st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Finderlist

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s

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sa

sacred

‘taboo, sacred’ - PMc *fali

‘sacred, holy’ - PMc *tara

sail

‘a sail’ - PMc *laya

‘a sail’ - PMc *lea or *laya

‘be furled (of a sail), rolled or folded up’ - PMc *lulu

‘to sail’ - PWMc *taraki

‘a sail’ - PCMc *yuwe

sailing

‘lee platform of sailing canoe, platform on side opposite to outrigger float’ - PCMc *epaepa

‘windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe’ - PWMc *farafa

‘lee side of a sailing canoe’ - PMc *katea

salt

‘salt water’ - PMc *taSi

same

‘be alike, same, equivalent’ - PMc *wee

sand

‘white sand crab or ghost crab’ - PMc *karuki

‘sand, beach’ - PMc *pia, pipia, piapia

‘sand islet’ - PMc *pike

sated

‘sated (with food or drink)’ - PMc *masu

saturate

‘soak, saturate’ - PMc *Too

sauce

‘side dish of meat, fish, or sauce’ - PCMc *talia

saved

‘saved, held on to’ - PCMc *tawu₃

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sc

Scaevola

‘half flower (Scaevola) - PWMc *nanasu

scales

‘hair, feathers, scales, remove (hair or scales)’ - PMc *una, unauna, una-fi

scar

‘cut, wound, sore, scar’ - PMc *kina, kina-ta

scatter

‘break, cut, scatter’ - PMc *kala, ma-kala

scoop

‘to scoop up’ - PMc *ari

‘dip it up, dip it out, scoop it up’ - PCMc *isi-fi, esi-fi

‘scoop up’ - PMc *[sS]iko

scooped

‘be scraped out, scooped up’ - PMc *raku, rakuraku

scorpion

‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ - PMc *nowu

scrape

‘to grate, scrape’ - PMc *a[sS]a

‘to scrape’ - PMc *kara, kara-si, kara-sa

‘to scrape, grate’ - PMc *karu

‘scraped, to scrape’ - PMc *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si

scraped

‘coconut cream, scraped coconut meat’ - PCMc *ar[eo]ŋu

‘be scraped out, scooped up’ - PMc *raku, rakuraku

‘scraped, to scrape’ - PMc *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si

scratch

‘to scratch’ - PMc *kaaSu, kakaaSu

‘to scratch’ - PMc *kari

scrub

‘rub, scrub’ - PMc *iri, iriiri

‘to scrub, wash’ - PMc *salu, salusalu

scum

‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ - PMc *limʷu, lumʷu

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se

season

‘season of southerly winds’ - PCMc *raki

‘season, sun’ - PMc *tau₂

seat

‘seat in a canoe’ - PMc *loo[wØ]a, lo[wØ]a-

seaweed

‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ - PMc *limʷu, lumʷu

sedge

‘sedge’ - PWMc *pʷukari

seize

‘grab, capture, seize’ - PMc *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-

semen

‘semen, sperm’ - PMc *weSe

sentiment

‘emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind’ - PMc *sipa

serial

‘the number four’ (in serial counting) - PMc *faŋi

settle

‘settle, alight’ - PMc *Toka

seven

‘seven’ - PMc *fitu, fitu-ua

sever

‘cut, sever, break off’ - PMc *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si

several

‘any of several kinds of fish’ - PCMc *kuu

‘any of several kinds of sea bass’ - PWMc *tawia

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sh

shade

‘shade’ - PMc *l[iu]nuru

shake

‘shake, tremble’ - PMc *cece, cecece

‘tremble, shake’ - PMc *cucu

‘shake’ - PMc *ucuucu, ucu-ki

shape

‘appearance, condition, shape’ - PCMc *au-

‘shape, appearance’ - PMc *lama-

‘come into view, begin to take shape’ - PCMc *piŋu, pʷuŋu

shark

‘shark’ - PMc *pakewa

‘toothless shark’ - PCMc *pʷapʷu

sharp

‘sharp’ - PCMc *kakaŋi

sharpen

‘sharpen’ - PMc *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma

shattered

‘shattered, broken into pieces’ - PMc *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi

shell

‘spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa

‘bivalve shell, shell knife or grater’ - PMc *koyi

‘coconut shell, skull’ - PMc *laSa

‘turtle shell’ - PMc *pʷoca

‘shell’ - PMc *pʷuli

‘triton or trumpet shell’ - PMc *tawui

spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *yaŋa

shine

‘shine’ - PMc *[sS]in[ae]

