Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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P


Palauan
Pingilapese

Pohnpeian
Ponapeian

Pulo-Annan
Puluwatese

19. Palauan (3) (McManus and Josephs 1977)

earsa sail (PMc: *lea or *laya)

kimtype of large clam (PMc: *kima)

ŋisa tree (Pemphis acidula) (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

20. Pingilapese (89) (Bender et al. 1984)

aaiyɔ, aaiy ɔɔ-(wa)·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

ad·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

ad‘bile’ (PMc: *asi)

al·‘path, road’ (PMc: *ala₁)

apεr·‘shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

ɔs‘dry pandanus leaves used for thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

(daa)-lɔŋ‘canoe rollers’ (PMc: *laŋo₂)

daw, dewe-(n)·‘reef pass, channel’ (PMc: *sawa)

dɔl‘mix’ (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

-di·‘down, westward’ (PMc: *siwo)

diidi‘breast’ (PMc: *susu)

dip‘slice, chip’ (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

duwa-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

dεεŋ‘giving lots of sap (of a coconut tree)’ (PCMc: *[sS]aaŋa)

esiesto peel or husk with the teeth (PMc: *etieti)

esi-r·‘to peel with the teeth’ (PMc: *etieti)

id‘point’ (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

idi-(kal)‘make fire by rubbing sticks’ (PCMc: *iso)

idεk·‘to ask’ (PMc: *tiSaki)

iimʷ·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

Pingilapese (20 / 89)

iisiŋ‘writing’ (PMc: *ciciŋi)

ik-(in cpds. only) (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

ik·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

ilail‘nest made by pigs’ (PWMc: *ila)

(i)-lik‘shore facing open sea’ (PMc: *liku)

inda·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

iniin‘to cook’ (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

inε‘his mother’ (PMc: *tina)

(i)-saa·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

isi-k‘shake (something)’ (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

ja-·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

jεw‘sun’ (PMc: *tau₂)

(ka)-dεk‘friendly, kind’ (PMc: *-Seke)

kai-reki-n‘to notify’ (PMc: *kai₂)

(ka)-law‘sea hibiscus’ (PMc: *lawa)

kapi-‘bottom, end, south’ (PMc: *kapi)

keel‘strength’ (PMc: *kaila)

kia·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kiis·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

kiis·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

Pingilapese (40 / 89)

(ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves (PMc: *pʷalu)

(kε)-raŋ‘heat on a fire’ (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

liki-d, liki-dek‘to make flour out of wheat, develop film’ (PMc: *liki, likiliki, liki-Si)

lipʷ‘hole’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

luwε‘its remains’ (PMc: *luuwa)

lεŋ‘sky, heaven’ (PMc: *laŋi)

maawin·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

mɔtɔntɔl·‘smooth’ (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

mV-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being (vowel varies) (PMc: *ma-)

-mʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷarεmʷar·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mε-daw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mεy·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

mεyr·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

ni·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

ŋɔr·‘to snore’ (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

ŋil‘voice, sound’ (PWMc: *ŋil[ai])

paa-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

pææs·‘ashes’ (PMc: *peyata)

pakɔ·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

Pingilapese (60 / 89)

pali-‘side’ (PWMc: *palia)

pil‘water’ (PMc: *pili)

pʷar‘to appear, rise (of sun) (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷεla-ŋek‘to split a coconut’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

raan·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

rɔŋ·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

rɔs‘dark’ (PMc: *roco)

rεk‘breadfruit season’ (PCMc: *raki)

samʷε‘to lick (something)’ (PMc: *camʷ [ai], camʷ [ai]-ti)

-saŋ·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

sɔŋ‘to try’ (PWMc: *Toŋo)

sed·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

seme-·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

(sere)-peyn‘girl’ (PMc: *faifine)

sowsow‘catch with a net’ (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

su-ɔŋ·‘meet, encounter’ (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

sεŋ·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

sεri‘child’ (PMc: *tari)

sεrε-wi; ‘h.’·‘sacred, holy’ (PMc: *tara)

Pingilapese (80 / 89)

war·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

weke-dεk‘to turn something over’ (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wis·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

wεl‘forest, woods’ (PMc: *walu)

-y·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

εmʷi·‘bunch or cluster of nuts’ (PCMc: *amʷii)

εni‘ghost, spirit’ (PMc: *anitu)

εŋ·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

εy·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

21. Pohnpeian (819) (Rehg and Sohl 1979, Sohl, Rehg, and Andreas, forthcoming)

aa-, ε-‘alienable object’ (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

aad·‘current’ (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

aad, εdε-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

aal‘path, road, trail’ (PMc: *ala₁)

aam‘slipnoose or snare for catching animals’ (PCMc: *ñama)

aaŋ, εŋiεŋ·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

aapʷbut (PWMc: *aapʷa)

aay·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

aaya, yaaya·‘rainbow’ (PWMc: *iyaa)

adaadto sharpen, put an edge on something (PMc: *a[sS]a)

adiits vapor, smoke, mist (PMc: *a[sS]u)

alaal-(di)be taken or gotten (PMc: *ala₂)

alis, εlisε‘beard, mustache, his beard’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

alε‘take, get, (something) (PMc: *ala₂)

amas·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

amʷi-(sε)‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

anaanbe necessary, indispensable (PMc: *aneane)

anaanεto need, require (something) (PMc: *aneane)

and‘name of an atoll west of Pohnpei (PMc: *anu[sS]a)

and Ngk pεεs·‘ashes’ (PMc: *peyata)

Pohnpeian (20 / 819)

(a)-nsow‘time, a period of time’ (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₁)

aŋεd‘long, tall’ (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

api-d‘to carry (something) on one’s side or under one’s arm’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

api-i‘pull (something, usually with a rope)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

apεrε‘his shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

ara-mas·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

(a)-ri, (a)-re, ria-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

ari-ito stir (something) (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

asito sneeze (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

aun, oun, wεnε-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

awdawdbe filled, may be loaded, know almost everything (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

awdεto fill, load (something) (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

awiiwait for (something) (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

ayo·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

ɔɔŋ, ɔŋε-(n)turmeric (PMc: *aŋo)

ɔɔs‘ivory nut palm’ (a source of thatch) (PMc: *aTo)

cipʷe-ŋe-(n pee)crook of the arm (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

ɔlɔɔlto wave, to signal (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

ɔlεto wave or signal to (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

ɔŋɔɔŋyellow (PMc: *aŋo)

Pohnpeian (40 / 819)

ɔŋεits yolk (PMc: *aŋo)

ɔrɔɔr‘shore, land near the ocean, landing place for boats’ (PMc: *aro-)

ɔroŋ‘blue jack crevally (C. melampygus)’ (PMc: *aroŋo)

da, daa, daa-(mε)what? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

-da, dak·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

daak·‘needlefish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

daal‘coconut cup, dish, plate’ (PMc: *laSa)

daam, dεmε‘outrigger float, its outrigger float’ (PMc: *Sama)

daaŋ, dεŋε‘thigh, his thigh’ (PMc: *Saŋa)

daaw·‘reef pass, channel’ (PMc: *sawa)

dakε‘ride in or on (a vehicle), be the first or best, top (all others)’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

daphave the foreskin of the penis withdrawn (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

dape-ŋ‘to pull (something) apart or off’ (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

dape-ŋto pull apart, pull off (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

(dau)-katawa sky god (PMc: *kacawa)

dawovertired (as a muscle) (PCMc: *sawu)

dɔkɔto stab, spear, skewer (something) (PMc: *[sS]oka)

dɔlɔto mix (something) (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

-di‘downward’ (PMc: *siwo)

diidi‘her breast, to suckle, to nurse’ (PMc: *susu)

Pohnpeian (60 / 819)

diil·‘louse egg, nit’ (PWMc: *sili)

diildried coconut fronds, torch (PMc: *sulu)

diip, dipε‘sin, his sentiment’ (PMc: *sipa)

di-kεk‘needle’ (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

dil‘to penetrate, go through, pass into’ (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

dimʷir·‘the star Antares’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

diŋto drip, leak (PCMc: *siŋ[iu])

diŋidiŋdrop (PCMc: *siŋ[iu])

dipgrain (of wood), slice or chip (as of breadfruit or taro) (in counting) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

dipεto slice (breadfruit or taro) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

dir‘be overcrowded, filled, plentiful’ (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

