Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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F


Fijian

6. Fijian (342) (Capell 1957, Geraghty 1983)

ate·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

au·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

-au·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

baastalk of taro leaves only (PMc: *paa₂)

babaside of a thing, cheekbone (PMc: *pa-)

baca‘worm, bait’ (PMc: *paa₁)

bavawashstrake or upper side of a canoe (PMc: *papa)

bebevagina (PMc: *pia)

beebee‘butterfly’ (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

beebeebutterfly (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

beka‘kind of bat’ (PMc: *peka)

beka, bekʷabat (PMc: *pʷeka)

bogi·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

boi, boi-ca·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

bonastink because rotten (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

bono, bono-tato block, dam up (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

booa boil (PCMc: *pʷoto)

buki, buki-atie, fasten (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

buku, buku-yatie a knot (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

buli·‘shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

Fijian (20 / 342)

bulubulu-tibe sticky (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

buno·‘perspiration’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

butu, butu-kastamp or tread on (PMc: *pʷutu)

caaruined (PMc: *[sS]aa)

cagi·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

cago‘turmeric plant [Curcuma longa]’ (PMc: *aŋo)

cakaureef (PMc: *sakau)

cake·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

cama·‘outrigger float’ (PMc: *Sama)

cavawhat? (PMc: *faiSa)

cavawhat? (PMc: *Safa)

cavipenis after circumcision (PMc: *[sS]afi₂)

cibafaint, lose consciousness (PMc: *sipa)

cicito run (PMc: *[sS]i-)

cici-varun to (a place) (PMc: *[sS]i-)

cigifill up a crevice or push a thing into it (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

cii·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

cili, cili-vato cut or lance the body (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

ciqocatch something thrown (PMc: *[sS]iko)

civa, civa-tacut into small pieces [as yams for soup] (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

Fijian (40 / 342)

ciwa·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

coato have arrived (PMc: *[sS]oko)

cogasharp point, barb (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

cokato pierce (PMc: *[sS]oka)

coloinland country, mountain country (PMc: *Solo)

cuastick by which a fish net is lifted (PMc: *[sS]ua)

-da·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

daaa children’s disease showing red spots (PCMc: *mʷacaya)

dagathrow the head well back as in shaving or putting drops in one’s eyes (PMc: *camʷa)

daku·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

dalia pandanus tree from which rope is made (PMc: *tali)

daliga·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

danidani‘a shrub (Nothopanax fruiticosum)’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

dauexpert (PMc: *tawu-₁)

davui·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

dawa-[ka]to extend as far as (PMc: *kacawa)

dee-[na], daa [<*dae]·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

doa‘heartwood of a tree [solid and dark]’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

dokaridgepole of house (PMc: *toka₂)

dokopunting pole (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

Fijian (60 / 342)

dovu·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

draa·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

drakiweather (PCMc: *raki)

drami, drami-ca‘to lap, lick’ (PMc: *camʷ [ai], camʷ [ai]-ti)

dranu·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

drau·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

durupost (PMc: *tura)

dusito point with the finger (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

duvaDerris trifoliata (PMc: *[tT]upa)

e vei·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

gaaonly, just, all the same, yet, but, however [adverb] (PMc: *mʷaa)

gaathe grey duck (PMc: *ŋaaŋaa)

gacagacaentrails (PWMc: *mʷata[ŋØ]ala)

ganesibling of opposite sex (PMc: *mʷaane)

gasaa thing that will cause laughter, a joke (PMc: *ŋasa)

gasagasa‘savory, tasty (of food)’ (PMc: *ŋata)

gedeto bob up and down (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

gigiaa tree (Suriana maritima) (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

giisqueak, squeal, buzz (PMc: *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti)

godrogrunt (as a pig), moan in pain (of a person) (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

Fijian (80 / 342)

googoo‘weak, infirm, helpless’ (PCMc: *ŋixo)

gunu·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

gwata, gata‘snake’ (PMc: *mʷata)

i·‘of’ (PMc: *-i-)

i-dusiindex finger (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

ika·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

i-kaikaisomething said (PMc: *kai₂)

