilalightningRelámpago
119.JarehalehouseCasa
120.Piritea___bedCama
121.Papananipapa ʻainatableMesa
122.Ti-ji(kihi 'outside corner')benchBanco
123.Nenénēnē ('Hawaiian goose')duckPato
124.Jemanuhe manu ('a bird')a pigeonUn palomo
125.Mayamaiʻaplantain, bananaPlátanos
126.Tanú(kanu 'to plant')bananaBanana
127.Jeujihe uhiyamÑame
128.Uru(ʻulu 'breadfruit')___Rima
129.Jetohe sweet cane (sugar cane)Caña dulc e
130.Tamaukāmau ('small taro or sweet potato')___El melón
131.Taro(kalo 'taro')watermelonLa sandía
132.NioniucoconutsCocos
133.U-araʻuala ('sweet potato')potatoesPapas
134.Abaʻawa ('kava')any liquorCualquier licor
135.Tautajikaukahi ('canoe with a single outrigger')canoeUna canoa
136.JoehoepaddleEl canalete
137.Tiapeakia peʻa ('mast' + 'sail')canoe mastUn palo de canoa
138.Motumokuvessel, shipUna embarcación
139.Oputete___the sail of a shipLa vela de navio
140.Tajurikahuli ('overturn, capsize')to sinkZozobrar
141.Jemo ohe moʻo ('a lizard')a snakeUna culebra
142.Gu-ajiewahie ('firewood')wood, in generalMadera en general
143.PojatupōhakustoneUna piedra
144.Moenamoenaany sort of matUn petate cualquiera
145.Pepejipepehi ('to kill')a dead personUn muerto
146.Jo-ite-itahōʻikeʻike ('display, exhibit')let me see, show meDéjame ver.
147.Aruriʻāluli ('incline the head')sightMira
148.Nanánānā ('see')I see itLo veo
149.Aureytiʻaʻole ʻikeI don't see itNo lo veo
150.Taraykālai ('to carve, cut, hew')axeUn hacha
151.mūʻā ('bottle-necked gourd')flask, bottleUn frasco
152.Ju-e-ja-orehue haole ('gourd, flask' + 'foreign')small bottle, vialUna limeta
153.Anapa(ʻanapa 'shine, sparkle')glass, tumblerUn vaso
154.Tejauke aocloudsNubes
155.Je-o-juhe ʻohu ('fog, mist, cloud on a mountain')snowNieve
156.Je-ú-ahe uarainLlover
157.Jeguayhe waifresh waterAgua dulce
158.Guaytajiwaikahe ('stream')any riverCualquier rio
159.Jeyahe iʻafish in generalPescado en general
160.Mataomakaufish hookUn anzuelo
161.Upenaʻupenafish netUna red de pescar
162.Jejouhe hao ('iron, general name for metal tools')iron nailUn clavo de fierro
163.Jeu-jayhe uhaʻi ('covering for door opening')doorUna puerta
164.Yputaʻīpuka ('door, opening in wall')windowVentana
165.Ayʻaito eatComer
166.Ynuinuto drinkBeber
167.PuapuaʻapigUn puerco
168.MóamoaroosterEl gallo
169.TinanakīnanahenLa gallina
170.Jejuahe huaeggUn huevo
171.YrioʻīliodogUn perro
172.Yriofineʻīlio wahinefemale dogUna perra
173.Tuy___what are you doing?Qué haces
174.JanahanaworkTrabajar
175.TeforakoholāwhaleBallena
176.Aru-aru(ʻaluʻalu 'skin, rind')whaleboneBarba de ballena
177.AtaʻakalaughReir
178.Ninau(nīnau 'ask')what do you call this?Cómo se llama esto
179.Manaro(mānalo 'sweet water, tasty')give me moreDame más
180.Nuy nuynui nuimuch, a lotMucho
181.Yti-ytiiki ikia littlePoco
182.O-auʻo wau ('I')you
183.O-oeʻo ʻoe ('you')IYo
184.Arojaaloha ('to love')friendAmigo
185.MaytaymaikaʻigoodBueno
186.Punipunipunipuni ('to lie')badMalo
187.Juna(hūnā 'hide, conceal')thiefLadrón
188.Tuji___ruler to draw linesUna regla de lelinear
189.Tatajakakaha ('scratch, mark, cut')draw a lineTirar una línea
190.Jinu-jinuhinuhinu ('bright, glossy, shining')a lantern for lightUn farol para la luz
191.Jajao(hahao 'insert, put in')a bag, purseUna bolsa
192.Je-aahe ʻaʻa ('cloth')handkerchief, scarfUna pañuelo
193.TuagivikuahiwimountainsMontes
194.Ra-aulāʻautreesArboles
195.Moemoeto sleepDormir
196.Raguelawe ('take')take thisToma esto
197.Joaguyhāʻawi ('give')give it to meVuélvemelo
198.Nana(nānā 'look at, see')where to?A dónde
199.Manumanubirds in generalPájaros en general
200.Maoma ʻō ('over there')on this sideDe este lado
201.Manemaʻaneʻi ('here')on the other sideDel otro lado
202.Joroyholoito washLavar
203.Jerihe aliʻichief or captainUn jefe o capitán