(diεr)-εk‘to be found’ (diar ‘to find’) (PMc: *-aki)

-do·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

dokbe stabbed, speared, skewered (PMc: *[sS]oka)

dolto mix (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

doo‘distant, far off’ (PCMc: *soa)

dool‘small mountain, hill’ (PMc: *Solo)

dugo under water, dive (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

duudubathe (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

duu-pdive for (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

Pohnpeian (80 / 819)

duwa-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

duwa-w·‘nine (general class of things)’ (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

dεki-laar·‘swordfish, marlin’ (PMc: *[sS]aku-laara)

dεkε‘island’ (PMc: *sakau)

dεl‘to move in great numbers, to swarm’ (PMc: *Sali)

dεpεhow many? how much? (PMc: *Safa)

dεydεy·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

e-·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

(e)-is, isi-, isu-u·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

(e)-isεkten (PCMc: *-itaki)

eli-mɔŋ·‘mangrove crab’ (PMc: *ali-maŋo)

(e)-pʷiki·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

(e)-sil, sili-·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

i-with pointing demonstratives (PMc: *i-)

i·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

idto make fire by rubbing a stick in a trough of wood (PCMc: *iso)

idmake fire by the fireplow (PMc: *us[ei])

ida-ncarry (something) in a vehicle (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

ida-ŋto apply pressure to, to mash (something) (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

idaydto be under pressure, to be mashed (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

Pohnpeian (100 / 819)

idi-point (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

idi-ito point at (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

idiidi-(da)to be pointed out, identified (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

idi-ŋto make (fire) (PCMc: *iso)

idi-ŋto make (a fire) (PMc: *us[ei])

idi-p‘draw or fetch (water)’ (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

idεkto ask (someone) (PMc: *tiSaki)

ii·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

ii-to come or go directly (PWMc: *ii-)

ii‘hand of bananas’ (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

iidto fetch or draw (liquids) (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

iid‘plant species’ (PMc: *uS[iu])

iid‘fetch or draw liquids’ (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

ii-(do)directly come hither (PWMc: *ii-)

iik‘inhale, breathe in deeply, absorb’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ii-(la)directly go away (PWMc: *ii-)

iimʷ, imʷε-·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

iin (wini)medicine wrapped in coconut cloth (PMc: *unu)

iin, inε‘mother, his mother’ (PMc: *tina)

iipʷε‘his torso’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

Pohnpeian (120 / 819)

iir·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

iir‘string of something (as of flowers or fish)’ (PMc: *turi)

ik-(in cpds. only) (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iki‘its tail, end’ (PMc: *iku)

ila-(pas)‘make a nest’ (PWMc: *ila)

ilekfish species (loan from Mrs?) (PWMc: *leleki)

ili‘its sucker (of banana, breadfruit, taro)’ (PMc: *ili)

iniinto cook, roast, broil, toast (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

ini-mcook, etc. (something) (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

ini-(pal)·‘coconut cloth’ (PMc: *inu or *uni)

ini-(pal)fibrous, clothlike material of the coconut palm (PMc: *unu)

iŋi‘its pectoral fin’ (PMc: *iŋi)

iŋi-d-(pεnε)to squeeze (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

ipiip‘lightning without thunder (metathesis?)’ (PMc: *fiti)

ipʷi-(di)be born (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

ipʷiipʷbe a paternal descendant (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

irayr‘portion, event, topic’ (PMc: *iraira)

iriirto fan (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

iriir-(la)be erased (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

iri-pto fan (something) (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

Pohnpeian (140 / 819)

iri-srub, erase (something) (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

iri-sεkrub, erase (PMc: *iri, iriiri)

iro-ŋto peer at (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

iroyrto look or peer in the distance, to see one’s own reflection (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

isayspay tribute, repay a service or good deed, tribute, gift, reward (PMc: *ita, itaita)

iseto pay (tribute), to repay or reward (a service or good deed) (PMc: *ita, itaita)

isow·Callophyllum inophyllum (PMc: *itau)

-isεkcounter for tens (PCMc: *-itaki)

itiitbe shaken (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

iti-kto shake (something) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

iti-(pε)to shake hands (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

ka-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

ka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

kaas (sic)speak in anger, boast (PMc: *kata)

kaatant (PMc: *kaci)

kaa-win, kaa-wina, ka-wnato pluck, scale (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

kadεkfish species (PMc: *kaseki)

(ka)-dεk‘kind, generous’ (PMc: *-Seke)

kai-rnews (PMc: *kai₂)

kai-reekito inform (PMc: *kai₂)

Pohnpeian (160 / 819)

(ka)-madal‘to smooth out (something) (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

kana-possessive classifier for food (PMc: *kana, kani)

kaŋ·eat (something) (PMc: *kaŋi)

-kapclassifier for bundle or sheafs in counting (PMc: *kapa)

kapakap‘bundle, sheaf’ (PMc: *kapa)

kapi-·‘bottom, butt end’ (PMc: *kapi)

karani-ibe near or close to (PCMc: *karani)

kari- (pʷudε)scratch (an itch) (PMc: *kari)

kasaa‘its (canoe’s) side opposite the outrigger’ (PMc: *katea)

(kasε)-lεlprecious, beautiful, perfect, fine (PCMc: *lele)

katawmythical place now identified with Kosrae (PMc: *kacawa)

katε‘to stone, throw rocks at’ (PCMc: *kace)

kay-(do)move (something) toward speaker (PWMc: *kaye)

kɔɔlgrass skirt worn by men (PWMc: *kalo)

kɔlto wear a grass skirt (PWMc: *kalo)

kɔlε‘to make (sennit)’ (PCMc: *kalo)

kɔnɔ‘to catch up with (someone), be on time for (an event)’ (PCMc: *kona)

(kɔ)-sokto pile up (PMc: *Toko)

(kɔ)-sokεto pile (things) up (PMc: *Toko)

kendip‘to spit’ (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

Pohnpeian (180 / 819)

keti-(tik)a small ant (PMc: *kaci)

keyto anoint, apply to the skin as lotion (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

(ke)-ydεkto ask (someone, honorific)’ (PMc: *tiSaki)

keyεto anoint (someone) (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

kiay‘strut supporting outrigger’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kidikidto wrap (showing metathesis) (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

kidi-miwrap (something) (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

kii‘shell adze made from the shell of the giant clam’ (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

kiik, kiki-(n pεε)·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

kiil, kili-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

kiis·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kiit, -kit·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

kila-(ŋ)‘to see, discern, look at, observe, examine’ (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kilεlsign, mark, picture (PMc: *kilala)

kilεlεphotograph it (PMc: *kilala)

kini-(i)to pinch (something) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinikin‘to pinch’ kini-(i) ‘to pinch (something)’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kire-e-(di)‘peel off, pull down an eyelid, lip, or foreskin (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

kirεr‘to burp, belch’ (PMc: *kurer[ae])

kirε-s-(εk)penis (slang) (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

Pohnpeian (200 / 819)

kisi-‘small piece, fragment’ (PMc: *kisi)

kiε-‘thing to sleep on’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

kiεpʷ‘lily sp.’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

kodokodto husk with a stick (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

kodo-(m)to husk (a coconut) (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

(koduu)-pʷalto cover up (PMc: *pʷalu)

(koduu)-pʷεlbe covered up (PMc: *pʷalu)

(ko)-mpʷal, (ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves (PMc: *pʷalu)

komʷ, komʷi‘you (honorific)’ (PMc: *kamʷu)

kooko‘dolphin’ fish (Coryphoena hippurus)’ (loan from Mrs?) (PMc: *kawa-, kawakawa)

koo-kεgrate (something) on a grater (PMc: *koyi)

koot‘hibiscus fiber’ (PCMc: *koca)

kopokop·‘cough, to cough’ (PCMc: *pekopeko or *kopekope)

