Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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C


Chamorro

Chuukese

4. Chamorro (2) (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975)

lay’ak, layak‘a sail’ (PMc: *lea or *laya)

nigasPemphis acidula (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

5. Chuukese (1378) (Goodenough and Sugita 1980, 1990, Goodenough 1963, 1992)

-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

a-, á-, e-, é-, o-, ó-, -ka-, kka-, akka-, ákká-, ekke-, ékké-, okko-, ókkó-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

á, áá-‘swim, be swimming’ (PMc: *ae₁)

aa-‘general class of alienable object’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

ááf, efi-·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

áámwe (exclusive) (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

áám·‘we (exclusive), us’ (PWMc: *kami)

áámiyou (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

aan, ane-(n)‘path, road, route, path of’ (PMc: *ala₁)

áán, áni-(n)kind of coral (live, white, and branching), coral of (PCMc: *ale)

áá-ni‘own or acquire ownership of an alienable object’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

á-áni-péfan (lit. ‘make wind blowing’) (PMc: *pau, paupau)

á-áni-péé-(w)fan him, beckon to her (PMc: *pau, paupau)

aapʷ·‘no’ (PWMc: *aapʷa)

(a)-arúŋbreadfruit pudding served with coconut cream (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

(a)-arú-(ŋi)‘grind one’s teeth’ (PMc: *karu)

aasupper part, top, summit, eastern side (PMc: *ata)

(a)-atúto smoke or steam (something) (PMc: *a[sS]u)

aaya‘use an alienable object’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

achawbasaltic rock’ (presumably from féwú-n achaw ‘rock of heaven’) (PMc: *kacawa)

Chuukese (20 / 1378)

achawplace in the sky world’ (latterly identified with Kosrae) (PMc: *kacawa)

áche-e-(y)‘throw it’ (PCMc: *kace)

(á)-chengicheng(loan from another dialect) love, favoring, cherishing, to be dear (PCMc: *caŋi)

(a)-fa-amʷadeliver it (a baby) (PCMc: *amʷa)

(a)-fanafanformal talk, lecture, sermon, speech (PMc: *fanau)

(a)-fanafanadeliver or give (a talk, etc.) (PMc: *fanau)

afar, afara-(n)‘shoulder, his shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

(a)-ffééwbe cold to the touch (PMc: *fou)

(a)-ffééwúmake cold, chill (PMc: *fou)

(a)-fféwunifying or joining two things so as to make one (but not groups of people), splicing rope, translating, interpreting (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

(a)-fféwúto unify, join, splice (something) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

(a)-kéttú, (é)-kéttúscratch it (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

(a)-kkarsun (lit. ‘scorcher’) (PMc: *kara, kakara)

(a)-kkaracause it to be burnt (PMc: *kara, kakara)

(a)-maanúcast him adrift (PMc: *maanu)

(a)-ma-anúúnúthicken it, make it thicker (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

(a-ma)-atato grate (something) (PMc: *a[sS]a)

(a)-maa-(y)make him ashamed (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

(a)-ma-nawagive him life (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

(a)-mara, -maraa-(n)‘canoe sail, sail of’ (PMc: *maraa)

Chuukese (40 / 1378)

amas, amasa-·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

(a)-mééméto sell (something) (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

(a)-mmaanflotsam (PMc: *maanu)

(a)-mmacharipen (something) (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

(a)-mmatbe soaked up (as water), a sponge (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

(a)-mmatasoak or sponge it up (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

(a)-mʷáánitreat him as a middle-aged man (PMc: *mʷaane)

(a)-mʷéŋéé-(w), (a)-mʷéŋéé-(ni)give food to him, feed him (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

(a)-naa-(noŋ)spear-throwing stick’ (lit. ‘cause going in’) (PMc: *lako, laa)

ana-(n)‘his cooked food (to eat)’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

anaw·‘a tree (Cordia subcordata)’ (PMc: *kanawa)

ánáyán, áneyán‘to wish’ (PMc: *aneane)

áne-(pʷpʷo)a kind of coral (PCMc: *ale)

áney, ánneylong, tall, length (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

áneyi-(n)length or height of’ (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

áni, eni·eat (something) (PMc: *kaŋi)

áni-móŋ·‘mangrove crab’ (PMc: *ali-maŋo)

ánnáya, ánneya‘to read, count (something), reading, counting’ (PMc: *alele)

á-nnetadetermine the truth of it (PCMc: *lelesa)

aŋaaŋwork (PMc: *aŋa₁)

Chuukese (60 / 1378)

aŋaaŋaput (someone) to work (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋaaŋa-(ffat)work without pay (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(kkáy)handle quickly (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(maaw)snatch, take in hand roughly (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(may)catch fish by means of a stone fish trap (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(mmaŋ)take in hand slowly (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(mʷáán)take without permission (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(ŋŋaw)handle a thing badly or clumsily (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-sbe adept (PMc: *aŋa₁)

a-ŋasaannoint her with perfumed oil (PMc: *ŋata)

aŋa-(ta)work too hard, work to the point of collapse (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋá-(tá)hand up, have in hand reaching up (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋe-e-(y)take (something) in hand, take hold of (PMc: *aŋa₁)

(a)-pachbe fastened, be stuck or glued together (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

(a)-pachaattach, join, paste, glue (something), add it (in arithmetic) (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

aparaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) (PWMc: *apara)

(a)-paracause it to be red (PMc: *para)

apara, áperaaim at, line (something) up, align (PWMc: *apara)

a-pasasay it, utter it (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

áperaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) (PWMc: *apara)

Chuukese (80 / 1378)

á-piipi‘driftwood, flotsam’ (PCMc: *kai-peti)

(á)-pʷápick or gather breadfruit (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

ár‘be selected, chosen’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

araar‘white tern’ (PMc: *karakara)

(a)-ramacolor it a bright color (as with turmeric) (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

ara-mas, ara-mase-(n)‘person, person of’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

aroŋ, óroŋ, aroŋe-(n)‘sp. of pompano fish, pompano fish of’ (PMc: *aroŋo)

arúŋ, arúŋú-(n)coconut cream, coconut cream for (a food) (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

ásá·‘lee side of a sailing canoe’ (PMc: *katea)

(á)-sáá-(y)chase away, cause to run (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

(a)-sakka, #(a)-ssakato cut it (copra) (PWMc: *takaka)

asam·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

asa-(n)its upper s., above him (PMc: *ata)

(á)-sápato turn (something) to face in another direction (PCMc: *tape₂)

(á)-sápásápi-n (ppéwút)the warding off of (sorcery) (PCMc: *tape₂)

(a)-séésérest, vacation, be resting (from work) (PCMc: *Too)

-ási-ni, -esi-ni(suf. to verb bases) ‘be ~ because of (someone or something), be ~ on account of (someone or something), be ~ with (someone or something)’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

(á)-ssááwembarrasing, causing embarrassment (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

(a)-ssakto cut copra, extract copra from the coconut shell (PWMc: *takaka)

(a)-taa-(y)destroy it, break it in pieces (PMc: *[sS]aa)

Chuukese (100 / 1378)

(á-tere)-pepto skip stones (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

(á-tere)-ppepacause (something) to skip (as a stone) (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

(á)-wiiwito alternate, exchange, change off (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

áyi-·‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ (PMc: *kayi)

-ch·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

chaamʷ, chamʷa-(n)forehead, brow, his forehead (PMc: *camʷa)

chaan, chénú-fresh water, liquid (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

chááp, chepi-(n)genitals, his genitals (PWMc: *capi)

-chamʷcounting classfier for foreheads, brows, visors, etc. (PMc: *camʷa)

chaŋ‘to fly, be flying (as a bird)’ (PCMc: *caŋa)

chcha, chchaa-·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

chchaw·‘slow, late’ (PMc: *cawa)

chcheech, chechche-(n)‘quake, tremor, quake of, shake, shiver, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

chchen·‘strand tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

chchén (<*chéchén)wet (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

chchep‘kind of pompano fish’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

chchipʷbe warped or bent by fire (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

chchow, chchowu-heavy, heaviness, angry (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

chchú-nito possess him/her (of a spirit) (PMc: *cucu)

chchú-nóshade, shadow (representing a person’s bad soul) (PMc: *cucu)

Chuukese (120 / 1378)

che-, che-, cho-, chó-, chche-, -ch·‘state of being’ (PCMc: *ca-)

chéchchén (<*chénchén)wet (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

chee‘kind of small, sharp coral’ (PCMc: *cakai)

chéé-width (of flat objects) (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

chéé, chéé-·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

chéé-kisnarrow (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

chéé-napwide, broad (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

chéé-(péép), ché-(péép), chéé-(chéép)broad (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

cheew, chuu-, #cheewi-hand net, constellation Corona borealis, month name (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

-chef‘classifier for counting tentacles of octopus or squid’ (PCMc: *cafifi)

chenbe loved, cherished (PCMc: *caŋi)

(ché)-naa-(n)his companion, buddy (PMc: *lako, laa)

chigive voice, utter (PMc: *cia)

chiimʷ, chimʷa-nhead, his head (PMc: *cimʷe)

chiipʷdivination by bending (breaking) the midrib of a coconut leaflet back and forth across the palm of one’s hand (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

-chik, -chis, -sich, chikichiiki-·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

chimʷ, chimʷechimʷnod the head (PMc: *cimʷe)

chimʷe-(tá)tip the head back, look up in the air (PMc: *cimʷe)

chinhave a sty (PMc: *cili)

chini-(n maas)sty of the eye (PMc: *cili)

Chuukese (140 / 1378)

chipʷa-(ŋ)be tired, weary (from work) (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

chipʷechipʷcurve, arch, bow (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

chipʷe-yidivine for it (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

chiye-(tá)be begin (as a vocalization) (PMc: *cia)

chón, chóchchón (<*cónócón)-dark, black (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

chóno-(kkich), chónu-(kkich), chóne-(kkich)very dark, jet black (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

chóó, chóó-group, member (of group) (PCMc: *cao)

chóóchóbe heavily populated (PCMc: *cao)

(chóó)-pʷutwoman (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

chowuchowpressing, weighed down (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

chumeet, come together (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

chúú, chúú-bone (PMc: *cuyi-)

chúúchúbony, skinny (PMc: *cuyi-)

chuu-nicatch (fish) with a net (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

chuu-rimeet, encounter, or join him/her (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

e-, i--he, she, it (subj. marker) (before high vowel) (PMc: *e-)

e-, i-·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

(e)-chenito love him/her (PCMc: *caŋi)

éé, éé-fishhook (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

eef, #eefi-·‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *afafi)

Chuukese (160 / 1378)

eenthis (near person addressed and speaker or next to come up) (PMc: *ena)

éé-n, éé-ne-(n)fiber thread in weaving, strand of hair, fiber tentacle of (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

één, wúnú-three (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

ee-ŋi, ee-ŋii-(n), ee-ŋiye-(n)‘Pemphis tree or shrub, Pemphis tree of’ (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

(éé)-ssoŋreach for something that is not within reach, reach out and fall short of one’s goal, try and fail (PWMc: *Toŋo)

(éé)-ssoŋe-e-(y)reach for and fall short of (PWMc: *Toŋo)

#eet, #eti-n‘c., chin of’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

#eet, eti-(n)‘unopened sheath or pod of a coconut or banana, unopened spathe of’ (PCMc: *asi)

éét, étú-(n)smoke, smoke of (PMc: *a[sS]u)

éétiweast (PMc: *kautiwa)

éétiwá-(áfen)northeast (PMc: *kautiwa)

éé-yihook it (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

ef, efiyef‘pull on a line (as in fishing)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

(é)-fénboxing, striking with the fist (PMc: *falu₁)

efen, efeŋ‘north, trade wind season’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

efeni-(nap)‘due north, north wind’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

(é)-fénústrike him with the fist (PMc: *falu₁)

(e)-fiifishock a person with taboo language (PMc: *fiti)

efi-i-(y)‘pull on (a line)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

efi-i-(y)‘pull on (a line)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

Chuukese (180 / 1378)

(e-fi)-yuuwumake him fight (PCMc: *tou)

(e)-kinasacut or wound him (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

