Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary


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7. Gilbertese (872) (Bingham 1908)

-a·‘him, her, it’ (object pronoun) (PMc: *-a)

-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

a-‘alienable object’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

a-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

a·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

aa‘the core base of the pandanus bunch’ (PMc: *fara)

aai·‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *afafi)

aa-i‘to tow’ (PMc: *afi₂)

aa-i‘to tow’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

aa-n-naŋthe atmosphere just below the clouds (PCMc: *faa-i-laŋi, faa-ni-laŋi)

aaŋato warm (something) (PCMc: *faŋi)

abea‘fish bait’ (PMc: *paa₁)

ae‘crawl’ (PMc: *ae₁)

ae‘this here, the one that’ (PMc: *ae₂)

ae‘driftwood’ (PCMc: *afe)

ae‘driftwood’ (PMc: *rae)

ae (rake)‘go ashore’ (PMc: *ae₁)

aeae-ato tow, drag (something) (PMc: *are, are-ki)

aeae-a‘to tow, drag (something)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

aeae-a‘a towing’ (PMc: *afi₂)

Gilbertese (20 / 872)

ae-katake (a passenger) ashore in a canoe, to take (food) from the fire’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

aera‘what ... doing?’ (PMc: *faiSa)

ai·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

ai-‘prefix to kin terms for ascending and descending relationships to indicate non-lineal connection’ (e.g., tina-u ‘my mother, my female relative one generation senior’ and ai-tina-u ‘my motherʻs or fatherʻs sister’) (PCMc: *fari-)

aia·‘firewood’ (PMc: *fafia)

ai-a, aiai-a‘to swing (something) round and round’ (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

aiai‘ribs of a craft’s hull’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

aiaki‘south’ (showing reduplication with loss of consonant in some roots with aCi) (PCMc: *raki)

ai-(baba)foolish (PCMc: *au-)

aiine·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

ai-(n-toa)powerful, of great muscular strength (PCMc: *au-)

aira·‘current’ (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

(a)-ka-(nne)‘those’ (cf. a-nne ‘that one’) (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

-aki-na‘transitive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

akuu(showing loss of *t when followed by *k) (PMc: *takuru)

amata·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

amʷa-(rake)‘food’ (PCMc: *amʷa)

amʷii‘full bunch or cluster’ (PCMc: *amʷii)

ana-(a)‘to take’ (PMc: *ala₂)

anaa‘a fish’ (PCMc: *fanaa)

Gilbertese (40 / 872)

ana-a‘to take or get (something)’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

ananaulength (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

anaulength (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

anau, ananaulong (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

ane‘live coral’ (PCMc: *ale)

aneneto sing (PMc: *alele)

anene-ato sing (a song, hymn, etc.) (PMc: *alele)

(a)-nimato bail out (a canoe) (PMc: *[ln]ima)

anna (<*ania)dry land (PMc: *fanua)

annan·‘to bail’ (PMc: *[fØ]ani[fØ]ani)

ano-ato beckon to (someone) (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

anoanoto beckon (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

anoanobeckoning (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

ano-i-(a)beckon him (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

(an)-tai·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

anti‘god, spirit, ghost’ (PMc: *anitu)

‘eight (in counting by twos) (PMc: *faŋi)

‘warm’ (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

aŋ, aaŋi-(bue)warm (PCMc: *faŋi)

aŋ, aŋi-·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

Gilbertese (60 / 872)

aŋa-(atai)right handed (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(bai)pass loads from hand to hand (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(maiŋ)left-handed (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(ni)give to (PMc: *faŋa)

aŋa-(ra)awkward (as when using the left hand) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋa-(ua)ambidextrous (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋo‘a tree (Bender et al. 1984: ‘Premna sp.’, yellow substance derived from its roots)’ (PMc: *aŋo)

ao·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

aopunting pole (PMc: *faxo)

aoaoto engage in propelling a canoe with a pole (PMc: *faxo)

aoao-ato propel (a canoe) with a pole (PMc: *faxo)

ao-(ataata)‘beach above the high water line’ (PMc: *aro-)

(ao)-ataatabeach above the high water line (PMc: *ata)

ao-kato deny or refuse (a request) (PCMc: *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka)

ao-mata·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

aoŋscraped coconut mixed with other food (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

aoŋseasoned with scraped coconut (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

aoŋo‘a jackfish (C. lugubria)’ (PMc: *aroŋo)

ara-‘pandanus’ (in variety names) (PMc: *faca)

ara-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

Gilbertese (80 / 872)

are‘who, which, that yonder’ (PMc: *ae₂)

are-(i-eta)upper set of teeth (PMc: *a[sS]e)

are-(i-nano)lower set of teeth (PMc: *a[sS]e)

ari‘gall, gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

ari‘coconut spathe’ (PCMc: *asi)

ari·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

ari-(a)to inhale a smoky inhalation; to perfume someone or something (PMc: *a[sS]u)

(arir)-aki‘pulled tight’ (arir-a ‘to pull something tight’) (PMc: *-aki)

aro‘way, manner, custom’ (PCMc: *faco)

aro, (te)-aroaro‘custom, way, manner’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

aro-ka‘cultivated plant’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

atato weave, braid (something) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

ata-aknow (something) (PMc: *ata-i-)

ataei‘child, children’ (PCMc: *atarei)

ata-ito know, have knowledge (PMc: *ata-i-)

a-(taŋa)‘mutual friendship’ (PMc: *fa-)

ata-(ŋa)an upper plank in a canoe (PMc: *ata)

ati·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

atiseed, stone heated for cooking (PMc: *fatu)

atiweave (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

Gilbertese (100 / 872)

ati-atifull of seeds (PMc: *fatu)

ati-(ibʷu)stone, coral stone’, ati-ati ‘full of seeds’ (PMc: *fatu)

ato(the o is unexpected) (PMc: *ate)

ato‘thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

ato, ato-(ni-marawa)·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

ato-ŋato utter, to say (something) (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

atuuhead (PCMc: *fatuku)

-au·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

aua‘a fish’ (PMc: *aua)

auauto engage in drawing forth (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

auaufishing by drawing out fish from holes in the rocks (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

auauengage in drawing forth (PMc: *wuti)

au-tadraw or pluck (something) out (PMc: *wuti)

baa‘midrib or mainstem of a coconut frond’ (PMc: *paa₂)

baa·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

baabaa‘surgeon fish (Acanthurus guttatus)’ (PMc: *parapara)

baakigone ashore (as a boat on the beach) (PMc: *pʷera)

babafoolish (PWMc: *pʷaipʷai)

bai, bai-(na)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

bakutop part of taro cut close to root for replanting (PMc: *paku)