(ko)-powcold, cool, chilly (PMc: *fou)

koro-pʷuŋ‘small waterfall’ (PCMc: *pʷuŋ[iu])

ko-royroyscrape meat out of a coconut (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

ko-rεε-dscrape (it) out (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kot‘in good condition, young looking, slow in maturing, stuck’ (PMc: *koco₂)

kotokot(honorific) be given a haircut, a haircut (PMc: *koco₁)

kotεcut a girl’s hair straight across at the bottom, to cut down (PMc: *koco₁)

Pohnpeian (220 / 819)

kotε-(kεεp)first feast of the yam season (PMc: *koco₁)

koykoybe shaved (of the head), be scraped on a grater (of coconut) (PMc: *koyi)

kulto grab, seize (PWMc: *kulu)

kuli-igrab, seize (something) (PWMc: *kulu)

kulu‘golden plover’ (PMc: *kulu)

kumʷayou (dual) (PMc: *kamʷu)

kumʷa-(il)you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

kumʷukumʷ·‘a thudding noise’ (PMc: *kumʷukumʷu)

kun‘to be extinguished, to be turned off (of lights and motors)’ (PMc: *kunu)

kupʷe-lto bend (something) (PMc: *kupʷe, kupʷe-li)

kupʷε-lεkbe bent (of something rigid) (PMc: *kupʷe, kupʷe-li)

ku-way·‘to whistle (of humans)’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

bite it (PMc: *kai₁)

kε; koo, kowε(independent pronoun) (PMc: *ko-, koe)

(kε)-lεw, ko-lowHibiscus tiliaceus (PMc: *lawa)

(kε)-lεw-(n and)Hibiscus species (Kleinhovia hospita) (lit. ‘hibiscus of Ant [an atoll]’) (PMc: *lawa)

kεŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kεpεto carry a bundle (PMc: *kapa)

kεpε-(n)bundle of (PMc: *kapa)

kεr‘to trickle’ (PMc: *turu)

Pohnpeian (240 / 819)

kεri-(pʷud)scratch (as when itching) (PMc: *kari)

kεrεnnear, close (PCMc: *karani)

kεtεw‘rain, to rain’ (PCMc: *kacawu)

kεy-(do)move toward speaker (PWMc: *kaye)

kεykεyto bite (PMc: *kai₁)

kεynεklineage, extended family, clan (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

kεεlstrength (PMc: *kaila)

kεεlayl (<*kailaila)strong, healthy, powerful (PMc: *kaila)

kεε-pεy‘driftwood’ (PCMc: *kai-peti)

kεε-r‘to call (as in to give someone a bad name), to badmouth’ (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

kεε-s, kεε-sε‘fishhook, hook it’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

kεεw·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

-la‘away from me and you’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

la-aŋ‘spider conch sp.’ (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

laaŋsky, heaven (PMc: *laŋi)

laaw, lootongue (PMc: *lewe)

lamalam‘thought, idea, opinion, common sense, religious belief’ (PMc: *lama₁)

laŋi-(n)bad weather (PMc: *laŋi)

lap, lapalap·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

lapʷεd, lapʷεdε-(n)‘saltwater eel’ (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

Pohnpeian (260 / 819)

(laydini)-ki‘porpoise’ (laydini ‘fish of’) (PCMc: *kua)

lɔɔŋ·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lɔl·‘deep’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

lɔloo‘heartsick (of a man who has lost his wife)’ (PMc: *laloua)

lɔlε‘inside of him/her/it’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

lɔŋbe placed across another thing (PMc: *laŋo₂)

lɔŋεplace (something) across another thing (PMc: *laŋo₂)

li-·‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *li-)

liiboom sheet, sail rope (PCMc: *yuwe)

lii, liε-‘woman’ (PWMc: *lia-)

liimbailer (PMc: *[ln]ima)

liimʷ, limʷi-limʷ·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

liipʷ‘large hole in the ground’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

liki‘outside of something’ (PMc: *liku)

liki-(di)to spit (honorific) (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

liki-d-(mεliεεla)to abandon, forget (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

liki-ito trust (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

liki-liktrustworthy (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lil‘to lower sail’ (PMc: *lulu)

limto fold (something) (PMc: *lumi)

Pohnpeian (280 / 819)

lima-, lima-w, lim-mεn, limε-ysεk, limε-ŋowl‘fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lima-(k)to bail (a canoe) (PMc: *[ln]ima)

limalimto bail, do bailing (PMc: *[ln]ima)

limilim-(pεnε)be folded (PMc: *lumi)

lim-εkbe bent, smashed, mashed, dented (PMc: *lumi)

-loŋ‘inwards, into’ (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

loo·‘seat in a canoe’ (PMc: *loo[wØ]a, lo[wØ]a-)

low‘cool, cooled off’ (PMc: *l[ao]u)

lukto be invited, to be towed, to troll for fish (PCMc: *liko)

lukto invite, to tow (PCMc: *liko)

lukom‘to wrap around (something)’ (PCMc: *lukuma)

lusto jump (PMc: *luTu)

lusi-(da)to jump up, be surprised (PMc: *luTu)

lusu-(k)to jump on, to catch a ride with (PMc: *luTu)

luuk‘name of the chief traditional god’ (PCMc: *luuka)

luuwε‘its remains, remnant’ (PMc: *luuwa)

lεl, lεl-(tii)perfect, just right (slang) (PCMc: *lele)

lεwεhis tongue (PMc: *lewe)

lεε‘pool, lake’ (PMc: *lau)

ma-, mε-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

Pohnpeian (300 / 819)

maaripe (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

maa-k‘reserved, containing one’s feelings for fear of self-embarrassment or embarrassing others, deference (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

maan, mεni-(n)‘animal, insect’ (PMc: *manu)

maar·‘preserved breadfruit’ (PMc: *mara)

maasin the past, a long time ago (PMc: *metu)

maas, mεsε‘face, his face’ (PMc: *mata)

maasaas‘cleared of vegetation’ (PMc: *maata, maataata)

maatpimple, acne (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

maawany blue parrotfish (PMc: *maawa)

maawin·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

maay·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

mad, mmadbe dry (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

ma-daw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

maiŋsir, madam (PMc: *meña)

makiaki‘to sob’ (PCMc: *makua)

mall‘a natural clearing in the forest, unfertile area, an area with little topsoil’ (PMc: *malala)

manbe effective (PMc: *mana, manamana)

manamanmagical, mysterious, magic, spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

manokonoko-(la)forget, be forgetful (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

manokε-(ε-la), makonε-(ε-la)to forget (something) (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

Pohnpeian (320 / 819)

maraara‘fast, swift (of a moving object), light (in weight)’ (PMc: *maraa)

ma-ram‘moon’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

ma-rop‘be smashed, broken’ (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

marεrhiccough (PMc: *maSeru)

ma-sak‘be afraid of or fear (someone)’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

matripe, overripe, rotten, spoiled, decayed (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

maw-(dεl)·‘yawn, be open mouthed’ (PMc: *mawa)

mɔɔk·‘a fish’ (PCMc: *maoko)

mɔɔŋ, mɔŋε-, mɔŋa-head (PMc: *maŋo)

meti-k, miti-kto kiss (someone) (PMc: *misi)

mito exist (a locative verb), be (in a place) (PCMc: *meña)