204.JoronohoʻolonohearOye
205.Joy-maye hoʻi mai ('come back')don't go awayNo te vayas
206.Jeriperahele pēlāgo awayAnda vete
207.Pimaypiʻi maicome hereVen acá
208.Jerenonehele none ('go slow')walk, goAnda
209.Joroholo ('fleet, fast')quicklyApriesa
210.Tutuníkūkini ('runner')runCorre
211.TuamajakaumahaheavyPesado
212.Mamamāmālight (not heavy)Ligero
213.Jepuhopucatch, grabAgarra
214.Joy-joyhoʻihoʻi ('return, give back')let goLarga
215.Tiorakiola ('throw')throw it outTíralo [tírar]
216.Jajaohahau ('to strike, hit, whip, beat')breakRómpelo [romper]
217.Ujiuhi ('to cover, spread over, engulf')put inPóntelo [poner]
218.U-ejewehe ('open, untie, uncover')take offQuítatelo [quitar]
219.Tu-u ('stand, erect, standing')get upLevántate
220.Nojonohosit downSiéntate
221.Nonoynonoi ('ask for something, request')give meDame
222.Nonoy-aynonoi ʻaifeed me, give me foodDame qué comer
223.Jey rihe iwiboneUn huevo [hueso]
224.Jonihoni ('to smell, sniff')smell or odorOler u olor
225.NanajonanahubiteMorder
226.Otomoʻōkomo ('insert')finger ringEl anillo del dedo
227.O-ata___any sort of shellUna concha cualquiera
228.MamaymamaepainUn dolor
229.Eatiʻaki ('sharp recurring pain')sickEnfermo
230.TataukākauwriteEscribir
231.Erenure(ʻelelū 'cockroach')a flyUna mosca
232.Nanupata(nalo paka 'tick, ensign fly')mosquitoUn mosquito
233.Ajeāhēyes
234.AoriʻaʻolenoNo
235.TereaguekeleawecopperCobre
236.Toymetikoʻi meki ('iron adze')ironFierro
237.Rapa-rapa(lapa 'blade, as of a knife')silver or white metalPlata o metal blanco
238.Paupau ('finished, consumed')I don't haveYo no tengo
239.A-oreyteʻaʻole ʻike ('I don't know')I don't understand youNo te entiendo
240.PupúpūpūbeadsAbalorios
241.Poctorepōkole ('short, brief')smallPequeño
242.Roro-giri___largeGrande
243.Naninanibeautiful or preciousBonito o precioso
244.Yna-ynainaina ('anger, wrath, rage')angry or braveCorajudo o enfadado
245.Tageakāhea ('to call, cry out, invoke, greet')speakHabla
246.Gueri-guerikulikulibe silentCalla
247.Jininay(hina moe 'to lie down to sleep')lie down, go to bedAcostarse
248.Ani-anianianimirrorUn espejo
249.Tau-u-hira___a caneUn bastón de mano
250.Ata-ataakaaka ('clear, shining, bright')whiteBlanco
251.Onena-nenaʻōlenalena ('yellow')greenVerde
252.Uri-uriuliuliblueAzul
253.Omao-maoʻōmaʻomaʻo ('green')yellowAmarillo
254.Ura-uraʻulaʻularedEncarnado
255.Ere-ereʻeleʻeleblackNegro
256.AtajiʻakahioneUno
257.AruaʻaluatwoDos
258.AtoruʻakoluthreeTres
259.AjáʻahāfourCuatro
260.ArimaʻalimafiveCinco
261.onoʻaonosixSeis
262.AjituʻahikusevenSiete
263.Arite(ʻawalu)eightOcho
264.Ay-uaʻaiwanineNueve
265.HumiʻumitenDiez
266.Tumamataji(ʻumi kumamākahi)elevenOnce
267.Tumamarua(ʻumi kumamālua)twelveDoce
268.Tumamakolu(ʻumi kumamākolu)thirteenTrece
269.Tumamajá(ʻumi kumamāhā)fourteenCatorce
270.Tumamarima(ʻumi kumamālima)fifteenQuince
271.Tumamaono(ʻumi kumamāono)sixteenDieciséis
272.Tumamajitu(ʻumi kumamāhiku)seventeenDiecisiete
273.Tumamarité(ʻumi kumamāwalu)eighteenDieciocho
274.Tumamay-ua(ʻumi kumamāiwa)nineteenDiecinueve
275.Tumamahumi(ʻiwakalua)twentyVeinte
276.Tanatahi(ʻiwakalua kumakahi)twenty-oneVeintiuno
277.Tanarua(ʻiwakalua kumalua)twenty-twoVeintidós
278.Tanatoru(ʻiwakalua kumakolu)twenty-threeVeintitrés
279.Tanaja(ʻiwakalua kumahā)twenty-fourVeinticuatro
280.Tanarima(ʻiwakalua kumalima)twenty-fiveVeinticinco
281.Tanaono(ʻiwakalua kumaono)twenty-sixVeintiséis
282.Tanajitu(ʻiwakalua kumahiku)twenty-sevenVeintisiete
283.Tanarite(ʻiwakalua kumawalu)twenty-eightVeintiocho
284.Tanayua(ʻiwakalua kumaiwa)twenty-eightVeintinueve
285.Tana-humi(kanakolu)thirtyTreinta

REFERENCES

Day, A. Grove. "An Early Hawaiian Vocabulary", The Hawaiian Journal of History,vol. 25 (1991), pp. 21-30.