The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

Manuel Quimper's List
(1791)

Manuel Quimper was master of the Princesa Real, a British ship captured by the Spaniards in 1789. Princesa Real was in Hawaii from March 23 until April 18, when they sailed for Manila, bound for Macao, where the ship was to be returned to the British. Quimper, known also for his discovery and exploration of the Strait of Juan de Fuc, described himself as an American-born Spaniard. He was probably born in Lima, Peru between 1750 and1760.

Although he made brief stops at Moanalua Bay (Oʻahu), Waimea Bay (Kauaʻi), and Paliuli Bay (Niʻihau), it is likely that he collected the word list on Hawaii, where he spent more time. As for his linguistic prowess, "... he was not an educated man. He made many mistakes in grammar and spelling... It will be noted, particularly in the vocabulary of Castilian-Hawaiian words, that Quimper often caught by ear or understood only the last syllable or two of some Hawaiian words. The impossibility of making exact identification and translation of such words is thus readily recognized." (Minson 1952)

adapted from Albert J. Schütz, "Voices of Eden" pp. 37-38.

notes from Minson 1952


click on column heading to sort

#list wordmodern Hawaiianlist glossSpanish
1.EryAliʻi (Mōʻī)KingRey
2.ErittyAliʻi iki (Kiaʻāina)GovernorGovernador
3.Tojoa? ko koa (kāpena)*CaptainCapitan
*Kapena is a "loan" word based on the English word "captain." A loan word is one taken into Hawaiian from another language and retaining as closely as possible its original sound and meaning.
4.TajunakahunaPriest to their idolsSacerdote de sus Ydoles
5.Metuatanemakua kāneFatherPadre
6.MetuaginemakuahineMotherMadre
7.TainakainaBrotherHermano
8.TaitainakaikainaYounger BrotherHermano Menor
9.ToaginekuahineSisterHermana
10.Cacamaginekaikamahine ('daughter, girl')WifeMuger propia
11.MetuamakuaUncleTio
12.TeitekeikiSonHijo
13.Vtuʻuku or ʻuʻuku ('small, tiny')BoyMuchacho
14.Epohe poʻoHeadLa Caveza
15.LaguojolauohoHairEl pelo
16.Laelae ('forehead')Face (forehead)La frente
17.CuemacakuʻemakaEyebrowsLas Cejas
18.LiligilihilihiEyelashesLas Pestanas
19.Emattahe makaEyesLos Ojos
20.Geijiuhe ihuNoseLa Nariz
21.Eregeregehe leheleheLipsLos labios
22.Enijiuhe nihoTeethLos dientes
23.Aguay___SloopLa Balandra [mistake for ā kai 'by the sea'?]
24.PaparinepapālinaCheeksLos Cachettes
25.PepellaupepeiaoEarsLas Orejas
26.Puhaypūʻāʻī ('Adam's apple')NeckEl Pescuezo ['Adam's apple']
27.Genojohe loloBrainEl Cerebro [nono variant of lolo?]
28.PojivipoʻohiwiShouldersLos Hombres
29.Erimahe limaArmsLos Brazos
30.ManamanamanamanaFingersLos Dedos
31.Menea? meneArmpitsLos Sobacos ['folded']
32.MelloumaiʻaoNailsLas Unas
33.Ecuryhe kuʻe limaElbowsLos Codos
34.Ajayhaʻi, hahaʻi or ʻahaʻiLarge jointsLas coyunteras Grandes
35.PupupuʻupuʻuSmall jointsLas Pequenas
36.Purimapūlima or puʻu lima ('wrist, knuckles, fist')HandsLas Manos
37.VmavmaumaumaChestEl Pecho
38.Tuomov? kuamoʻo ('spine')ShouldersLas Espaldas
39.Tuakua ('back')SideEl Costado
40.OpuʻōpūAbdomenLa Barriga
41.PapacorepāpākoleButtocksLas Nalgas
42.Orojayʻolo ʻūhāThighsLos Muslos
43.TurykuliKneesLas Rodillas
44.Orojay, Geybi(?), he iwi ('bone')LegsLas Piernas
45.OrooroʻoloʻoloCalvesLas Pantorrillas
46.TapuaykapuaʻiFeetLos Pies
47.Aguauiwi ʻaoʻao (ʻaoʻao = 'side')RibsLas Costillas
48.PitopikoNavalEl Ombligo