*mici-kito kiss, make a sucking sound (PMc: *misi)

miεexist (an existential verb) (PCMc: *meña)

mmʷεn‘fish species’ (PMc: *mʷonu)

moto heal (PMc: *mawo)

moo-(n oola)scar’, mowε ‘its scar, trace, ruins’ (PMc: *mawo)

mosul·‘thick’ (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

mowr‘alive, raw’ (PMc: *mauri)

mowεits scar, trace, ruins (PMc: *mawo)

mpeybouyant (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

Pohnpeian (340 / 819)

mpʷahermit crab (PMc: *wumʷa)

mpʷosboil, swelling (PCMc: *pʷoto)

mpʷosa-(da)to swell up, rise (as bread) (PCMc: *pʷoto)

mpʷul‘flame’ (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

mpʷεk‘flower bud’ (PWMc: *pʷaku)

mpʷεr·‘twins’ (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

mpεŋbe awakened (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

-mʷ,, -mʷi·your (singular) (honorific) (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-(as in mwa-aŋieŋ ‘giddy, dizzy’) (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷa-aliεlbe dizzy (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

mʷa-aliεlihis brain (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

mʷaan·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷaar, mʷaramʷar, mʷarε·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷaasworm, bacteria, germ (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷaat‘clearing, field, plantation, garden, farm’ (PWMc: *mʷaca₂)

mʷaatclearing, field, plantation, garden (PMc: *maata, maataata)

mʷaawgood (PMc: *mʷaau)

mʷaaw-(ki)to consider good, desire (something) (PMc: *mʷaau)

mʷasaal, mʷesaalε‘intestines, his intestines’ (PWMc: *mʷata[ŋØ]ala)

mʷasa-(koyl)maggot (PMc: *mʷata)

Pohnpeian (360 / 819)

mʷe-(as in mwe-ŋiniŋin ‘whisper’, mwe-ŋereŋer ‘spotted, blotched’, mwe-rekirek ‘wrinkled’) (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷetclear an area, cut or pull grass (PMc: *maata, maataata)

mʷetmake a clearing, plantation, or garden (PMc: *maata, maataata)

mʷey‘finish defecating’ (PMc: *mʷotu)

mʷeybe broken (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷey-dto break (something, as a string) (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷmʷus·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷo-(as in mwo-kuuku ‘whisper’) (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷoodsit (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʷoon-(di)sit down (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mʷowε‘ahead of him, to offer as a first fruit’ (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷulε-(pεnε)‘to twist or wind (something) together’ (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mʷuri-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

mʷuun‘squirrel fish (Myripristis adustus)’ (PWMc: *mʷuno)

mʷεkid·‘be in motion’ (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

mʷεkimʷεk·‘arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides)’ (PWMc: *mʷakumʷaku)

mʷεŋε, mʷεŋεε-(n)‘eat, food, food of’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mεd·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

mεdεk·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

mεdεndεlsmooth and flat (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

Pohnpeian (380 / 819)

mεk‘dented’ (PMc: *maki)

mε-liε-(ε-la)‘to forget (honorific)’ (PMc: *ma-lie)

mεm·‘sweet’ (PMc: *mami)

mε-nipinip‘thin (of flat objects such as paper)’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

mεŋwithered, dry, dead vegetation (PMc: *maŋu)

mεŋi-(lɔl)‘talk to oneself’ (PMc: *maŋi)

mεr‘rusty, corroded’ (PMc: *mera, meera)

mεtε‘metal, nail, badge, spear for a speargun’ (PMc: *mece-a)

mε-tεytεy·‘slimy’ (PMc: *ma-cai)

mεyŋ-(tɔl)‘be left handed’ (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

mεyr·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

mεε, mεε-(n)‘thing, one of, thing of’ (PMc: *meña)

mεε-(la)·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

(mεε)-ndawhy? to what purpose? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

naamʷ, (nεε)-namʷ·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

naan·‘pus’ (PMc: *nana)

naay, nεy-, naa‘child; possessive classifier for children, pets, toys’ (PMc: *natu)

nameat or taste (something) (PMc: *ñama)

namits taste, flavor (PMc: *ñama)

Pohnpeian (400 / 819)

namanamtaste (PMc: *ñama)

ndiltorch made of dried coconut leaves, to fish with torches (PMc: *sulu)

neew‘kind of frog fish’ (PMc: *nowu)

nii·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

-ni-(ki)derive trans. verb from inalienable noun: sapwe-ni-ki ‘to own (of land), (sapwe- ‘land’)’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

ni-m, ni-mε·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

nook‘main rib of the stem of a palm frond, any hard straw-like object’ (PMc: *noko)

nta, ntaa-·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

ntiŋto write, to tattoo (PMc: *ciciŋi)

ntiŋi-ito write or tattoo (something) (PMc: *ciciŋi)

nuud·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

nεminεmto eat, taste (used derogatorily) (PMc: *ñama)

nεε‘his leg’ (PMc: *ney[ae])

nεε-(namʷ)‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

ŋaap·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋata-‘be bored or tired of something repetitious’ (PWMc: *ŋasa)

ŋeen, ŋeni·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋii·‘ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)’ (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

ŋii‘his tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋiil, ŋilε‘voice, tune, his voice’ (PWMc: *ŋil[ai])

Pohnpeian (420 / 819)

ŋii-(n-wer)‘overly talkative, protesting too much, all talk and no action’ (lit. ‘sound of loud talk’: wer ‘to shout, scream, howl, yell, holler at, vocalize loudly’) (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋiisa chant (PMc: *ŋiTi)

ŋir‘be tired (honorific)’ (PCMc: *ŋixo)

ŋiriŋir, ŋiriŋiri-igrowl, snarl, quarrel, growl at (something) (PMc: *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti)

ŋiri-sekto resound (PMc: *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti)

ŋisto chant, be boisterous (PMc: *ŋiTi)

ŋoor, ŋorεaccent, dialect, tune, tone, his accent (PCMc: *ŋoro)

-ŋowl·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

ŋεtεŋεtε‘roof of his mouth’ (PMc: *ŋaco)

ŋεεy·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

-o·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

ood, wεεd‘Alocasia taro’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

oot·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

pato weave (something) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

paa-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

paa‘leaf of any large leaved plant such as taro’ (PMc: *paa₂)

paa, paa-n·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

paa-d‘to push with one’s foot’ (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

paad‘dent, depression, puddle’, pad ‘dented’ (PWMc: *pasa)

Pohnpeian (440 / 819)

paa-(n)‘bait, lure’ (PMc: *paa₁)

paa-ŋ‘to enumarate (something)’ (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

paarspongy center of sprouting coconut’, par ‘to sprout (of coconuts) (PMc: *fara)

paas, pese‘nest, its nest, litter or rack for carrying large yams (PMc: *fata)

paaycoral (PMc: *fatu)

paddented (PWMc: *pasa)

padi-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

(pai)-ruk, (dai)-rukto bend forward from the waist (PMc: *ruku₂)

pak‘be smashed (as of a fallen ripe fruit)’ (PMc: *paku)

pako, pɔkε·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

pala-ŋto dry, to expose objects to the sun in order to dry them (PWMc: *pale)

palapal‘rabbit fish’ (PMc: *palapala)

pali‘part, side, division, section’ (PWMc: *palia)

pali-ito tattoo (PWMc: *falu₂)

(pali)-εpεŋ·‘north’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

panawi-ito advise him (PMc: *fanau)

paŋbe tilted, crooked, cockeyed (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

paŋa-(la)‘betray, give away’ (PMc: *faŋa)

paŋapaŋlie crossways (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

paŋi-dto blow (one’s nose) (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

Pohnpeian (460 / 819)

paŋi-nto awaken (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

par‘abnormal sounding (as of the voice or an instrument)’ (PMc: *[fp]ara ?)

parto sprout (of coconuts) (PMc: *fara)

parbe fecund, spread about, sprout (of coconuts) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

parap·‘windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe’ (PWMc: *farafa)

paraparfish species (PMc: *parapara)

paraparε-(n lik)fish species (PMc: *parapara)

paro-k‘to catch something animate, to arrest’ (PCMc: *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka)

pas‘arrive by sea, return from fishing’ (PMc: *pata)

pasapasplatform, shelf (PMc: *fata)

pasapεŋto respond, to answer (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

pat‘be together’ (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

patapat‘flat (of a surface)’ (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

paythe stones used in an earth oven (PMc: *fatu)

payd‘who else?’ (PMc: *faiSa)

*payipayisea urchin (PCMc: *panipani)

pɔd, pɔdo-k·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

-pɔr‘counting classifier for long thin pieces or strips of something’ (PMc: *faxo)

pɔtɔpɔt‘everlasting, constant, permanent’ (PCMc: *faco)

peen‘drinking coconut (honorific)’ (PCMc: *peni)

