The earliest Hawaiian word lists

Anderson - 1778    Samwell - 1779    Beresford - 1787    Martinez - 1789    Santeliz es Pablo - 1791    Quimper - 1791    
Lisiansky - 1804    Campbell - 1809    Gaimard/Arago - 1819    Bishop/Ellis - 1825    Botta - 1828    Dumont - 1834    

David Samwell's List
(1779)

After sailing to the northwest coast of America, the two ships of the Cook expedition returned to Hawai`i, mostly lying at anchor from January 17 to February 22, 1779 at Kealakekua Bay. David Samwell was surgeon on the Discovery, a position he assumed after William Anderson's death. He was apparently interested in capturing the essence of Polynesian poetry, and his journal, more than any other, describes the lighthearted side of the voyage. In his diary entry for February 4, near the end of a long description of customs and material culture, Samwell touched on the topic of language, mentioning the similarity of Hawaiian to Tahitian and promising: 'A specimen of it will be hereafter given.' However, Cook's death on February 14 provided a much more urgent matter for diarists to describe. But the promised specimen of the language appears after a description of people and events at Niʻihau in the entry for March 14, 1779 — the day before they left the island. It remained in manuscript form until Beaglehole published his edition of Cook's third voyage in 1967.

adapted from Albert J. Schütz, "Voices of Eden" p. 35.

