Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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K


Kiribati

Kosraean

Kusaiean

Kwaio

Kiribati (872) . see: Gilbertese

9. Kosraean (722) (Lee 1976)

ɒ‘precious, of good quality, excellent’ (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

ɒ k·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

ɒ k ɒ k‘mangrove root’, okæ ‘root’ (PMc: *waka, wakara)

ɒ ko, akierect, set up, establish (something) (PMc: *waxa₁)

ɒ l, al, ɒ l-, al-·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

ɒ l-(kin)‘place (something) under taboo’ (PMc: *fali)

æ·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

æ‘string, fishing line, rope, cord (PMc: *faa, faasa)

æ-, yo-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

ækpole, stick (PMc: *faxo)

ækito pole (a canoe) (PMc: *faxo)

(æk)-mʌŋmʌŋ-yedisregard, ignore (something) (PMc: *maŋi)

(æk)-mʷesisyeclean, cultivate, clear (land) (PMc: *maaTiaTi)

ælko (<*okæl?)blood vessel (PMc: *waka)

ælutbearded (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

(æ)-lʌbowl, skull, husk, shell (PMc: *laSa)

ælʌ-kto lift, pull, scoop (something) (PMc: *are, are-ki)

ælʌllʌl‘to sing’ (PMc: *alele)

æŋ‘kind of plant’ (PMc: *aŋo)

æŋ·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

Kosraean (20 / 722)

(æ)-olchange or replace (something), act for (someone) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

ærʌ-kstir, poke (something) (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

æryærto stir (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

ætdangle, hang (PMc: *faa, faasa)

ætætdangling, hanging (PMc: *faa, faasa)

(a)-kile-(n)notice (tr.) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

altε-(l)his beard (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

(a)-nɔmbailer (PMc: *[ln]ima)

aŋʷeto say, tell (PMc: *fiaŋo)

apil‘a kind of fish’ (a probable loan from Mrs) (PMc: *apili)

(a)-pεt·‘ashes’ (PMc: *peyata)

asr, ɒ sr, ɔsrbe, exist (PWMc: *oro)

atək·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

awitie it (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

(ay)-ɒ lchange, replace, act for someone (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

ayʌtie, bind (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

ɔ·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

ɔ-ki, ɒ-kiset up, erect (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

ɔlɔ (sic)gills (PMc: *woro₁)

ɔlɔlɔhaving many gills (PMc: *woro₁)

Kosraean (40 / 722)

ɔl-(pæp)‘a kind of lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

ɔt‘a kind of taro’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

-ɔt, -wot‘hence’ (PMc: *wotu)

ɔu, ɔyɔucold, chilly (PMc: *fou)

e·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

e·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

ekto turn, turn over, capsize (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

eka-suncover, reveal, disclose, turn over (something) (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

ekʌ·‘evening’ (PMc: *fakaafi)

(ekʌ)-yɔevening before last evening (PMc: *ñañoa)

ekyekvarying, constantly changing (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

el‘he, she’ (PMc: *e-)

el·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

elcoconut oil for poi (PCMc: *peni)

elakspread (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

elel‘coconut milk’ (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

elelcoconut milk (PCMc: *peni)

el-(tæl)·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

emto taste (PMc: *ñama)

em‘outrigger’ (PMc: *Sama)

Kosraean (60 / 722)

emataste (something) (PMc: *ñama)

em-(syε)·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

(e)-mʷemsweet (PMc: *mami)

(e)-mʷemito sweeten (something) (PMc: *mami)

enenʌto need (something), be necessary (PMc: *aneane)

enyen.·‘to bail’ (PMc: *[fØ]ani[fØ]ani)

‘kind of shell’ (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

eŋ, eŋyeŋ·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

eŋæarea between two legs (PMc: *Saŋa)

eol, ɔlmountain (PMc: *Solo)

esyespeel with the teeth (PMc: *etieti)

esyesipeel (something) with the teeth (PMc: *etieti)

etɒ tpile up stones (PMc: *ita, itaita)

eta-(twen)understanding, kind, sympathetic, helpful (PMc: *ata-i-)

etʌknow, understand (something) (PMc: *ata-i-)

etεtto press, smear (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

fæfæ‘kind of poi (mashed food)’ (PMc: *pʷau)

fæ-ksay, tell, announce (PMc: *pʷaa)

fæk‘say, tell, announce’ (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

Kosraean (80 / 722)

færcavity, hole, pit (PMc: *pʷaro)

færpass, go, come’ (a loan?) (PMc: *pʷera)

færfærfull of cavities (PMc: *pʷaro)

fæsrpass, go, come (PMc: *pʷera)

fai, fai-spull or draw out (PMc: *pʷai, pʷai-ti)

fak·‘kind of bat’ (PMc: *pʷeka)

fak·‘twins’ (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

falfalto split, saw lengthwise (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

fasrfasr, fasr·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

fɔlɔ-(l), foli-(n)its smell, smell of (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

fɔn‘whole, complete, entire’ (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

fɔnfɔnjammed, block (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

fɔno-sto block, blockade, jam, check, obstruct, stop (something) with a cork (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

fɔsmessy, confused, entangled (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

fɔsmessy, confused, jumbled, crowded, mixed up, entangled (PWMc: *piko, piko-si)

fɔtɔ·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

fif‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

fifto pull out (PMc: *wuti)

fil, fili‘place or put aside or away’ (PMc: *pʷili)

filiarrive (PMc: *pʷere)

Kosraean (100 / 722)

fi-sto extract (something), pull (something) out (PMc: *wuti)

fisrε-‘piece of turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

fiti‘bud, swelling’ (PCMc: *pʷoto)

fiyɔ‘sweat, perspiration, to perspire’ (PMc: *pʷ[iu]Sowa)

fiyε-l‘his grey hair’ (PMc: *wua, wuana)

fo·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

foto smell, have odor (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

fokbreak, smash (of brittle objects) (PCMc: *pʷelu)