Pohnpeian (480 / 819)

peeyaltar, any ancient structure of stones, a pile (PCMc: *pei)

peeybig seed (as in a mango) (PMc: *fatu)

pei‘be tied up (of boat)’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

*peine·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

pele-ŋbe dried, be exposed to the sun (PWMc: *pale)

penipen‘sea cucumber’ (PCMc: *panipani)

peyfloat (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

(pe)-ydaydtransportation, to transport in a vehicle (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

(pe)-ydεkto ask a question (PMc: *tiSaki)

peynwoman (PMc: *faifine)

peyna-(kapʷ)young woman (kapw ‘new’) (PMc: *faifine)

pey-(ni-kid)pile of debris, dump (PCMc: *pei)

pey-(tεεl)big flat pounding stone (PMc: *fatu)

pid‘to pertain to, to concern (something)’ (PMc: *fiSi)

pidekto go around (PCMc: *fitaki)

pideki-igo around (something) (PCMc: *fitaki)

piiksand (PMc: *pike)

piilwater, liquid (PMc: *pili)

piipivagina (PMc: *pia)

pikapiksandy (PMc: *pike)

Pohnpeian (500 / 819)

pikipik, piki-r‘to pat, slap affectionately’ (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pilchoose (something) (PMc: *fili, filifili)

pilipilchoose, select (PMc: *fili, filifili)

pili-(tik)stream (PMc: *pili)

pil-(lap)river (PMc: *pili)

pinato patch, block, seal (it) (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pinapinto be patched, blocked, sealed (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pinipin‘closely twisted or curled’ (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

piŋconfused, disordered, messy’, piŋipiŋ ‘confusion, disorder, mess’ (PWMc: *piko, piko-si)

piŋipiŋconfusion, disorder, mess (PWMc: *piko, piko-si)

pirto turn, to spin, to twist (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

pirto flash (PMc: *fiti)

pirto flash (PWMc: *were, werewere)

pirapirto tie, to wear a belt, a belt (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

pirε-rto turn, spin, twist (something) (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

pi-(sikεn)‘push each other’ (PMc: *fi-)

pit-‘to escape’ (PWMc: *pici)

pitto spring back (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pit, pitε-(n)‘classifier for strips and strands’ (PCMc: *fica)

pitikiidabe itchy from something (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

Pohnpeian (520 / 819)

pitipitfast in the ability to perform actions (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

piεher vagina (PMc: *pia)

pon‘stuffed up, clogged’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

poo-(n)on (PMc: *fawo)

poo-(n pey)Pohnpei Island (PMc: *fawo)

posexplode (PCMc: *woTo)

powfeeling cold, cool, chilly (PMc: *fou)

poweon it, above it (PMc: *fawo)

pʷa·‘to say’ (PMc: *pʷaa)

pʷalbe slit, cut open, operated on, divided (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

pʷala-ŋto slit (something), cut (something open), etc. (PMc: *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki)

pʷand‘late, slow’ (PWMc: *pʷasa)

pʷar‘appear’ (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷar‘appear, pass in a race’ (PMc: *pʷera)

pʷarapʷar‘ridge cap’ (PCMc: *pʷara)

pʷay‘wooden implement for splitting breadfruit’ (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷay-nto buy, pay, hire (something)’ (PCMc: *pʷai)

pʷɔɔr‘hole, cave’ (PMc: *pʷaro)

pʷeel, pʷeli-‘taro swamp’ (PCMc: *pʷalu)

pʷeew‘snapper (Lutjanus semicinctus)’ (PCMc: *pʷaua)

Pohnpeian (540 / 819)

pʷeli-pʷel‘dirty’ (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

pʷeypʷey‘stupid, silly, idiotic, simple, dumb’ (PWMc: *pʷaipʷai)

pʷiil, pʷili-‘gum’ (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

pʷii-(n)‘group, team’ (PWMc: *pʷiti)

pʷil‘to put down or put aside (as one’s beliefs) (PMc: *pʷili)

pʷili (sic)‘cowrie shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

(pʷi)-niŋiniŋ·‘small, little, tiny’ (PWMc: *niŋi)

pʷisε‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

pʷonwhole, entire (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

pʷonopʷonround, circular, a circle (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

pʷoo, pʷowε‘smell, odor, aroma, its smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

pʷooŋ·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

(pʷoo)-sensenmoldy smelling (PMc: *tanitani)

pʷow·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷudo, pʷudaw, pʷudowεsweat, perspiration, his sweat (PMc: *pʷ[iu]Sowa)

pʷudopʷud‘foam, scum’ (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

pʷudowadosweaty (PMc: *pʷ[iu]Sowa)

pʷukiε‘his knee’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

pʷukopʷuka knot, tie knots (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷukεto tie (something) (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

Pohnpeian (560 / 819)

pʷukεl, pʷukεlεknot, joint, node, its knot (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷukε-(n)knot of (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷulak‘unicorn fish (Naso unicornis)’ (PWMc: *pʷulaka₁)

pʷuri, pʷuriyεstomach (of certain fish like tuna), core (as of breadfruit), hemorrhoid, its stomach (PCMc: *pʷurua)

pʷut‘joyous, lusty’ (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuupʷ‘trigger fish’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

pʷuur‘to descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole)’ (PMc: *pʷuro)

pʷuur-descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole) (with directional suffix) (PMc: *pʷutu)

pʷuus, pʷusε·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

pʷε·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷεk‘to lift, adopt (something)’ (PMc: *pʷeki)

pʷεr‘appear, blossom (of fruit and flowers)’ (PMc: *pʷere)

pʷεtεpʷεt, pʷεεt·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

pʷεypʷεybe bought, be paid, cost money (PCMc: *pʷai)

pʷεεk·‘kind of bat’ (PMc: *pʷeka)

pʷεεt·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

pεk‘defecate’ (PMc: *peka)

pεl‘be in a taboo relationship’ (PMc: *fali)

pεlipεltattoo, to tattoo (PWMc: *falu₂)

pε-(nε)toward each other (PMc: *fa-)

Pohnpeian (580 / 819)

pεnεwbe advised (PMc: *fanau)

pεŋid-εkto blow one’s nose (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

pεri-(n maay)breadfruit tree sprout (PMc: *fara)

pεrεkto unroll (as a mat) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

pεrεkito unroll (something) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

pε-sεŋaway from each other (PMc: *fa-)

pεyk‘skillful, of a diver able to go deep or hold his breath for a long time’ (PMc: *patiki)

pεypεyto weave (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

pεypεysmall black species. of sea urchin (PCMc: *panipani)

pεε‘his arm’ (PMc: *pau)

pεεkiεkto be summoned to the presence of a high chief (PMc: *paiki)

pεεlεŋ‘place name’ (PWMc: *pa-i-laŋi)

pεε-(pɔrok)a large rayfish (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

pεε-(wεεwε)manta ray (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

raa‘branch, tentacle’ (PMc: *rae)

raak‘season of plenty, breadfruit season’ (PCMc: *raki)

raan·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

raar‘finger coral’ (with assimilation of initial *l to following r) (PCMc: *laxa)

raawminor rafter (PMc: *xawu)

rɔɔs·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

Pohnpeian (600 / 819)

reew, rew-(lap)beam or rafter (PMc: *xawu)

riaa-(la)‘be cursed (resulting in misfortune)’ (PCMc: *riea)

riaw·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

(rie)-isεktwenty (PCMc: *-itaki)

rik‘gather objects from the ground’ (PWMc: *riku or *ruki)

rirdifficult to locate or understand, hidden, concealed, vague (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

riri-ito hide behind or conceal (something) (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

riε‘possessive classifier for siblings’ (PMc: *ria)

rokumʷ·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

roŋhear (PMc: *roŋo)

rooŋnews (PMc: *roŋo)

root‘arkness (PMc: *roco)

ros‘be consumed, used up’ (PWMc: *rota)

rotdark (PMc: *roco)

rota-(la)become dark (PMc: *roco)

rotorotpagan, uncivilized (PMc: *roco)

