Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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L


Lakalai

Lau

11. Lakalai (113) (Chowning and Goodenough, n.d.)

(a)-lai-(sa)when? (past) (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

ale‘this, the one that’ (PMc: *ae₂)

(ale)-othat (PMc: *oo)

ami-[teu]·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

amu-(tou)·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

aro·‘rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

bukua‘swollen, protruding’) (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

bulujuice, sap (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

-e‘here’ (PMc: *ee)

[e]-gerea cricket that calls at night (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

(e)-iau, (e)-au·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

[e]-luso·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

[e]-re, [e]-rei)[e]-rei (PMc: *tau₃)

[e]-toaplace where a jumper lands (PMc: *Toka)

[e]-tululuhot taro (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

gaisoon, presently, in the near future (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

gai-(sa)when? (future) (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

gamahead (PMc: *camʷa)

gari (la-mavo)bite (into the taro) (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

-ga-[tou]·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

Lakalai (20 / 113)

[gu]-liliki, [gu]-likiliki‘child, children but not one’s offspring’ (PMc: *ciki)

[hata]-male‘man, male, brother of a woman’ (PMc: *mʷaane)

hato‘sago palm, thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

hiliget sprouts for planting (PMc: *ili)

humu·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

hutahutageneral term for small plants (PMc: *uta)

(idogo) sigi-ri-(a)place a leaf funnel in a water bottle (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

ilalatime or date of an event (PMc: *kilala)

iloinside, interior, underside (PMc: *lalo₂)

iri-(le-kova)spine of the stingray (PMc: *iŋi)

isigrate coconut, rub smooth (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

kala-(hoho)bite down hard (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

korokoro, koro-ato cut (PMc: *koco₁)

-la·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

[la]-gereplant with seed pods used as rattles (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

lagu‘yellow face paint’ (PMc: *aŋo)

lakolako‘to stick fast (as adhesive tape)’ (PMc: *ako)

lalato hold over a fire (PMc: *rara)

[la]-livo-[la]his tooth (PCMc: *ŋii)

lao-a‘to clasp, have sexual intercourse with’ (PMc: *ako)

Lakalai (40 / 113)

[la-ulu e]-malaripe breadfruit (PMc: *mara)

libagrave (PMc: *lipʷa)

liho, hilo‘to see, look at’ (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

lili-(a)roll it up (PMc: *lulu)

liuwhich Geraghty [1990] misassigns to PEO *[qØ]iRu-f ‘sip, sup’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

lololarge red ant (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

lugu-a, lugulugu-ashake it (as the head) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

luku-a‘pull up a plant’ (PCMc: *liko)

lumu·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

luu, luluuto duck under (PMc: *ruku₂)

mathus (PMc: *mʷaa)

magigito shake (as in epilepsy) (PMc: *maci, macici)

[ma]-gigi[< PNk *(ma)-didi] to shake as in epilepsy (PMc: *cici)

mago-[la-kuvo]‘brain’ [kuvo ‘skull’] (PMc: *maŋo)

mahavuhealed (of a sore) (PMc: *mawo)

mahelabe ashamed (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

mahulilife, good health (PMc: *mauri)

maibe like (PMc: *wee)

maigibe cold (PMc: *maci, macici)

makarigicold, to be cold (PMc: *maci, macici)

Lakalai (60 / 113)

malamasweet (PMc: *mami)

malehuthirsty (PMc: *marewu)

mamara-[ti]damned up, dried up [of water in the hollow of a tree] (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mamatabe awake (PMc: *mamata)

mao‘kind of fish’ (PMc: *maawa)

maoa fish (PCMc: *maoko)

masagadry (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mata-[guruguru]‘a small snake’ (PMc: *mʷata)

ma-tao·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

mausa·‘cooked’ (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

moi, momoito dwell (PCMc: *meña)

molaa fish (PMc: *mʷonu)

olito dig (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oli, oli-adig with a shovel (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

ovi, ovovigather taro (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

pai-[le-kova]spine [of the stingray] (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

pati, pai-pati·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

pu-[su]to blow [as a conch shell], to blow something out of the mouth (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

rarato set up (a fish net) (PMc: *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-)

rovawhat? (PMc: *faiSa)

Lakalai (80 / 113)

salathigh, groin (PMc: *Saŋa)

sigi-lifill up with liquid (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

sililu, sululuto singe (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

soojust now, recently (PMc: *[sS]oko)

sua, sue-apush up the stones of the earth oven with a stick (PMc: *[sS]ua)

talaha‘kind of fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

tali [la-sulabe]make a vine binding for a climberʻs feet (PMc: *tali)

tali-ato coil [rope] (PMc: *tali)

tari-younger sibling of same sex (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

tarigaa fish (PMc: *taŋiri)

tau-man of a place or clan (PMc: *tau₁)

tilohoto peer around or after without being seen (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

toato stamp down (PMc: *Toka)

toitoia sawtooth design (PMc: *toki)

tovu·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

tuhu-(mapa)nod one’s head up (PMc: *tuu₁)

tulu·‘wade’ (PWMc: *Tuuru)

tululuto burn [of a burn] (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

turavertical wall pole (PMc: *tura)

tura-[kakavo]house posts (PMc: *tura)