49.Teureke ulePenisEl Miembro del Hombre
50.Eraju, Gejuahe laho, he huaTestesLos Genittales
51.TogekoheWoman's GenitalsLa Naturaleza de la Muger
52.Papanepanepanipani*CopulationLa Generacion
*It will be recalled that on page 76 above Quimper made reference to this word as the one used by the Hawaiians to say Spain.
53.Gea? he ā ('jaw, cheekbone')PalateEl paladar
54.ErerueleloTongueLa lengua
55.Puhaypūʻāʻī ('Adam's apple' puʻu = 'throat', ʻāʻī = 'neck')ThroatEl Garguero o Gargantta
56.MajamahaTemplesLas sienes
57.QuomokuamoʻoSpineEl Espinazo
58.VmivmiʻumiʻumiBeardLos Pelos de la Barba
59.OcoreʻōkoleBacksidesEl Estantino
60.Manaba? manawa ('feelings, seat of emotions')StomachEl Estomago
61.Eballiuhe waiūBreastsLos Pechos
62.JovhouPerspirationEl sudor
63.AtajiʻakahiOneUno
64.EruaʻeluaTwoDos
65.EtoruʻekoluThreeTres
66.AjaʻahāFourQuatro
67.ArimaʻalimaFiveCinco
68.AunoʻaonoSixSeis
69.AgittuʻahikuSevenSiette
70.AbaruʻawaluEightOcho
71.AibaʻaiwaNineNueve
72.Aumi(a) ʻumiTenDiez
73.Geauhe aoSkyCielo
74.LaSunEl Sol
75.GecuhōkūStarsLas Estrellas
76.Geauhe aoCloudsLas Nuves
77.GouaHe uaLightningLos Relampagos
78.EttirihekiliThunderLos truenos
79.Etayhe kaiSea or salt waterEl Mar or Agua Salada
80.Ebayhe waiFresh waterLa agua dulce
81.Patay or Vpurejopaʻakai or (?)SaltLa Sal
82.OneoneSandLa Arena
83.Geahe ʻāGravelCascajo
84.PojattopōhakuStonesLas Piedras
85.Tainua or Puarakai nuʻa or pūʻali ('isthmus')Harbor or bayEl Puertto o Ensenada
86.Tropika lopi* ('thread')HawserEl Cable
*Probably another loan word, an attempt by the Hawaiians to say the English word "rope".
87.TaurakaulaRope or thin cordageGuimdaresa o Cavo delgado
88.Tenene___AnchorEl ancla
89.Motu o Llepemoku or (?)*VesselLa Embarcacion
*Here the Hawaiina word for island, moku, is used for a ship. Llepe may have been an attempt to say "ship"
90.Gebago o tenuhe waʻa or (?)*CanoesLas Canoas
*Tenu may be an attempt to say the English word "canoe."
91.Tapuri tenukahuli ? kenuThe canoe overturnedSe bolteo la Canoa
92.TirakiaTimber or masts of a vesselEl Palo o Palos de una Embara Embarcacion
93.RaulaʻauAll kinds of woodToda especie de palo
94.Yutai ukaLandLa Tierra
95.GuajiHawaiʻiName of the principal islandNombres de la Isla Principal
96.MoguiMauiAnother northern one which forms a channel with HawaiiOtra mas N. que forma canal con la de Guaji
97.Ypo o Ypo Caucauupu or ipo kaukauEating or water calabash WatermelonLa Calabaza de comer Puecara Las Sandias
98.Haaraʻaʻala ('sweet smelling')MuskmelonEl Melon
99.Poroquea o Vguarapuʻukōlea, ʻualaSweet PotatoesLos Camotes
100.TarokaloAnother root somewhat similar to the sweet potatoeOtra Raiz algo semejante al camote
101.TyAnother edible rootOtra Raiz dulce
102.Eugihe uhiYamEl name
103.Euruhe ʻulu* ('breadfruit')A kind of fruit called "Rima" in the Marianas IslandsUna especie de fruta que nombran en las Yslas Marianas Rima
*This is the breadfruit.
104.ToSugar caneLa cana dulce
105.Egiaʻohiʻa* ('tomato', ʻōhiʻaʻai 'mountain apple')A kind of appleUn especie de Manzanas
*This is the mountain apple also mentioned by Quimper on page 24 above.
106.NiuniuCoconutLos cocos
107.Pua o Alorinapuaʻa or (?)HogsLos Puercos
108.MoamoaHenLa Gallina
109.Nenenēnē* ('goose')DuckLos Pattos
*This is the nearly extinct Hawaiian goose or wild duck, the nene...
110.ManumanuAll kinds of birdsToda especie de Ave
111.Ejuahe huaEggsLos Huevos
112.MellamaiʻaPlantainsLos Plantanos