·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

rεki-iscratch or claw (something) (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

rεkirεkto scratch with the fingernails, to claw (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

rεŋdried (as of copra or tobacco) (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

Pohnpeian (620 / 819)

rεŋirεŋwarm oneself by a fire (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

rεŋε-d‘dark (of colors)’ (PMc: *reŋa)

rεr·‘tremble (with fear)’ (PMc: *rere)

sa-, sai(kintε)‘not yet’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

saalrope, cord, string (PMc: *tali)

sa-aliεldizzy, mentally ill or retarded (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

saam, sεmε‘father, his father’ (PMc: *tama)

saapʷ, sapʷεland or homestead, his land (PMc: *tapʷo)

salto gather rope, haul on a line (PMc: *tali)

salieat meat or fish, the meat or fish part of a meal (PCMc: *talia)

saliεeat (the meat or fish part of a meal) (PCMc: *talia)

salεŋ, salεŋε‘ear, his ear (PMc: *taliŋa)

salεŋε-n εnifungus, mushroom’ (lit. ‘ear of ghost’) (PMc: *taliŋa)

sansal‘clear, evident, obvious’ (PCMc: *tale)

sansarbe sliced, peeled (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sansara-dabe uprooted (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

-saŋ‘from, in oposition to’ (PWMc: *taŋi)

sapto cut into pieces (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

sapto cut into pieces (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sapaal‘repeat an activity, do again’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

Pohnpeian (640 / 819)

sapa-kto harvest (of bananas) (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sapʷ‘reach end of a round of kava’ (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

sapʷakε‘hawksbill turtle’ (PCMc: *tapʷakea)

sapε‘to carry (something) in one’s arms’ (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

sapε-ŋ‘to respond, answer’ (PMc: *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i)

sarto peel (of skin after sunburn) (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sara·‘squirrel fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

sara-(da)‘look upwards’ (da ‘upwards’) (PMc: *tara, tara-[sS]i)

saraw·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

sara-wi, sara-wii-(n)‘sacred, holy, a religious service, magic, taboo, r. sacred of’ (PMc: *tara)

sarε-kto uproot, peel, pry (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sawa‘be broken’ (PMc: *tawaa)

sawi‘grouper fish (Plectropomus)’ (PWMc: *tawia)

saw-nto make (a fire), to add wood to (a fire) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

say-k‘to catch (fish)’ (PMc: *tautau, tau-ki)

say-m·‘sharpen’ (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

sayp‘sardine’ (PMc: *tañifa)

sɔɔ-(roŋ)‘ridgepole of a building’ (PMc: *tao)

sɔn‘aligned, settled, arranged, ordered’ (PMc: *tano)

seed·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

Pohnpeian (660 / 819)

seew, sew-·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

sensenskin disease caused by a fungus, be moldy or old tasting (PMc: *tanitani)

seri‘her child’ (PMc: *tari)

siik‘a white sea bird’ (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

siik‘penis (of an infant)’ (PMc: *Teka or *Tika)

(sili)-isεkthirty (PCMc: *-itaki)

silε·‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

siŋ, siŋi-dfart, fart at (PMc: *Tiŋi)

sobe saturated (PMc: *Too)

sok‘to bite (used with reference to rats’) (PMc: *toki)

sok‘to land (of something that flies), to touch bottom with one’s feet in water’ (PMc: *Toka)

soko-n·‘cane, walking stick’ (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

soŋto try, attempt, taste (something) (PWMc: *Toŋo)

soŋosoŋtemptation (PWMc: *Toŋo)

soo-nto soak (something) (PMc: *Too)

sooso·‘inheritance’ (PMc: *to[ae])

sopʷ‘be saturated with pomade or hair lotion’ (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

sou‘to move, change residence’ (PWMc: *Towu)

sow‘sun’ (archaic) (PMc: *tau₂)

sow-expert at (PMc: *tawu-₁)

Pohnpeian (680 / 819)

sowto be made (of a fire) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

sow-prefix in titles of rank (PMc: *tawu-₁)

sow, sowi-, sawi-‘matrilineal clan’ (PMc: *tawu₂)

sow(di)to bury itself in the mud (of crabs) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

(sow)-mʷaawsickness, disease (PMc: *mʷaau)

sowsowgrave, cemetery (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

suk‘to pound (something)’ (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

suur‘to sink in mud, to wade in mud’ (PWMc: *Tuuru)

suurε·‘barracuda’ (PMc: *turai)

‘we (excl.)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

sεndappendage, finger, toe (PWMc: *tanisi)

sεndi-(n pεε)finger (PWMc: *tanisi)

sεŋ·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

sεpε‘his cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

sεpεcut (something) into pieces (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

sεpεcut (something) into pieces (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sεr‘run aground’ (PWMc: *Ter[ae])

sεrεto slice, peel with an instrument (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sεrεk·‘to sail’ (PWMc: *taraki)

sεwi·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

Pohnpeian (700 / 819)

sεy·‘porcupine fish’ (PMc: *tautu)

sεysεybe sharpened (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

(sε)-εsεto not know (PMc: *ata-i-)

-t·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

taamʷ, tεmʷε‘forehead, his forehead’ (PMc: *camʷa)

takaystone, rock (PCMc: *cakai)

takay-(pʷεt)coral head (PCMc: *cakai)

tamʷε‘to lick (something)’ (PMc: *camʷ [ai], camʷ [ai]-ti)

taŋto run, to flee, to swim (as a fish) (PCMc: *caŋa)

tapiits beginning, base (of a tree) (PWMc: *capi)

*tara-wii·‘sacred, holy’ (PMc: *tara)

taw-rweigh down (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

tɔɔlcoal (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

tɔntɔl (<*tɔttɔl, <*tɔlotɔl)black (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

ti‘to possess or inhabit a human body (of a spirit)’ (PMc: *cucu)

tia-k‘to start a song’ (PMc: *cia)

tia-tito wear earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

tii‘his bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

tiilε‘sty, have a sty’ (PMc: *ciilee)

tiipʷ‘pair of sticks used to pick up hot rocks from an earth oven’ (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

Pohnpeian (720 / 819)

tikitik·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

tipʷbe broken (of any long object) (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

tipʷa-ŋbreak it (a long object) (PMc: *cipʷa₁)

titin·‘strand tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

tiεclassifier for earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

too-(n)‘member of’ (PCMc: *cao)

towtowheavy (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

towtow‘scoop out’ (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

tu·‘meet, encounter’ (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

tuwifirewood (PMc: *mʷucu)

tεŋεto run to (something) (PCMc: *caŋa)

tεpto begin, start (PWMc: *capi)

tεε·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

tεε-lapwide (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

tεεp‘a skipjack (Caranx)’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

tεε-(tik)narrow (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

uduk·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

uluŋε-‘his/her pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

uluul‘pillow, small hill’ (PMc: *uluulu)

umʷto bake in an earth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

Pohnpeian (740 / 819)

umʷu-lε·‘a reef fish prized as food’ (PCMc: *wumʷu-lau)

umʷu-nto bake (something) in an earth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

us‘pull out, pluck’ (PMc: *wuti)

usu·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

uu‘stand’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

uu‘tide’ (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

uu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

uu-(di)‘to stop (of moving objects)’ (PMc: *tuu₂)

uuk‘net’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

uumʷearth oven (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

uupplant (D. elliptica) used to poison fish (PMc: *upa)

uupa-wpto poison fish (PMc: *upa)

uupʷ‘drinking coconut’ (PMc: *wupʷu)

uur‘post’ (PMc: *tura)

uur, urε-(nna)·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

uus‘float as for a fishing net’ (PCMc: *iTo)

uut, uti-·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

waa‘fruit, flower’ (PMc: *wuaa)

waad‘puffer fish’ (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

waal‘jungle, forest’ (PMc: *walu)