-fok, -foko·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

fokfokbroken, smashed (PCMc: *pʷelu)

fokoknot, node (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

fol‘hot, heated, sweaty’ (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

folfol‘blue, indigo, dark blue (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

fono-, fɔnɔ-buttocks, hip, (? bottom) (PMc: *pʷenu)

foŋ·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

for, furo-ktwist, spin (PCMc: *pʷaro)

fuko-etie (it) in a knot (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

fuku-lbreak or smash (something) (PCMc: *pʷelu)

fuku-(n)‘joint of’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

fulbreadfruit sap, gum (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

Kosraean (120 / 722)

ful, fuli-n‘shellfish, shell of’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

fuŋ.·‘handle’ (PMc: *pʷuŋu)

futfutkick (PMc: *pʷutu)

futu-ŋkick, stomp (something) (PMc: *pʷutu)

fʌkto steal (something), commit adultery with (someone) (PMc: *pʷeki)

fʌlslip, drop, slide (PMc: *pʷuro)

fʌlʌchasm, cleft, crevasse, canyon (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

fʌlʌ-ŋto split (something) (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

(fʌlʷ)-εthigh, lofty (PMc: *ata)

fʌsrfʌsr, fisrʌ-k, fisrʌ-k·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

fʌtslingshot (PMc: *pʷuasa)

fʌt, fitε-(l)·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

#fʌtishoot (something) with a slingshot (PMc: *pʷuasa)

fwæ-kbe said (PMc: *pʷaa)

fwε·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

i‘kind of tree’ (PMc: *uS[iu])

iirub, erase, wipe (something) (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

ikto rock or roll (of a ship) (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

(ik) wε‘kind of turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

Kosraean (140 / 722)

ik, ike-(n)·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iki-lrock it, make it roll, change its position, turn it over (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

ikoε-(n)‘flesh of’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *fiSiko)

ikʷi, yukito planted (something) (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

ikʷik‘rudder, tiller, to steer’. (PMc: *ako, akoako)

ikʷik‘rudder, tiller, helm’ (PMc: *iku)

il, ililgrind, grate, whet, rub (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

ilulto pillow, rest, prop (PMc: *uluulu)

ilu-ŋ‘to prop, support (something), rest (one’s head on a pillow)’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

ilʌ-(ŋ)part (the hair), separate (things), spread (things) out, shift (things) around (PMc: *iraira)

ilεlto part, separate (PMc: *iraira)

(i)-nimto dip out, scoop out, bail (loans from Kir?) (PMc: *[ln]ima)

(inn)-yε·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

in-(pʌl)(loan from Mrs?) (PMc: *inu or *uni)

intito enchant, cast a spell on (someone) (PMc: *anitu)

inutgod, spirit, ghost (PMc: *anitu)

(in)-yeŋægroin (PMc: *Saŋa)

(in)-yʌwε-chest, bosom (PMc: *wupʷa)

(iŋ)-ethis, here, now (PMc: *ee)

(iŋ)-εn‘that, those’ (PMc: *ena)

Kosraean (160 / 722)

ipipbe chopped in small pieces (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

ipε-lpart, piece, scrap, fragment of it (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

iro-ŋ, iriro-ŋglance, peep, peek at (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

isɔs, iso-ŋ, isiso-ŋstick in, push in, cram in (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

isrisr‘burning or stinging, be smarting, pricking, stinging’ (PMc: *[fØ]eci[fØ]eci)

it·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

iti·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

itʌ·Callophyllum inophyllum (PMc: *itau)

itʌa kind of tree (PMc: *uS[iu])

itʌ-ŋto press on, run over, overcome (something) (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

-k·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

kafishhook (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

stripe, line, fiber, string figure (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

kɒ no-(n)‘catch of’ (PMc: *kona)

kæktie thatch to the roof (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

(kæ)-lʷemclear, bright (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

kæot‘c., b., sheet’. Note that Kir (te)-kouti ‘small mat worn over the shoulders’ appears to be loan from English coat (PMc: *[ao]ut[ae])

kæp‘bundle, sheaf, faggot’ (PMc: *kapa)

kæsword, speech, language, chirp, cheep (PMc: *kata)

kæskæstalk, chirp repeatedly (PMc: *kata)

Kosraean (180 / 722)

kætʌka kind of fish (PMc: *kaseki)

kaito warn, advise, admonish (someone) (PMc: *kai₂)

ka-icatch with a hook (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

(kaka)-wʌkgetting friendly or acquainted (PMc: *-Seke)

kakicopra, mature coconut (PWMc: *takaka)

kakʌto scratch (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kal, kalkʌlcut, shear, scissor, clip (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

kalkalfence, to separate or divide with fences (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

kaŋeat (PMc: *kaŋi)

kaŋkaŋeat a little at a time (PMc: *kaŋi)

kapi-(n)‘bottom of, end of’ (PMc: *kapi)

kasr-(kin), kasr-(lεp)‘a kind of ant’ (PMc: *kaci)

kawito scratch (something) (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

(ka)-wʌkfriend (PMc: *-Seke)

kɔnyεbanyan tree (PMc: *kanawa)

kɔsrɔ‘sharp edged, sharp (PMc: *koco₁)

kɔsreto prevent, block, obstruct, blockade (something) (PMc: *koco₂)

kɔsrito circumcize (someone) (PMc: *koco₁)

kɔsrkɔsrbe preventing, blockading, blocking, obstructing (PMc: *koco₂)

kɔtkɔt‘to scrub, rub off, scour’, kote ‘to scrub, scour, or rub (something) off’ (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

Kosraean (200 / 722)

kɔtkɔtto break apart (PMc: *kota)

ke·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

ki‘move’ (PMc: *ki, kiki)

(kifin)-te‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

kifʌ-sto curve, bend, turn (something) (PMc: *kupʷe, kupʷe-li)

kilʌ-ŋdig (something) (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kimkim‘having a thudding sound’ (PMc: *kumʷukumʷu)

-ki-n‘fossilized transitive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

kinpick, pinch (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinet‘wound, cut, scar’ (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

kini-spick or pinch (something) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kirar‘to belch’ (PMc: *kurer[ae])

kiti-(n)‘a little, a few, some’ (PMc: *kisi)

kiyʌfspider lily (PMc: *kiepʷu)

kiyεs·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kiε-, kia-ka·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

koe, koekoe‘scrape, grate, smooth out, plane’ (PMc: *koyi)

koet·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kom·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

koteto scrub, scour, or rub (something) off (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

Kosraean (220 / 722)

koteto break (something) (PMc: *kota)

kufa curve, bend (PMc: *kupʷe, kupʷe-li)

kuluk·‘white sand crab or ghost crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

kulu-(k), kolo-(l)‘my skin, his/her skin’ (PMc: *kuli)

kululkind of bird, sandpiper (PMc: *kulu)

kunextinguished, blind, dead (as a fire) (PMc: *kunu)

kunito extinguish (something), put out, turn off, make blind (PMc: *kunu)

kupotangled with (PWMc: *piko, piko-si)

