Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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B


Bugotu

3. Bugotu (232) (Ivens 1940)

aaha‘to grate, rub down on a stone’ (PMc: *a[sS]a)

achi‘carry under the arm’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

achihe‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

-agi-ni·‘passive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

aha·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

[a]-hai·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

ahe, atheathe‘breathe’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

aho‘sun’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

ahu·‘smoke’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

aŋoaŋo‘yellow’ (PMc: *aŋo)

ate·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

athoatho, atho-vi‘to beckon, signal’ (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

ato‘sago palm, sago thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

atu·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

atugo away, go forth (PMc: *watu)

auout, away (PMc: *watu)

avi ni‘carry in the arms’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

balithing by which, thing for the purpose of (PCMc: *pʷai)

beubethuto blaze, burn, a flame (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

boŋi·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

Bugotu (20 / 232)

butu-lito trample, kick (PMc: *pʷutu)

butu-ŋagito withstand (PMc: *pʷutu)

buubutustamp the foot in dancing, tread hard (PMc: *pʷutu)

-da·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

dadalismooth (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

dani·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

ehu·sugarcane [a loan] (PMc: *towu)

eŋgo‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

fai‘pref. of reciprocity’ (PMc: *fa-)

fata‘tier’ (PMc: *fata)

firi‘lap with string, bind’, fiifiri ‘to twine’, viri ‘twisted, tangled’ (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

gaegaheto boast (PMc: *kata)

ga-(gna)his food to eat (PMc: *kana, kani)

ga-[gna]his food to eat (PMc: *kai₁)

gahorafter (PMc: *xawu)

gaho·‘rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

gai‘tree, spear shaft’ (PMc: *kayu)

gami·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

gamuyou (PMc: *kamʷu)

Bugotu (40 / 232)

gamu·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

gani‘eat’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

gita·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

githatha‘to know, be aware of, recognize’ (PMc: *kilala)

-gna·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

gna-mito nibble, bite, taste [something] (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

gnamu·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

gnouto bite, taste (PMc: *ñañau)

gnujurito rub (something) with the hand (PMc: *wuro, wuro-mata)

-go‘thee’ (PMc: *ko-, koe)

gugu-hoof, claw (PMc: *kuku)

guiguli·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

gutu·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

guugugu-fingernail, toenail (PMc: *kuku)

hagalu‘reef, sea’ (PMc: *sakau)

[ha]-ŋava·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

[ha]-ŋa-vulu·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

hatha [utu]‘a way’ (PMc: *ala₁)

[ha]-thaŋatu <*[ha]-ŋa-thatu‘one thousand’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

hau‘be far, a long time’ (PCMc: *soa)

Bugotu (60 / 232)

havawhat? (PMc: *faiSa)

hava‘what?’ (PMc: *Safa)

hia·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

hili, hiihilito transgress, violate (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

hili-vito infringe, violate, go throughout (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

hinamidday, sun overhead (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

hina-raa light, to shine (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

hiŋgi-li‘to touch [something]’ (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

hogo-ni‘to store up’ (PMc: *Toko)

hogo-vi‘to hit’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

(horu) jothato mix (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

hothohoforest (PMc: *Solo)

huli·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

huu‘to dive, sink’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

huu‘to sink, dive, go down’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

i vei·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

ia-[ani]this (PMc: *ia)

ifu‘blow with the mouth’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

iga·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

Bugotu (80 / 232)

[i]-gnotha·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

ihu·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

iiashe (PMc: *ia)

iirathey (PMc: *ira)

(i)-loŋalandwards (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

ira-(ani)these (PMc: *ira)

iuigu·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

jara-ha‘fishing net ten fathoms long drawn between two canoes’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

jari‘a dug channel’ (PMc: *ari)

jaufishnet (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

joajothabe mixed (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

joudig a hole, hew, carve (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

joujouto hollow out (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

juujuku‘to strike, hurt, harm, be cruel to’ (PMc: *suku)

kakaibe firm, steady, faithful (PMc: *kaila)

karito scrape, of coconut (PMc: *kari)

karia rasp (PMc: *kari)

kaube caught, hung up, entangled (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

kiekile‘tomahawk set on a long handle for fighting, axe, adze’ (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

kuakualacry out, call (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

Bugotu (100 / 232)

[labu] taoto nail crosswise (PMc: *tao)

lau‘beach, seashore, seaward, south’ (PMc: *lau)

lima‘five, hand’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lio-hi‘to look at’ (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

lua-[gna]·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

luja-[gini]to load cargo (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

lulujacargo (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

luma‘cave’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

maand (PMc: *ma)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maamatha‘light, not heavy’ (PWMc: *pale)

madabe ripe [of fruit] (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

ma-dalislippery (PMc: *ma-cai)

madalislippery (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

ma-daruaoverripe (PMc: *ma-caucau)

mada-[rua]be overripe (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

maha‘deep (of sea), deep sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mahu‘replete with food, satisfied’ (PMc: *masu)

mai‘hither (PMc: *mai₂)

mami‘sweet’ (PMc: *mami)