(e)-kitamake a strong effort at (something) (PMc: *kiSa)

(e)-kitekitpersevere, be zealous (PMc: *kiSa)

(é)-kúú-wlight it (a fire), cause it to glow (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

#(e)-me-ripa, (e)-me-ripishatter it (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

(é)-mé-sékúmake him afraid (PMc: *ma-taku)

(é)-métúcause him to be sated (PMc: *masu)

(e)-mmitismack (the lips), cause it to smack (PMc: *misi)

(é)-mʷékútúmake it move (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

(e)-mʷeyirsong while carrying food to present to the chief (PCMc: *mʷaire)

(e)-mʷeyirasing upon it (food brought to the chief) (PCMc: *mʷaire)

(e)-mʷmʷe-(ni)lead him, go before him (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

eni-, eniyen‘wind, blowing’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

eni-(kes)winding the warp threads (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

enis, enisa-(n)‘beard, whiskers, mustache, his beard’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

e-nnetbe honest, truthful (PCMc: *lelesa)

(é)-nnúfold up (a mat or sail), lower (a sail) (PMc: *lulu)

(é)-nnúrúgive shade to (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

énú, énúú-(n), anú, anúú-(n)‘god, sky spirit, god of’ (PMc: *anitu)

Chuukese (200 / 1378)

(énúú)-sóreffecting spirit (PCMc: *taro)

(e)-ŋisoftly sung love song (PMc: *ŋii)

(e)-ŋii-(y)give voice to it, begin it (of a song) (PMc: *ŋii)

(e)-ŋoon, -ŋoonu-·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

epeep, epeepe-(n)‘lee platform, lee platform of’ (PCMc: *epaepa)

epi-, -kepi-·‘bottom, butt end’ (PMc: *kapi)

epi-t, epi-ta-(n)hair oil, his/her hair oil (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

epi-tianoint him/her with oil or perfume (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

(é)-ppún, -ppúnú-(n)soft meat of drinking coconut, white of an egg, its soft meat (PCMc: *peni)

(é)-pʷpʷén, -pʷpʷénú-(n)cover or lid, cover of (PMc: *pʷalu)

(é)-pʷpʷénúmake it covered (PMc: *pʷalu)

er, kkerbe tired of doing something (PCMc: *kari)

éré, éréé-(n)‘heron, heron of’ (PCMc: *karau)

é-réé-ti, a-réé-tiscrape it, sand it, make it smooth (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

erikeriscratch it (PMc: *kari)

érú-ú-(w)stir (something) with a stick (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

(é)-rúúw, (é)-rúúthe number two, two’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *rua)

érúwérstirring stick, to stir with a stick or spoon (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

(e-se) wor, (e-so)-orthere is not, it does not exist (PWMc: *oro)

(e)-si-i-(y)‘remove or strip off (barbed edges of pandanus leaf)’ (PCMc: *-Te-i-, -Te-a)

Chuukese (220 / 1378)

(e)-sinna, (e)-sissinnasignify it, symbolize it, guess it (of a riddle) (PMc: *kilala)

(e)-sissin, (e)-sissinna-(n)sign, symbol, sign of it (PMc: *kilala)

esiyes, ekiyek(showing metathesis) (PCMc: *kiakia)

ét, étúwétto smoke, be smoky (PMc: *a[sS]u)

etik, etiki-(n)‘lethrinid fish (good eating), fish of’ (PMc: *kaseki)

eti-n‘gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

(e)-tiniinsert it, put it between (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

(e)-ti-(nó)go off (PMc: *[sS]i-)

(e)-tippass chunks of breadfruit (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

étú-fi, atú-fi, iti-fi, eti-fi·‘dip it up, dip it out, scoop it up’ (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

(e)-we, -wethat (out of sight or in the past), the (one already mentioned and not present) (PMc: *oo)

(é)-wéwúmake (someone) rich (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

(e)-worit exists (PWMc: *oro)

éwú-width, thickness (PCMc: *au-)

éwú, éwúú-·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

(éwú)-chamʷcross-beam of house (PMc: *camʷa)

éwú-(chamʷ)crossbeam of a house (PMc: *kayu)

éwú-(chik)slender, narrow, thin (PCMc: *au-)

éwún‘tuna, albacore’ (PMc: *atu)

éwú-(rá), éwú-(wé)river’ or ‘brook (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

Chuukese (240 / 1378)

(éwú)-rá, -ráá-‘river, stream’ (lit. ‘inland current’) (PMc: *rea₁ or *raya₁)

(é)-wúrúdrag, haul, hoist (something) (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

éwút, éwúta-current (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

é-wút, é-wútú-(n)finger, his finger (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

é-wútú-(ros)be short fingered (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

(é)-wúú-wmake it stand, build it (PMc: *tuu₁)

(é)-wúú-wmake stop, make halt (PMc: *tuu₂)

(éwúw)-éfar‘shoulder carrying pole’ (PMc: *afara)

(éwúw)-éfara‘carry (something) on a pole’ (PMc: *afara)

(eyii)-pʷóró-pʷórbe curved, make a curving course (PCMc: *pʷaro)

eyinaŋ, eyinaŋa-(n)‘matrilineal clan or sib., clan of’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

eyi-(ni-wow)pole for carrying (PMc: *kayu)

(e)-yira‘peer out at, look out for’ (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

fa-, fé-, fo-, f-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

faa-pertaining to the sole of the foot (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

faach, fache-(n)‘pandanus, pandanus of’ (PMc: *faca)

fááf, fááfi-evening (PMc: *fakaafi)

fa-amʷgiving birth, parturition, delivery (PCMc: *amʷa)

fá-ángo in a circle (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

fáán·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

Chuukese (260 / 1378)

fáánchurch worship (PMc: *fali)

fáá-n nááŋ, fáá-yi-neŋ‘lower heaven’ (PCMc: *faa-i-laŋi, faa-ni-laŋi)

faa-(n), fáá-(n)‘his underside or under him, underside of, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

fáán, fáni-(n),‘meeting house, meeting house of’ (PMc: *fale)

fá-ániyena circle, ring, to talk round a subject (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

(faan)-sowu-n‘time of it, time of’ (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₁)

faar, fara-(n)core of a breadfruit, its core (PMc: *fara)

(fa)-arikerscratch lightly on a person’s leg (as a signal) (PMc: *kari)

faas, fasa-(n)‘nest, its nest’ (PMc: *fata)

faat, fétú-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

faate-nito string it on a line (PMc: *faa, faasa)

fáá-tikick it (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

faaw, féwú-, -féw, -feystone, rock, coral, globular object (as classifier) (PMc: *fatu)

fana, fanaa-(n)a small needlefish, needlefish of (PCMc: *fanaa)

faŋbe handed over (PMc: *faŋa)

faŋa-(na-)thing handed over, gift (PMc: *faŋa)

faŋa-(nó)hand or give away (PMc: *faŋa)

faraf, farafe-(n)‘windward platform, windward platform of’ (PWMc: *farafa)

fara-wa·‘lungs’ (PMc: *far[ae])

fáráyapmanta ray (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

Chuukese (280 / 1378)

faré-(seyin)spongy core of ripe coconut (PMc: *fara)

(fátán) ma-awwalk strongly and heavily, tramp, walk restlessly in the presence of an important person (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

fátán, fátánátán‘walking, movement, course, progress, walk, proceed, going on and on (as verbal suffix)’ (PMc: *faSale)

fe-, ffe-mutual (PMc: *fa-)

fééfé, féé-ti·‘tie, bind’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

feefin·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

féér, féérú-(n)deed, action, his deed (PMc: *fauru)

féérido it, make it (PMc: *fauru)

feet‘do what’ (PMc: *faiSa)

féffééwchills (PMc: *fou)

fentaboo, restricted, engage in worship (PMc: *fali)

fén, féffénbe bruised, bleed (PMc: *falu₁)

fén, fénúfénany instrument used to strike a thorn or sharp object and cause it to puncture (PWMc: *falu₂)

féné-é-(w)advise, correct scold him (PMc: *fanau)

fénú, fénúwa-·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

fénú-ú-(w)prick, tattoo (PWMc: *falu₂)

féŋúféŋarouse from sleep, wake someone up (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

féŋú-(n)‘love of/for him or her’ (PWMc: *faŋu)

féŋú-niwake him up (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

fe-seen, fe-senni-away from each other (PMc: *fa-)

Chuukese (300 / 1378)

féwúféwplaiting, do plaiting, be plaited (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

féwúféwstony (PMc: *fatu)

(féwú)-mʷo, (fowu)-mʷosmall pebbles (PCMc: *mʷoka)

(féwú)-mʷoo-mʷobe pebbly (PCMc: *mʷoka)

féwú-(n)spoken of, known for (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

féwu-nito call or speak the name of (someone), to talk about (someone) positively’ (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

féwú-wa-(n)thing plaited by her (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

feyisiyuua fish (Epibulus insidiator) (PMc: *kaseki)

feyiye-(nap), fayiye-(nnifaro), feyiye-(pʷúk)species of stingray (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

ffa, ffákick with the sole of the foot (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

ffaatbe strung (of fish) (PMc: *faa, faasa)

-ffaatstrings of fish (counting classifier) (PMc: *faa, faasa)

ffaate-(n), faate-(n)string of (PMc: *faa, faasa)

fféér, fféérú-(n)making, manufacture, production, make of (a place) (PMc: *fauru)

ffééwcold, be cold (PMc: *fou)

#ffén, #fféna-(n)advice, correction, scolding, advice to him (PMc: *fanau)

ffén, ffénú-(n)thorn, thorn of (PWMc: *falu₂)

fféné-(ŋeni)instruct, correct, admonish (someone) (PMc: *fanau)

ffe-ŋeen, ffe-ŋen, fe-ŋenni-toward one another, together (PMc: *fa-)

ffey, ffeyi-(n)stingray, stingray of (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

Chuukese (320 / 1378)

ffichscissors, camera trigger, be cut, snipped, or snapped (of a picture) (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

ffinbe chosen (PMc: *fili, filifili)

ffire-sa braid, be braided (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

ffire-sibraid it (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

-ffóch‘constantly, all the time, always’ (PCMc: *faco)

ffótbe planted (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fi-do mutually (PMc: *fi-)

fiflash, throw a spark (of lightning, electricity) (PMc: *fiti)

-fichcounter for such strips (PCMc: *fica)

fiche-(n)strip of (pandanus, coconut, or other palm leaf prepared for plaiting mats (PCMc: *fica)

fichi-i-(y)snip it, cut it (with scissors), snap it (of a photograph) (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fichi-(paat)be continually snipping (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fiififlashing, sparkling, lightning, radiance, to be flashing (as a light or lightning) (PMc: *fiti)

fii-kseventy (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

fii-sito transfer fire to (something), set (something) afire (PMc: *fiti)

finichoose it, select it (PMc: *fili, filifili)

fire-s, fúre-sa braid, to braid (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

fire-si-(ni)braid it (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

(fisi)-kéét, -kéttú-scratch a lot, scratching (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

fite-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

Chuukese (340 / 1378)

fitigo with him/her, accompany him/her, attend it, join it (PMc: *fiSi)

fi-(ti)to go with or accompany (someone) (PMc: *fi-)

(fi)-tiaccompany, go with (someone), attend (school) (PMc: *[sS]i-)

fiti-(pach)stay with one another constantly (PMc: *fiSi)

fi-(yuuw)to fight (PMc: *fi-)

(fi)-yuuw, (fi)-wuuwto fight (PCMc: *tou)

foŋo-(pʷéét)blow one’s nose (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

foŋo-tiblow (one’s nose) (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

fóó-(nu-pi)Pohnpei Island (PMc: *fawo)

fóó-(són)region of slightly higher, fairly level ground back from the shore (PMc: *fawo)

fóro-(pach), fara-(pach)to embrace (PCMc: *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka)

fóru-siembrace him, strangle him, hang him by the neck (PCMc: *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka)