(ku)-srusrtremble, quake, vibrate (PMc: *cucu)

kut·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

strong, healthy, well, powerful, stout (PMc: *kiSa)

tie (it) (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

kʌfto curve (PMc: *kupʷe, kupʷe-li)

kʌ-lalʌto scratch, claw, tear (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kʌ-lau-sscratch, claw, tear (something) (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kʌlkʌldig, turn up (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kʌre-tscrape, sharpen, scratch (something) (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

kʌrʷεrεscrape, sharpen, scratch (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

kʌsraoheaven (PMc: *kacawa)

kʌtʌ-(lεp)·‘east’ (PMc: *kautiwa)

Kosraean (240 / 722)

kʷe-(srik)rafters (PMc: *xawu)

kʷesu·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

kʷεwe-(n lɒ t)‘dolphin’ (PMc: *kawa-, kawakawa)

·‘seat in a canoe’ (PMc: *loo[wØ]a, lo[wØ]a-)

lɒ l·‘deep’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

lɒ ŋ·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lɒ t·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

away from a place (PMc: *lako, laa)

læ, lʷebranch, twig, limb (PMc: *rae)

(læl)-kʌŋsmart, intelligent, sharp, quick witted’ (probably a borrowing from Pon) (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

læpelder brother or sister, high tide (PMc: *lapa)

læsa kind of coral (PMc: *laZe)

læslæscovered with coral (PMc: *laZe)

laki-nto spread, unroll (something) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

lalodepressed, downhearted, heavy hearted (PMc: *laloua)

lalo-ido not like the thought of, shudder at the thought of (something) (PMc: *laloua)

laŋlʌŋ‘warm up, heat up, dry up’ (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

lapa kind of clay (PMc: *lape)

lapito paint (something) with red clay (PMc: *lape)

mindful, attentive, watchful (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

Kosraean (260 / 722)

lɔ, lɔɔ-(l)tongue, his tongue (PMc: *lewe)

lɔito heed, watch for, pay attention to (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

lɔŋ‘hear, listen to (someone)’ (PMc: *roŋo)

lɔsr‘dark, pitch black, unilluminated’ (PMc: *roco)

(len)-yɔday before yesterday (PMc: *ñañoa)

ləŋ‘sky, heaven’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lik, liki-(n)outside, near the beach, outside of’ (PMc: *liku)

likito leave, put down (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

liklikito sift, etc. (something) (PMc: *liki, likiliki, liki-Si)

lili, lʷe-(l), li-(n)brother, male sibling, his brother, brother of (PMc: *ria)

lilikto sift, screen, sieve, separate (PMc: *liki, likiliki, liki-Si)

limto fold (something) (PMc: *lumi)

limlimto fold (PMc: *lumi)

lip, liplipsplit, sprain (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

lo‘young Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMc: *lawa)

lo-, lu-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

loeloes‘very long or tall’ (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

loeslong, tall (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

loŋkind of fish (PMc: *laŋua)

loŋ‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *aroŋo)

Kosraean (280 / 722)

lou-(k), lɔ-(l), lou-(n)‘my sister (man speaking), his sister, sister of’ (PMc: *lowu-)

loεinside (PMc: *lalo₂)

lulshade, shadow (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

lulito overshadow (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

lullulshadowy (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

lumgreen algae (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

lumlummossy (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

lu-(n)inside of (PMc: *lalo₂)

luo·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

lutsurprised, startled, amazed (PMc: *luTu)

lut‘be surprised, startled, amazed’ (PMc: *rut[iu])

lutu·‘tomorrow’ (PMc: *l[au]tuu)

luwε-(l)its remnant, leftover, surplus (PMc: *luuwa)

lʌfhole (PMc: *lipʷa)

lʌfimake ditches in (PMc: *lipʷa)

lʌflʌfhaving holes (PMc: *lipʷa)

lʌkʌ-(k)easy to convince, credulous, gullible (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lʌkʌ-(n)‘almost, nearly’ (PMc: *l[iu]ku-)

lʌlæpbig, large, huge (PMc: *lapa)

lʌlʌ‘pond, shallow lagoon, having little water’ (PMc: *lau)

Kosraean (300 / 722)

lʌlʌ, lʌlʷe-swallow (something) (PCMc: *woro-)

lʌlʌka fish (PWMc: *leleki)

lʌm, lime-, lʌm-five (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lʌmathink it, picture (something) in one’s mind (PMc: *lama₁)

lʌmæ-(l)his appearance, behavior (PMc: *lama-)

lʌma-(n)shape of (PMc: *lama-)

lʌm-ŋaulfifty (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lʷen·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

onward (PMc: *lako, laa)

-m·your (singular) (final *mw > m) (PMc: *-mʷu)

ma‘and others’ (PMc: *ma)

maone, thing (indefinite pronoun) (PMc: *meña)

old, worn, frayed (PMc: *maki)

heal (PMc: *mawo)

mæ (in pεlæŋ)scar, blotch, scab (PMc: *mawo)

mælbreathless, impatient, intolerant (PMc: *maaru)

mæl‘become breathless (PMc: *maSeru)

mælbecome breathless (PMc: *maura)

mæl-(fweyε)gobble, swallow, gulp (PMc: *maSeru)

mæ-lʷemmoon, month (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

Kosraean (320 / 722)

mæn, meni-(n)‘aninal, insect’ (PMc: *manu)

mæŋo-(n)‘head of, ridge of, crown of’ (PMc: *maŋo)

mær‘core of preserved breadfruit’ (PMc: *mara)

mæ-tolthick, dense (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

mæ-toltolvery thick, numb (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

mahnbarren, empty, fruitless, sterile (PMc: *malala)

malʌ·‘thirsty’ (PMc: *marewu)

malʌbreathless; thirsty (PMc: *maaru)

mɔŋɔ-(l)‘his breath, sigh’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

me-ɔa‘ocean’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mee-(n)one of, thing of or for (PMc: *meña)

metbefore, a long time ago (PMc: *metu)

mi-lipshatter, smash (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

mi-lpicut out in small bits (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

mi-sre, mʌ-sreslide, slip, skid (PMc: *ma-cai)

mi-sresreslimy, slippery, slithery (PMc: *ma-cai)

misrisr‘cold, chilly, cool, goose bumps’ (PMc: *maci, macici)