Gilbertese (120 / 872)

baku-acut the neck of, behead (something) (PMc: *paku)

bane-awaa fish (Chanos chanos, formerly Mugil chanos), cultivated in fish pondsof canoe’) (PCMc: *pe[ln]e-awa)

bane-rikia kind of fish (PCMc: *pe[ln]e-awa)

baŋindistinct or side sight of a person passing by’, baŋ ‘pass without being distinctly seen (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

baŋakicrossed at right angles (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

baohouse with raised floor, platform, dais (PCMc: *pawo)

barara, barabara‘low (in height)’ (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

baroprovision box, overflow hole, hollow where water stays (PMc: *pʷaro)

bebe‘to stagger’ (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

bee-ito skim along (as a plate when thrown) (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

beia pile of stones on a flat (collected to trap fish) (PCMc: *pei)

bekadefecate (PMc: *peka)

bekaexcrement (PMc: *peka)

bekobeko·‘cough, to cough’ (PCMc: *pekopeko or *kopekope)

ben, beni-general term for a ripe coconut (PCMc: *peni)

benibenabounding in ripe coconuts (PCMc: *peni)

beo‘tangled, snarled’ (PWMc: *piko, piko-si)

beti‘section of the pandanus fruit from which the pulp has been removed by chewing (i.e., the discarded part)’ (PMc: *peti)

beti,beibeti·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

bia‘spawn, tumor, wen, gland, knob, excrescence, fish ovaries’ (PMc: *pia)

Gilbertese (140 / 872)

biatumor, wen (PMc: *piri)

bike‘white sand, sandy islet without vegetation’ (PMc: *pike)

biŋibiŋ‘Thespasia tree’ (PMc: *piŋipiŋi)

bira‘to braid (something, as hair or rope)’ (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

biri‘to run’ (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

boŋ, bʷoŋi-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

buroothe heart (a Mrs loan?) (PCMc: *pʷurua)

butu-ato push or press against (something)’ (loan from Sam putu, putuputu ‘be crowded’) (PMc: *pʷutu)

butubututo crowd (PMc: *pʷutu)

bʷa·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

bʷaacontinuous hard coral rock or ledge (PCMc: *pʷara)

bʷabʷua shark with flat snout (PCMc: *pʷapʷu)

bʷaithing, object (PCMc: *pʷai)

bʷaibʷaito have property (PCMc: *pʷai)

bʷai-nato make use of, posssess (something) (PCMc: *pʷai)

bʷairi·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

bʷaninthe whole, entire thing (PCMc: *pʷalili)

bʷaninbe whole or entire (PCMc: *pʷalili)

bʷaŋafish trap (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

bʷaŋahide in a hole (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

Gilbertese (160 / 872)

bʷaocrooked (PCMc: *pʷaro)

bʷaraloose, untied (PCMc: *pʷaca₁)

bʷaraa cap-like basket made of coconut leaf (but cf. PMc *pʷasau ‘basket’) (PCMc: *pʷaca₂)

bʷarai-(too)‘a small hat’ (but cf. PCMc *pʷaca₂ ‘kind of round basket’) (PMc: *pʷasau)

bʷata‘black, dark colored, sunburnt’ (PCMc: *pʷata)

bʷaua‘a fish’ (PCMc: *pʷaua)

(bʷe)-ariodor of smoke; odoriferous; fragrant from having been smoked [as in magic rites], scorched, having a scorched smell (PMc: *a[sS]u)

bʷebʷe·‘butterfly’ (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

bʷebʷe (sic)sprouting, budding (PMc: *pʷere)

bʷebʷee·‘twins’ (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

bʷena-a‘divide (something) in two parts, split (something)’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

bʷenabʷena‘to split’ (PCMc: *pʷelu)

-bʷiiunit of ten in counting (PWMc: *pʷiti)

bʷoiscent, odor, smell (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

bʷoito smell, have odor (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

bʷonreally, truly, indeed (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

bʷonoshut, closed, stopped, obstructed (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

bʷonosea wall (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

bʷono-tato cover, shut, close (PMc: *pʷalu)

bʷono-tato cover, shut, close (something) (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

Gilbertese (180 / 872)

bʷon-(ro)dark, rich soil, suitable for the cultivation of bwabai’ (ro ‘dark’, bwabai ‘plant … resembling taro’) (PCMc: *pʷalu)

bʷora·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

bʷotoa bulbous root (PCMc: *pʷoto)

bʷotohaving a bulb (PCMc: *pʷoto)

bʷua-kawage war, be tempestuous, stormy (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

bʷua-kawar (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

bʷua-kakabad, objectionable’ (with loss of *s before *k?) (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

bʷubʷu·‘trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

bʷubʷua·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

bʷubʷua‘knee or elbow joint’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

bʷuki‘base, butt-end, buttocks, tail, reason, cause, motive’ (PMc: *pʷuku)

bʷukito resound (PMc: *kumʷukumʷu)

bʷukibʷukito beat or throb (as the heart) (PMc: *kumʷukumʷu)

bʷun‘a bivalvular shellfish’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

bʷuŋ‘appear or come into existence, be born’ (PCMc: *piŋu, pʷuŋu)

bʷuŋgoing down, descending (PCMc: *pʷuŋ[iu])

bʷuŋibʷuŋbe long (of hair), flooding (after miscarriage), to set (of the sun) (PCMc: *pʷuŋ[iu])

bʷureto err, blunder, do wrong (PCMc: *pʷuce)

bʷuroto boil (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

bʷurobʷurofrothy, foamy, boiling (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

Gilbertese (200 / 872)

bʷurobʷurofoam, froth, bubbles (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

bʷutae·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

bʷuto, bʷuto-(na)·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

bʷutu‘a small weapon with a single shark’s tooth used by women’ (PMc: *pʷutu)

bʷuuarumen, sack, pocket, bag, throat, mouth (PCMc: *pʷurua)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

ebaebaa raft or float (PCMc: *epaepa)

eŋa‘variety of coral on flats that emits much color’ (PMc: *reŋa)

eri-a‘a spoon or scoop, to scoop up (something), take up with a spoon or scoop (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

i-·‘person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)’ (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

i-, n-(na)·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

ia‘vein’ (PMc: *ua₁)

iaa state of tide (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

iagrey hair (PMc: *wua, wuana)

i-aa·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

iaa·‘where?’ (PCMc: *iaa)

