|Pukui & Elbert - 1986
Mamaka Kaiao - 2003
Lorrin Andrews - 1865
Preface to the Hawaiian-English Dictionary (1957, 1961 1st & 2nd eds.)
Preface to the Hawaiian-English Dictionary (1965 - 3rd edition)
Preface to the Hawaiian Dictionary (1971 - Haw-Eng, Eng-Haw)
Preface to the Hawaiian Dictionary (1986 - Revised and enlarged edition)
Preface to the Hawaiian Dictionary
(The stomach is weak with hunger.)
11. Entries having a superfluity of glosses for a single base, as, for mao: carry, separate, quiet, corrupt, gentle, green, blue, a shrub, its blossom, a fish, and a heiau.
After elimination of such patently improper entries from Andrews' dictionary, quite a few apparently acceptable entries remained. Most of them are reduplications, causatives, words referring to flora and fauna, or Biblical terms. Some of the added plant names are doubtful, however, especially in view of Mrs. Pukui's careful checking over the years of some twenty-three hundred plant names with Marie Neal and Edward Handy. All entries from Andrews unknown to us are labeled And.; we cannot be held responsible for their accuracy. And, because we do not know how these words were pronounced, we have not added glottal stops and macrons.
As a simple demonstration of the role of the glottal stop in distinguishing Hawaiian words, a comparison was made with the role of the English n. In a count of 100,000 words in written materials, G. Dewey (see Bibliography) found that 7.24 percent were of the sound n. In a Fornander legend written in Hawaiian the glottal stop represents 7.2 percent of the total number of sounds, according to a computerized count supervised by Robert Hsu of the Pacific and Asian Linguistic Institute of the University of Hawaii. To illustrate the amount of guesswork a reader of Hawaiian most use if he is to understand a passage in which the glottal stops are not shown, the first few lines in this paragraphs are rewritten with zero replacement of n.
As a simple demostratio of the role of the glottal stop i distiguishig Hawaiia words, a compariso was made with Eglish. I a cout of 100,000 words i writte materials G. Dewey (see Bibliography), foud that 7.24 percet were of the soud. I a Forader leged writte i Hawaiia the glottal stop represets 7.2 percet of the total umber of souds....
The body of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary has had almost no changes since the third edition of 1965 other than references to the new Hawaiian Grammar, and nearly all of the definitions go back to the original compilation in the early 1950s. The grammatical ideas of the compilers, however, have changed considerably since those early years. As explained in the Hawaiian Grammar, the field of descriptive linguistics has made great strides during the past decade, and important works on other Polynesian languages have appeared, notably studies concerning Maori by Bruce Biggs and P. W. Hohepa. Furthermore, we, as compilers have had more years of study and research, and therefore in a number of ways the Dictionary would be different if it were to be written today. The serious student is urged to consult our Hawaiian Grammar for more recent thinking about the Hawaiian language. The Dictionary definitions would need very little rewriting if the work were done again, but changes would be made in some of the grammatical terms, in classification of words, and in assignment of macrons to one-syllable words and particles.
Supplement B of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary is a glossary of about two hundred names of gods (akua), demigods (kupua), family gods (ʻaumakua), and heroes (meʻe). Of the multitudinous gods, only a few are included—the ones most commonly mentioned in legends, songs, and ethnological accounts, or those which occur repeatedly in place names. The term akua is a very broad one; it includes the four great gods (Kāne, Lono, Kū, and Kanaloa), hundreds of lesser gods, mischievous and easily outwitted ghosts, and even kauwā outcasts. In the glossary only the powerful akua are included. Most of them were benevolent and loved and trusted by the people, and only a few were feared as helpers of sorcerers. The kupua were noteworthy for their many forms (kino lau)—human beings, fish, birds, animals, plants, and natural phenomena, such as lightning, clouds, and winds. Of the Hawaiian heroes (meʻe) we have included only the most renowned from among those who lived before 1778, the year Captain Cook arrived in the islands.
Following the glossary of Hawaiian gods is a list (Supplement C) of about ninety specializations or areas governed by the deities, and of the plant and animal forms (kino lau) they assumed. Legends have many variants, as have the gods' names, and no attempt has been made to include them all. Some gods appear in many stories and have several names.
In the preparation of Supplements B and C, we were aided by Rubellite Kawena Johnson, a teacher of Hawaiian at the University of Hawaii and a specialist in Hawaiian folklore, who permitted us to consult her unpublished dictionary of Hawaiian mythology. This large volume and her own comments were of great help. She also supplied a number of new entries for Supplement A. In addition to this work by Mrs. Johnson, the principal sources for these two supplements have been Mrs. Pukui's notes gleaned during the past half century, Beckwith's Hawaiian Mythology, Kamakau's Ruling Chiefs, and to a lesser extent works by Malo, Emerson, and Westervelt.
Samuel H. Elbert wishes to express his appreciation to the East-West Center of the University of Hawaii. His term as senior colleague there enabled him to work on Supplements A, B, and C, and excellent clerical assistance for the preparation of the final manuscript was provided by the Center.
MKP/SHE June 1970