113.EllaiʻaFishEl Pescado
114.MacaumakauFishhookEl Anzuelo
115.Acaraʻākala*RaspberryLa Sarsamora
*See note on page 23 above for inofrmation on the Hawaiian raspberry.
116.Agegea______*El Puelitte
*An Englishmeaning cannot be found for this Spanish wordwhich may have been a colloquial form in Quimper's day.
117.Maomaʻo ('green')Green paintLa Pintura verde
118.Noni? noni ('k.o. yellow fruit')RedLa Encarnada
119.Torey___*YellowLa Amarilla
*It is possible that the word given to Quimper for yellow was the name of the plant from which yellow dye was procured; this plant cannot be positively identified.
120.GuaytemoaʻO wai kou inoaWhat is your name?Como te llamas
121.YnoainoaMy name isMe nombre o se nombra
122.Itty o piquininiiki or pīkanele (& pikanini < Eng. slang)Small thingCosa chica
123.NunuinunuiLarge thingCosa grande
124.Mattana o Juaymakana or kūʻaiTo favor with a gift or barterRegalar o cambiar
125.Punepune o Abarebarepunipuni or walewaleLiarEmbustero
126.OreʻoleNoNo
127.EʻēYesSi
128.Ohau or Novʻo au or noʻuIYo
129.OeʻoeYouTu
130.JoehoʻiGo quicklyAnda vette
131.MaytaymaikaʻiGoodBueno
132.YnoʻinoBadMalo
133.Pimaypiʻi mai ('come up')Come hereVen aca
134.Erunae lunaTo ascendSubir
135.Pi______Yn
136.Ytivauʻike wauI understand youTe entiendo
137.YtteʻikeYou understand meMe enttiendes
138.Oxeao heaWhere is it?Adonde esta
139.Agattaaha ka ('what...?')WhenQuando
140.Ynojoe nohoSeat yourselfSienttate
141.Gettue Get upLevanttate
142.Eguee To weepLlorar
143.Eattae ʻakaTo laughReir
144.Geurahe hulaTo sing or danceCanttar or bailar
145.Aca acahakakāTo quarrelReganar
146.Namunamunamunamu ('mumble, babble')To speakHablar
147.AnoʻanoʻaiLoveAora
148.Punegerepunahele ('favor, favorite')I love youTe quiero
149.rau raio o Guaraulau or ua lauMuchMucho
150.Au o Caucaoʻai or kaukau (< Chinese 'chowchow')To eatComer
151.PororypōloliI am hungryTengo hambre
152.MaonamaʻonaI have eaten wellHe comido bien
153.Anu o toytoyanu or huʻi huʻiIt is very coldHace mucho frio
154.Tojana o Jojanaka hana or hahanaIt is very warmHace mucho calor
155.Nojumarienoho malieBe quietCalla la boca
156.AtetahakakāTo wage warGuerrear
157.Xare or Pueteahale or ? puekeaA house or hutUna casa o Jacalon
158.PaupauIt is finishedSe acabo
159.PoNightNoche
160.Porere ʻeleʻeleDark nightNoche obscura
161.ApopoʻapōpōTomorrowManana
162.Apopo poypoyʻapōpō (? poʻipoʻi)Day after tomorrowManana por la manana
163.Apopoturaʻapōpō ? ahu aIn the afternoonA la tarde
164.Aguneyaku neiTodayOy
165.Nana o Mirimirinānā or (? milimili)To seeVer
166.MattaumakaʻuI am afraidTengo Miedo
167.Materoamake loaThey kill meMe Mattan
168.Aripe matte(?) makeYou are deadEs muertto
169.Au___HereAqui
170.Pu*FirearmEl arma de fuego
*Other Hawaiian words for gun can be found in Kamakau, History of Hawaii, p. 45.
171.Toma___The shotLas Balas
172.Paurapauka*The powderLa polvora
*This is probably another loan word taken from the English word "powder."
173.Temotumapapake moku ma papa*Name of a shoal to the west of the island of Niihau according to the IndiansNombres de un bajo que esta al Queste de la Ysla de Omijau segun noticia de los Yndios
*Cook, Voyage to the Pacific, Vol. II, p. 222 mentions this shoal...
174.GuaimeaWaimea*RiverRio
*A limited meaning for the word river. Quimper lay at Waimea on Kauai where this name is used for the town, bay, and river.
175.Ana anaananaA fathomUna braza