(i)-aa-(na), (i)-aa-(n)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

ia-bʷutibe high tide (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

iaiagrey-haired (PMc: *wua, wuana)

Gilbertese (220 / 872)

iakiakiact of struggling (as a child), great activity in work, to struggle to free oneself, to be in spasms, to strike again and again on a shoal, to pound (PCMc: *fitaki)

iaŋoconsideration, deliberation (PMc: *fiaŋo)

iaŋoto reflect, consider, ponder, meditate (PMc: *fiaŋo)

iaŋo-ato think about, consider, ponder, meditate on (something) (PMc: *fiaŋo)

(i)-ao-(na)‘on top of it, on it’ (PMc: *fawo)

ibe-ato break (something) open (as a coconut) (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ibeibeengage in breaking up or open (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

iea sail (PCMc: *yuwe)

ie, ieieto sail (PCMc: *yuwe)

ie-ato sail for or to (a place) (PCMc: *yuwe)

ie-aki-nato sail (a craft) (PCMc: *yuwe)

iee-ato deceive, mislead (someone) (PCMc: *riea)

ieinbe married (PWMc: *rii)

ieinmarriage, married state (PWMc: *rii)

(i)-etaup, on high, above (PMc: *ata)

ii-a‘to grate, grind’ (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

iika, (te)-ika, ika-(ni-)·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

ii-(na)one (counting divisions of pandanus) (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

ikapound or mash (food) (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

i-ka-ihere (PCMc: *i-ka-)

Gilbertese (240 / 872)

ika-ni-bʷoŋa kind of fish (PCMc: *ika-ni-pʷoŋi)

i-ka-nnethere (not far) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

i-ke-keiyonder (PCMc: *i-ka-)

ikiikuto engage in mashing breadfruit (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

ikiikustone pestle (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

iko-ta‘bring together, collect, gather (something)’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

iku-amash it (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

(i)-mʷii-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

imʷu-naia fish (PCMc: *wumʷu-lau)

inafish scale, cataract of the eye (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

inai‘kind of fish’ (PCMc: *ulafi)

inainascaly (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

(i)-nano-(na)‘in it, inside of it (PMc: *lalo₂)

ino·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

fibrous, porous envelope at the base of the coconut leaf or frond (PMc: *inu or *uni)

iŋi-(eta)‘dorsal fin’ (PMc: *iŋi)

iŋu, iŋiiŋuroar (as distant thunder) (PCMc: *iŋu, iŋuiŋu)

ira‘a pandanus leaf for braiding, a hair’ (PCMc: *fica)

ira-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

irato accompany, go with (someone) (PMc: *fiSi)

Gilbertese (260 / 872)

ire-ato rub or wash (something) (PMc: *us[ei])

ire-ato rub, wash (something) (PCMc: *iso)

ire-(ai)make fire by rubbing sticks (PCMc: *iso)

ire-(ai)process of producing fire (ai) by rubbing two sticks together (PMc: *us[ei])

ireireto rub, wash (PCMc: *iso)

irito go in company (PMc: *fiSi)

iriko·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

iroto ignite (PCMc: *iso)

(i)-rou-(na)‘with, by, on account of him’ (PMc: *Soru-)

itai·Callophyllum inophyllum (PMc: *itau)

i-(tau)‘to box, to fight with the fists’ (PMc: *fi-)

(i)-tauto box, to fight with the fists (PCMc: *tou)

iti‘lightning’ (PMc: *fiti)

itiused up, consumed, all gone (PWMc: *rota)

iti-, itu-ua, iti-ua·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

ito‘very light driftwood’ (PCMc: *iTo)

itoi·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

ka-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

kaai.·‘heron’ (PCMc: *karau)

kaakaa‘a bird’ (PMc: *karakara)

Gilbertese (280 / 872)

(ka)-amathe constellation Southern Cross (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

kaannear, close to (PCMc: *karani)

kaani-ato approach (someone or something) (PCMc: *karani)

(ka)-aŋaaŋadifficult to do (PMc: *aŋa₁)

kaa-rascrape, cut with a draw knife, grave or groove (something) (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

kaari-(a)‘scratch it, scrape it’ (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kaa-ri-(a)scrape it (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

kabi·‘bottom, butt end’ (PMc: *kapi)

kabi-raanointing oil, to anoint (someone) (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

kabi-ri-aanoint him/her (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

kabʷubʷu.·‘dull’ (PCMc: *kapʷu, kakapʷu)

kaibe in trouble, in straits, in difficulty (PCMc: *kari)

kaieasily, without difficulty, soon, readily (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kai-betidriftwood (PCMc: *kai-peti)

kai-(na)pandanus tree (the important food tree historically) (PMc: *kayu)

kaina-(matoa)‘implaccable’ (PMc: *kaila)

kai-(ni-)(in compounds) stick for (PMc: *kayu)

kairaa‘a fish’ (PCMc: *kausaa)

kaka‘a kind of bird’ (PMc: *kaka₂)

kakaŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

Gilbertese (300 / 872)

kaka-(rabakau)‘conspire, plot insurrection’ (showing *t to k after *k) (PMc: *kata)

kakari‘to sew or tie on thatch’ (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

(ka)-koo-(a)fasten (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

(ka)-ma-ibacause (something) to be broken (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

(kama)-kerukerugrind the teeth’ (presumably a loan from a Polynesian source) (PMc: *karu)

(ka-ma)-tana-ato loosen, slacken (something) (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

-kamiiyou (plural object) (PCMc: *kamii)

kamʷ·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

(ka)-mʷaie-(a)induce (someone) to engage in worldly pleasure or sport (PCMc: *mʷaire)

kannearly, almost, soon (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kan, kaniwant to, wish to (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kanaeat (something) (PMc: *kana, kani)

kana-(na)his food (PMc: *kana, kani)

kanawa‘a tree’ (PMc: *kanawa)

kann-a (<*kani-a)eat it (PMc: *kana, kani)

kanoaengage in twisting strands (PCMc: *kalo)

kanoa-ato twist (strands of rope) together (PCMc: *kalo)

(ka)-nua (sic)to overshadow or shade (something) (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

kaŋeat (things, plural of kana) (PMc: *kaŋi)

kaŋkaŋpalatable, tasty (PMc: *kaŋi)