(fó)-ssóstep or rung of a ladder (PMc: *tao)

fóta-a-thing planted (by someone) (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fóto-planting (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fótu-kiplanted it (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fowu-(nó), féwú-(nó)be much talked about, be famous (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

futuk, futuke-n, futukotuk‘flesh, flesh of, be fleshy’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

fúú, fúúwe-(n), fúú-(n)‘star, star of’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

fúús, fúú-, fusu-uw, fisu-uwseven (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

Chuukese (360 / 1378)

i-(no longer productive, used with demonstratives) (PMc: *i-)

-i, iye-iya-(n)·‘hand of bananas’ (counting classifier) (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

ii-‘to head, tend, have a course (as the wind or a boat)’ (used with dir. suf., ii-[nó] ‘head or tend away’, ii-[tá] ‘head or tend up or east’, ii-[tiw] ‘head or tend down or west’, ii-[to] ‘head or tend hither’) (PWMc: *ii-)

iich, ichi-(n)‘bamboo, bamboo of’ (PCMc: *tici)

iik, ike-(n), ike-ne-(n)‘fish, fish of’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iimʷ, imʷa-(n)house, his house (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

iin, ina-(n)‘mother, his mother’ (PMc: *tina)

iir, -:r·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

iit, ita-, ite-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

ii-[tá]head or tend up or east (PWMc: *ii-)

ii-[tiw]head or tend down or west (PWMc: *ii-)

ii-[to]head or tend hither (PWMc: *ii-)

iiy·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

i-kahere (by me) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ka-, i-ke-at place (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ka-anhere (near us) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ka-na, i-ke-nathere (by you) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ka-naan, i-ke-naanthere yonder (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ke-ey, i-ke-yhere (by me) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ke-mʷuunthere (not far from us) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

Chuukese (380 / 1378)

ike-ni-pʷin·‘any fish that can be caught at night’ (PCMc: *ika-ni-pʷoŋi)

i-ke-wethere (out of sight, in the past) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

imʷe-niacquire a house (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

(imʷe)-rámenstrual hut’ (lit. ‘girls’ house’) (PMc: *rea₂ or *raya₂)

imʷeyimʷuse or live in a house (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

in, ine-(nó)‘be docked, brought to land’ (PWMc: *ila)

(i)-nee-t·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

(ine)-filightning (PMc: *fiti)

(ine)-mesname of a goddess associated with love magic’ (lit. ‘mother age-worn’) (PMc: *maki)

ini-, -inyoung shoot (counting classifier) (PMc: *ili)

ini-ik, ini-ika- (<*wúnú-yik)thirty (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

iniinoffspring, scion (PMc: *ili)

iniinridge, edge (PMc: *iŋi)

ini-(mʷáán)dorsal fin (PMc: *iŋi)

ini-(n)its fin (of a fish) (PMc: *iŋi)

(i)-nónunderwater (PMc: *lalo₁)

(i)-núkouter or ocean side (PMc: *liku)

(i)-pʷúkú, -pʷúkúú-·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

ise-nideposit it, store it, put it away (PMc: *ita, itaita)

iseyisbe deposited, stored, put away (PMc: *ita, itaita)

Chuukese (400 / 1378)

ite-nito press or weigh down on (something) (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

(ite)-ŋachlean on elbows with hand under chin (PCMc: *ŋace)

ite-(tiw)to press down (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

iteyitpress, weigh down (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

iti-point, be toward, face (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

itiitdirection in which something faces or to which it points (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

iti-nipoint or face towards (something) (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

iti-(nó)point away (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

(i)-wethen, thereupon (lit. ‘at that’) (PMc: *oo)

iwi, #iwii-(n), iwiye-(n) (<*wiwiy[ae])rich or fatty taste, rich taste of (PWMc: *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae])

iya, iyaa-(n)‘where?, its whereabouts’ (PCMc: *iaa)

iyá, iyáá-(n)‘boundary, boundary of’ (PCMc: *tiaa)

(i)-yé, (i)-yéé-(n)·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

kak, kkak, kakkak‘ring (as a bell), caw (as a bird), break (as a voice in speaking), sound of ringing’ (PMc: *kaka₂)

kakka-pasconverse (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

kan, kayi‘be wont to, be in the habit of, be one’s lot to, happen to’ (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kasakas‘talk aloud’ (PMc: *kata)

ke-, ké-, ko-, ka-, ká- kó- and ko, wo(vocative honorific) (PMc: *ko-, koe)

-keem, -kem, -keemi-, -kemi-us (exclusive) (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

-kemi, -keemii-you (plural object) (PCMc: *kamii)

Chuukese (420 / 1378)

(ke-náá) meeyyou come from where? (PCMc: *maia)

(ke)-náá meyyou come from where? (PMc: *lako, laa)

ki, kii-be lifted, moved (PMc: *ki, kiki)

kii-‘shell’ (in names of shellfish) (PMc: *koyi)

kii-pertaining to shell fish or other marine life (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

kiich, -kich·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

kinbe cut, separated, segmented, picked (of fruit) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinasa cut, cut wound, be cut or wounded (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

kini, kiniye-(n), #kinii-(n)kind of mat (made of coconut leaves with midribs down the middle of the mat, mat of, to be made of such matting (PWMc: *kinia)

kini-i-(y)cut it, divide it, pick it (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinikinpartition, division, section (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kit, kitekit‘strong, firm, steady (PMc: *kiSa)

kiyeki, kiye-, kiya-plaited pandanus mat, mat of (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

kiyó, kiyóó-·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

(kká)-árrunning race (PCMc: *kari)

(kká)-ári-(n waa-fétún)paddle-canoe race (PCMc: *kari)

(kka)-méto buy, be bought (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

kkanbe near, close (? <*kanni <*karni) (PCMc: *karani)

kka-pas, kka-pase-(n)speech, talk, utterance, language, to speak, say, talk, speak of (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

Chuukese (440 / 1378)

#(kk)-áperbe aimed, aim (PWMc: *apara)

kkarbe burnt, scorched (PMc: *kara, kakara)

kkáy, kákkáybe fast, be quick, hurry (PWMc: *kaye)

kkáye-(nó), kkáyi-(nó)hurry away (PWMc: *kaye)

kkáye-(to), kkáyi-(to)hurry hither (PWMc: *kaye)

kké, kkéé-(wu), kékkécall, cry, shout (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

kkéé-ricall to, shout to (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

kkéétitch, scratch an itch (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kken·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kkepi-tbe anointed, perfumed (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

kké-ré, kka-réébe scraped (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kké-réé-tsand or scrape smooth, be sanded or scraped (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kkettie thatch to rafters (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

kketithatch it, tie thatch to it (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

(kké)-wúmake upright, make stand erect (PMc: *tuu₁)

(kké)-wústop, pause (PMc: *tuu₂)

(kké)-wúú-(nó)stop altogether, cease, halt (PMc: *tuu₂)

kkikmove, change location (PMc: *ki, kiki)

kkónto roll or be rolled on the thigh (of fibers)’, kónne-e-(y) ‘to roll or twist (fibers) together’ (PCMc: *kalo)

kkopʷ, kkopʷu-·‘dull’ (PCMc: *kapʷu, kakapʷu)

Chuukese (460 / 1378)

kkor, kkora-(n)‘underarm hair, his underarm hair’ (PMc: *koro)

#kkú, #wúúk, kkú-(n), #wúkkú-(n)‘fingernail, toenail, claw, his fingernail’ (PMc: *kuku)

kkúk, kúkkúkbite, be wont to bite (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

-kkumʷportion of premasticated food (counting classifier) (PMc: *kumʷu)

kkurbe pulled back (of foreskin) (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

kkú-ú-(w)bite it (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

kochokochshort hairs on top of forehead (especially of women) (PCMc: *koca)

kónne-e-(y)to roll or twist (fibers) together (PCMc: *kalo)

kóókóbaby (up to three months) (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

catch fire, be lit (of a fire), glow (of a coal) (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

kuchu, kuchuu-(n)cloud, cloud of (PCMc: *kacawu)

-kummouthful or swallow of liquid (counting classifier) (PMc: *kumʷu)

kumukumhold or swish a fluid in the mouth (PMc: *kumʷu)

kumu-u-(w)hold or swish it in the mouth (of liquid) (PMc: *kumʷu)

kun, kunu-(nó)‘be extinguished, go out (of fire, stove, lamp) (PMc: *kunu)

(kuna)-mʷmʷe‘comfort, tranquility, peace, be comfortable’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

kunukunextinguishing (PMc: *kunu)

kunu-(u-w)extinguish it (PMc: *kunu)

kúre-e-(y)pull it back (of the foreskin), circumcize (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

(kuru)-ppepto bounce along (as a motorboat) (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

Chuukese (480 / 1378)

kúú, kúú-(n), #kúúwe-(n)‘louse or flea, louse of’ (PMc: *kutu)

kúú-(nú-féw)‘species of small bass fish’ (PCMc: *kuu)

kúú-riburn it, scorch it (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

kuus, kuusa--(n)’c. or cover of woven material, sheet, b., her c.’ (PMc: *[ao]ut[ae])

kúús, kúúsa-·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kúúw, kúú, #kúúwe-(n)porpoise, porpoise of, a constellation of stars (PCMc: *kua)

kuwapʷ, #kuwapʷpʷe-(n)growing tip of a tree (PWMc: *tiapʷo)

mabe ashamed (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

ma-, má-, mó-, me-, mé-, mo-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

má, máá-·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

máá-chik‘a star, name of a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *mati-ciki)

máám‘large sp. of wrasse fish’ (PMc: *mam[ei])

(maa)-ma-awhard place, shallow area studded with sharp coral (maa ‘behavior, manner, habit’)’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

maan‘the star Sirius or Procyon, name of a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *manu)

maan, mammaanbe becalmed, adrift, to drift (PMc: *maanu)

maan, ménú-(n), (e)-mén‘living creature, living creature of, one living creature’ (PMc: *manu)

máá-napthe star Altair (alpha Aquilae) and constellation comprising alpha, beta, and gamma Aquilae, a sidereal month (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

maanú-(nó)drift away (PMc: *maanu)

ma-anúúnbe thick (of flat objects) (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

maar, mare-(n)preserved breadfruit, preserved breadfruit of (some kind or place) (PMc: *mara)

Chuukese (500 / 1378)

maas, masa-(n), mese-(n)‘eye, face, his eye, eye of’ (PMc: *mata)

maasiyes‘treeless place, field, open area without shade’ (PMc: *maaTiaTi)

(ma)-ataatbe rough to the touch (but not to the eye) (PMc: *a[sS]a)

ma-aw, ma-awa-firm, hard, ready to pick but not yet fully ripe (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

mááy, meyi-, -mey·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

mach, mmach, mammachvery ripe, rotten, stink (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

máchá, mechá, máchá-á-(n)sharp pointed long projection, beak or bill (of fish), horn, spine, metal nail, metal, iron (PMc: *mece-a)

máche-long pointed projection, spike, spine (PMc: *mece-a)

máche-(w), máche-(wa-n)stingray tail, spear (with stingray spine attached), its sharp thing (PMc: *mece-a)

man, manaman·‘be efficacious, have spiritual power’, ‘efficacy, spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

ma-nawlife, health, be alive (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

mannaan‘grassland (treeless, open)’ (PMc: *malala)

mara-(a-n), márá-(á-n)his preserved breadfruit, preserved breadfruit of (someone) (PMc: *mara)

ma-rammoon, month (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

masamas‘species of porgy fish (with big eyes)’ (PWMc: *matamata)

ma-taw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mattopumice stone (PMc: *waani)

·‘and, with’ (PMc: *ma)

be traded, sold, paid for (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

me, mé·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

Chuukese (520 / 1378)

me-cheyichey‘be slimy, mucous-like’ (PMc: *ma-cai)

meen, mine-(n)thing, thing of, man (not woman), relative, friend, polite term of address to a man to whose authority one is not subject (PMc: *meña)

méé-nibuy it (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

#mééŋ, méŋú-cured pandanus leaf (PMc: *maŋu)