(mi)-sʌŋsʌŋsmelly, stinking of urine (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

(mi)-sʌŋsʌŋsmelly, stinking of urine (PMc: *saŋu)

misεdeath, to die (PMc: *mate)

Kosraean (340 / 722)

mitw-εk‘eat noisily, slurp’ (PMc: *misi)

mol, molmolcooked, boiled (possibly a loan from Kir) (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mo-libuy (something) (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

moŋo‘eat, food’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mot‘sink with too much weight, subside’ (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mo-tok‘feel unwelcome, ill at ease, awkward’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

(moton) sro-(n)‘forehead of’ (PMc: *camʷa)

mou-lto buy, save (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

moul‘alive, live’ (PMc: *mauri)

mutul·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

mV-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being (vowel varies) (PMc: *ma-)

·‘yawn, be open mouthed’ (PMc: *mawa)

see, think (PMc: *maŋi)

mʌlælæ‘light in weight, skinny, slim’ (PMc: *maraa)

mʌlælæ‘light, slim, skinny’ (PWMc: *pale)

mʌlki-nto forget, be forgetful of, lose (something) (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

mʌ-lye-(la)forgetful, unmindful, absent minded (PMc: *ma-lie)

mʌt‘full, swelling, plenty, abundant’ (PMc: *masu)

mʌta-·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

mʌtalive,stay (PCMc: *meña)

Kosraean (360 / 722)

mʌta (in aset)non-native sitting posture (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʌta (liplip)a sitting posture (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

(mʌ)-tælholy, hallowed, sacred (PMc: *tara)

mʷe-thing (PMc: *meña)

mʷe-ki-(n)‘ashamed, shy, bashful’ (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

mʷenmʷenmiracle, magic (PMc: *mana, manamana)

mʷenmʷeniperform magic (PMc: *mana, manamana)

mʷeŋpandanus (PMc: *maŋu)

mʷes‘shallow place in reef’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mʷesæsroomy, spacious, commodious (PMc: *maata, maataata)

mʷesisa desert (PMc: *maaTiaTi)

mʷesrripe, mellow, pimple, flake of skin (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mʷesrmʷesrpimply, flaky (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mʷet·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

mʷetto die (PMc: *mate)

mʷeunwar, fight (PMc: *maawunu)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

nɒɒ·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nɒɒ kmidrib (PMc: *noko)

nætʌ-(l)‘his child;’ (PMc: *natu)

Kosraean (380 / 722)

nesa sail (PMc: *lea or *laya)

ni-mdrink (something) (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

nimnimto drink (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

ni-mε-(l)his drink (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

ninε, nnæoneʻs mother (PMc: *tina)

niye-(n)‘place of’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

niyε-(l), niye-(n)his leg, leg of (PMc: *ney[ae])

(niyε)-ŋorŋormeat of young coconut, crunching, crushing (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

nu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

nuknukclothes, cloth (PCMc: *lukuma)

nuknukicover with a cloth, measure the size of a piece of cloth (PCMc: *lukuma)

nukumclothe, wear, wrap (something) (PCMc: *lukuma)

nweknet (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

nwem‘deep area in a lagoon’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nεnεto need (something) (PMc: *aneane)

ŋa·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

ŋɒ srmouth, lip (PMc: *ŋaco)

ŋɒ sro-(n)lip, brim, edge of (PMc: *ŋaco)

ŋæs, ŋiyεs‘expression when a foul smell is sensed’ (PMc: *ŋata)

ŋali-sbite or nip (something) (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

Kosraean (400 / 722)

ŋalŋʌlbite, nip (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋɔr, ŋɔrŋɔr·‘to snore’ (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

ŋirroar, rumble (PMc: *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti)

ŋirŋirnoisy, roaring, buzzing, rumbling, whirring (PMc: *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti)

ŋis, ŋisŋislaugh, guffaw (PMc: *ŋiTi)

ŋoekind of turtle (PMc: *woñu)

ŋut, ŋutŋutto growl, grunt (PMc: *ŋuse)

ŋʌnspirit (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋʌrŋʌrcrushing, crunching, cracking, or crackling sound (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

-ŋʌul, -ŋoul·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

ŋʷetlook, open (eyes) (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋε·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

oe-kcount (something) (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

oi‘a tree’ (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

okæroot (PMc: *waka, wakara)

ola-(l)his lei (PMc: *mʷare)

oloa wrinkle, crumple, crease, pleat, become wrinkled, crumpled, creased (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

olo-ito wrinkle, crumple, or crease (something) (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

olo-(l), ulu-(n)‘ its top, its tip, its apex (of a tree), top of’ (PMc: *ulu)

Kosraean (420 / 722)

ololofull of creases or wrinkles (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

on·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

onato lie down (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

on-(kiyʌkibe prone, lie (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

opplant used as fish poison, to poison or kill with the sap of this plant (PMc: *upa)

opoppoison at different places (a fishing method) (PMc: *upa)

orʌdo, make, perform (PMc: *fauru)

os, osos, osi‘whistle, whistle at or to’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

osraspear, nail, metal (PMc: *mece-a)

osræsr, osre·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

osrʷosr, osrakthrow (PCMc: *kace)

otweweave (something) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

(otwe)-yʌk‘woven’ (otwe ‘to weave’) (PMc: *-aki)

otwotweave (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

otwotkind of fish (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

o-yε, yε‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

go, arrive, sail (PMc: *wae)

oεoεcount, enumerate (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

oε-(tu)walk down a slope (PMc: *wae)

pa·‘bait, worm’ (PMc: *paa₁)

Kosraean (440 / 722)

‘stalk (of taro or banana), stem’ (PMc: *paa₂)

pæko·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

pælpæla kind of fish (PMc: *palapala)

pælpæl‘kind of fish’ (PMc: *parapara)

pælpælcarry on the shoulder (PMc: *afara)

pæ-(lʌ)fan (it), blow on (it) (PMc: *pau, paupau)

pæŋosrdisease of the nose, speak through one’s nose (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

pæp‘raised sides of canoe’ (i.e., strakes) (PMc: *papa)

pæpæblow, fan (PMc: *pau, paupau)

pætdrift, push, pull (PMc: *pata)

pætokhold breath for a long time, dive, long-winded (PMc: *patiki)

pætpætfloat, drift (PMc: *pata)

pakpʌk‘chop, cut’, paki ‘chop, cut, hew (something)’ (PMc: *paku)

pasrpasra plate, plain (a flat or level surface) (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

pathole, perforation, aperture’ (PWMc: *pasa)

pɔlɔ-(n)part, piece, cutting, segment of (PWMc: *palia)

pe‘side, opposite side’ (PMc: *pa-)