Gilbertese (320 / 872)

kao‘umbilical cord’ (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

(ka)-oŋo-ainform (PMc: *roŋo)

karaithread (PMc: *lawa)

(ka)-raŋ‘flattery, engage in flattery’ (PCMc: *caŋi)

karauto rain (PCMc: *kacawu)

karaurain-water, rain (PCMc: *kacawu)

karawa‘sky’ (PMc: *kacawa)

kareengage in throwing (PCMc: *kace)

kare-athrow (something) (PCMc: *kace)

(ka)-rina‘cause (something) to enter’ (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

ka-ruru-amake (something) shake (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

(ka)-taba-ato give way, to turn aside to let another pass (PCMc: *tape₂)

ka-tabataba-ato call (a bird) for ensnaring (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

(ka)-tabe-ato divert one from what he is doing, to interrupt (PCMc: *tape₂)

(ka)-taŋitaŋto cause to cry (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

katea·‘lee side of a sailing canoe’ (PMc: *katea)

ka-uaethe root of a tooth (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

kauki·‘white sand crab or ghost crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

ka-unuuncontinue to provoke anger (PMc: *maawunu)

kautu‘top part of a tree, a chief of high rank’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

Gilbertese (340 / 872)

kawa-(riki)‘a fish’ (PMc: *kawa-, kawakawa)

keniken‘dig’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kerumake a gnawing sound (PMc: *karu)

ki (sic)go (PMc: *ki, kiki)

kiakia‘a bird’ (PCMc: *kiakia)

kiaro·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kie·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

kiebʷu‘a lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

kiika·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kiima, (te)-kima·‘tridachna clam’ (PMc: *kima)

ki-(mai)come here (PMc: *ki, kiki)

kinanicked, marred, defaced (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

kina-arecognize, know (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kina-i-(a)recognize him (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kinakadisease of the skin, be afflicted with this disease’ (*t > k after k) (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

kini-ka, kinikini-ka‘to nip (something)’ (*t > k after k) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinoŋoant (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

kio-iburn furiously with leaping flames (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

kirikiri‘fine gravel’ (PMc: *kisi)

ki-(wati)stand away, give place (PMc: *ki, kiki)

Gilbertese (360 / 872)

(ko nako) maiayou come from where? (PCMc: *maia)

ko-, ŋ-koe(vocative and independent pronoun) (PMc: *ko-, koe)

koato scrape (a coconut) with a shell (PMc: *koyi)

koikoibivalve shell used in scraping food (PMc: *koyi)

konacan, be able (PCMc: *kona)

kona‘a catch’ (Bender et al. 1984) (PMc: *kona)

ko-na (sic)cord or twine made of coconut fiber (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

kona-(a)be able to do (PCMc: *kona)

koofirmly bound (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

koracoconut fiber rope (PCMc: *koca)

kora-nthread or fiber of a coconut husk (PCMc: *koca)

kore-ato cut something (PMc: *koco₁)

koro‘stick for husking coconuts’ (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

koroaground, stranded (PCMc: *koso)

koro-(atuu)engage in hair cutting’ (atuu ‘head’) (PMc: *koco₁)

korokoroengage in cutting (PMc: *koco₁)

koro-(ubu)‘unripe’ (PMc: *koco₂)

kuaa whale (PCMc: *kua)

kuna bird (PMc: *kulu)

kun, kuni-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

Gilbertese (380 / 872)

kunikunabounding in such birds (PMc: *kulu)

kuu, (te)-kuu-(beibeti)any of several species of squirrel fish (Holocentrus) (PCMc: *kuu)

ma‘with, and others’ (PMc: *ma)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maai, (te)-mai·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

ma-akafear (someone) (PMc: *ma-taku)

ma-akuafraid (with loss of *t before *k) (PMc: *ma-taku)

ma-amamoonlight, be moonlight (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

maamaa‘ashamed, abashed’ (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

maata, (te)-mata, mata-(na), mata-(ni)·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

maataata‘open, cleared (as land), roomy, clear’ (PMc: *maata, maataata)

maawaa goatfish (Purupeneus trifasciatus) (PMc: *maawa)

mai·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

(ma)-ibibroken (as something brittle) (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ma-ibibroken piece (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

(mai)-niku‘east’ (i.e., ocean side) (PMc: *liku)

maiŋleft handed (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

maiulife (showing metathesis) (PMc: *mauri)

maiube alive, live, be in comfortable condition of mind or body’ (PMc: *mauri)

ma-kanakana‘easily broken, not firm, weak, frail’ (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

Gilbertese (400 / 872)

maki‘shriveled and dried up (as a leaf), barely burning, nearly extinguished (of a fire)’ (PMc: *maki)

makuaa full spring tide (PCMc: *makua)

makuabe a full spring tide (PCMc: *makua)

mam‘fresh water’ (PMc: *mami)

mananimal, bird (PMc: *manu)

man (sic)Canopus (Bender et al. 1984) (PCMc: *manu)

ma-nawa‘pit of the stomach’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

maneworn out, worn thin (PMc: *malala)

mani-(nn-ara)mosquito (PMc: *manu)

man-(ni-kiba)bird (PMc: *manu)

mano·‘waterproof, not leaky’ (PCMc: *mano)

manuokato forget (something) (PCMc: *maluoki, maluoka)

ma-ŋaiŋaibe ragged (as an old garment) (PCMc: *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari)

maŋiŋintoxicated (PCMc: *maŋiŋi)

maŋiŋi-(a)treat as intoxicated (PCMc: *maŋiŋi)

maŋo‘fontanel’ (PMc: *maŋo)

maŋu, maŋumaŋu‘glossy and smooth (as oiled hair)’ (PMc: *maŋu)

maohealed (as a wound) (PMc: *mawo)

maoko·‘a fish’ (PCMc: *maoko)

ma-ono·‘perspiration’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

Gilbertese (420 / 872)

mara‘soft (as an animal shedding its skin), wet, moist, bald’ (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mara‘bald’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

maraara (sic, <*ma-araara?)low conversation at a little distance (PCMc: *[mmʷ]a-asaasa)

ma-rai‘kernel of coconut in its soft state, white of an egg, having a soft kernel’ (PMc: *ma-cai)

maraki·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

maran‘straight (as the hair)’ (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

ma-raurau·‘soft’ (PMc: *ma-caucau)

ma-rawa·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

marei·‘hiccough’ (PMc: *maSeru)

mari‘abundant, plentious (as fruit)’ (PMc: *masu)