-mééŋ, -mmééŋ‘left handed, left side’ (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

mékú‘to belch’ (PCMc: *makua)

menin, menini-‘poison, be poisonous (of food only)’ (PCMc: *maŋiŋi)

ménnúúki, ménnúúka-(a-nó)‘forget it, leave it behind’ (PCMc: *maluoki, maluoka)

méŋ, méŋú-soft, supple (PMc: *maŋu)

me-ŋer, me-ŋeriŋer‘be hoarse, speak huskily’ (PCMc: *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari)

meŋi-i-(y), méŋú-ú-(w)‘admire it’ (PMc: *maŋi)

mesbe worn out (of household goods and clothes), be fragile with age (PMc: *maki)

mé-sékbe afraid (PMc: *ma-taku)

mé-séki-(iti)fear him, be terrified by him (PMc: *ma-taku)

mese-n owupʷnipple (PMc: *mata-ni-susu)

métbe sated (PMc: *masu)

metek, meteki-·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

méwúr, méwúrú-·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

meyi, mén, mmén‘be (in a condition)’ (PCMc: *meña)

(meyi)-wor, (meyi)-yorthere is, there exists (PWMc: *oro)

Chuukese (540 / 1378)

minado something to (it), fix (it), take care of (it), disturb (it), harm (it), spoil (it) (PMc: *meña-a)

mina-a-(ŋeni)do something to (it), mess with (it), fool with (it) (PMc: *meña-a)

miti-rismack upon it, kiss or suck noisily on it (PMc: *misi)

mmach, mmacha-(n)boil on the skin, his boil (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmache-(yiti)get ripe by (a certain time) (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmasstand watch (PMc: *mamata)

mmasa, mammasawatch over it, guard it (PMc: *mamata)

mmatbe low tide (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mmaw‘to yawn, a yawn’ (PMc: *mawa)

mmit, mitimitsmack one’s lips, make a loud kissing noise (PMc: *misi)

be gotten rid of, erased, wiped out, finished off, cured (PMc: *mawo)

món·‘waterproof, not leaky’ (PCMc: *mano)

móóremains, scar, site or location of past activity (PMc: *mawo)

móón, móónu-(n)hollow, concavity, hollow of (PMc: *mawolo)

mo-onoon, mo-onoone-(n),mo-onoonu-(n)‘perspiration, sweat, perspiration of’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

móó-(nu-pis)abandoned garden site (PMc: *mawo)

móóŋ, móŋu-, móŋo-. móŋó-‘head’ (PMc: *maŋo)

moorhead cold, chest cold, have a cold, have a cough (PMc: *maaru)

moor‘head cold, chest cold, have a cold or cough’ (PMc: *maura)

móót, mómmóótsit, be seated (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

Chuukese (560 / 1378)

moot, mʷootcooked (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

moot, mʷoot, mʷooto-(mmaŋ)‘cooked, cooked slowly’ (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

móówun, móówunu-·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

(more-ni)-kochthread of any kind used on a loom (PCMc: *koca)

(mó)-sónó-sónmeek, humble, lowly (PMc: *tano)

mósó-ór, mósó-óru-(n)‘proximate, inner, or inhabited side, lagoon side, lagoon side of’ (PCMc: *mata-aro)

mót-(tiw), #móót-(tiw)sit down (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

musu-(we)‘ancient times’ (PMc: *metu)

-mʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-, mʷá-, mʷó-, mʷe- (as in mʷe-kinikin ‘tickle’), mʷé-, mʷo-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷaa‘indeed, so, really (an exclamation)’ (PMc: *mʷaa)

mʷáánman, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

(mʷááne)-sóreffecting man (PCMc: *taro)

(mʷááne)-sóreffecting man (PCMc: *taro)

mʷááneyánbe a brother and sister (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷááni-(i-núk)younger brother (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷááni-(n)her brother (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷá-ániyendizziness, be dizzy (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

mʷáár, mʷárámʷár, mʷaramʷar, mʷári-n, mʷári-nilei, wreath, wear a lei, his lei, acquire as a lei (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷaas, mʷasa-(n), mʷasamʷasstench (especially genital stench), his stench (PMc: *mʷata)

Chuukese (580 / 1378)

mʷa-ataat‘rustling (of leaves), rubbing or splashing noise’ (PCMc: *[mmʷ]a-asaasa)

mʷaawhumble, deferential (PMc: *mʷaau)

mʷáchey, mʷácheya-(n)‘deformity, his deformity’ (PCMc: *mʷacaya)

mʷáre-(e-y), mʷare-(e-y)carry it on the shoulders (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷasstink (PMc: *mʷata)

#mʷéék, mʷékúmʷék·‘arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides)’ (PWMc: *mʷakumʷaku)

mʷéén, #mʷéénú-(n)‘species of squirrel fish (Myripristis), squirrel fish of’ (PMc: *mʷonu)

mʷe-kinikintickling (PMc: *kurakura)

mʷékút, mʷékútúkútmove (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

(mʷé)-núnnúrdisguised, in code (of talk) (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

mʷé-núú-, -mʷé-nú·‘length from elbow to finger tips’ (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

mʷéŋé, mʷéŋéé-(n)eat, cooked food, cooked food of (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mʷesi, mʷmʷesito sneeze (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷet,mʷmʷet, mʷetemʷetjump, spring, leap (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷete-e-(y)jump over or onto it (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷete-(tá)jump up (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷeyirdance of exaltation (done only by women) (PCMc: *mʷaire)

mʷiri-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

mʷmʷa-(n)ahead of him (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷmʷe-e-(y)present it as first fruits (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

Chuukese (600 / 1378)

mʷmʷe-(mey)first breadfruit (of a season) (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷmʷesi, mʷmʷesiya-(n)a sneeze, his sneeze (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷmʷéw, mʷmʷéwú- (< *mʷémʷéwú)‘come to an end, be finished’ (PCMc: *mʷau)

mʷmʷusto vomit, throw up (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷmʷusá-ási-nivomit it up, vomit because of it (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷooto-(kkáy)be cooked quickly (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mʷú, mʷu‘come to an end’ (PMc: *mʷotu)

mʷú, mʷúú- (also mʷu, mʷuu-)be severed, broken off (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

-mʷúchpiece of wood (counting classifier) (PMc: *mʷucu)

mʷúúch, (a)-mʷúch, (é)-mʷúchwood (as a material), firewood (PMc: *mʷucu)

mʷúú-ti (also mʷuu-ti)break it apart; adopt a child (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

-n·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

naa‘a star in Pegasus, a sidereal month’ (PWMc: *laka)

náán, neni-spirit place, heaven or sky (in construction) (PMc: *laŋi)

-nááneylong (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

nááŋ, neŋi-heaven, sky’ (loan from other dialect)’ (PMc: *laŋi)

naaw, néwú-n, néwúnéw‘child or children in general, kinsman of junior generation, political subject, domestic animal, small object intimately associated with the person’, ‘his child;’, ‘be parental or bear a child (PMc: *natu)

nam, nembe in mind, be on one’s mind (PMc: *lama₁)

namanam‘character, quality, morals, behavior, deportment’ (PMc: *lama-)

Chuukese (620 / 1378)

namanamreligion, doctrine, philosophy, ideology (PMc: *lama₁)

name-nithink about (something), have (something) on one’s mind (PMc: *lama₁)

nánew, #nánewi-(n)‘yesterday, yesterday of’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

naŋa-, naka-, naŋanaŋappearance, shape (PMc: *lakalaka)

naŋa-(ttam), naka-(ttam)length, height, long, tall (PMc: *lakalaka)

nap, nnap, napanapbig, large, great, principal, main (PMc: *lapa)

napa-(n)his older brother, her older sister (PMc: *lapa)

be liquified, melted (PMc: *lau)

ne, nee‘sir, madam’ (PMc: *le, lee)

ne-, nee-at (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

néépool, pond, flooded place’, nééné ‘liquid contents, have liquid contents, be flooded’ (PMc: *lau)

(nee)- chepi-(n)(at the) beginning of it (PWMc: *capi)

nee -(fasaŋ)torso (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(nee)- sópʷu-(n)end of it (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

(nee)-fááftime of evening meal (PMc: *fakaafi)

(nee)-fasa-ŋ‘torso, trunk’ (PMc: *fata, fata-ŋa)

(nee-kkunu)-yónlate afternoon’ (lit. ‘sun turning time’) (PMc: *alo)

nee-(mataw)on the open sea (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(nee)-móónhollow, concavity, hollow place, valley, inner side (PMc: *mawolo)

néénéliquid contents, have liquid contents, be flooded (PMc: *lau)

Chuukese (640 / 1378)

ne-e-ni, ne-e-niya-(n)‘place of, place, place where something or someone stays, its place’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

nee-(nómʷ)in the lagoon (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

nee-(pʷin)at night (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

nee-(set)sea, at sea (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(nee)-tipplace of emotion (in the abdomen) (PMc: *sipa)

nee-(wúŋ)chest (of body) (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(nee)-wut, -wutu-(n)core, at the core, its core, at its core (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

(nee)-yóno-(was)‘midday, noon’ (lit. ‘high sun time’) (PMc: *alo)

neme-(feefin)have women on one’s mind (PMc: *lama₁)

neme-(seni)be forgotten (PMc: *lama₁)

(ne)-minwoman, polite term of address to a woman (PMc: *meña)

newenew, newenewa-(n)‘pronunciation, accent, his pronunciation’ (PMc: *lewe)

néwú·‘tomorrow’ (PMc: *l[au]tuu)

ne-yaŋ, nne-yaŋ‘any true conch shell (genus Strombus or genus Lambis)’ (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

neyi-·‘feminine prefix (with personal names of women)’ (PCMc: *n[ae]i-)

ni-·‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *li-)

-ni·‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

nich, núch‘be disappointed’ (PMc: *lici)

(ni)-ffaŋgift (PMc: *faŋa)

(ni)-ffaŋe-(ni)make a gift to (PMc: *faŋa)

Chuukese (660 / 1378)

(ni)-finifina matter of choice, a choosy person (PMc: *fili, filifili)

nii, ŋii, nii-(n), ŋii-(n)tooth, his tooth (PCMc: *ŋii)

niim, nime-. nima-the number five (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

niipʷ, nipʷa-(n)soaking pit, his soaking pit (PMc: *lipʷa)

niit, #niiti-(n)‘squid, squid of’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

nikbe discarded, rejected, disliked (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

(nike, nika, niko)-ppichbow and arrow, rubber sling and dart (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

(ni)-kééképerson who can’t be separated from the company of his or her spouse’ (lit. ‘fastened one’) (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

(ni)-ké-wútú-(ros)person with short fingers (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

niki-t, niki-ta-(n)left-over, its leftovers (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

niki-tileave it behind, discard it (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

ni-kkéwhite sand crab (PMc: *karuki)

(ni)-kkóbaby girl (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

nime, nime-e-fifty (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

nim-ménfive animate (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

nimu-uwfive general (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

(ninnu)-pʷe‘small species of fruitbat’ (PMc: *pʷeka)

ni-ŋŋer‘tiny species of louse, baby louse’ (lit. ‘nibbler, constant eater’) (PWMc: *li-ŋaŋari)

(ni)-pichunmarried person (PWMc: *pici)

nipʷe-niacquire it as a soaking pit (PMc: *lipʷa)

Chuukese (680 / 1378)

nipʷe-nipʷuse a soaking pit (PMc: *lipʷa)

(ni)-pʷpʷe, (ni)-pʷpʷee-twin (of siblings) (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

(ni)-win, (ni)-wini-(n)to come back, return, a return or exchange for (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(ni)-wini-i-(y)make return to him, pay back for it, return it (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

niye-, niya-female person, woman (with demonstrative suffixes) (PWMc: *lia-)

niye-(rá)girl (PWMc: *lia-)