(pe) kushrahorizon (PMc: *kacawa)

pikslap (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

piki-lbrush (it) off, dust (it) off (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

Kosraean (460 / 722)

pili‘mumps, have mumps’ (PMc: *piri)

pinto bind, tie (something) (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

pini-sto patch or mend (something) (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

piŋpiŋkind of tree (PMc: *piŋipiŋi)

pira sequence of quick movements, to beat, jerk, twitch, squirm (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pirakbraid (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

pirakibraid (something) (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

pisrto splinter, rupture, burst, a slingshot or bow and arrow (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pisrto hiccup, have hiccups (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pisri-kshoot (something) with a slingshot (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

po, pæo-(l)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

po-kclear, sweep (something) (PMc: *peo)

polo-ŋcarry (something) on the shoulders with a pole (PMc: *afara)

potpile of stones, stone wall (PCMc: *pei)

potibuild (something with stones) (PCMc: *pei)

pulsplashing sound, dive with a splashing sound (PMc: *pili)

discuss (something) (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

pʌksand (PMc: *pike)

pʌkpʌksandy (PMc: *pike)

pʌlæl·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

Kosraean (480 / 722)

pʌnto patch, mend (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pʌs‘trash, garbage’ (PMc: *peti)

pʌs·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

pʌsra-(n ne)top of the foot (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

pʷe (ŋ-i)fish for with a pole (at night) (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷεpato discuss (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

pεikside (of a mountain or slope) (PMc: *paiki)

ra‘linger’ (PMc: *cawa)

raŋraŋ‘yellow’ (PMc: *reŋa)

rarrar·‘tremble (with fear)’ (PMc: *rere)

sæfcome to an end (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

sæk, sʌka-(n)stick, tree, stick of, pole of, bar of (PMc: *Teka or *Tika)

sahpkʌ‘mat sewn of pandanus leaves’ (PMc: *tapaka[wØ]u)

sasʌto catch (PMc: *tautau, tau-ki)

sau-kto catch, grasp (something) (PMc: *tautau, tau-ki)

saweto hatch (PMc: *tawaa)

seto tear (something) (PMc: *sae)

setear, shred, rip, rend (something) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

se-, sʌ-, sʌ-·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

Kosraean (500 / 722)

se.·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

(se-a)-kile-(n)unable to recognize (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

(se)-eta-(twen)not understanding, not perceiving (PMc: *ata-i-)

səl·‘rope’ (PMc: *tali)

(se)-mi-nini‘not thin’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

səŋ·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

səu‘family’ (loan from Mrs?) (PMc: *tawu₂)

sik, sika kind of bird (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

sinε‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

si-ŋarsmall louse (PWMc: *li-ŋaŋari)

sipi-kslice, cut (something) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

sipi-kcut, chop, or slice (something) (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sipsipslice, cut, mince (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

sipsipcut, chop, or slice into small pieces (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

(si)-sεtear, rip, rend (PMc: *sae)

sisεtear, rip, rend (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

siyʌkto ask, request, interrogate (someone) (PMc: *tiSaki)

soloyoung shoot, to sprout (PMc: *[tT]ulu-)

sololobe full of shoots, covered with sprouts (PMc: *[tT]ulu-)

-sr·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

Kosraean (520 / 722)

sra·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

srɒ lpaint (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

srɒ lsrɒ lblack (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

srɒ no-·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

sræ·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

sra-(læp)wide (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

srap‘skipjack’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

srɔlɔlump, mass, clot (PMc: *ciilee)

sri·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

sriasra‘to lead or start a song’ (PMc: *cia)

srik, srisrik·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

srimbow (PMc: *cimʷe)

srimsrimnod, bob (PMc: *cimʷe)

srisriŋtattoo (PMc: *ciciŋi)

srisriŋimark (the skin) with a tattoo (PMc: *ciciŋi)

srisr-ŋipoint at, hint at (something) (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

srisr-ŋito point at, hint at (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

srisrsrisrto point, hint (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

srisrsrisrto point out (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

srolsty, have a sty (PMc: *cili)

Kosraean (540 / 722)

sropo-(n)‘trunk of’ (PWMc: *capi)

srʌ, sruo k‘hold, catch’ (PMc: *cucu)

srʌfpliers, pincers, tongs (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

srʌfihold or pick up with pliers, pincers, tongs (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

srʌsrato shred, rip (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

srʌsrʌn‘a kind of tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

srʷewear it behind the ear (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

srʷeto shred, cut, or tear (something) to bits (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

srʷε-ear, possessive classifier for ear decorations (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

srʷεsraput flowers behind the ears (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

sul·‘torch’ (PMc: *sulu)

sulu-(n)young shoot of, sprout of (PMc: *[tT]ulu-)

sʌka-(l)his penis (PMc: *Teka or *Tika)

tɒ -nto press (something) (PMc: *ta[wØ]o, ta[wØ]o-ni)

tɒ -nbury (something) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

tɒ tɒto press (PMc: *ta[wØ]o, ta[wØ]o-ni)

wooden knife (PCMc: *taapa)

tæfʌ, tæfwe-help (someone) (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tæfʌ-(n)half of (PMc: *tapʷo)

(tæl) mwek, (tæk) mwek‘raw, uncooked’ (PCMc: *amata)

Kosraean (560 / 722)

tæltælto wash (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tæltælito wash (genitals) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tælʌ-kroot (something) out, pull out, pull up (a net) (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

tæŋʷe-(s)‘a mode of sexual intercourse’ (PMc: *Saŋa)

tæp‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *tapa₁)

tæpʌlto turn (PWMc: *tafaali)

tæpʌ-lto turn (something) (PCMc: *tape₂)

tæ-tchop (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

tahpʌ-kto support, uphold, or bear (something) (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

takrise (PMc: *Sake)

talto move, rub, paddle fast (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

talroot out (PMc: *tare, tare-ki-)

taptap‘to help’ (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

taptapto support, uphold, bear (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

tatʌbury, cover, fill in (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

tau-nbury, cover, or fill in (something) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

tautneedle fish (Bender et al. 1984: ‘porcupine fish’) (PMc: *tautu)

tɔ-(kɔsræ)‘king of Kosrae’ (PMc: *tawu-₁)