176.PagillawahieFirewoodLena
177.AnuanauanianiMirrorEl espejo
178.Jauhao*Iron or nailsEl fierro o Clavos
*Kamakau, History of Hawaii, p. 43 contains the Hawaiian word for iron in context.
179.GeregerehelehelePathway or roadAnda o Camina
180.ToykoʻiAxe or hatchetLa Hacha o Hazuela
181.MimimimiTo urinateOrinar
182.CucaykūkaeTo defacateObrar
183.ArojaalohaFriendAmigo
184.Arojanuocovaloha nui loaTo greet each other as friendsSaludarse como Amigos
185.Toray___Neat or cleanLaha o limpia
186.Unajay___Cracked or brokenRajado o Rotto
187.Matane o Guinemakani or kuine*WindEl Viento
*"Kuine" is probably another loan word, an attempt to say "wind."
188.Tamutu___North windViento N.
189.Ega? ʻekaSouthEl S.
190.Gejau? he hauEastLeste
191.Geapa? he apaWestOeste
192.Moe o Aripimoe or (?)*To SleepDormir
*"Aripi" may be another loan word, an attempt to say "sleepy."
193.AgiahiHearthEl fogon
194.Geajihe ahiFireEl guego
195.Gebajihe uahiSmokeEl Humo
196.CapakapaThe mats with which they clothe themselvesLas manttas con que se cubren
197.Eajuhe ʻahuMat or fine matLa estera o Pettatte
198.MarumaluProtectionEl Tamarrabo
199.MayoremahioleHelmet or feather hatEl morrion o turbante de plumas
200.Kara KacoaKealakekuaBay where I anchored and where they killed Captain CookBahia donde estubo fondrado y mataron el Capitan Cook
201.TaratatuaKailuaResidence of the principal king Kamehameha and the bay where I have anchored with the sloopResidencia del Principal Ery Amejameja y Ensenada a donde estube fondeado con la Balandra
202.TojanaKohala*Name of the first bay where I anchoredNombre de la Primera Ensenada en donde estube fondeado
*Quimper probably wrote the vocabulary several months after his visit to Hawaii and in doing so confused the true name of Kawaihae Bay with the district of Kohala in whyich it is situated.
203.UlpaʻūpāScissorsLas tixeras
204.Tona y NapuKona and Nāpoʻopoʻo*Name of two districts which lie to the north of itNombre de dos parttidos que se hallan al N. de este
*The names Kona and Napoopoo belong more properly to the region of Kailua Bay, which has been identified as the second anchorage of Quimper.
205.Taty______La Poqueria
206.Tacacue___Ringworm kind of leprosyEmeines espicie de Lepra
207.PeapeʻaSail of a vesselVela de una Envarcacion
208.Maruna___ThiefLadron
209.MomimomiPearl and its shellPerla y su Concha
210.Orejoʻo leho ('cowrie')SnailCaracol
211.RoygilōʻihiLongLargo
212.Yraroi lalo ('down, under')Keep itGuardalo
213.Tauna o Taraibakahuna or kālai waʻa*CarpenterEl carpintero
*Kahuna meant anyone skilled in some particular calling, a kalai waʻa was a skilled builder of canoes.
214.Tairuakai loa ('very much?')Large populationPoblacion grande
215.Obaya o Ydadowaho or I laloCome down belowBaja abajo
216.PepegepepehiTo punishCastigar
217.Ariaalia ('wait')Leave me or leave itDejame o dexalo
218.Ea? ʻeā ('isn't that so?')Look or seeOye o mira
219.PagipahiKnifeEl Cuchilla

REFERENCES

Quimper, Manuel (Manuel Quimper Benítez del Pino). 1822. Islas de Sandwich. Descripcion sucinta de este Archipiélago, Nombre que les Dió su Célebre Descubridor el Captain Cook, reconocidas por el teniente de fragata de la armada nacional. Madrid: E. Aguado. [7], 8–32 pp. [Word list, pp. 28–31. See MINSON 1952 for an analysis of this work.]

Minson, William Harvey. 1952. The Hawaiian Journal of Manuel Quimper. University of Hawaiʻi M. A. thesis. iii, 114 ll.