(ma)-riri‘feel cold’ (but see Sam lili ‘shiver, tremble’ from which it may be a loan) (PMc: *cici)

maririfeel cold, be cold (PMc: *maci, macici)

mariricold, coldness (PMc: *maci, macici)

maro-(a)‘food, refreshment’ (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mata-aothe nearer side (PCMc: *mata-aro)

(ma)-tanabe slack (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

mataŋapancreas (PWMc: *mʷata[ŋØ]ala)

mate·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

ma-tenthick (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

ma-tententhickness (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

Gilbertese (440 / 872)

mati-naba‘three stars in a line in Capricorn’ (Bender et al. 1984) (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

mati-rikia star (PCMc: *mati-ciki)

ma-toa, ma-toatoa‘firm, hard’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

matuu·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

maua‘the spouting hole or nostril of the sperm whale’ (PMc: *maura)

mawa‘out of breath through weariness’ (PMc: *mawa)

mawawa(probably *ma-awaawa) green (PMc: *ma-rawa)

(me)-aaŋ·‘north’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

meameayellow (PMc: *mera, meera)

memeastained yellow by juice of green coconut husk (PMc: *mera, meera)

mena‘thing’ (PMc: *meña)

menaabide, dwell (PCMc: *meña)

mena-a‘to do (something)’ (PMc: *meña-a)

mma-nii·‘thin, flimsy’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

-mʷ, -mʷmʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷa (sic)exclamation of dissatisfaction and surprise (PMc: *mʷaa)

mʷaaneman (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷaanemale (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷaane-(na)his/her sibling of opposite sex (PMc: *mʷaane)

Gilbertese (460 / 872)

mʷaaudry (PMc: *marewu)

mʷaau·‘thirsty’ (PMc: *marewu)

mʷae·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷaibe cooked (PCMc: *mʷau)

mʷaieworldly pleasure, dissipation’ (a missionary’s disapproving gloss) (PCMc: *mʷaire)

mʷaieengage in worldly pleasure (PCMc: *mʷaire)

mʷai-raoi (? < *mʷaira-raoi)well cooked (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

mʷakuriwork (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

mʷanoindented, having a hollow, depressed (PMc: *mawolo)

mʷanonosmall depression or pit (PMc: *mawolo)

mʷa-nuu‘a joint (as the elbow)’ (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

(mʷa)-ŋaiŋai‘contend noisely with words’ (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

(mʷa)-otobroken (as a stick) (PCMc: *woTo)

mʷaraahaving a hairlip, be disgusted or shocked at the sight of something (PCMc: *mʷacaya)

mʷarosink, founder, go down (as food) (Bingham) or.. (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʷaroosink, founder, go down (as food) (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʷaroroto subside, to lull (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʷata‘worm’ (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷatie·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷeau‘arrive late, come slowly, move slowly’ (PCMc: *mʷea[wØ]u)

Gilbertese (480 / 872)

mʷee‘to sleep’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

mʷemʷe, mʷeme (sic)to dream (PMc: *mʷoe)

mʷoa‘first’ (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷomʷoka, mkabe decayed, rotten (PCMc: *mʷoka)

mʷomʷoto‘a fish’ (PCMc: *mʷoTo)

mʷona fish (Myripristis adustus, M. murdjan) (PMc: *mʷonu)

mʷona fish (Myripristis ?) (PWMc: *mʷuno)

mʷoti‘decided’, mwoti-ka ‘decide, terminate (something)’ (PMc: *mʷotu)

mʷoti‘broken off’ (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷoti-kadecide, terminate (something) (PMc: *mʷotu)

mʷumʷuta·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

-na·‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

-na·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

naaloose rocks or stones on a flat (PCMc: *laxa)

naaŋo, (te)-naŋo·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

naati, nati-na, natinati·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

nabaalso, too, in addition (PMc: *lapa)

nakarathe star Regulus (Bender et al. 1984) (PWMc: *laka)

nako·‘go, proceed, (as directional) away’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

(nako mai) ee‘(come here) by me’ (PMc: *ee)

Gilbertese (500 / 872)

nama‘lagoon, lake’ (PMc: *lama₂)

namato enter a snare noose (as a bird) (PCMc: *ñama)

namʷo·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nanai‘relishable’ (PMc: *ñañau)

nanama‘to taste or test the flavor of (something)’ (but see PMc *ñaña, ñañaña ‘taste, flavor’) (PMc: *ñama)

nana-ma‘to taste or test the taste of (food)’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nano·‘deep’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

nanoua‘homesick’ (PMc: *laloua)

naŋcloud (PMc: *laŋi)

naŋinaŋbe cloudy (PMc: *laŋi)

naŋo-(a)something put under as a protection or rest, a base (PMc: *laŋo₂)

naŋo-(a)to place a rest or protection under (something) (PMc: *laŋo₂)

nao·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nei-‘female, woman (with demonstrative suffixes) (PWMc: *lia-)

nei, (te)-neineia fresh water pool or pond (PMc: *lau)

nei-.·‘feminine prefix (with personal names of women)’ (PCMc: *n[ae]i-)

neineibe liquid, fluid (PMc: *lau)

nenefirm, immovable, fixed, steady (of wind) (PCMc: *lele)

nenerainquire carefully (about something), search out (something) (PCMc: *lelesa)

newetongue (PMc: *lewe)

Gilbertese (520 / 872)

newe-ato lick (something) with the tongue (PMc: *lewe)

ni-·‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *li-)

-ni·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

nibʷa‘post hole, small pit or bed for Cyrtosperma’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

nii, nii-·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

niki-rafood for guests (i.e., food that is given away) (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

niki-ra-(n-roro)unmarried woman (lit. ‘left-over of a generation’) (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

nikotrigger of a gun (PCMc: *liko)

nima-, nima-ua, nii-manfive (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

ni-ma, nini-mato drink (something) (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

nima-bʷii, nima-ŋaunfifty (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

nimʷnimʷsticky (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

nimʷ-(rona)covered with sea moss (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

nini-maa drink (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

nini-raroll (something) up (PMc: *lulu)

niniraa wrapper, loose garment worn over the shoulders (PCMc: *[ln]usi-)

(ni)-ŋai,(ni)-ŋai-ra (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

niŋoniŋo‘insect that chirps at night’ (Bender et al. 1984) (PMc: *liŋoliŋo)

nira, ninirato roll (something) up (PCMc: *[ln]usi-)

nn-a (<*ni-a, *nni-a)to lower (something) (PMc: *lulu)