‘to flash, shine’ - PWMc *were, werewere

shoot

‘sprout, shoot (of plants)’ - PMc *ili

‘young shoot, sprout’ - PMc *[tT]ulu-

shore

‘shore, beach, vicinity’ - PMc *aro-

shoulder

‘shoulder’ - PMc *afara

‘shoulder garland’ - PMc *mʷare

shove

‘push, shove’ - PMc *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-

shut

‘be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close’ - PMc *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta

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si

sibling

‘child of sibling of opposite sex’ - PMc *fa[sS]ua

‘sibling’ - PMc *ria

‘younger sibling’ - PMc *ta[sS]i-

side

‘lee platform of sailing canoe, platform on side opposite to outrigger float’ - PCMc *epaepa

‘lee side of a sailing canoe’ - PMc *katea

‘lagoon side (of an island)’ - PCMc *mata-aro

‘side’ - PMc *pa-

‘side’ - PMc *paiki

‘side’ - PWMc *palia

‘side dish of meat, fish, or sauce’ - PCMc *talia

‘edge, side’ - PCMc *Toa or *Towa

‘edge, side’ - PCMc *Towa

sift

‘to strain, sift’ - PMc *liki, likiliki, liki-Si

sight

‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ - PMc *oo

sign

‘sign, symbol’ - PMc *kilala

silly

‘silly, stupid’ - PWMc *pʷaipʷai

sinew

‘vein, sinew’ - PMc *waka

sing

‘to reckon, sing’ - PMc *alele

‘chant, sing, be noisy, laugh’ - PMc *ŋiTi

singular

I (1st singular subject marker) - PCMc *i

‘you (singular subject marker)’ - PMc *ko-, koe

‘your (singular)’ - PMc *-mʷu

‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ - PMc *ŋaa, ŋau

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sk

skin

‘oil for skin or hair, anoint’ - PCMc *kapi-sa, kapi-si

‘skin, bark’ - PMc *kuli

‘growth or lump under the skin, spongy core of mature coconut’ - PMc *piri

‘skin disease’ - PMc *tanitani

skip

‘to skip along, flit’ - PMc *pepe, pepepe

skipjack

‘a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack’ - PMc *aroŋo

‘skipjack, Carangid fish’ - PMc *laŋua

skirt

‘loin cloth, skirt’ - PWMc *kalo

skull

‘coconut shell, skull’ - PMc *laSa

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sl

slack

‘slack, loosen’ - PMc *tala, tala-[sS]i

slap

‘clap the hands, slap (something)’ - PMc *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-

sleep

‘sleep’ - PMc *maturu

‘sleep’ - PMc *mʷoe

‘lie down, sleep’ - PMc *w[eo]n[eo]

slice

‘slice, chunk, to cut, to slice’ - PMc *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki

‘to cut in pieces, slice’ - PMc *tafa, tafa-si

‘slice of copra’ - PWMc *takaka

slightly

‘somewhat, slightly’ - PMc *l[iu]ku-

slimy

‘slimy’ - PMc *ma-cai

slingshot

‘slingshot’ - PMc *pʷuasa

slip

‘to slip off, put aside’ - PMc *pʷili

slow

‘slow, late’ - PMc *cawa

‘slow growing, durable’ - PMc *koco₂

‘be slow’ - PCMc *mʷea[wØ]u

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sm

smack

‘smack one’s lips’ - PMc *misi

small

‘small, uninhabited island’ - PMc *anu[sS]a

‘small, little’ - PMc *ciki

‘small, little’ - PMc *kisi

‘small, little, tiny’ - PWMc *niŋi

‘a small fish’ - PMc *tañifa

smart

‘to smart, sting’ - PMc *soŋo, soŋosoŋo

smarting

‘stinging, smarting’ - PMc *ecieci

‘stinging, smarting’ - PMc *[fØ]eci[fØ]eci

smell

‘odor, smell’ - PMc *pʷoi, pʷoa

‘to smell something’ - PMc *saŋu

smoke

‘smoke’ - PMc *a[sS]u

smoking

‘to preserve by smoking’ - PCMc *faŋi

smooth

‘smooth’ - PMc *ma-[sS]ali

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sn

snagged

‘be caught, snagged’ - PMc *tapa₃

snap

‘snip, cut, snap, flick’ - PMc *fici, fici-ki

‘snap, vibrate’ - PMc *pici, pici-ki

snapper

‘a snapper fish’ - PCMc *pʷaua

‘yellow snapper’ - PWMc *tata

snare

‘make a noose or snare’ - PCMc *ñama

sneeze

‘to sneeze’ - PCMc *mʷaTie

snip

‘snip, cut, snap, flick’ - PMc *fici, fici-ki

snore

‘to snore’ - PMc *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro

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so

soak

‘soak, saturate’ - PMc *Too

soft

‘soft’ - PMc *ma-caucau

soil

‘dirt, soil’ - PCMc *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu

sole

‘apply the sole of the foot’ - PMc *faa, faa-[sS]i

something

‘food’, ‘eat (something)’ - PMc *kana, kani

eat (something) - PMc *kaŋi

bundle of something - PMc *kapa

‘be bent, to bend (something)’ - PMc *kupʷe, kupʷe-li

‘do (something)’ - PMc *meña-a

‘clap the hands, slap (something)’ - PMc *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-