(niye)-rá, -ráá-girl, young woman (PMc: *rea₂ or *raya₂)

nné, (a)-nnédelicious, tasty (PMc: *ñañau)

nnen, nenna-(n)taste, flavor, its taste (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nne-ri, nne-nitaste it (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nnet, nnete-n, nneti-nbe true, truth of (PCMc: *lelesa)

nnét, nnétú-n‘half flower, half flower of’ (PWMc: *nanasu)

nne-yartaste sweet (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nnis‘a reef fish’ (PWMc: *leleki)

nnó-(n), #nóó-(n)‘inside of it’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

nnoowbe disgusted or repelled by (PMc: *laloua)

nnoowe-esi-ni, nnoowá-ási-nibe disgusted or repelled by (something) (PMc: *laloua)

nnoowu-(pʷpʷún)athlete’s foot (PMc: *laloua)

nnumbe creased, folded, bent, crumpled (PMc: *lumi)

nnúŋinfested with ants (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

Chuukese (700 / 1378)

nnúrshade (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nnúrú-(n)her shadow (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nnutbe tied together by a twining process, tie things together by twining (PCMc: *[ln]usi-)

nnú-(tiw)be furled, lowered (of a sail) (PMc: *lulu)

nnúún, núnnú-be lowered, furled (of a sail) (PMc: *lulu)

nó, -nó, -nóó-, ná, -náá-, -naa-go, proceed away from place of reference (PMc: *lako, laa)

nónnóón,(ó)-nón, (ó)-nónnóónbe deep (underwater), far down (PMc: *lalo₁)

-noŋinward, southward (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

nóŋ, nóŋó-nóŋbe propped up (PMc: *laŋo₂)

nóŋu-niprop it up (PMc: *laŋo₂)

nóó, nóó-·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nóómʷ, nómʷu-(n)‘lagoon, archipelago, sea around an island, lagoon of’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nóóŋ, nnóŋ, nóŋu-(n)‘fly, fly of’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

nóó-(pʷu)socket for mast or yard on a sailing canoe (pwu ‘place one’s foot’ or pwuu ‘navel’) (PMc: *loo[wØ]a, lo[wØ]a-)

noot‘large species of lethrinid fish’ (PWMc: *noso)

noow, nuu--(nu-pis) (PMc: *nowu)

nopʷurMorinda citrifolia (root used as yellow dye) (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

nopʷut, nnopʷut, nopʷute-(n)‘eel, eel of’ (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

núkbe ready, prepared (PWMc: *liku)

nuk, nukunukhaul on a line, troll for small fish (PCMc: *liko)

Chuukese (720 / 1378)

nuke-e-(y)carry it (PCMc: *liko)

nuke-yi, nuki-i-(y)haul it, pull it, tow it, bring it, take him along (PCMc: *liko)

nukó-(már)pull on a line and back up at the same time (PCMc: *liko)

núkú-a little, a bit (PMc: *l[iu]ku-)

núkú-(chéchchén)be moist, damp’ (lit. ‘a bit wet’) (PMc: *l[iu]ku-)

nuku-(mey)haul a breadfruit log from where it was felled to where it will be worked (PCMc: *liko)

núkú-(n)its exterior, outside, outside surface, outer edge, immediate environs, surface of skin (PMc: *liku)

núkúnúkbe convinced (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

núkúnúké-(éch)be well prepared (PWMc: *liku)

núkúnúkú-(ŋŋaw)be ill prepared (PWMc: *liku)

núkú-ú-(w)believe, have faith in (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

num, numo-numbe bailed, bail (PMc: *[ln]ima)

nume-e-(y)bail it (PMc: *[ln]ima)

numi, nnumibend it, fold it, crease it’ (PMc: *lumi)

nus, nnus‘jump (from one point to another), be out of its socket or holder (PMc: *luTu)

nusu-(mʷmʷet)bounce, jump, hop (PMc: *luTu)

nutito tie (something) by twining, the process of twining (PCMc: *[ln]usi-)

núú, núú-·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

núúkfaith, belief (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

nuuk, nuuka-(n)center, middle, abdomen, stomach, belly, its center (PCMc: *luuka)

Chuukese (740 / 1378)

nuuk, nuuke-(yi-nen)name of a god (lit. ‘middle of heaven’) (PCMc: *luuka)

nuuka-(nap)center, exact middle (PCMc: *luuka)

nuuke-(ni-pʷin)midnight (PCMc: *luuka)

nuum, nume-(n)bailer, bailer of (PMc: *[ln]ima)

nuumʷ, numʷu-·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

núúŋant (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

nuuwe-k, nuuwe-ki-(n)‘remainder, what is left, what remains, remnant of’ (PMc: *luuwa)

ŋáách, ŋáchi-(n)lower jaw, jaw, his jaw (PCMc: *ŋace)

ŋaaf, ŋafa-n, -ŋaf‘fathom, fathom of it, fathom in counting’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋaaŋ, ŋaŋa·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

ŋaaŋaa kind of turtle in the special cryptic argot used by itaŋ (PMc: *ŋaaŋaa)

ŋaas, ŋase-na perfumed oil, perfumed oil of (PMc: *ŋata)

ŋaat, ŋate-nhole, hole of (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋácháŋáchuse or wear dentures (PCMc: *ŋace)

-ŋát, ŋáti-nhollow or concave object (in counting) (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋate-nipierce it (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋeni‘toward it, give him’ (PWMc: *ŋani)

ŋer, ŋereŋer‘be chafed or scratched (of skin), be rough, hoarse, rasping (of voice) (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

ŋere-e-(y)saw it, cut it by chafing (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

ŋereŋera saw (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

Chuukese (760 / 1378)

-ŋé-réw·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋeri-i-(y)nibble or gnaw it (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋeriŋerbe nibbling, gnawing (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋibuzz, hum, sound, sing (PMc: *ŋii)

-ŋi, -ŋútooth (in some compounds) (PCMc: *ŋii)

(ŋii-ni)-kúa star (lit. ‘tooth of porpoise’) (PCMc: *kua)

ŋiiŋitune, intonation, accent, voice (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋii-(ri)sing it, hum it (PMc: *ŋii)

-ŋin, ŋiniŋiin, ŋiniŋin·small, little, tiny (showing metathesis) (PWMc: *niŋi)

ŋŋibe exhausted, played out, unable to continue (PCMc: *ŋixo)

ŋŋiye-(n)exhaustion of (someone) (PCMc: *ŋixo)

ŋor‘to sing’ (PCMc: *ŋoro)

ŋotto snore (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

#ŋúún, ŋúnú-(n)‘soul, his soul’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋúúŋúmoaning, groaning (PMc: *ŋuu)

ŋúúŋúú-resbe groaning or grunting repeatedly (PMc: *ŋuu)

(ó)-móótaplace it, set it (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

(ó)-móó-(y)get rid of, erase, obliterate (PMc: *mawo)

ónaroll or twist (fiber) into cord or rope (PCMc: *kalo)

ón-(nomʷ), ón-(nomʷu)-(n)menʻs loin cloth, loin cloth of (a given type) (nomw ‘stripping skin, bark, or leaves’) (PWMc: *kalo)

Chuukese (780 / 1378)

(ó)-nnoowbe disgusting, repellent, repugnant, a disgusting thing (PMc: *laloua)

(o)-nnusucause it to jump or hop (PMc: *luTu)

(ó)-nóna,(ó)-nónnóónadeepen it (PMc: *lalo₁)

(o)-nusuremove it from one place to another, take it out of its socket (PMc: *luTu)

#óŋi-(n)(? <*aŋo-ni) ‘Curcuma plant’ (PMc: *aŋo)

óó‘tentacle of octopus or squid’ (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

óó, óó-·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

oo, wooomen (PMc: *toko)

óór, óru-(n)vicinity, immediate surroundings, environs, vicinity of; outer surface of skin, his o. shore (PMc: *aro-)

óós, ósu-(n)thatch section, roof, thatch section of (PMc: *aTo)

oo-su-niinterpret or read (an omen) (presumably oo-su- is a back formation from an intransitive *oo-s derived from a transitive *oo-si- ‘to portend’) (PMc: *toko)

óóyó‘strap or rope handle, carrier made of rope or line’ (PMc: *ako)

(ó)-pʷóramake it curved (PCMc: *pʷaro)

(o)-pʷut, (o)-pʷutato dislike (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

(ó)-rochto wait for dark, fight under cover of darkness (PMc: *roco)

(ó)-rochato darken (something) (PMc: *roco)

(ó)-rosbe exterminated, annihilated (PWMc: *rota)

(ó)-rosafinish up, use up, annihilate (something) (PWMc: *rota)

óro-(s-set), aro-(s-set)shore, coast, seaside (PMc: *aro-)

(ó)-sópʷamake an end of it (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

Chuukese (800 / 1378)

(ó)-sópʷu-(ni)make a termination feast for it (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

(ó)-sóroffering to a spirit’ (i.e., ‘make effecting’) (PCMc: *taro)

(o)-ssuu-kucause it to be open (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

ósu-ni, óssu-nito thatch, apply thatch to (a house) (PMc: *aTo)

(o)-suu-(w)see off (on a journey) (PWMc: *Towu)

(ó)-tonato make visible, to view (something) (PMc: *[sS]olo)

óttif, ótiffa-(n)‘saliva, spittle, to spit, spit at, his spit’ (variants: óttuf, attof, óttof) (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

óttifa, attofa, attufato spit at it (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

óttife-(yiti), óttofe-(yiti)to spit on him/her (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

ótu-(n), atu-(n)‘time of or for (something)’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

#(o)-turucause to be arrested (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

(o)-wuŋowuŋamake it high, elevate it (PMc: *wuŋa)

(o)-wupʷ, -wupu-(n)breast, her breast (PCMc: *wupʷu-₂)

(o)-wupʷu-ta ‘put young coconut leaves on (something) (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

owuta‘species of tuna (skipjack)’ (PCMc: *kausaa)

ó-wuwáto whistle (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

o-wuwáá-(ri)whistle to (someone) (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

-papalm frond, garland, stalk with leaves (in counting) (PMc: *paa₂)

pa-, pe-n, ppa-, ppe-(n)‘side, help, side of’ (PMc: *pa-)

paabait (PMc: *paa₁)

Chuukese (820 / 1378)

paafrond, flower garland, something with a series of leaflets or petals on it (PMc: *paa₂)

páá, páá-·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

paach·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

paan, páán‘a kind of trigger fish’ (PWMc: *pali)

paa-nito bait (a hook), put out (something) as bait (PMc: *paa₁)

paap, pape-n, pappe-n‘board or plank, board of (one), board of (more than one) (PMc: *papa)

paapabe baited (PMc: *paa₁)

paar, pare-(n)tree with red flowers (Erythrina variegata), tree of (PMc: *para)

paat, #paate-(n), -pat‘tidal inlet, offshore gully in the shallows, gully of’ (PWMc: *pasa)

paaw, péwú-(n)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

pachattached, pasted, joined (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pacha-ŋsmeared condition, be smeared with sticky substance (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pachapach‘foot (of humans and animals)’ (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

pache-ricling to, adhere to (something) (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pache-ri, pacheri-ya-(n)kinsman, relative, his kinsman (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pache-(yiti)stick to, fasten on to (something) (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

par, paraparred (PMc: *para)

#para-aligned, oriented (PWMc: *apara)

(para)-ttik, -ttiki-(n)bright red, bright redness of’ (PCMc: *siki)

pare-eyapply red to it (PMc: *para)

Chuukese (840 / 1378)

pasdrift (as a canoe) (PMc: *pata)

pasa-(nó)drift away (PMc: *pata)

pase-ridrift to (PMc: *pata)

be parried or warded off (PMc: *peo)

-peekside (in counting) (PMc: *paiki)

peek, peeki-nside, side of (PMc: *paiki)

péék, pékú-(n)chip, chip of (PMc: *paku)

péé-niblow upon it (PMc: *pau, paupau)

péé-niblow upon it (PMc: *pau, paupau)

péé-niparry (it) with the open hand (PMc: *peo)

peey, peyiya-(n)‘placenta, her placenta’ (PWMc: *pati, pati-a)

-pékchip (in counting) (PMc: *paku)

pékbe chopped, hewn (PMc: *paku)

pékúpékdo chopping (PMc: *paku)

pékú-ú-(w)chop it, cut it (PMc: *paku)

pene-yaw, -yawe-(n)‘kind of bass fish, fish of’ (PCMc: *pe[ln]e-awa)

penipen‘sea cucumber’ (PCMc: *panipani)

peniya-, peniye-‘side, helper’ (PWMc: *palia)

peŋes, peŋesi-‘athwart, perpendicular, across’ (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

peppepskip or bounce along (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