Gilbertese (540 / 872)

nne-‘place for’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

noko‘midrib of the smaller divisions of a coconut frond’ (PMc: *noko)

non·‘Morinda citrifolia (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

nooto look on, witness (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

noo-rato see (something) (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

noo-ri-(a)see it (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

nou‘a fish’ (PMc: *nowu)

(nta)-banibani, (ta)-banibanisea slug (PCMc: *panipani)

nua-i‘be satisfied, have eaten enough’ (PCMc: *lua)

nukuma‘to fold or wrap up (something); a package (PCMc: *lukuma)

numbe folded (of arms or wings) (Eastman 1948) (PMc: *lumi)

nuube shady (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nuushade (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nuuka, nuuka-(na)middle, lower waist, its middle (PCMc: *luuka)

-ŋaathousand (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋae-ameasure (something) by fathoms (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋai·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

(ŋa)-ia·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

(ŋa)-iia, -ia·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

(ŋa)-ira·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

Gilbertese (560 / 872)

ŋaŋauunable to restrain one’s desire, eating without waiting for others (PWMc: *li-ŋaŋari)

ŋarelaugh (PCMc: *ŋace)

ŋare-aki-nilaugh at (PCMc: *ŋace)

ŋarothe gum (PMc: *ŋaco)

ŋaroŋarotoothless (PMc: *ŋaco)

-ŋaun·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

ŋauŋau‘to eat voraciously’ (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

ŋauŋaueat voraciously (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋea·‘ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)’ (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

ŋeeŋee‘scraped’ (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

ŋii(archaic, Bender et al. 1984) (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋio, ŋioŋiobe dizzy (PCMc: *ŋixo)

ŋirato groan, moan (PMc: *ŋuse)

ŋiraŋirato groan (audibly or in spirit) (PCMc: *ŋisa)

(ŋ)-kamiiyou (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

(ŋkoa)-nanoa·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

ŋoo‘to murmur or complain in a low voice (PCMc: *ŋoro)

ŋoosubdued complaint, murmuring (PCMc: *ŋoro)

ŋooŋootalk sub voce (PCMc: *ŋoro)

ŋure‘to complain, murmur’ (PMc: *ŋuse)

Gilbertese (580 / 872)

ŋureŋure‘murmuring, complaining, subdued groaning’ (PMc: *ŋuse)

obʷobe broken off, broken in strength, decrepit (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

obʷo-radestroy, desolate, devastate, damage (something) (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

oka‘rafter (of a house)’ (showing loss of *t before k) (PMc: *toka₂)

oka-a‘to cut off (pandanus fruit) with a blade fastened to a stick’ (showing loss of *t before k) (PMc: *toka₁)

oki‘chisel’ (showing loss of *t before k) (PMc: *toki)

okito return (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

okiokifrequent returning (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

oki-rato return to (a place) (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

on, oni-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

one-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

oni-ka, onioni-ka‘to change (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oni-ki-(a)to change it (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oŋi-rato blow (the nose) (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

oŋi-rawring (something) (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

oŋi-ri-(a)wring it (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

oŋohear, obey (PMc: *roŋo)

oo‘fish gills’ (PMc: *woro₁)

oo‘fence’ (PMc: *woro₂)

ooko, (te)-oko(showing loss of *t before k) (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

Gilbertese (600 / 872)

oo-ŋaswallow (something) (PCMc: *woro-)

oora, (te)-ora·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

oraora, ora-(ia)·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

ore-ato hit, strike (someone) (PMc: *wece or *woco)

oroto strike, hit (PMc: *wece or *woco)

oroa hit, blow (PMc: *wece or *woco)

orooroa repeated striking (PMc: *wece or *woco)

ote-ato fold (something) (PCMc: *woTo)

otootoengage in breaking or folding (PCMc: *woTo)

oto-(ua-a)break (something) in two (PCMc: *woTo)

pakoa·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

-ra·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

raawhat (something)?’ (follows the noun) (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

raa‘what?’ (follows noun) (PMc: *Safa)

raawhat? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

raai‘to twist and tangle easily (as a thread or line) (PMc: *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-)

raai (sic)twist and tangle easily (PCMc: *cafifi)

raaŋato flow, to run as rain water (PCMc: *[sS]aaŋa)

ra-(baba)broad (PCMc: *ca-)

(ra)-bababroad (PMc: *papa)

Gilbertese (620 / 872)

raba-(kau)skillful, dexterous, knowing and ready (PCMc: *sapa)

rabʷono(with metathesis of r and n) eel (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

rae-a‘in disorder, disarranged’ (PMc: *[sS]aa)

rae-ato tear (something) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

rae-ato tear (something) (PMc: *sae)

rae-(bae-a)strip a coconut tree of its fronds (PMc: *sae)

rae-(bitia)to tear (something) in pieces (PMc: *sae)

raeraeengage in stripping (as fronds from a tree) (PMc: *sae)

rai‘flat board’ (PMc: *cau)

rai-ato spread over (something) (PCMc: *cai)

ra-(itiiti)‘glitter’ ([te]-iti ‘lightning’) (PCMc: *ca-)

rakaicoral shoal in lagoon, reef (PCMc: *cakai)

rakai‘reef’ (PMc: *sakau)

-rake·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

rakerake‘to spread about (as an odor)’ (PCMc: *cai)

raku·‘needlefish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

rama‘outrigger’ (PMc: *Sama)

ramʷa‘forehead, gable end’ (PMc: *camʷa)

ranfresh water, sap (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

ranranjuicy, full of sap (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

Gilbertese (640 / 872)

raŋa, raŋa-(na)leg, thigh, his leg (PMc: *Saŋa)

raŋa-tato hasten (someone), make (someone) walk fast (PCMc: *caŋa)

raŋa-timove fast (PCMc: *caŋa)

rao-(na)his companion, friend (PCMc: *cao)

raraa·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

rarai‘sulky’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

raraisection of a bunch of bananas (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

raranleaky (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

rarauswoon (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

rarau-(aki)‘be satisfied, have enough food’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

raroaremote, distant (PCMc: *soa)

raucomfortable, quiet, undisturbed (PCMc: *sawu)

rau-(aki)satisfied, having had enough food (PCMc: *sawu)

rau-(tari)rinse off salt water (PCMc: *soa)

rawa‘to refuse’ (PMc: *cawa)