‘be stopped up, stop (something) up’ - PMc *pina, pina-ti-

‘to split something open’ - PMc *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki

‘pull out with the hands from inside something’ - PMc *ra[wØ]u

‘to smell something’ - PMc *saŋu

‘to break, destroy (something)’ - PCMc *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta

‘be wrapped, a package, to wrap (something)’ - PMc *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi

‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) - PWMc *taŋi

‘be cut, lopped, to cut (something) off’ - PMc *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki

‘suck up (something)’ - PWMc *Toro-mi

‘turn something over, reverse direction’ - PMc *woki, woki-si-

‘splash water on (something)’ - PCMc *wusi, wuwusi

somewhat

‘somewhat, slightly’ - PMc *l[iu]ku-

sore

‘cut, wound, sore, scar’ - PMc *kina, kina-ta

soul

‘soul, spirit’ - PMc *ŋenu

sound

‘loud sound’ - PCMc *iŋu, iŋuiŋu

‘to make an intruding or interrupting sound’ - PMc *kaka₂

‘low sound’ - PCMc *[mmʷ]a-asaasa

‘buzz, hum, make sound, intonation’ - PMc *ŋii

‘voice, sound’ - PWMc *ŋil[ai]

‘to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)’ - PMc *pʷuu

southerly

‘season of southerly winds’ - PCMc *raki

Southern

‘trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross’ - PMc *pʷupʷu

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sp

space

‘open space between’ - PMc *kacawa

‘cleared space’ - PMc *maata, maataata

spathe

‘spathe, unopened bud’ - PCMc *asi

speak

‘speak, spoken’ - PCMc *tapa, ka-tapa

speaker

‘here, this near speaker’ - PMc *ee

‘toward speaker, hither’ - PCMc *soko

spear

‘to spear, stab, pierce’ - PCMc *wai

sperm

‘semen, sperm’ - PMc *weSe

spider

‘spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa

‘spider lily’ - PMc *kiepʷu

spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *yaŋa

spirit

‘god, spirit’ - PMc *anitu

‘soul, spirit’ - PMc *ŋenu

spiritual

‘be efficacious, have spiritual power’, ‘efficacy, spiritual power’ - PMc *mana, manamana

spit

‘spit, spittle’ - PMc *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa

spittle

splash

‘splash water on (something)’ - PCMc *wusi, wuwusi

split

‘cracked, split’ - PMc *kaka₁

‘to split something open’ - PMc *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki

spoken

‘speak, spoken’ - PCMc *tapa, ka-tapa

spongy

‘growth or lump under the skin, spongy core of mature coconut’ - PMc *piri

spread

‘to spread’ - PCMc *cai

‘to spread’ - PMc *feraki, feraki-ni-

sprout

‘sprout, shoot (of plants)’ - PMc *ili

‘to sprout, blossom’ - PMc *pʷere

‘young shoot, sprout’ - PMc *[tT]ulu-

spurt

‘spurt, squirt’ - PMc *Tiri

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sq

squid

‘squid’ - PMc *nu[sS]o

squirrel

‘squirrel fish’ - PMc *mʷonu

‘squirrel fish’ - PMc *taraa

squirt

‘spurt, squirt’ - PMc *Tiri

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st

stab

‘pierce, stab’ - PMc *[sS]oka

‘to spear, stab, pierce’ - PCMc *wai

stained

‘stained yellow’ - PMc *mera, meera

stalk

‘leaf and stalk, frond’ - PMc *paa₂

stand

‘stand watch, stay awake’ - PMc *mamata

‘to stand’ - PMc *tuu₁

star

‘star’ - PMc *fit[ou]u

‘a bright star’ - PCMc *manu

‘a star’ - PCMc *mati-ciki

‘the star Antares’ - PCMc *sumʷuru

stars

‘star(s) in Pegasus’ - PWMc *laka

state

‘state of being’ - PCMc *ca-

stative

‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ - PMc *ma-

stay

‘stand watch, stay awake’ - PMc *mamata

steer

‘steer a boat’ - PMc *ako, akoako

step

‘step, tread, apply one’s foot’ - PMc *pʷutu

stick

‘sew, stick through’ - PMc *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka

‘cane, walking stick’ - PMc *toko, toko-na

sting

‘to smart, sting’ - PMc *soŋo, soŋosoŋo

stinging

‘stinging, smarting’ - PMc *ecieci

‘stinging, smarting’ - PMc *[fØ]eci[fØ]eci

stingray

‘rayfish, stingray’ - PMc *fai, fai-a

stir

‘to stir’ - PMc *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-

stock

‘clan, folk, tribe, stock’ - PMc *kayinaŋa

stomach

‘stomach, belly, abdomen’ - PMc *tia₁

stone

‘stone, coral’ - PCMc *cakai

‘stone’ - PMc *fatu

‘stone structure’ - PCMc *pei

‘pumice stone’ - PMc *waani

stonefish

‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ - PMc *nowu

stoop

‘to stoop’ - PMc *ruku₂

stop

‘be stopped up, stop (something) up’ - PMc *pina, pina-ti-

stopped

‘stopped, halted’ - PMc *tuu₂

storm

‘sky, heaven, storm’ - PMc *laŋi

story

‘story, tell a story’ - PMc *fiaŋo

strain

‘to strain, sift’ - PMc *liki, likiliki, liki-Si

strand

‘strand tree’ - PMc *ceni, ceceni

‘tentacle, strand of hair or fiber’ - PMc *koo, koo-na

strike

‘hit, strike’ - PMc *suku

‘to beat, to strike with an object’ - PCMc *w[ao]pʷo

‘strike, hit, beat’ - PMc *wece or *woco

‘strike, hit, beat’ - PMc *woco

string

‘string, be strung’ - PMc *faa, faasa

‘to string’ - PMc *turi

strip

‘a strip of fiber for plaiting’ - PCMc *fica

Strombidae

‘spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa

spider shell (Strombidae) - PMc *yaŋa

strong

‘be strong - PMc *kaila

‘strong’ - PMc *kiSa

‘firm, hard, strong’ - PMc *ma-toa, ma-toatoa

strongly

‘to flow strongly’ - PCMc *[sS]aaŋa

structure

‘stone structure’ - PCMc *pei

struggle

‘to struggle’ - PCMc *fitaki

strung

‘string, be strung’ - PMc *faa, faasa

stupid

‘silly, stupid’ - PWMc *pʷaipʷai

‘foolish, stupid, crazy’ - PCMc *pʷuce

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su

subcordata

‘a tree (Cordia subcordata)’ - PMc *kanawa

subject

reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) - PMc *-a, -Ta

‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ - PMc *e-

I (1st singular subject marker) - PCMc *i

‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ - PMc *kayi

‘you (singular subject marker)’ - PMc *ko-, koe

‘they (3pl subject marker) - PMc *re-, ra-

‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ - PCMc *Ti-

suck

‘suck up (something)’ - PWMc *Toro-mi

suckle

‘breast, to suckle’ - PMc *susu

sufficient

‘enough, sufficient’ - PCMc *sawu

suffix

alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object - PCMc *aa-, aa-ni-

‘passive suffix’ - PMc *-aki

‘passive suffix’ - PMc *-aki-ni

‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ - PCMc *li-

‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ - PCMc *-ni, -na

‘interrogative suffix’ - PMc *-Saa, mee-Saa

suffixed

reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) - PMc *-a, -Ta

‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) - PMc *-au

‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ - PMc *ira

‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) - PWMc *taŋi

‘general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)’ - PMc *-ua

‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) - PMc *-xu

sugarcane

‘sugarcane’ - PMc *towu

summon

‘to call, summon’ - PCMc *fato, fato-ŋi-

sunlight

‘sunlight’ - PMc *siŋa

surface

‘surface, on’ - PMc *fawo

surprised

‘become aware, wake up, be surprised’ - PMc *rut[iu]

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sw

swallow

‘swallow’ - PCMc *woro-

swamp

‘taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp’ - PCMc *pʷalu

sweat

‘sweat’ - PMc *pʷ[iu]Sowa

sweet

‘sweet’ - PMc *mami

swelling

‘swelling’ - PMc *ciilee

‘swelling’ - PCMc *pʷoto

swim

‘swim’ - PCMc *afe

swordfish

‘swordfish, marlin’ - PMc *[sS]aku-laara

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sy

symbol

‘sign, symbol’ - PMc *kilala

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