Chuukese (860 / 1378)

#pere-(yiniin)be square or rectangular (PWMc: *apara)

(pere)-yiniinbe square or rectangular in shape (PMc: *iŋi)

#pere-(yiŋiiŋ)turn on one’s side, lean or tip sideways, list, slip between things by turning one’s body, sidle (PWMc: *apara)

(pere)-yiŋiiŋbe on one side, lean or tip sideways (PMc: *iŋi)

pétú, pétúú-‘big-eyed scad fish’ (PWMc: *pasiu or *pasui)

pi, pii-pi or ppi, ppii- (< *pipii)·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

pichuntied, unfettered, released, pardoned (PWMc: *pici)

pichipich‘pulse, pulsate, vibrate, vibration (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pii, piipi·‘trash, rubbish’ (PMc: *peti)

piir, piri-(n)hard growth or lump under the skin, his growth (PMc: *piri)

#piis, pisi-nsand islet, sand islet of (PMc: *pike)

pine-e-(y)plug (it) up (of a hole) (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pine-(nó)be stopped up, plugged up (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pinepinbe stopped up, corked, blocked (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pin-nitwist it (of a limb or muscle) (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

piri-(n taka)spore of the ripe coconut when beginning to form (PMc: *piri)

pise-(meew), pisa-(n), pise-(ech), pisi-(niyap)names of islets and reefs in Chuuk (PMc: *pike)

pisipisclap the hands (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pisi-rislap (it) (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

piyepilow lying sandy islet (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

Chuukese (880 / 1378)

pókó, pókóó-·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

pon-(nóóon)day before yesterday (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

póó, póó-n‘platform, sleeping platform, copra drying rack, platform of’ (PCMc: *pawo)

póów, pówu-(n)‘species of snapper, snapper of’ (PCMc: *pʷaua)

ppachsticky (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

ppán·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

ppepskip (as a stone thrown on the water), bounce on the surface (as a fish or landing seaplane) (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

ppe-yi-nen, (óro)-ppe-yi-nen·‘horizon’ (lit. ‘edge of heaven’) (PWMc: *pa-i-laŋi)

ppeyis, #ppeyisa-(n)‘fortitude, ability to endure pain, ability to hold one’s breath or stay under water for a long time, his fortitude (PMc: *patiki)

ppi, ppiye-nsand, sand of (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

ppichbe snapped, bounced, vibrated, be a stabbing pain, a snap, bounce, vibration (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

ppin, pippinsnarled, tangled (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

ppisbe slapped with the hands (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

púŋ‘begin to take form (as breadfruit)’ (PCMc: *piŋu, pʷuŋu)

pʷá, pʷáá-come to view (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷaaŋ, pʷaŋa-(n), -pʷaŋhole or cavity, its hole, her vagina’, hole (in counting) (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

pʷáá-rishow (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷas, pʷpʷas‘dry, dried out, light in weight’ (PCMc: *pʷata)

-pʷe·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷe, pʷé, wo, wé·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

Chuukese (900 / 1378)

pʷech, pʷechepʷechbe white, be a light color (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

pʷeedivination by numbers (with knots in four coconut leaves, counting each by fours and using remainder numbers in their permutations) (PWMc: *pʷee)

pʷeech, pʷecha-, pʷeche-powdered lime (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

#pʷeen, pʷenni-, -pʷáánenvirons, go in a circuit around something (PCMc: *pʷalili)

pʷéén, pʷénú‘taro swamp’ (PCMc: *pʷalu)

pʷeepʷe, pʷee-(wu), pʷee-yi‘pull up from the sea, pull up fishtraps, pull it up’ (PMc: *pʷai, pʷai-ti)

pʷéét, pʷéétú-·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

pʷee-(y)divine for (PWMc: *pʷee)

pʷenni-i-(y)go all the way around it (PCMc: *pʷalili)

pʷénúpʷéncover, lid, cover with a lid (PMc: *pʷalu)

pʷénú-ú-wcover it (PMc: *pʷalu)

pʷer, pʷere-‘come, go’ (PMc: *pʷera)

(pʷeyi)-kercoconut grater (PMc: *kari)

pʷich, pʷichi-kkar, e-pʷichi‘hot, burning hot, heat it’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

pʷii-, pʷiipʷigroup, sibling of same sex, be siblings of same sex (PWMc: *pʷiti)

pʷiin, pʷini-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

pʷiin, pʷini-‘cowrie shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

pʷin, pʷinipʷin, pʷini-ti‘slipped on or off (of clothing), thing taken off and given to someone one meets on a path, slip it on or off’ (PMc: *pʷili)

pʷise, pʷisee-·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

pʷo, pʷoopʷobe swollen, be pregnant (PCMc: *pʷoto)

Chuukese (920 / 1378)

pʷon‘be enough’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

pʷoo-·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

pʷoo, pʷoo-swelling of any kind (PCMc: *pʷoto)

pʷooch, pʷocha-(n)armor plating of a turtle’s shell or crocodile’s back, its armor plating (PMc: *pʷoca)

pʷoo-ŋasfragrant smell (PMc: *ŋata)

pʷóór, pʷóru-(n)·‘box, hole’ (PMc: *pʷaro)

(pʷoo)-senisensmell of ringworm (PMc: *tanitani)

pʷoow, pʷowu-, pʷóów, pʷówu-fishing pole (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷór, pʷpʷórcurved, bent (PCMc: *pʷaro)

pʷóre-e-(y)bend it, curve it (PCMc: *pʷaro)

(pʷo)-sseniŋmoldy smell, earthy smell, to smell moldy (PMc: *taliŋa)

pʷótow, pʷótowu-·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

pʷowto fish with a pole (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷpʷach, pʷachapʷach‘loose, slack,wrinkled’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₁)

-pʷpʷaŋemptily (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

pʷpʷo, pʷpʷoo-breadfruit pounder (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷpʷon, pʷpʷone-(n)a promise, agreement, vow, pledge, oath, promise of (something), to promise, make a contract, take an oath (PMc: *pʷono)

pʷpʷono-(ffeŋen)make an agreement, contract, or covenenant (PMc: *pʷono)

pʷpʷoo-nipound it (breadfruit) (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷpʷuk, pʷuke-(n)a knot, knot of (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

Chuukese (940 / 1378)

pʷpʷun, pʷpʷuna-(n)blaze, flash, flame, its blaze (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

pʷpʷún, pʷpʷúnú-‘soil’ (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

pʷuplace one’s foot (PMc: *pʷutu)

pʷube blown (as a trumpet) (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

pʷu, pʷuu-·‘to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)’ (PMc: *pʷuu)

pʷuch, pʷuchopʷuchcrazy (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuché-(ér)cry out in distress (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuke-e-(y)tie it (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷuker, pʷukeri-(n)a sedge (Fimbristylis polymorpha and F. cymosa), a plant (Chrysopogon aciculatus) (PWMc: *pʷukari)

pʷukopʷuka knot, be knotted, tie in knots (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷukopʷukbe knotted (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷúkú, pʷúkúwa-, pʷúkúwe-‘node, joint, knot, knee’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

pʷún, pʷúnú-(tá)be begun, originated (PMc: *pʷenu)

pʷuna‘kind of unicorn fish’ (PWMc: *pʷulaka₁)

pʷuna, pʷunaa-·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

pʷúnú-(n)cause of, reason for, because (PMc: *pʷenu)

pʷúnú-ú-(w)begin it (PMc: *pʷenu)

pʷurbe bumped, stubbed, trip (PMc: *pʷuro)

pʷuro-(ffeŋen)be bumped together, be in collision (PMc: *pʷuro)

-pʷutdisliked, bad (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

Chuukese (960 / 1378)

pʷuta-kbad, improper, unsuitable (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

pʷuu, pʷuwa-(n)‘navel, his/her navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

pʷuupʷ, pʷupʷu-trigger fish, Southern Cross (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

pʷuupʷustep, tread, to place one’s foot on something, treadle, pedal (PMc: *pʷutu)

pʷuu-ristep on, tread on (PMc: *pʷutu)

ráá, ráá-nbranch with leaves, branch of (PMc: *rae)

ráán, rááni-·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

rááráhave many branches (PMc: *rae)

ráás, resi-(n)‘season of southwesterly winds, breadfruit season, year, season of’ (PCMc: *raki)

raaw, rawe-(n)‘whale, whale of’ (PMc: *rato)

ram, ramarambe orange red, saffron colored, bright colored (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

rar, rarrar‘be warm’ (PMc: *rara)

re-, ra-, ró-·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

re-, ree-·‘person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)’ (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

ré, réérégrope, reach with the hands where one cannot see (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

réé-(féw)method of fishing at night by reaching into holes in rock piles with the hands (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

réé-yigrope for, reach into and under for (something (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

rék, rékúrékbe scooped out (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

rékú-úwscoop it out (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

reŋ, reŋereŋ‘be yellow green, saffron colored (associated with turmeric)’ (PMc: *reŋa)

Chuukese (980 / 1378)

rer·‘tremble (with fear)’ (PMc: *rere)

ribe bound, tied up (PWMc: *rii)

riirisomething tied on, band, ribbon, bandage, lashing, bonds, fetters (PWMc: *rii)

rii-(y)tie, lash, wind, bind (of thread, rope, etc.) (PWMc: *rii)

ripi-i-(y), rupi-i-(y)shatter it, break it to pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

riyá‘be miserable, in torment, in anguish’ (PCMc: *riea)

roch, rochorochbe dark (PMc: *roco)

roche-(n)darkness of (PMc: *roco)

rocho-(nó)get dark (PMc: *roco)

rokumʷ, #rokumʷe-(n)·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

roŋ, roŋoroŋ, roŋe-(e-ya) (<*roŋo-yi-ya), (o)-roŋa‘hear, listen, thing heard, cause to hear’ (PMc: *roŋo)

rosbe all gone, used up, finished, depleted, consumed (PWMc: *rota)

aware (suddenly) (PMc: *rut[iu])

rúk, rúkúrúktip, be unsteady, tip with the outrigger going down under water (PMc: *ruku₁)

rúkú-(nó)tip over (PMc: *ruku₁)

rup, rupurup, me-rip, má-rip, #me-riperipbe shattered, broken into pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

rúú-(ké)surprised, astounded, astonished (PMc: *rut[iu])

rúwa-, rúwé-, ruwo-two (with classifiers) (PMc: *rua)

ruwuuw, ruuwu, ruu·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

be removed, emptied (of earth oven), come loose (of outrigger float) (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

Chuukese (1000 / 1378)

sá, sáá-be removed, emptied (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

saam, seme-(n)father, father of’ (PMc: *tama)

sáán, seni-(n)rope, rope of (PMc: *tali)

saa-nito like it (PCMc: *taa, taa-ni)

saap, saape-(n)‘knife, knife of’ (PCMc: *taapa)

saap, sapa-(n), sape-(n)‘cheek, his cheek, cheek of’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

saasato like, be fond (PCMc: *taa, taa-ni)

sáá-siremove it (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

sáá-siremove (clothes), take away (from a place), swing out (of arms or fish pole), remove or peel off (of skin), chase away into exile (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sáát, seti-, -set·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

sááwbe ashamed (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

(sááwá)-ási-ni‘be embarrassed because of him’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

sááwá-ási-nibe ashamed because of him (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

(sa)-kkak‘to split, crack, check (of wood or skin)’ (sa- ‘of its own accord’) (PMc: *kaka₁)

sakka-n, #ssaka-nslice of it (of copra or meat of ripe coconut) (PWMc: *takaka)

sama-(n), sema-(n)his father (PMc: *tama)

samasamtreat as a father (PMc: *tama)

(sa)-mʷaawsick’ (lit. ‘not well’) (PMc: *mʷaau)

sáná-, sáne- ?‘prominent, standing out’ (PCMc: *tale)

sap‘be caught, snagged, stuck, hung up’ (PMc: *tapa₃)

Chuukese (1020 / 1378)

sapbe holding up with open palm (of the hand) (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

sap, sáp‘face, present a side in a given direction’, with directional suffixes sape-nó, sápe-nó, sape-tá, sápe-tá, sape-to, sápe-to, sape-tiw, sápe-tiw, sape-wow, sápe-wow, sape-wu, sápewu (PCMc: *tape₂)

sapa, sassapato hold (something) up in the open palm (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