rawa‘channel to a lagoon or harbor’ (PMc: *sawa)

rawa-tawounded (PCMc: *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta)

rawa-taa wounded one (PCMc: *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta)

reke‘chum, close friend’ (PMc: *-Seke)

ren‘a tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

Gilbertese (660 / 872)

rere‘to dart quickly’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

rereba‘a young jack (Caranx)’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

ria‘a lip’ (PMc: *cia)

ria.·‘lips’ (PCMc: *sia-)

riba-a‘hate or dislike (something)’ (PMc: *sipa)

rii, rii-·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

(rii)-nabaspine, backbone’ (lit. ‘main bone’) (PMc: *lapa)

rii-ŋa‘to feel of (something), handle, touch’ (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

ri-ka‘wooden needle for netting’ (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

riki‘again, in addition, more (following an adjective, as in the Eng. suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *siki)

riko-a, rikoriko-a‘pick up’ (PMc: *[sS]iko)

rimwaridge at the side of a plank caused by its having a greater thickness than the adjoining plank (PMc: *cimʷe)

rimwabe thicker than the adjoining plank (PMc: *cimʷe)

ri-(mʷii)to go after, go behind, go later (PMc: *[sS]i-)

rimʷii-(maata)‘Cor Scorpionis (Antares), summer’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

ri-(mʷoa)to go before, go first (PMc: *[sS]i-)

rin, rini-‘dried coconut leaf’ (PMc: *sulu)

rinalarvae from which lice spring (PWMc: *sili)

rinana row, rank, line (PMc: *Sali)

rinanstand in a row or line (PMc: *Sali)

Gilbertese (680 / 872)

riŋiriŋeaves (PCMc: *siŋ[iu])

(ri)-ŋooŋoo·‘to snore’ (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

-riodownard, westward (PMc: *siwo)

ririŋa‘clear sunlight, sunshine, to shine brightly’ (PMc: *siŋa)

roa-acatch (a fish) with rod and line (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

roko·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

roko‘come, arrive’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

roo‘be dark’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *roco)

roorooto be at anchor, to anchor (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

rourouto dig up taro (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

rou-tato dig (something) up (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

rua‘pit, grave’ (PMc: *[sS]ua)

rua-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

ru-ato change, alter, take the place of (someone) (PMc: *cucu)

rua-i-uanine (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

ruku-maa package (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

ruku-ma, ruku-mi-(a)to fold or wrap (something) up, fold or wrap it up (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

ruodescend, come or go down (PMc: *siwo)

rurushake, tremble (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

ruru, rurururuto tremble (PMc: *cucu)

Gilbertese (700 / 872)

taa‘a fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

taabaknife (PCMc: *taapa)

taabato pare (something), whittle, scrape (PCMc: *taapa)

taaisun (PMc: *tau₂)

taa-nabe enamored of, like (something) (PCMc: *taa, taa-ni)

taari, -tari·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

taawa·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

taawa-i‘ashamed because of failure to succeed’ (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

taba‘a fish’ (PMc: *tapa₁)

taba-ka‘to snap at (someone, as a dog), kick (at someone, as a horse)’ (PMc: *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i)

taba-(na)‘his cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

tabebusy, engaged, employed (PCMc: *tape₁)

tabethe state of being employed (PCMc: *tape₁)

tabe-kato lift or take (something) up in the hands (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tabe-ki-(a)lift it up (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tabetabeto engage in carrying, carry repeatedly (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

taboend (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

tabo-(ni-bai)finger (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

tabʷakeakind of turtle with brilliant shell (PCMc: *tapʷakea)

tabʷo‘place’ (PMc: *tapʷo)

Gilbertese (720 / 872)

tabʷube taboo, forbidden, sacred (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

tabʷua taboo (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

taeextracted, drawn out (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

taestripped, extracted, drawn out, defeated (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

tae-(bʷoto)be uprooted (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

tae-ki-(a)root it up, tear it up (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

(ta)-erieri‘be smarting, stinging’ (ta- ‘of its own accord’) (PMc: *[fØ]eci[fØ]eci)

-tai‘negative imperative aspect marker’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

taiin due time (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₁)

taitime, season, harvest (PMc: *tau₂)

tai-masharpen (something) (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

tai-mi-(a)sharpen it (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

tai-ŋawait for (someone) (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

takatakacopra (PWMc: *takaka)

takatakabe very dry (as the kernel of a ripe coconut) (PWMc: *takaka)

tama-(na)his father (PMc: *tama)

tanto turn (PMc: *tali)

tan-, tani-at the facing side (of an island), facing (hither or away) (with directional suffixes) (PCMc: *tali-)

tanato wind sennit on the left hand (PMc: *tali)

tanai‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

Gilbertese (740 / 872)

tana-ra‘to loose (another’s hold), take off (ornaments after the dance) (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

tane‘clear, distinct’ (PCMc: *tale)

taniŋa·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

tanna (<*tania)sauce, relish, appetizer (PCMc: *talia)

tannaba-a‘to wind (something) up (as fishline)’ (PCMc: *talilapa)

tano‘earth, soil’ (PMc: *tano)

tantan‘spotted (as the skin)’ (PMc: *tanitani)

taŋ, taŋitaŋcry (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

taŋiiyellow-fin tuna (PMc: *taŋiri)

taŋi-radesire, cry for (something) (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

tao-(n)‘to engage in, go at, begin upon’ (PCMc: *taro)

tao-na‘press (something) down, control (something)’ (PMc: *ta[wØ]o, ta[wØ]o-ni)

tara-a (? < *taa-ra)to look at, behold (something) (PMc: *tara, tara-[sS]i)

#taratarabe awake, to behold (PMc: *tara, tara-[sS]i)

tari-‘sibling of same sex’ (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

taua fish (PCMc: *tawu or *co[wØ]a-)

tau (? tauu)triton conch, trumpet shell (PMc: *tawui)

tau-ato seize, grasp, hold back, retain, hold (something) (PCMc: *tawu₃)

tau-nato bury (something) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

tautauto bury (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

Gilbertese (760 / 872)

tautauengage in holding or retaining (PCMc: *tawu₃)

tauti‘a fish’ (PMc: *tautu)

te-, te-(uana)·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

te-a, tete-ato smooth (something) off, remove roughness from (something), trim (PCMc: *-Te-i-, -Te-a)

(te-a)-nimabailer (PMc: *[ln]ima)

te-bʷon, bʷoni-black soil, loam which has been sifted (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