Pohnpeian (760 / 819)

waan-(pey)·‘pumice stone’ (PMc: *waani)

waar·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waar, wεrεbody (of a person), his body (PMc: *waxa₁)

waawrespect, honor (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

wadto multiply (in mathematics) (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wadawadto read, count (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wadi-kimultiply it (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wadε-kread or count (something) (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wasasto stagger, have difficulty keeping one’s footing (PMc: *wae)

waw-nrespectful, respectable, honorable (PMc: *wa[wØ]u)

weey·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

weli-be turned over (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

weli-(di)be turned down (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

weli-kturn (something) over (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wen-(di)·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

weŋi-dεktwisted (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

weŋiweŋ, weŋi-dto wring, squeeze (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

we-(yd)walk in a specific direction (PMc: *wae)

wey-(pʷul), we-(mpʷul)‘Morinda citrifolia (cf. pwul ‘immature, of fruit’) (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

wii·tree (Barringtonia asiatica) (PMc: *futu)

Pohnpeian (780 / 819)

wii‘fat, grease’ (PWMc: *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae])

wiki-dto turn (something) over, to change (something, as an opinion) (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wiki-dεkto turn, change direction (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wilε‘his penis’ (PWMc: *wul[ae])

winεits hair, etc. (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wi-sik‘burden, load to be carried’ (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

wwa‘carry’ (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

-wεy·‘toward or in direction of person addressed’ (PMc: *watu)

-y·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

(y)-aa-d·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

-yeyoutwards (PMc: *wotu)

yomogoatfish (Parupeneus indicus) (PMc: *tewe, tewe-mea)

yya·‘where?’ (PCMc: *iaa)

yyasa-(da)‘to be risen’ (PMc: *ata)

yyow‘sweet, delicious’ (PMc: *ñañau)

-yε·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

ε·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

‘this by me’ (PMc: *ee)

εdi‘his bile’ (PMc: *asi)

εdiεdcloudy, blurred, smoky (PMc: *a[sS]u)

Pohnpeian (800 / 819)

εdεto sharpen (something) (PMc: *a[sS]a)

εki-i-(la)‘hide it away’ (PWMc: *aki, akiaki)

εkiεk‘to be hidden, concealed’ (PWMc: *aki, akiaki)

εkεrto call, to summon (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

εmp·‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *afafi)

εmʷii‘bunch of it (palm nuts)’ (PCMc: *amʷii)

(εmʷir)-εk‘to be crumpled’ (amwir ‘to crumple’) (PMc: *-aki)

εmʷiεmʷ, amʷi-n·‘to wash one’s hands’ (PMc: *[aØ]mʷi, [aØ]mʷi ni)

-εn‘that, by you’ (PMc: *ena)

εni‘ghost’ (PMc: *anitu)

εŋ-‘to reach for’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

εpil‘goatfish’ (PMc: *apili)

(ε)-pεŋ·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

εriŋ‘ripe coconut’ (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

εriεrto stir, to probe (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

εsεto know, understand (something) (PMc: *ata-i-)

(ε)-wεl, wεlε-, wεli-, wali-, walu-u·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

εy-(paay)’walking with swinging arms’ (PCMc: *au-)

εε‘his liver’ (PMc: *ate)

Ponapeian (819) . see: Pohnpeian

22. Pulo-Annan (534) (Oda 1977)

-a·‘him, her, it’ (object pronoun) (PMc: *-a)

-aki-ni·‘passive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

(bʷ)-atú [sic]‘be smoky’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

-da·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

daa-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

daadú, dadú-stone, rock, coral (PMc: *fatu)

daala, dala-‘copra sponge’ (PMc: *fara)

da-amʷa‘to adopt a child, take care of him/her’ (PCMc: *amʷa)

daane. dane-·‘meeting house’ (PMc: *fale)

da-anieni‘to circle, go around’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

daao, dao-pole (PMc: *faxo)

daasa, dasa-·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

daata, data-·‘tree trunk’ (PMc: *fata, fata-ŋa)

daata, data-shelf (PMc: *fata)

daati, dati-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

dadadadato call (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

dada-ŋúto call (someone) (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

dadatanest (PMc: *fata)

dadiauncultivated land (PMc: *fafia)

dadúdadú‘to weave’ (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

Pulo-Annan (20 / 534)

dadúkú·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

(dadú)-maka (sic)gravel, pebbles (PCMc: *mʷoka)

daila·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

daila·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

dakadi·‘evening’ (PMc: *fakaafi)

dalaki-nito be scattered, spread, to scatter or spread (something) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

dale-wa·‘lungs’ (PMc: *far[ae])

danaúlesson, precept, commandment (PMc: *fanau)

da-(ni) (sic)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

danú (sic)tattoo it, write it (PWMc: *falu₂)

danúa·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

danúdanútattoo, writing (PWMc: *falu₂)

daŋa‘gift, give’ (PMc: *faŋa)

daŋidaŋi‘to smoke fish’ (PCMc: *faŋi)

daŋúbe wakened (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

daŋú-núwake him up (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

daoto pole a canoe (PMc: *faxo)

dao-(data)a raft (PMc: *faxo)

data (sic)string, to stab through a string (PMc: *faa, faasa)

data (sic)special food, chiefʻs food (PMc: *faa, faasa)

Pulo-Annan (40 / 534)

-data (sic)counting classifier for strings of something (PMc: *faa, faasa)

datane‘to walk around’ (PMc: *faSale)

dato, dato-ki, dato-ko·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

-daúround object (in counting) (PMc: *fatu)

daúdaú‘to weave’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

daúlúbehavior, deed, to behave, do, make (PMc: *fauru)

daúlú-(aki)be made (PMc: *fauru)

ddééú‘to be cold (the whole body) (PMc: *fou)

de-·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

déé‘to rest’ (PCMc: *Too)

deidine·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

dei-ŋitear it apart, tatter it (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

deita‘how is it? what happens?’ (PMc: *faiSa)

déni- and déni-iki·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

di-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

dia (sic)·‘boundary’ (PCMc: *tiaa)

diaŋo‘story, tell a story’ (PMc: *fiaŋo)

didi‘flashing’ (PMc: *fiti)

didi·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

didi-, didi-(ow), didi-iki·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

Pulo-Annan (60 / 534)

diia, dia-·‘stomach, belly, abdomen’ (PMc: *tia₁)

diina, dina-·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

dila‘to braid’ (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

diŋi-ti‘to twist, wring, squeeze (something)’ (PWMc: *fiŋi-[sS]i)

disi-ŋi‘break it in two’ (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

dite-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

diteki and Sns fiteki‘to work’ (PCMc: *fitaki)

ditiko·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

dolo-mi‘suck it, drink it with a straw’ (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

dooko, doko-·‘cane, walking stick’ (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

doopʷu, dopʷu-drop (of water) (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

dopʷuto drip (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

-dou‘cut pieces of breadfruit (counting classifier)’ (PMc: *towu)

due-ni‘suceed it, inherit it’ (PMc: *to[ae])

du-ki (sic)open (something) (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

dúú‘stand’ (PMc: *tuu₁)

dúú‘stop’ (PMc: *tuu₂)

dúúlu, dúlú- (sic)‘house post’ (PMc: *tura)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

-ei·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

Pulo-Annan (80 / 534)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

-i-·‘of’ (PMc: *-i-)

i-·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

-i·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

i-daa‘which? (PMc: *-faa)

(i)-edaŋi·‘north’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

iia·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

iika, ika-(ni)·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iila·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

iimʷa, imʷa-(na)·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

iina, ina-·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

iiŋi, iŋi-·‘dorsal fin’ (PMc: *iŋi)

iita, ita-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

(i)-iyaa·‘where?’ (PCMc: *iaa)

i-ka-ana, i-ka-nana·‘at place’ (as designated) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

inni‘banana shoot’ (PMc: *ili)

(i)-ŋae-tawhen? (past) (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

ite-(tio)‘put it down’ (PMc: *ita, itaita)

(i)-téú·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

ititi (sic)spoon made of fishbone or turtle shell (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

Pulo-Annan (100 / 534)

ka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

ka-, kka-, kakka-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

kaai, kai-‘penis’ (PMc: *kayu)