(tɔ)-ku-(n pæo)‘fingernail’ (PMc: *kuku)

tɔlɔ, tɔlɔlito suck (something) (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

Kosraean (580 / 722)

tɔlɔlto suck (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

tipε-(l)his personality (PMc: *sipa)

tiyedissect (it), cut (it) open (PMc: *taa, taa-ki)

tiyok, tiyɔkget out (PMc: *taa, taa-ki)

tiyεtdissect, cut up (PMc: *taa, taa-ki)

toka pounder (PMc: *suku)

tokpounder (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

tok, tɔkɔ-(l), tuku-(n)back, his back, back of (PMc: *takuru)

tol, tol-(u)·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

tola·‘barracuda’ (PMc: *turai)

ton·‘freshwater eel’ (PMc: *tuna)

topan answer (PMc: *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i)

topu-kto answer (someone) (PMc: *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i)

tu‘stand up’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

tu‘stop’ (PMc: *tuu₂)

tu-(fokfok)‘keep on coming down’ (PMc: *siwo)

tukpound (something) (PMc: *suku)

tuk, tuktukto pound (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

tukutukto pound (PMc: *suku)

tul‘drip, drop’ (PMc: *turu)

Kosraean (600 / 722)

tulʷe-(n-yʌk)adze (PMc: *talai)

·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

to come, land (PMc: *[sS]oko)

tʌi‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *tañifa)

tʌka‘island, atoll’ (PMc: *sakau)

tʌkʌto come (PMc: *[sS]oko)

tʌl, tʌlihaul or pull (on a net) (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

tʌla‘axe (PMc: *talai)

tʌlikchild’ (presumably tʌli-k ‘my child’) (PMc: *tari)

tʌmʷε-(l)‘his father’ (PMc: *tama)

tʌn‘a skin disease’ (PMc: *tanitani)

tʌncolor (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

tʌŋcry (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

tʌŋibe sorry for (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

tʌpæ-(l)‘his cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

tʌ-pasrpasrflat (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

tʌta, tʌ·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tʌtæfto help (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tweto chop or cut (something) (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

Kosraean (620 / 722)

twe-mwhetstone (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

twe-(n)‘be good at’ (PMc: *sawee)

twe-nwash, soak (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

twe-nwash, soak (PMc: *Too)

tweŋtweŋpick, twist (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

tweŋtweŋigrasp or hold between two objects and twist (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

twe-twesharpen (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

twetweto wash’ twe-n ‘wash, soak (something)’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

twetwe-(l), titi-(n)‘her breast, breast of’ (PMc: *susu)

twεtwε, twetweto wash, dip (PMc: *Too)

u·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

ufyoung coconut (PMc: *wupʷu)

ufa-’ifish with bow and arrow (PMc: *upa)

ukto blow (a bugle), blow (something) away (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ukɔkfollow a trail, chase (PMc: *wuko, wuko-Si-)

ukechase, pursue, drive away (someone) (PMc: *wuko, wuko-Si-)

ukukto blow, be blowing (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ulpull, etc. (something) (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

ululpull, tug, stretch (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

ulεmaggot (PMc: *ulo)

Kosraean (640 / 722)

ulεlεinfested with maggots (PMc: *ulo)

umearth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

#umicook (food) in an earth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

unɔnto pluck, scale (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

unepluck or scale (something) (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

une-(n)feather, hair, scale, fur of (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

cluster, bunch (PMc: *wuŋu)

uŋuŋ (sic)having many clusters (PMc: *wuŋu)

uro-kto turn, twist (something) (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

u-scarry (something) (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

(usawε)-nwen·‘pus’ (PMc: *nana)

usr·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

usru-kto shake (something) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

(usruk)-yʌk‘be shaken’ (usruk ‘to shake’). (PMc: *-aki)

usrusrshake (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

#ususcarry (something) around with someone (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

uticut (something) (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

#ututʌkbe carrying around (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

u-tʌkbe carrying (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

ʌthis near speaker (PMc: *ee)

Kosraean (660 / 722)

wa-(as in wa-korkor ‘ticklish’) (PMc: *mʷa-)

‘exclamation of surprise’ (PMc: *mʷaa)

sea cucumber (which does not show expected initial p or reduplication) (PCMc: *panipani)

(wa)-korkor‘tickling’ (PMc: *kurakura)

walom·‘to drown’ (PMc: *malemʷu)

wat (koekoe)a kind of worm (PMc: *mʷata)

wɔna kind of fish (PMc: *mʷonu)

wɔsr·‘firewood’ (PMc: *mʷucu)

wɔtto vomit (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

wen·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

we-(n), wε-(n)generation of (PMc: *wee)

wetworms (PMc: *mʷata)

wiaccompany, travel by (PMc: *fiSi)

winwin, winwin-i·‘to wash one’s hands’ (PMc: *[aØ]mʷi, [aØ]mʷi ni)

wirʷiro-kto turn (something) continuously (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

witevomit (something) (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

wiwεdo carrying (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wogood, becoming, satisfactory, agreeable (PMc: *mʷaau)

worto turn, wriggle (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

worʷorwiggle (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

Kosraean (680 / 722)

wotcut (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

wʌi (? *wuhy)·‘semen, sperm’ (PMc: *weSe)

wʌ-nto carry, transport (something) (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wʌt·‘inland’ (PMc: *uta)

yateastern part of a village (PMc: *ata)

‘gush’ (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

yɔrɔ-(l)his vicinity (PMc: *aro-)

yɔrɔ-(l)his vicinity (PMc: *Soru-)

yi, yiyi‘bathe, take a shower’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

yokto planted (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

yolpile, stack (PMc: *Solo)

yolimake (something) in a pile (PMc: *Solo)

yolyolplenty (PMc: *Solo)

yorto visit, peep (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

yot·‘stone’ (PMc: *fatu)

(yot) wensmall black stone (PMc: *waani)

yuru-(n)vicinity of (PMc: *aro-)

yuru-(n)vicinity of, near (PMc: *Soru-)

yuwε-, iwε-·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

-yʌ·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

Kosraean (700 / 722)