-sapʷ‘future negative, will not, must not’ (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

sárbe moving, not staying in one place (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

sara‘yellow-lined squirrel fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

sa-ramlight (as of the sun), be bright, full of light’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

saraw, sarawe-(n)‘barracuda, barracuda of’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

sári-simove (something) from its place, remove (something) (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

sássár, sássári-(n)‘tier, storey (of house), step (of stair), shelf (of cupboard), tier of’ (PWMc: *tare)

be quieted (of fear, emotion, pain, wind), calmed, at rest, set (of sun) (PCMc: *Too)

-se, se-, sa-·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

see·‘penis’ (PMc: *Teka or *Tika)

séé-(fé)‘new year’ (PMc: *tau₂)

séésé‘engage in a kind of fishing with handnets’ (PMc: *tautau, tau-ki)

sééw, séésééw·‘porcupine fish’ (PMc: *tautu)

sefáán, sáfáán, sefááni-(n), sefáánni-(n), sefánni-(n)‘again, once more, return, return of’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

sékúr, sékúrú-·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

seme-niacquire as a father (PMc: *tama)

(seme)-wútéwútgod of rain (PMc: *u[sS]a)

Chuukese (1040 / 1378)

sene, senee-(n)adze, adze of (PMc: *talai)

senee-nichop (it) with an adze (PMc: *talai)

sene-ti‘untie, loosen (a rope)’ (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

seni·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

seni, seni-iycoil or wind (a rope) (PMc: *tali)

seni, seniya-(n)side dish, his side dish (PCMc: *talia)

senif, senife-(n)herring, herring of (PMc: *tañifa)

seni-(kásá)‘board connecting outrigger booms on the lee (ásá) side’ (PCMc: *tali-)

seniŋ, seniŋa-(n)ear, his ear (PMc: *taliŋa)

seniŋe-(n soomá), seniŋe-(n énú), seniŋe-(n soope)any of a large number of fungi’ (lit. ‘ghostʻs ear, spiritʻs ear’) (PMc: *taliŋa)

senisentinea, ringworm (PMc: *tanitani)

seniye-niput as a side dish to (something) (PCMc: *talia)

sennap, sannap‘canoe builder’ (PCMc: *talilapa)

seŋir, seŋiri-(n)‘yellow tail tuna, tuna of’ (PMc: *taŋiri)

sepbe cut off, lopped off (of coconut fronds and pandanus leaves) (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sepesepcutting or lopping off (of leaves and fronds) (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sepe-sito cut it or lop it off (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sepi, sepiya-(n)bowl, dish, platter, plate, constellation Delphinus, his bowl (PMc: *tapia)

sepiye-niacquire (a bowl) (PMc: *tapia)

serbe met accidentally (PWMc: *Ter[ae])

Chuukese (1060 / 1378)

sere-nimeet (someone) accidentally, chance upon (PWMc: *Ter[ae])

seres‘be sailing, go on a sailing vessel, to reef a sail’ (PWMc: *taraki)

seti-(peen)small child (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

seti-(pʷitur)youngest child of a woman’ (lit. ‘skirt child’) (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

sewi, sewii-·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

sewi, #sewii-(n)‘any of a number of species of bass fish, bass fish of’ (PWMc: *tawia)

seyi-m, #seyi-mi-(n)whetstone (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

seyi-misharpen it (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

si-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

siim, #siime-(n), #simme-(n)‘medium sized tridachna shell, tridachna shell of’ (PMc: *kima)

siin, sini-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

siin, sissiinknown as fact (PMc: *kilala)

siipʷ, #sipʷpʷe-(n), kiyopʷ, kiyopʷu-(n)‘variety of spider lily, spider lily of’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

siir, siri-, sir‘urine, urinate’ (PMc: *Tiri)

(sii)-winexchange, swap, trade, replacement (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(sii)-wini-i-(v)replace, take the place of (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

sin, sini-, siŋ, siŋi-·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

sineknow how (to do something), be skilled (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

sine-e-(fichi-i-y)know it well (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

sine-e-(y)know him/her/it (a person, idea, intention) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

Chuukese (1080 / 1378)

sine-e-(ya-n)his knowledge (based on verbal explanation) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

sini, kini(in compounds only) made of coconut frond matting (PWMc: *kinia)

(sini)-fé, (sini)-féé-hibiscus (PMc: *-fau)

sin-ni, sini-nidig it up (of root crops) (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

sobe kindled, be lit (of an oven) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

so, soo-(tiw)‘precipitate out (as starch derived from washing grated arrowroot or manioc), alight, come to rest, land (of flying things)’ (PMc: *Toka)

sónó-(ŋŋaw)uneven (PMc: *tano)

soo-(chik)be saved, put away, kept (PCMc: *tawu₃)

sóón, sónu-n, ó-sónalevel ground, leveled site of, make it level (of ground) (PMc: *tano)

soo-(nap)be wasted, discarded, lost (PCMc: *tawu₃)

soo-nilay, kindle (of a fire or oven) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

soo-nisoak it, immerse it (PMc: *Too)

soo-(nó)far side (PCMc: *Toa or *Towa)

sóópʷ, sópʷu-tiw, sópʷo-notow, sópʷó-tá, sópʷu-ndistrict, village, lower district, eastern district, upper district, district of (PMc: *tapʷo)

soososoak, immerse, lay a fishtrap (PMc: *Too)

sooso, soosoo-‘holder, fastener’ (PMc: *TooToo)

soosoo-(ŋeni)be near, be on the side toward (PCMc: *Toa or *Towa)

soo-(tupʷ), soo-(má), soo-(pe)‘departed (dead) person, corpse, ghost’ (PMc: *tau₁)

-sopʷhalf, division, part (in counting) (PMc: *tapʷo)

sópʷbe at an end, terminated (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

Chuukese (1100 / 1378)

sópʷe-(ey)bring to completion (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

sópʷó-(nóó-n)end of it (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

(sópʷu-nu)-pi‘name of a chiefly clan’ (lit. ‘stone structure district’) (PCMc: *pei)

sowu-‘master, expert’ (PMc: *tawu-₁)

sowu-‘clan (prefix in some clan names)’ (PMc: *tawu₂)

(sowu)-kachawLord of Achaw’ (a powerful spirit and dynastic ancestor) (PMc: *kacawa)

sowu-ni‘greet (a visitor on his arrival)’ (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

ssá, sássárun (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

-ssakslice of copra (PWMc: *takaka)

ssárbe capable of being elevated or lifted up (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

ssi-i-(y)bite it off (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

ssindig up root crops (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

ssis, sissi-bite something off or in two (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

ssóthwart of a canoe (PMc: *tao)

ssupʷdrip, drip down (as rain) (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

ssupʷi-itisprinkle or drip onto (someone) (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

ssúrlarge drop (of liquid) (PMc: *turu)

ssuu-kbe open, opened, to open (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

su, suu-(nó)set off (on a journey), leave, depart (PWMc: *Towu)

su-ŋérúŋér(Bender et al. 1984) (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

Chuukese (1120 / 1378)

súrúsúrbe dripping (PMc: *turu)

suu-kiopen it (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

#suupʷ, supʷu-ndripping, drip of (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

tabe destroyed, in pieces, in ruins (PMc: *[sS]aa)

-tá, táá-up, upward, eastward, rising (PMc: *Sake)

taakneedlefish (PMc: *[sS]aku)

taam, tame-(n)‘outrigger float, outrigger float of’ (PMc: *Sama)

táá-ni-yónsunrise (PMc: *Sake)

(táá-nu)-pʷrising of the Southern Cross (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

taaŋ, taŋa-(n)leg and foot together, his leg (PMc: *Saŋa)

táá-(riŋe-ey)rip it, tear it (PMc: *sae)

taaw, -taw, tewe-(n)‘pass in a reef, pass of’ (PMc: *sawa)

tafbe gathered, picked (of green leaves) (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tafa-‘what relationship?’ (PMc: *Safa)

tafatafgathering, picking, plucking (of leaves) (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tafe-nigather, pick (something) (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tawe‘be convenient, be finished, done’ (PMc: *sawee)

tééuninhabited low island (PMc: *sakau)

teete, tee-yi·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tefi-i-(y)tear, rip (something) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

Chuukese (1140 / 1378)

tefitefto tear, rip (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

(teki)-sónbe low, humble (PMc: *tano)

tékú-naar, tékú-raar·‘swordfish, marlin’ (PMc: *[sS]aku-laara)

tékú-(naar), tékú-(raar)marlin (PMc: *[sS]aku)

tenbe in line (PMc: *Sali)

ténbe scrubbed, scoured, washed (of hands and dishes, but not clothes) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

téna-a-(nó), ténó-ó-(nó)wipe (something) off (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

teni-(n)line of (PMc: *Sali)

ténúto scrub, wash, rub, dust (something), shine (shoes) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tettenline, rank, row, list, grade, generation, lineage (PMc: *Sali)

tétténwashing, scrubbing, scouring, erasing (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

ti-moving, going (PMc: *[sS]i-)

tibe crowded, pushed together (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tii-naa-(nó)send it away (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tii-nipush it, shove it, send it (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiip, tipa-(n)emotion, etc, his emotion (PMc: *sipa)

tiip, tipe-(n), -tip‘slice, chunk, cut segment (of breadfruit and taro only), chip (of wood from adzing), slice of, slice (in counting) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

tiitipush, shove, shoving, pushing (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

ti-kbe sticking through, be piercing (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

ti-kekneedle (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

Chuukese (1160 / 1378)

ti-kistitch or sew (thatch) (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

tinbe inserted, put in between (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tinismell it (PMc: *saŋu)

tini-fito go among or between (things) (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

#tipe-rislice or cut (something) into chunks (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

tipetipchips (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

-tiw, tiwetiw·‘down, westward’ (PMc: *siwo)

tobe reachable, be reached, attained (PMc: *[sS]oko)

-to, -too-·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

tonvisible, discernible (PMc: *[sS]olo)

(tona)-achawbasalt peak (a place on Wééné that was sacred to the cult of sowukachaw) (PMc: *kacawa)

tonáá-nimix (something) (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

tono-(nó)fade from view (PMc: *[sS]olo)

toŋ·‘to smart, sting’ (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

toon, tone-(n)‘masthead, high point, pinnacle’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *lo[sS]o-)

toon, tone-(n)‘peak, high point, pinacle, mast-head, peak of’ (PMc: *Solo)

(too)-noŋenter (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

too-(ŋeni)be able to, be capable of (PMc: *[sS]oko)

too-rireach, arrive at, attain to (some place or thing) (PMc: *[sS]oko)

too-(w)(from *too-[awa]) and too-(waaw) (from *too- [awaawa]) ‘far, distant’ (PCMc: *soa)

Chuukese (1180 / 1378)

torto grunt, snore (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

(towu)-nómʷ, -nómʷu-(n)‘mosquito net’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

ttamesh guage (PMc: *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-)

ttáá-(riŋ)be torn (as clothing) (PMc: *sae)

ttaa-yiweave (a net) (PMc: *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-)

ttaa-yi-ya-net woven by (someone) (PMc: *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-)

ttandream (PWMc: *sasana)

ttanadream about (something) (PWMc: *sasana)

ttiiw, ttiwe-, ttiwa-, ttiwu-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

-ttikvery, intensifying adjective (PCMc: *siki)

tti-kbe sewn or stitched (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

ttinto smell, perceive odor (PMc: *saŋu)

ttin, ttine-(n)‘shine, shining, brightness, ray, beam, shine of’ (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

ttiwu-uw, (e)-ttiwu-uwa-(n)ninth (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

ttonamixture (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

ttudig, be dug (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

ttú-(n)her breast (PMc: *susu)

ttúŋ‘to flow (of sap or sweat)’ (PCMc: *siŋ[iu])

ttúút, túttú-suck (of a nursing child) (PMc: *susu)

ttuu-(w)dig (earth) (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

Chuukese (1200 / 1378)

dive, duck the head under water (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tuk, tukotukscoop up (PMc: *[sS]iko)

tuko-(ppi)do sand scooping (PMc: *[sS]iko)