Lakalai (100 / 113)

turi, tuturi·‘to point or face’ (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

tutu-ato strike with the finger, tap [as a tattooing needle] (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

ua‘radial roots of a tree’ (PMc: *waka)

ulaCyrtosperma taro (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

umuto quake, shake (PMc: *kumʷukumʷu)

vaha‘leg, foot’ (PMc: *faa-)

valuamen (PMc: *fanua)

ve·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

(vi)-kara‘to speak, language’ (PMc: *kata)

vi-[lapu]take hostages from one another as part of peace settlement’ (PMc: *fi-)

vulo‘customs’ (PMc: *fanau)

vuubase, reason, cause (PMc: *pʷuku)

vuvu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

12. Lau (93) (Fox 1974)

aba-‘hand, arm, leaf’ (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

aba-‘hand, arm, part, leaf’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

abu·‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

ae‘foot, leg’ (PMc: *wae)

ala‘bite’ (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

aliŋa‘ear’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

alu‘to put, bury’ (PCMc: *tawu₃)

ani‘eat’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

aŋa-i‘to lift, carry’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋi, aŋi-si·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

asi‘sibling of opposite sex’ (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

bebe‘moth, butterfly’ (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

bebe‘butterfly, moth’ (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

bono‘to close a hole’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

dara‘forehead’ (PMc: *camʷa)

(dau) boŋitake hold of’ (dau ‘take, hold’) (PMc: *pʷono)

dau, dadauto hold, catch, take, touch (PMc: *tautau, tau-ki)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

fai‘do with, help’ (PMc: *fa-)

fai·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

Lau (20 / 93)

faŋato eat (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

faŋa-aa feast (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

faŋa-(gu)my mouth (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

fao, faofao‘to weave, plait’ (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fasusugive suck to (PMc: *fa[sS]ua)

fou·‘stone’ (PMc: *fatu)

gali‘round, around’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

gami·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

gamu·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

gwau, gwou·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

gwegweto buffet (as the wind) (PMc: *wece or *woco)

i fai·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

(i) fara‘underneath’ (PMc: *faa-)

ia·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

inala‘discern by casting lots’ (PMc: *kilala)

ini‘to pinch’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kila‘stone axe’ (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

lalao‘to run’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

laŋi·‘sky, heaven, storm’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lao‘in’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

Lau (40 / 93)

lima‘five’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lio‘to look or seem, appearance’ (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

liqa‘cave, hole’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maa·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

maafather [vocative] (PMc: *tama)

mafo‘be healed’ (PMc: *mawo)

manu‘bird’ (PMc: *manu)

midi‘to taste’ (PMc: *misi)

mode‘to mend, patch’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

mou, momou·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

mouli·‘left handed’ (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

mouri, mori, momori‘to live’ (PMc: *mauri)

-mu·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷaa‘snake’ (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

namo‘inner harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

ŋudu, ŋuduŋuduto mumble, mew (PMc: *ŋuse)

ŋutuŋutucrunch the teeth (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

oba‘take from, separate, divide’ (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

Lau (60 / 93)

oga‘stomach, belly’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

ola‘large canoe’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

olito return, go back (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

oli-sito answer (someone) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

ono·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

oru‘wind, to blow’ (PMc: *tokolau)

rara‘be withered, ripe’ (PMc: *rara)

rodo‘night’ (PMc: *roco)

ruu‘to enter’ (PMc: *ruku₂)

salo‘cloud, storm’ (PMc: *alo)

salo-fi‘to prepare, clear a path, sweep’ (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

sao‘sago palm, thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

saso‘sun’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

sasu·‘smoke’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

sifo‘go down’ (PMc: *siwo)

sinashine (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

sina-limoon, month (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

siqa·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

susu‘breast, suckle’ (PMc: *susu)

suu‘to dive, sink’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

Lau (80 / 93)

suu‘to dive, set [of heavenly bodies]’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

taa‘bad, evil’ (PMc: *[sS]aa)

taa·‘interrogative suffix’ (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

take, tatake‘to stand’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

tala‘way, path’ (PMc: *ala₁)

talu‘to sprinkle’ (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tere-fi‘to move as a fan, to fan’ (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

tolo‘hill’ (PMc: *Solo)

too‘to hit, possess, have’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

ubuubu‘be thick, deep’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

ufi‘blow’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

usu‘to wipe, anoint’ (PMc: *us[ei])

uta·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

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