[i]-kaso‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

ilo, ilo-vato look at (as a reflection) (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

[i]-nimabailer (PMc: *[ln]ima)

(i)-nonoplace where something lies (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

(i)-orowaistband (PMc: *woro₂)

ira, ra·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

iri, iri-vato fan (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

ka-prefix forming ordinal numerals (PMc: *ka-)

kaa‘thing’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

kabi, kabi-taadhere, stick to (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

ka-cacracked, split (PMc: *kaka₁)

kacuwood (PMc: *kayu)

kadia large kind of black ant that stings (PMc: *kaci)

Fijian (100 / 342)

kaibivalve shell (PMc: *koyi)

kai-we [exclusive] (PMc: *kayi)

kai-nakibe said (PMc: *kai₂)

kakato stammer, stutter (PMc: *kaka₂)

kakaaany of several species of parrot (PMc: *kaka₂)

kaka-cacracked or split in many places (PMc: *kaka₁)

kalu, kalu-vato whistle (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

kana‘eat’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

kara‘to scold, to cry (of a parrot), to bark (of a dog)’ (PMc: *karakara)

kara‘scold, object, rebuke’ (PMc: *kata)

karito scrape, especially a coconut (PMc: *kari)

kasago aground (PCMc: *koso)

kasi, kasi-natie a lot of things together, string things together (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

kasivito spit (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

kasivi-taspit on or at (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

katobasket, box (PMc: *pʷasau)

kay-ato say (PMc: *kai₂)

kaya, kʷaya·‘to say’ (PMc: *pʷaa)

keda·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

keimami·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

Fijian (120 / 342)

keli, keli-a, keli-ca·‘dig’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kemu-(dou), kemu-(ni)·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

kila, kila-ato know, understand (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kini, kini-tapinch with the nails (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits (PMc: *kurakura)

koahair on the buttocks (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

koda·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

koso, koso-vato cut with a bivalve shell (PMc: *koco₁)

[ko]-yaa, [a]-yaa‘that [distant], the one that’. (PMc: *ae₂)

kuita·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kuli·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

kutu·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

kuu, kuu-tato bite (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

[laa]-mawato yawn, gape (PMc: *mawa)

labo, (vaka)-labo-cajump out and attack suddenly (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

laca·‘a sail’ (PMc: *lea or *laya)

lagi·‘sky, heaven, storm’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lago·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lago, lago-naplace rollers under a canoe (PMc: *laŋo₂)

lako·‘go, proceed, (as directional) away’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

Fijian (140 / 342)

laqeregravel below surface soil (PCMc: *laxa)

lase·‘kind of coral’ (PMc: *laZe)

lauwaterhole in a reef (PMc: *lau)

lawafishing net made from hibiscus fiber (PMc: *lawa)

le, leepolite term in kava ceremony (PMc: *le, lee)

lele‘dirge’ (PMc: *alele)

ligoligonight insect (PMc: *liŋoliŋo)

limafive (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lima-saŋavulufifty (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

liwato blow (of the wind) (PCMc: *yuwe)

locomiddle joint at the yard in a canoe (PMc: *lo[sS]o-)

lolosmall ant (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

lumi [<*limu]·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

lusi, lusi-ato rub the skin off (PCMc: *[ln]usi-)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maa-cawaa space or interval (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

maa-[duaa]·‘ashamed’ (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

maca‘empty [of liquids], dry’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

macu·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

madra‘worn, old [of clothes]’ (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

Fijian (160 / 342)

ma-draiFijian bread buried in the ground for months (PMc: *ma-cai)

magavagina (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

mai·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

malu·‘waterproof, not leaky’ (PCMc: *mano)

mamia kind of banana’ (PMc: *mami)

mana·‘be efficacious, have spiritual power’, ‘efficacy, spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

manumanu‘bird’ (PMc: *manu)

marahollow ground, such as a groove (PMc: *mara)

mataa company of person following a particular occupation (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

mata·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

(mataa)-sawalanding place on a beach (PMc: *sawa)

mata-ni sucu·‘nipple’ (lit. ‘point of breast or nursing’) (PMc: *mata-ni-susu)

mate·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

mauri-[mu]‘your good health!’ (PMc: *mauri)

mavohealed [of a sore] (PMc: *mawo)

mayawaspecies of fish (PMc: *maawa)

misi, misi-kato pick or nibble at [of bats] (PMc: *misi)

moce·‘sleep’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

-mu·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mua-[na]tip, point, front of it (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