-túkú-mpackage, packet (in counting) (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkú-ma-(n)package of it (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkú-mimake (it) into a package or bundle, wrap (it) up (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkútúk, túkútúkú-(n)package, packet, bundle, parcel, package of (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tuku-u-(ŋeni)daub (something) on (something) (PMc: *suku)

tuku-u-(w)daub (something) (PMc: *suku)

tuku-(yá)dance in which hardwood staves are struck against one another (PMc: *suku)

tumʷur‘the star Antares, name of a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

#turbe grabbed, taken, seized (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

turu-fito catch hold of, capture, grab, snatch, seize (something) (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

túú, túwa-nvulva, her vulva (vulgar) (PMc: *[sS]ua)

túú-fidive for (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tuutudo digging (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

túútúbathe, take a shower, be bowed (of the head) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

waa, waa-(n)‘vein, artery, tendon, nerve, sinew, vein of’ (PMc: *waka)

waa-, waa-n‘frame, frame of’ (PMc: *waxa₁)

waa-, wáá-(n)stick, tie, tie-rod, stick of (PCMc: *wa[xØ]a)

Chuukese (1220 / 1378)

waa, waa-n, wáá-n, wáá-ni‘canoe, his canoe, canoe of, ‘acquire it as a canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waan, wanú-, wanu-uw‘eight’ and wani-ik ‘eighty’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

waasaas (?<*waa-asa-as)briskly, quickly (in walking) (lit. ? ‘with feet or legs high’) (PMc: *wae)

wáá-(yi-so)distal board across the outrigger booms (PCMc: *wa[xØ]a)

wát- (tee-nó)to increase, get larger (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

wát-(te)be big, large (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

wechbe struck, hit, beaten, beat (PMc: *wece or *woco)

weche-e-(y)strike, beat, hit (someone) (PMc: *wece or *woco)

wechewechstriking, hitting, beating, be striking (PMc: *wece or *woco)

wééné‘name of the island in northeast position in Chuuk lagoon’ (PMc: *tokolau)

weet, weta-(n)‘semen, his semen’ (PMc: *weSe)

weewe‘be alike, same, equal, equivalence’ (PMc: *wee)

wénú-(ŋŋaw)useless plant, weed (PMc: *walu)

wénúwénvegetation, bush (PMc: *walu)

werflash (of a light or flashlight) (PWMc: *were, werewere)

were-e-(y)flash (a light) on’ (PWMc: *were, werewere)

wéwbe rich, wealthy (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

wéwú-(n)wealth of (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

wi, wiiwipulled up, extracted (of something planted), to extract, pull up, weed (a garden) (PMc: *wuti)

wiin, wini-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

Chuukese (1240 / 1378)

(wii)-tééclan name (on low island) (PMc: *sakau)

wii-(y)take the place of (something), succeed (someone) (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wii-(y)pull up (plants) (PMc: *wuti)

win, wini-(nó), winiwinbe changed, altered, shifted, moved, turned over (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wini-(iti)change into (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wini-kturn over (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wini-kiturn (something) over (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(wini)-ŋách‘period just before daybreak or dawn’ (PWMc: *ŋace)

wini-sidisplace, removed, transplant (something)’, (reflexive) changed one’s position (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(wini)-yórvicinity, neighborhood (PMc: *aro-)

wochwell preserved, long-lived, durable (PMc: *koco₂)

woche-e-(y)cut a slice off of (the bound coconut spathe in making toddy (PMc: *koco₁)

woche-(n)durability of (PMc: *koco₂)

woche-(ni)notch it, cut notches in it (PMc: *koco₁)

wochooch, woche-e-(y),wocha-a-(n))‘eat (of fish, meat or uncooked food), eat it, his food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

wonsleep (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

wono-(wut)sleep in the meeting house (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

wono-(yimʷ)sleep in the family house (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woo‘vertical rafter’ (PMc: *xawu)

woovertical rafter (PMc: *toka₂)

Chuukese (1260 / 1378)

wooch, woche-n, wocho-(fénú)‘coral reef, coral reef of, fringing reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

woo-may‘species of goatfish’ (PMc: *tewe, tewe-mea)

woon, wono-, wona-, wone-, woné- wonu-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

wooŋ, woŋe-(n)‘mangrove, mangrove of’ (PMc: *toŋo)

woor, wora-n‘fish gills, its gills’ (PMc: *woro₁)

woot, wote-(n)coconut husking stick, digging stick used in cultivation (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

woot, wote-(n)‘Colocasia taro’, Colocasia taro of’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

woow, #wowu-·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

wópʷbe beat, struck, hit (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

wópʷu-nibeat, strike, whip (someone with stick or whip) (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

worbe, exist (PWMc: *oro)

woro-mi‘to swallow it’ (PCMc: *woro-)

woroor‘stone wall, stone pier, stone causeway’ (PMc: *woro₂)

wos, wosoosbe cut in half (PMc: *kota)

wos, wosoosbe cut in half, cut in two (PCMc: *woTo)

wose-e-(y)cut it in half (PMc: *kota)

wose-e-(y)cut it in half (PCMc: *woTo)

wot·‘go aground, run on a reef’ (PCMc: *koso)

wote-(e-y)husk it, clear it of vegetation (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

wotootdo husking, do clearing of vegetation, weeding, gardening (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

Chuukese (1280 / 1378)

-wow·‘toward or in direction of person addressed’ (PMc: *watu)

wú-·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

stand erect, be upright (PMc: *tuu₁)

be stopped, halted (of something in motion) (PMc: *tuu₂)

-wu, -wuu-‘outward, to the north’ (PMc: *wotu)

wúchúk, wúchúkúchúkbe shaken out (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

wúchú-kishake it out (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

wúchúúchshake out, be shaken (as a cloth) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

wuk, wuko-(nó)‘go out of one’s house for the first time in the morning’ (PMc: *wuko)

wu-kech, wu-kechi-(n)‘species of large ant, ant of’ (PMc: *kaci)

(wu)-kkóbaby boy (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

wúkú-(par)bird with a green body and red tail (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

wumʷbe put in an earth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

wumʷowumʷ, wumʷowumʷe-(n)‘hermit crab, hermit crab of’ (PMc: *wumʷa)

wumʷu-né·‘a reef fish prized as food’ (PCMc: *wumʷu-lau)

wumʷu-nicook (something) in an earth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

wúnto drink, smoke (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

wúne-fipluck (feathers, hair), remove (scales) (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wúne-(ni-pot)D. trifoliata vine (PMc: *upa)

wúnéwúnhairy (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

Chuukese (1300 / 1378)

wúnú-ma-(n)his thing to drink or smoke (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

wúnú-midrink it, smoke it (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

(wúnú-(n chuuk), wúnúúne-(n chuuk)mountain top (PMc: *ulu)

wúnú-(n éwú), wúnúúne-(n éwu)masthead (PMc: *ulu)

wúnú-(n fénú), wúnúúne-(n fénú)cape, point of land (PMc: *ulu)

wúnú-(n irá), wúnúúne-(n irá)tree top (PMc: *ulu)

wúnú-(n máchew)spear point (PMc: *ulu)

wúnúúno-(wu)project out, stick out, long projection (PMc: *ulu)

wuŋbe wrung out (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

wúŋ, wúŋúúŋ‘sound (as a trumpet)’ (PCMc: *iŋu, iŋuiŋu)

wuŋe-niput a ridgepole on it (PMc: *wuŋa)

wuŋowuŋbe high, lofty, summit (PMc: *wuŋa)

wuŋu-tiwring or squeeze it out (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

wuŋuuŋwring (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

wúpto fish with fish poison (PMc: *upa)

wúpe-(ni-pot)vine (D. trifoliata, used as a hauling rope) (PMc: *upa)

-wupʷbreast (in counting) (PCMc: *wupʷu-₂)

wupʷ, wuupʷbe fertile, have increase, bear young (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

wupʷu-riapproach (another) with breast forward (PCMc: *wupʷu-₂)

wupʷu-t, wupʷu-te-(n)young coconut leaf, leaf of (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

Chuukese (1320 / 1378)

wupʷu-(tiw)be born (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

wúridrag it, haul it, tow it (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

wúri, #(é)-wúrú‘string (something) together’ (PMc: *turi)

wúrúúrhaul, pull, hoist, tow, be hauled, towed, pull up sail, halyard (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

wúsipound it (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

wúsúúspound or mash with pestle (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

-wútfinger (c.c.) (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

wútto rain (PMc: *u[sS]a)

wutithrow or splash water on (something) (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

wút-tipull it out (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

#wúttúútdraw out, extract, draw lots (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

wutu-massplash water on the face (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

wutuutsplash with water (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

wútúútfire plow, make fire by the fire plow method (PCMc: *iso)

wútúútmake fire with the fireplow (PMc: *us[ei])

wútú-ú-(w)make (a fire) (PCMc: *iso)

wútú-ú-(w)make (a fire) (PMc: *us[ei])

wuuwicker fish trap, lobster pot (PMc: *wuu)

wúú, wúwa-(n)·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

wuuch, wuchu-(n)·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

Chuukese (1340 / 1378)

wúúkwhite-tailed tropic bird (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

wuuk, wuke-(n), wukowuk, or wukuwuk, wuke-(ey)‘fishnet, fishnet of, caul or spiderweb, catch in a net’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

wúúk, wúkú-(n)‘tail, its tail’ (PMc: *iku)

wuumʷ, wumʷu-(n)earth oven, oven of (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

wúúnD. elipitica vine (PMc: *upa)

wúún, wúne-(n)hair (of head or body), fur, feather, scale (of fish)’, hair of (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wúún, wúnna-·‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

wuun, wunu-·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

wuun, wunu-(n)testicles and scrotum, his testicles (PWMc: *wul[ae])

wúún, wúnú-(n), wúnúún, wúnúúnú-(n), wúnúúne-(n)extremity, top, extremity of (PMc: *ulu)

wuu-nicatch (something) in a fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

wuuŋ, wuŋa-(n)ridgepole of house, its ridgepole (PMc: *wuŋa)

wúúp, wúpe-(n)vine (D. elliptica) used for fish poison, vine of (PMc: *upa)

wuupʷ, wupʷa-(n)‘belly, abdomen, his belly’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

wuupʷ, wupʷu-(n)child, offspring (of man only), child of (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

wúúr, wúre-(n)·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

wúúr, wúre-(n)‘supporting post of a house, post of’ (PMc: *tura)

wúút, wúte-(n)rain, rain of (PMc: *u[sS]a)

wuut, wutu-(n)core, interior, inside, its core (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

wúú-(tá)stand up (PMc: *tuu₁)

Chuukese (1360 / 1378)

wuwa-tendon (PMc: *ua₁)

wuwa, wuwaa-(n)‘fruit, berry, its fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

(wuwáá-nú)-úwBarringtonia asiatica, whose fruit is used as fish poison and to cauterize wounds’ (PMc: *iwu)

wúwan, wúwana-(n)‘grey hair, his grey hair’ (PMc: *wua, wuana)

wuwapʷ, #wuwapʷpʷe-(n)‘growing tip of the palm tree or banana plant’ (PWMc: *tiapʷo)

wuwa-s, wuwa-se-(n)grass cover laid on top of food that has already been covered by leaves in an earth oven (thing transported), grass covering of’ (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wuwe-ya-a-(to), wuwe-e-(ye-to)convey it hither (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wuwe-yi, wuwe-e-(y)carry, convey, transport (something) (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wúwi-(iti)stop until (PMc: *tuu₂)

wuwó-(ór)shin, front of leg between knee and ankle (PMc: *ua₁)

wuwoow, wuwoowo-(nó) (< *wuwawuwa)convey, carry, transport, tote (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

-y, -ye-; -w, -we-·‘him, her, it’ (object pronoun) (PMc: *-a)

-y, -yi-·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

yááyá·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

-yas, -yahigh, east (PMc: *ata)

-yéthread, hair (in counting) (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

-yey, -yeyi-, -wey, -weyi-·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

-yi-·‘of’ (PMc: *-i-)

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