Bugotu (120 / 232)

mamoha‘cooked’ (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mana‘spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

mane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

manu‘bird’ (PMc: *manu)

maomaovato yawn, gape (PMc: *mawa)

mararalight (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

mata·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma-tagu·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

ma-thahoto feel cold (PMc: *l[ao]u)

mathathegarden (PMc: *malala)

mavo‘to heal up, be healed’ (PMc: *mawo)

metha, mela‘red’ (PMc: *mera, meera)

-mu·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

(n)-ae (<*[na]-ae?)leg, foot (PMc: *wae)

ni·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

niu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

-ŋgu·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

ŋiha·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

ŋuuŋuu‘murmur, whisper, speak low’ (PMc: *ŋuu)

ogaroot (PMc: *waka, wakara)

Bugotu (140 / 232)

olito change (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oli-hito exchange (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

ono·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

pau·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

pava‘plank’ (PMc: *papa)

pepepeto stammer (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

pepe-[riki]be startled, jump when startled (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

pidispring, rebound (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pono‘be closed up, stuffed up’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

popoabove, top (PMc: *fawo)

pukuswelling, lump, knot, tumor (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

pura·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

-rathem (PMc: *re-, ra-)

ragomua crab (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

raŋi‘to shine [of the sun]’ (PMc: *raani)

raŋito shine [of sun] (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

rara-ŋe‘to warm oneself at a fire’ (PMc: *rara)

raraŋiheat (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

rodo‘night’ (PMc: *roco)

rooroŋo·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

Bugotu (160 / 232)

rua·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

rugu‘duck the head’ (PMc: *ruku₁)

rugu‘to duck the head’ (PMc: *ruku₂)

sale‘to sing, a song’ (PMc: *alele)

sale a‘to sing (something)’ (PMc: *alele)

siko-mi‘take, gather, collect’ (PMc: *[sS]iko)

sokara laua south wind (PMc: *tokolau)

sono, sono-vi‘swallow’ (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

sono, sono-vi‘to swallow’ (a loan?) (PCMc: *woro-)

sope·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

susuu‘woman’s breast, milk, to suck the breast’ (PMc: *susu)

sututo carry (something) on the head (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

taba‘sea shore’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

tabato pay, wages, reward (PMc: *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i)

tabiliwooden mortar (PMc: *tapia)

tabu·‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

tae·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

tafu-nito kindle, light [a fire] (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

tahi-sibling of same sex (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

tahi·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

Bugotu (180 / 232)

talu‘put, place, appoint’ (PCMc: *tawu₃)

talu‘to put, place, appoint’ (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

tama-·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

tanoearth, ground (PMc: *tano)

tanoto collect (PMc: *tano-mi-)

tano‘earth, ground’ (PMc: *tano)

tanu-vito dip, soak in water (PMc: *tano)

taŋi, taŋi-hi·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

taoridge, saddle of a mountain’, [labu] tao ‘to nail crosswise’ (PMc: *tao)

tavuli·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

thaba·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

thaŋo·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

thapitongue (PMc: *lewe)

thethe-(ŋgura)to bear plentifully (PCMc: *lele)

thotho‘red ant’ (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

tina-[gna]·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

tiro‘to look, mirror’ (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

tobi‘fell (a tree), clear (the bush)’ (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

tokato fell [a tree], chop [something] down (PMc: *toka₁)

tola‘large canoe’ [made from hardwood tree?] (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

Bugotu (200 / 232)

tolu·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

tubuto swell (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

tubu-[gna]his mother’s brother (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

tuhu·‘to point or face’ (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

tuhuto point (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

tunu‘mark, blot, or cicatrice caused by burning’ (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

turu-[be]·‘to drip’ (PMc: *turu)

tuu·‘to stand’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

uha·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

uju-ri‘to rub the skin as when bathing’ (PMc: *us[ei])

ujurito rub the skin as when bathing (PMc: *wuro, wuro-mata)

ula‘tendon, sinew, vein’ (PMc: *waka)

ula‘tendon, sinew, vein’ (PMc: *ua₁)

ulu‘head, top, end’ (PMc: *ulu)

uluŋa·‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

ura‘crawfish’ (PMc: *ura)

vaŋato eat, vegetable food (PMc: *faŋa)

vaŋato eat, vegetable food (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

vaoto plait (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

(vari)-pukua knot, to tie together (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

Bugotu (220 / 232)

[vari]-pukua knot, to tie together (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

vathe·‘meeting house’ (PMc: *fale)

vati·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

veiveri‘to fan’ (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

vevega·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

vilichoose (PMc: *fili, filifili)

viti-lito flash through (PMc: *fiti)

vitu·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

vognu·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

vugo-i‘to be early afoot in the morning’ (PMc: *wuko)

vuŋu‘bear fruit’ (PMc: *wuŋu)

vuti‘to pluck up by the roots’ (PMc: *wuti)

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