Fijian (180 / 342)

muloto twist a single strand or thread (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mulo-aa ring, reel, coil [as of wire or tape] (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mulo-nato twist [a strand or thread] (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mulo-nibe twisted (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mulu‘a long black fish’ (PWMc: *mʷuno)

muri·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

-na·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

namu·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

nana·‘pus’ (PMc: *nana)

ni·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

nima, nima-tato bail (PMc: *[ln]ima)

(ni)-nai-(ca)·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

niu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

noto lie (of things) (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

noko, noko-tato sharpen to a point (PMc: *noko)

nuuelbow (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

ŋica·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

[o]-cei, [ko]-cei·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

ono·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

oro, oro-ta, odroto clasp’, (i)-oro ‘waistband’ (PMc: *woro₂)

Fijian (200 / 342)

qio·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

-qu·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

quru, quru-tato crunch (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

rarato warm oneself at a fire (PMc: *rara)

rerefear (PMc: *rere)

ribiribi-a‘the sharp edge of some things (as a yam cut into small pieces)’ (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

rogo, rogo-ca·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

rua·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

sagato try hard to do or get something (PWMc: *Toŋo)

sagacrotch (PMc: *Saŋa)

[sa]-ga-vuluten (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

sakuswordfish (PMc: *[sS]aku)

sala·‘path, road’ (PMc: *ala₁)

sauhigh chief (PMc: *tawu-₁)

sauoutside (PCMc: *soa)

sigaday, daylight (PMc: *siŋa)

siwodebased, put down (PMc: *siwo)

soasoato reach land alive after being in a gale (PMc: *[sS]oko)

sokaribs of boat (PMc: *tao)

sokoto sail, voyage (PMc: *[sS]oko)

Fijian (220 / 342)

soqo, soqo-na, soqo-niassemble (PMc: *Toko)

sovu, sovu-tahollow out [a canoe] (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

supour water on things, irrigate (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

sucuto suck the breast (PMc: *susu)

sui·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

suku, suku-mato touch a woman in front or behind (PMc: *suku)

suli-banana or taro sucker (PMc: *[tT]ulu-)

susuto nurse a baby (PMc: *susu)

su-yapour water on (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tabaupper arm (of human), foreleg (of animal) (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

taba-(caca)single-handed, odd, having no match (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tabe, tabe-ato hold or carry in the hands (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tabetabethe bringing of food in baskets (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tabu·‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

taciyounger sibling of same sex (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

taci·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

tadra, tatadrato dream (PWMc: *sasana)

tagi, tagi-ca·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

tala, tala-caclear rubbish away (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

talirope, plait, interweave (PMc: *tali)

Fijian (240 / 342)

tama·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

tamoportion, section (PMc: *tapʷo)

tano-alarge wooden bowl for preparing kava (PMc: *tano-mi-)

tara, tara-vato follow (PWMc: *tare)

tauput down [of burden], lay one thing on another (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

[tau]-kuku·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

tavacut with a knife (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

tavoside, end, area (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

tavu, tavu-nabroil, roast on embers’, tavutavu ‘second burning of ground for planting’ (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

tavutavusecond burning of ground for planting (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

tebaa fighting iron axe (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

tiatiaa freshwater fish (PMc: *tia₂)

tina·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

tiridrip, drop (of liquids) (PMc: *Tiri)

tiro, tiro-valook at something reflected in water or a glass (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

toatwo kinds of fish (PMc: *tewe, tewe-mea)

tobupool of water, bathing hole (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

tokabe placed, situated, take a boat (PMc: *Toka)

tokalaunortheast wind (PMc: *tokolau)

tokito peck [of birds] (PMc: *toki)