·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

yʌ, yʌyʌ·‘delicious, taste good’ (PMc: *ñañau)

yʌu-kscoop (something) (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

yʌyʌto scoop (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

(y)-ε-(l), (y)-e-(n)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

ε‘to hold on the hip’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

ε‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

εwhat? (PMc: *faiSa)

ε‘what!’ (PMc: *Safa)

εkind of fish with white fat (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

ε, (me)-εwhat? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

εi·‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *afafi)

εi‘hold or carry (something) on the hip’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

εiŋ‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *aSiŋi)

-εk, -yakupward (PMc: *Sake)

εl‘march, parade’ (PMc: *faSale)

εlmarch, parade (PMc: *Sali)

εn·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

εn·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

εŋʷε-(n)fin of (PMc: *iŋi)

Kosraean (720 / 722)

εs‘gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

εs, esyε-(l)‘liver, his liver’ (PMc: *ate)

Kusaiean (722) . see: Kosraean

10. Kwaio (249) (Keesing 1975)

abu·‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

abu-be unable to ... [pref. to vb.] (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

’aefoot, base, source, leg (PMc: *wae)

ae·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

afato mark, incise (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

afuni-(na)placenta (PMc: *ta[wØ]u[iu])

’ai‘tree, branch, stick’ (PMc: *kayu)

alafish by setting large net with multiple operators (PMc: *are, are-ki)

’ala‘bite’ (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

’ala’alarough, scratchy (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

ala-si-[a]lift [fish] from water in a large net (PMc: *are, are-ki)

’ala-si-ato scrape, scratch (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

ali‘plait’ (PMc: *tali)

ali-ato best in competition, outdo (PCMc: *kari)

aliŋa‘mushroom’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

alubury’ (PMc: *tano)

aluput, keep (PCMc: *tawu₃)

alu, alu-a‘to put, keep’ (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

ama-[na]·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

‘a-[na]a piece for him (PMc: *kai₁)

Kwaio (20 / 249)

’ani-[a]‘eat [something]’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

anoground (PMc: *tano)

ano‘land, ground’ (PMc: *tano)

aŋa-[luaa]‘to put back in position when carrying’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋi‘sorrowful’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

aoaoshelf in a house (PMc: *tao)

‘asito spit on, spray (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

asi·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

‘asi-lai‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

asi-[na]‘younger sibling’ (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

’ato·‘rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

ausoutheast wind (PMc: *tau₂)

baba·‘side’ (PMc: *pa-)

ba’ekʷa·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

bebe‘butterfly, moth’ (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

bebe‘butterfly, moth’ (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

bila-[na]roe (PMc: *pia)

biliskin eruption all over the body (PMc: *piri)

bonoclosed, shut, constipated (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

bono-si-[a]to block (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

Kwaio (40 / 249)

bono-tastopper, plug (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

boo, bou-(na)·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

bo’u·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

bubureef trigger fish (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

bulaPacific sea perch (PWMc: *pʷulaka₁)

buutread, step (PMc: *pʷutu)

buu-li-[a]scrape with the foot (PMc: *pʷutu)

dai·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

dala‘forehead’ (PMc: *camʷa)

daŋiday (PMc: *raani)

dikʷa, [ma]-dikʷabroken, break (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

dolamix (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

eba‘sleeping mat’ (PCMc: *epaepa)

eba a‘spread out taro dough for pudding’ (PCMc: *epaepa)

enosleep (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

fa (i)‘for it’ (PMc: *fa-)

fa (na)‘for, with, to him’ (PMc: *fa-)

faa-[laŋi]raised plank floor (PMc: *fata)

fai·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

fali·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

Kwaio (60 / 249)

faŋato eat, food (PMc: *faŋa)

faŋafood (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

faŋa-li-(a)to feed (PMc: *faŋa)

fao‘weave, knit, plait’ (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fasi’o-(na)·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

fasusegment, sprout, shoot off (PMc: *fa[sS]ua)

fe’a·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

fidi[obs.] ‘slap, smack’ (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fili-si-[a]‘braid together’ (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

fiu·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

fofo-‘on, on top of’ (PMc: *fawo)

fou·‘stone’ (PMc: *fatu)

[fou]-biaa growing deposit of limestone in running water (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

fua‘carry a load’ (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

fuacarry a load (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

fua-’a-[gu]‘thing conveyed to me (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

fulo-ato rub, wipe, polish, clear up something (PMc: *wuro, wuro-mata)

fulublow with mouth (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

funuto fight, cut (PMc: *maawunu)

funu-ŋawarfare (PMc: *maawunu)

Kwaio (80 / 249)

fuŋubunch of fruit, bearing fruit (PMc: *wuŋu)

fu’o‘place for an ambush’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

fusibroken off, died out [of a kin group] (PMc: *wuti)

fu’u·‘cough, to cough’ (PCMc: *pekopeko or *kopekope)

gali‘circle, round, around’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

gani·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

golu-ato crunch (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

gou·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

-gu·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

gwaa‘burst, healed of a boil’ (PMc: *tawaa)

i fai·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

i’a·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

’i’i, ki’i·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

’ila‘flint, flint tool’ (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

’ilepandanus variety (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

ilolook at (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

ilolook at (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

ilo-(nunu)a reflecting pool, mirror (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

’ini‘pinch, squeeze’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kolito scratch (PMc: *kari)

Kwaio (100 / 249)

kʷadiwhistle (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

(kʷaikʷai)-’ali-ito race, compete with (kwai ‘mutually’) (PCMc: *kari)