analyzed and annotated by Laiana Wong


click on column heading to sort

num.list wordmodern Hawaiianlist gloss
1.Raw-oholauohoHair
2.CoomakākuʻemakaEyebrows
3.Hamakahe makaEyes
4.EihooihuNose
5.NeehonihoTeeth
6.Oome oomeʻumiʻumiBeard
7.PepeiawpepeiaoEar
8.Hererohe aleloTongue
9.PaparenapapālinaCheek
10.Hepoocaihohe pukaihuNostrils
11.Hererhehehe leheleheLips
12.RemaremalimalimaArm
13.Havavahehe wāwaeLeg
14.Capooaikapuaʻi (ʻsole of foot, footprint’)Foot
15.KoorecoorekulikuliKnee
16.OowhaʻūhāThigh
17.OomawmaumaumaBreast
18.Hekooahe kuaBack
19.PoheivepoʻohiwiShoulder
20.Maioomaiʻaofingrernails
21.Manamanaremamanamana lima (finger)Thumb
22.Kanakakanakaa Man
23.Hekanehe kāneHusband
24.WaheinewahineWoman
25.Hevaihe waiWater
26.Herahhe the Sun
27.Hepohe night
28.A-a-oaoday
29.Pooremapūlima (ʻwrist, cuff’. apolima ʻbracelet’)a Bracelet
30.Toieekoʻia Hatchet
31.Awaiʻauwaethe Chin
32.Moimoeto sleep
33.aiʻaieat
34.Hooawaihuawai (ʻbottle’. also huewai.)drink
35.moco mocomokomokofight
36.pepehepepehibeat or kill
37.Mattemaketo kill
38.acacaʻakaʻakato laugh
39.Heweuwēto cry
40.Nananānāto look
41.Oreroʻōleloto speak
42.Hepoorehe pule (ʻpray’)to sing
43.Ehareehe halea House
44.nueenuilarge
45.oogooʻuku; ʻuʻukusmall
46.eiaʻike; eia (ʻhere’)to understand
47.apawa pau; ua pauno more
48.ehaneehe aha nei?what's this?
49.Pahoopahua Drum
50.Hoahoa (ʻto bind, tie’)a Comb
51.evahoe wahoto go out
52.woraola; ua olaalive
53.HemaireeHemaʻili (proper name)a Chief
54.Areealiʻia Chief
55.Kawakauā (ʻoutcast, slave’)common fellow
56.Noanoacommon fellow
57.oroholo (ʻgo fast’)to go
58.oro mogooholo moku (simplified)the Ship goes away
59.aroha outow!aloha ʻoukoufriendly Salutation
60.paw ekee aheepau i ke ahiburnt
61.Hoowaiʻuweheopen the Door
62.No ? (sometime short for moku)an Island
63.Ainaʻāinaan Island or Country
64.Avaawa (ʻharbour’)a Bay
65.Keoneekūono (ke one? ʻbeach, sand’)a Bay [ditto]
66.Medooa kaneemakua kānea Father
67.Medooawaheinemakuahine [makua(wa)hine]Mother
68.Keige kaneekeiki kānea Son
69.Keige Waheinekaikamahinea Daughter
70.Hamatanahe makanaa Present
71.Too boo-kupu (ʻtax, tribute’)a Present [ditto]
72.Ehadae haki; hahaʻito break
73.Herorohe lōlō (ʻnumb, paralysed’)dumb
74.Apo-noraapō no (The -ra could be ʻday’)to night
75.Maheoreemahiolefeather'd Caps
76.Haoo ooraʻahuʻulafeather'd Cloaks
77.Ereihe leifeather'd Necklace
78.Hemarohe malo (ʻloin cloth’)thick Cloth
79.Hew-oorawhe o lole? (heu ʻula ʻghost fibers’?)thin Cloth
80.e-he-a?ʻehiaHow many?
81.hanawhānauborn
82.OurooahʻuluāCava bowl with Images
83.TanoakānoaCommon one
84.Abooipusmall Cava Dish
85.reroliloto sell
86.Hewroohhe ʻuluround stones for bowling
87.Hobehope (ʻthe last child’?)a Boy
88.Taitooanakaikuaʻanaa Brother
89.Peahepeʻahia Fan
90.Taheereekahili (Oahu dial.)fly flap
91.peremaipēlā mai (ʻin that way -here’)pull to
92.Owai tou e noa?ʻo wai kou inoawhats your name?
93.Hereireirahele lailalet's go there
94.Awheroae weloa (ʻaʻohe loa ʻnot in the least’?)I don't hear you
95.rhealaulā (ākea ?)wide
96.pootapukaa Hole
97.ei-iaeiahere
98.eroonai lunaabove
99.eiraroi lalobelow
100.anoanucold
101.maramaramamalamalamaLight
102.CoocooeekukuiLight or Candle
103.a-owreeʻaʻoleNo!
104.Tawmahakaumahaheavy
105.Ocaraʻo kēlā (ʻthat one’)him
106.Ehonehe onesand
107.Ava pooeeʻawapuhiGinger
108.Hew wheuhiTattawing
109.Herorohe lolothe Brain
110.Poohakoopōhaku (ʻstone’)Lava
111.Meenōhmanōa Shark
112.Eiahe iʻaFish
113.ManoomanuBirds
114.Eereeoʻīlioa Dog
115.Herorehe lole (ʻdepigmentation’)the Pox
116.He pea peahe peʻapeʻa (ʻfilthy, unclean’)the Pox [ditto]
117.choneee honito smell
118.maitaimaikaʻigood
119.eenooʻinobad
120.maneemani (ʻsmooth’)fine
121.mee-emiʻifine [ditto]
122.waw-whe(wāwae ʻleg’)to go away
123.taheʻekāhione (1)
124.rooaluatwo (2)
125.dorookoluthree (3)
126.hafour (4)
127.remalimafive (5)
128.onooonosix (6)
129.heidoohikuseven (7)
130.varoowalueight (8)
131.eivaʻeiwanine (9)
132.oomeʻumiten (10)
133.aw-whea?ʻauheawhere?
134.hare-heahele i heawhere are you going?
135.aouree eteʻaʻole ʻikeI dont know
136.oiʻoe (singular)you
137.wawwauI
138.Utaukathe Shore
139.Hekaihe kaithe Sea
140.PakaipaʻakaiSalt
141.Erawhe lāʻauWood
142.Neeooniucocoanuts
143.ToSugar Cane

REFERENCES

Beaglehole, John Cawte, ed. 1967. The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyage of Discovery. Vol. 3.(BIII)