Fijian (260 / 342)

tokoprop, stay, supporting pole’, doko ‘punting pole’ (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

tolu·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

toofilled, saturated with liquid, saturated (PMc: *Too)

tubuto grow (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

tukistrike at, knock at, hammer, pinch (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

tunu, tunu-ma, tunu-cato warm food up again (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

turudrip, drop [of liquids] (PMc: *turu)

tuu·‘to stand’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

tuube in a place (PMc: *tuu₂)

uasinew (PMc: *waka)

uavein, muscle (PMc: *ua₁)

uatide, wave (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

uca·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

uciherb Evodia, used in perfume (PMc: *uS[iu])

ucu·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

ucu, ucu-na·extract (showing metathesis) (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

uga·‘hermit crab’ (PMc: *wumʷa)

ulo·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

uluhead, top (PMc: *ulu)

uma‘trunk of a tree for making into a canoe’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

Fijian (280 / 342)

ura·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

usa, usa-a, usa-nacarry a cargo by boat (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

utoheart, pith of a tree (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

uvu, uvu-ca, uvu-sablow with the mouth (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

vaa·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

vaa, vaa-catread softly (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

vacu·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

vadra·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

[va]-geregere-[taka]to twist or shake the voice, sing tremolo (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

vai·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

[vaka]-too-racause to be saturated or filled (PMc: *Too)

vale·‘meeting house’ (PMc: *fale)

vanua·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

vara·‘core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)’ (PMc: *fara)

vasuchild of manʻs sister (PMc: *fa[sS]ua)

vatashelf (PMc: *fata)

vatu·‘stone’ (PMc: *fatu)

vau·‘hibiscus’ (PMc: *-fau)

vau, vau-ca·‘tie, bind’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

[vei]-mulomuloto wrestle or grapple together in earnest (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

Fijian (300 / 342)

veka, veka-ca·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

vetau, uvitaoCalysaccion tinctorum tree’ (PMc: *itau)

vica·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

viciko·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

vicovico·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

vidi, vidi-ka‘jump, spring, fly up’ (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

vitu·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

vokito shift, of the wind (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

vuato bear two burdens on the shoulder [one at each end of a stick]’, vua-ta ‘crop, harvest’ (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

vuafruit (PMc: *wuaa)

vua-tacrop, harvest (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

vucarotten (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

vudi·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

vukito change, turn, revolt (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

vuki-caturn (something) over (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

vulococonut cloth (PMc: *inu or *uni)

vunauadmonish, harangue, make a speech, preach (PMc: *fanau)

vusoto effervesce, froth (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

vuu·‘cough, to cough’ (PCMc: *pekopeko or *kopekope)

vuu-(na)·‘cause, beginning, basis’ (PMc: *pʷenu)

Fijian (320 / 342)

vuvu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

wakaroot (PMc: *waka, wakara)

walu·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

waqabox, case, cover (PMc: *waxa₁)

waqa·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

wasa, wasawasasea, ocean (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

waseto divide, separate (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wasewasedivision, partition (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

yaca·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

yaca, yaca-a‘to grate, grind’ (PMc: *a[sS]a)

yaga‘useful, valuable, necessary’ (PCMc: *amʷa)

yaga·‘spider shell (Strombidae) (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

yalo, yalo-va‘beckon’ (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

(ya)loŋa‘inside’ (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

yana‘to take anotherʻs goods without his consent’ (PMc: *aneane)

yanuca·‘small, uninhabited island’ (PMc: *anu[sS]a)

yara, yara-ka‘to haul, drag’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

yari, yari-a‘to scrape off the soft flesh of a drinking coconut with the thumb’ (PMc: *ari)

yatu·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

yava [na]‘foot, leg’ (PMc: *faa-)

Fijian (340 / 342)

yavi·‘pull up, take up’ (PMc: *pʷai, pʷai-ti)

yawadistant, far away (PCMc: *soa)

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