(kʷai)-ŋudu-fiwhisper to one another’, ŋu’u ‘murmur’ (PMc: *ŋuse)

kʷaluunusable bush (PMc: *walu)

kʷate, kʷate-acontribute, give (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

kʷetebe hit by a foreign [supernatural] object causing local pains) (PMc: *wece or *woco)

laaleaf used to wrap pudding in for cooking (PMc: *rae)

la’ago up, climb (PMc: *lakalaka)

laalaaCalamus vine (PMc: *rae)

lafu‘take off, lift, pull up’ (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

lakʷalakʷaspider web, string of two or three lengths of shell money (PMc: *lawa)

lakʷa-[le’enia]to spread [a net] out in the sun’) (PMc: *lawa)

lala‘light’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

lala‘warm’ (PMc: *rara)

lala, lale‘make rustling noises’ (PMc: *alele)

lalo‘sky’ (PMc: *alo)

laŋi‘high, great, up’ (PMc: *laŋi)

laŋo‘large fly’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lasu‘smoke’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

lata·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

Kwaio (120 / 249)

late·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

lau-fi-[a]make or keep [something] cool (PMc: *l[ao]u)

likʷa‘hole in tree’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

lio, lio-si-(a)look, see, look for (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

logo‘darkness, night’ (PMc: *roco)

lolo‘ant’ (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

loŋo·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

luahigh tide (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

lua·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

lua-[na]·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

ludaload in a canoe (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

lulubunch together, gather, push together (PMc: *lulu)

luma·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

lu’uenter, pass through a door (PMc: *ruku₁)

lu’u‘enter, pass through the door’ (PMc: *ruku₂)

maand, but (PMc: *ma)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maa·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma’a·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

madaripe, mature (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

Kwaio (140 / 249)

mafo-[te’e-nia]forget about, allow to slip from the mind (PMc: *mawo)

ma-ga’usoft (PMc: *ma-caucau)

mai‘hither’ (PMc: *mai₂)

ma-lakʷagreen, fresh, unripe (PMc: *ma-rawa)

mamawait for (PMc: *mamata)

maminormal tasting, brackish water (PMc: *mami)

ma-nifitiny ocean fish (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

manu‘bird’ (PMc: *manu)

maŋo‘breathe, pause for breath’ (PMc: *maŋo)

ma-oa‘kind of tree from which planks obtained for making canoes’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

mata’ifever (PMc: *masaki)

ma-takʷa·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

[ma]-taŋa‘crotch, branching place’ (PMc: *Saŋa)

m-a’u‘afraid, shy’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

mauli‘alive’ (PMc: *mauri)

melabright red (PMc: *mera, meera)

moavomit (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mode‘pandanus, mat, umbrella’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

mooli‘differently, in a wrong direction’, [after vt.] ‘left handed’ (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

mou, mou-si-[a]·‘cut, sever, break off’ (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

Kwaio (160 / 249)

nafo·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

namegobble up (PMc: *ñama)

namolake, pool, deep place in a river (PMc: *namʷo)

namu‘small flying insect’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

nana·‘pus’ (PMc: *nana)

nanamaconfer supernatural power (PMc: *mana, manamana)

nifo·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

nima‘five’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

niu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

nunu-fi-[a]‘to shade [something]’ (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

ŋalemasticate with the gums (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋalusnap at, bite at (of angry dog) (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

ŋuluwhisper (PMc: *ŋuse)

ŋuusing, customary chanting (PMc: *ŋiTi)

ŋu’umurmur (PMc: *ŋuse)

ŋuusing, chant (PMc: *ŋuu)

ŋuu-asing (something) (PMc: *ŋiTi)

ŋuu-li-(a)sing (a particular song) (PMc: *ŋiTi)

oba‘to beat down undergrowth’ (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

odo-mi-(a), ono-mi-(a)swallow (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

Kwaio (180 / 249)

ofu·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

ogabelly (PMc: *wupʷa)

o’i‘chop up wood’ (PMc: *toki)

olito return for something, come back to (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oli-si-(a)to replace (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

[olo] fa [na]‘under, underneath’ (PMc: *faa-)

olu·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

’onato own, hold title to (PMc: *kona)

ono·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

ono-mi-(a) (also odo-mi-(a))to swallow (something) (PCMc: *woro-)

sae-[founa]·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

sa’o‘a tree with sweet smelling yellow flowers’ (PMc: *aŋo)

sau·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

si’i·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

sikʷa·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

sili, sili-fi-[a]drip through, leak through (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

sinasun (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

siŋa-limoon, month (PMc: *siŋa)

si’o-fi-(a)pick up (PMc: *[sS]iko)

siridrip through, leak through (PMc: *Tiri)

Kwaio (200 / 249)

suli [na]·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

susu‘breast, breast milk, to suckle’ (PMc: *susu)

suu, suu-fi-[a]dive, sink, dive for (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

su’u-mi-[a]poke, flick with the fingers (PMc: *suku)

taa·‘interrogative suffix’ (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

ta’e, ta’e-li-[a]‘to embark, get aboard’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

[ta]-faŋa·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

tai·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

takʷalanding place (PMc: *sawa)

tala‘in a line’ (PMc: *Sali)

tala·‘path, road’ (PMc: *ala₁)

tala-(fafo)‘shallow, swim close to the surface’ (PMc: *ae₁)

tala-[ŋe’enia]arrive at a place, wash up (PMc: *ae₁)

talu·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

talu-si-[a]to carry or wash away [of running water] (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

[ta]-ŋa-fulu·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

tataufar, distant, for long (PCMc: *soa)

telu-fi-(a)to fan (a flame) (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

tofucut things up (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

tolomountains, mountainous interior (PMc: *Solo)

Kwaio (220 / 249)

to’o‘to receive, catch, hit’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

to’o [fana]gather, assemble (PMc: *Toko)

u’a‘crab’ (PMc: *wumʷa)

ubu‘swell, swelling’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

ufiplay panpipes (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ufi-ato blow on (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ula‘blood vessel, vein’ (PMc: *waka)

ulaprawn (PMc: *ura)

ulablood vessel, vein (PMc: *ua₁)

ula‘to stand’ (PMc: *tura)

ulu·‘wade’ (PWMc: *Tuuru)

ulubranch, frond (PMc: *ulu)

uluŋalean back against (PMc: *uluŋa)

umu‘oven stones’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

unauna-(na), una-fi-(a)·‘hair, feathers, scales, remove (hair or scales)’ (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

’unuspoiled (of food) (PMc: *kunu)

unutorch, light (PMc: *sulu)

unu-a‘cook vegetables by steaming in a leaf-plugged bamboo’ (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

utarain (PMc: *u[sS]a)

(uta) siŋosiŋodrizzle (PCMc: *siŋ[iu])

Kwaio (240 / 249)

uta-ni-[a], uta-fi-[a]to rain on (PMc: *u[sS]a)

uto-[na]center of breadfruit (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

uu·‘to stand’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

wa-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

waa‘snake, worm’ (PMc: *mʷata)

wa-da’ueasy (PMc: *ma-caucau)

wa-la’ueasy, soft, overripe (PMc: *ma-caucau)

walo‘reef’ (PCMc: *pʷara)

wane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

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