(te-bʷuki-ni)-kuaa constellation’ (Bender et al. 1984) (PCMc: *kua)

tebʷu-(ruru)to spatter (as heavy raindrops) (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

teistand (PMc: *tuu₁)

(te-ika)-maawaparrotfish (Scarus pectoralis) (PMc: *maawa)

tei-(rake)stand up (PMc: *tuu₁)

(te-kaira)-babaa board used as temporary platform or seat in a canoe (PMc: *papa)

(te-ki)-ai-ai‘a tree’ (PMc: *-fau)

teni-, tenu-(ua), teni-(ua)·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

te-ŋaafathom (PMc: *ŋafa)

(te-tai)-namʷo‘mosquito net’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

tewe·‘goatfish’ (PMc: *tewe, tewe-mea)

ti-.·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

tia-‘expert’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *tawu-₁)

tia‘a fish’ (PMc: *tia₂)

Gilbertese (780 / 872)

tiaa. Cf. Chk kiyá, kiyáá-(n)‘boundary, boundary of’ (PCMc: *tiaa)

tibʷu-(na)‘his grandparent, his grandchild’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

tii‘spurt, spout’ (PMc: *Tiri)

tina-(na)‘his mother’ (PMc: *tina)

(tina)-niku-asit or stand in front of (someone), ignore (one who was once a friend) (PWMc: *fa-liku, fa-liku-ri-)

tini-mato broil (coconut), to fry (something) (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

tintinto roast, broil (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

tiŋ, tiŋi-·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

tiri‘pandanus shoot for planting’ (PCMc: *tici)

tirisimply, merely, only, just (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

tiro-ainspect or examine (something) carefully (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

titirakito question, make inquiry (PMc: *tiSaki)

titirakia question, an inquiry (PMc: *tiSaki)

toaall provided with, fully supplied (PMc: *to[ae])

toatoa‘having four sides’ (PCMc: *Toa or *Towa)

toŋo·‘mangrove’ (PMc: *toŋo)

too‘lazy’ (PCMc: *Too)

too-mato taste of, to sip (something) (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

tootoo‘the perpendicular sticks on an outrigger (connecting float to boom)’ (PMc: *TooToo)

tou‘fruit of the pandanus (chewed like sugarcane) (PMc: *towu)

Gilbertese (800 / 872)

toutouto dodge to one side (as the head) (PCMc: *tou)

toutou-ato ward off (PCMc: *tou)

tuaino longer (PCMc: *t[ou]wai)

tuu‘to trickle’ (PMc: *turu)

-u·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

ua-, uo-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

uaa, uaa-(na)‘fruit, its fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

ua-(aki)to be engaged in dragging or towing (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

(ua)-aŋaambidextrous (PMc: *aŋa₁)

(ua)-iakitwenty in counting fish and rolls of dried pandanus paste (PCMc: *-itaki)

ua-(kaakaa)be burdened with many packages (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

(ua)-kai‘two fishhooks’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

(ua)-ŋiiŋii, (bi)-ŋiiŋiivery small (PWMc: *niŋi)

(ua)-rereke‘small’ (PMc: *ciki)

ua-(roko)gift or present brought as to a chief (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

ua-(ruruŋ)shifting of a cargo (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

ua-(tou)engage in carrying pandanus fruit (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

uaua‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

ubʷapart of the upper breast over the sternum (PMc: *wupʷa)

ubʷa-(ete)suffer from dyspepsia (PMc: *wupʷa)

Gilbertese (820 / 872)

ubʷusofter end of a green coconut (PMc: *wupʷu)

ubʷube in the early stage of development as a fruit (PMc: *wupʷu)

ubʷu-(rake)too forward, rude in approach (PCMc: *wupʷu-₂)

ubʷuubʷusoft and tender as a sprout (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

ubʷuubʷuthe tender germ top of a coconut tree (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

ueeflower (PMc: *wuaa)

uki‘to begin to blow after a calm’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

uko-ra, ukouko-ra‘to look for (something)’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-Si-)

umʷuumʷ, umʷu-na·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

unbe angry, fight’ and ka-unuun ‘continue to provoke anger’ (PMc: *maawunu)

uni-(mʷaane), unn-(aiine)‘old man, old woman, elder’ (PMc: *ulu)

uniŋa·‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

-uŋ‘bunch of pandanus fruit (in counting)’ (PMc: *wuŋu)

uo-tato carry (something), something carried (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

uo-ta-naengage in carrying (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

uoua·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

uouaengage in carrying a child (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

u-rakirepeated transportation (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

u-rakiengage in carrying stones, boards, etc., to a certain place for collecting them there (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

uri‘tree with white flowers’ (PMc: *uS[iu])

Gilbertese (840 / 872)

uri‘a tree’ (PMc: *wuci)

urito sprinkle with water as in religious ablution (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

uti·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

uti‘to arise, awake’ (PMc: *rut[iu])

uu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

uu-kaopen (something)’ (showing loss of *t before *k) (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

uu-kiopened (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

uuki, uki-(na)·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

uumʷa, (te)-umʷa, umʷa-(na)·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

uurato throw salt water onto (a seine to frighten the fish) (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

waasleepers of a floor (PCMc: *wa[xØ]a)

waa, waa-na, waa-ni, waa-nn-a (<*waa-ni-a)·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waan·‘pumice stone’ (PMc: *waani)

waeleg, foot’ (could be loan from Polynesian) (PMc: *wae)

waefoot, leg, walk (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

wae-ato pierce, to stick, to sew, to interrupt (something) (PCMc: *wai)

wae-(tata)go or walk rapidly (PMc: *wae)

waithe spearing of fish (PCMc: *wai)

waito engage in spearing fish (PCMc: *wai)

wakaa‘root, one who gives support’ (PMc: *waka, wakara)

Gilbertese (860 / 872)

wakawaka‘string, fibrous (as pandanus fruit)’ (PMc: *waka)

wani-, wanu-ua·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

wareto count, read (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

ware-kacount or read (something) (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

warewarecounting, reading (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

waribe of great size (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

(wa)-riki‘narrow’ (PMc: *ciki)

wari-(ni-bʷunii)a fish’ (te-bwunii ‘a puffer fish of genus Arothron) (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

wati‘toward person who has just spoken’ (PMc: *watu)

wauwau‘well furnished with conveniences or suitable clothing’ (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

wene, wenewene·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

wirararainbow (PWMc: *iyaa)

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