(ka)-ako·‘steer a boat’ (PMc: *ako, akoako)

kaamii, -kamii·you (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

kaapi, kapi-‘end, hip, buttocks’ (PMc: *kapi)

kaaú, kaú-·‘fishhook, catch with hook’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

kada-(mmani)be funny, amusing’ (mmani ‘laugh’) (PMc: *kata)

kaeoften, usually (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kai·‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ (PMc: *kayi)

kainaŋa‘family, land, home, village, estate’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

(kali)-ddééúcold (of things) (PMc: *fou)

kalúkalú‘coconut grater’ (PMc: *karu)

kamami, -kamami·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

ka-ma-tipicut or break it into pieces (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

(ka)-meŋi-(ŋani)remind him (PMc: *maŋi)

(ka)-métécook it (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

kana-·‘food’, ‘eat (something)’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

kanabe only (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kanokano‘sennit cord’ (PCMc: *kalo)

Pulo-Annan (120 / 534)

(ka)-núlúmake a shade (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

(ka)-ŋeleŋele‘to clear the throat’ (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

kaŋi·eat (something) (PMc: *kaŋi)

kapakapato talk behind oneʻs back (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

ka-peipei‘driftwood’ (PCMc: *kai-peti)

kase-di·‘throw’ (PCMc: *kace)

katama·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

(ka)-tawa-dito break it, destroy it (PCMc: *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta)

(ka)-ti-ŋi‘throw it’ (PMc: *[sS]i-)

ka-ttúfinger (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

-ka-ttúfinger (c.c.) (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

katúwa (sic)·‘east’ (PMc: *kautiwa)

kaúdú·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

(kaú)-samu (sic)end purlins of house (PMc: *camʷa)

kéékéé‘bandage’ (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

kelikeli·‘to scratch’ (PMc: *kari)

keni-ŋi·‘dig’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kiao·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kiekie‘butterfly’ (PCMc: *kiakia)

kiia, kia-·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

Pulo-Annan (140 / 534)

kiini, kini-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

kiisa·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

kiita·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kinito pick up (fruit) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

(kini)-daú·‘hibiscus’ (PMc: *-fau)

kini-dipick it up (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kinie-possessive classifier for mats (PWMc: *kinia)

kini-(e)section of a house marked off by a partition (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kiyopʷu‘spider lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

kkala·‘burnt’ (PMc: *kara, kakara)

kkaŋi·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kkatú (sic)itch, an itchy feeling (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kkaú‘salute, greet’ (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

#kkú·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

kkula‘penis’ (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

ko, ko(e)(polite) (PMc: *ko-, koe)

kodo-dibreak or snap (something) (PMc: *kota)

kodokodoto break, snap (branches) (PMc: *kota)

kolo·‘pubic hair’ (PMc: *koro)

kona‘to catch and have (something) in one’s possession’ (PMc: *kona)

Pulo-Annan (160 / 534)

kosa-·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

kosoto slice thinly (PMc: *koco₁)

koso-dislice it thinly (PMc: *koco₁)

kosou‘rain cloud’ (PCMc: *kacawu)

kotokoto‘coconut husking stick, to husk with a husking stick’ (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

kú-dúbite it (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

kúe-(siki)·‘porpoise’ (PCMc: *kua)

kúkú, #kútúkútúto bite, sting (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

kunuto be extinguished, blotted out, destroyed (PMc: *kunu)

kunukunuto destroy, extinguish (PMc: *kunu)

kúú‘burn’ (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

kúúdú, kúdu-·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

laabranch (PMc: *rae)

laado, lado-·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

laalaabe branchy (PMc: *rae)

laani·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

laaŋa, laŋa-turmeric (PMc: *reŋa)

lakumu (sic)·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

laŋabe yellow (PMc: *reŋa)

le-·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

Pulo-Annan (180 / 534)

lei-actor or agent (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

lia (sic)holiness, sacred object, taboo, be holy, sacred, forbidden (PCMc: *riea)

lie-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

lieow·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

liiliito marry (PWMc: *rii)

lii-nimarry him (PWMc: *rii)

loŋoloŋo·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

looso, loso-darkness (PMc: *roco)

losolosoto be black (PMc: *roco)

lúdú-(aki-ni)‘be surprised at it, frightened by it’ (PMc: *rut[iu])

lúkú‘to pick up’ (PWMc: *riku or *ruki)

ma·‘and, with’ (PMc: *ma)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

ma·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

maai, mai-·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

maala, mala-‘wrapped preserved breadfruit’ (PMc: *mara)

maanú‘to float, drift’ (PMc: *maanu)

maanú‘a sidereal month equated with September’ (PCMc: *manu)

maanú, manú-(ni), (de)-manú·‘living creature of land or air’ (PMc: *manu)

maaŋo, maŋo-‘forehead’ (PMc: *maŋo)

Pulo-Annan (200 / 534)

maaŋú, maŋú-‘dry pandanus leaf’ (PMc: *maŋu)

maao·‘yawn, be open mouthed’ (PMc: *mawa)

maata‘garden, lot, taro patch, property’ (PMc: *maata, maataata)

maata, mata-·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma-danú‘be thick, thickness’ (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

made·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

madi-napa‘year, age, a month equated with May’ (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

madi-sikia sidereal month (equated with April) (PCMc: *mati-ciki)

ma-doa‘be hard, strong’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

madúlú·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

ma-kana‘be destroyed, broken, destroy, break’ (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

makúa‘to be nauseating’ (PCMc: *makua)

ma-lama‘moon, month’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

ma-lippi (sic)be cracked (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ma-nidibe thin (of flat objects) (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

ma-nidinidia slice, cut piece of cloth (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

manúeki‘be forgotten, to forget, forgive’ (PCMc: *maluoki, maluoka)

ma-onanona (sic, <*ma-onaona?)·‘perspiration’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

mataki·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

ma-takú·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

Pulo-Annan (220 / 534)

matalú·‘hiccough’ (PMc: *maSeru)

ma-tawa·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mato (sic)to sit (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mato-(ŋa)buttocks (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

matú·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

maú (sic)be good, fine (PMc: *mʷaau)

maúlú‘be alive (of plants), green’ (PMc: *mauri)

maunu (sic)·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

meese, mese-‘end, hem’ (PMc: *mece-a)

mene‘this one’ (PMc: *meña)

meŋithink about it, remember it (PMc: *maŋi)

meŋimeŋito think (PMc: *maŋi)

(me)-ta (sic)what? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

mété·‘cooked’ (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

mété, méttécooked (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mine‘stay, live’ (PCMc: *meña)

mma (sic)be ashamed (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

mmasa‘be fermented, ripe’ (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmata‘be awake, arise, open one’s eyes’ (PMc: *mamata)

mmata‘low tide, be dry, shallow, bailed’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

Pulo-Annan (240 / 534)

modia·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

modúmodú, modú-tiadopted child, adopt a child (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

moodo, modo-‘red snapper’ (PCMc: *mʷoTo)

moodu, modu-‘ancient times’ (PMc: *metu)

mʷa-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷaaki, mʷaki-‘eel’ (PWMc: *mʷaki)

mʷaale, mʷale-mʷale·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷaane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷadúbe broken (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

-mʷa-nú (sic)·‘length from elbow to finger tips’ (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

mʷaŋaú‘to eat, food (cooked staple), meal’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mʷasa-(iki)‘laziness, be lazy’ (PWMc: *mʷaca₁)

mʷili-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

mʷmʷuta·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷoni (sic)be generous, kind (PWMc: *mʷool[iu])

-mʷu·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷua-‘front, before’ (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷúúsú, mʷúsú-‘big firewood’ (PMc: *mʷucu)

-na·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

naamʷo, namʷo-(ni)·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

Pulo-Annan (260 / 534)

naamʷu, namʷu-·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

naana, nana-·‘pus’ (PMc: *nana)

naaŋi, naŋi-‘sky, heaven’ (PMc: *laŋi)

naaŋo, naŋo-·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

naaŋo, naŋo-‘cross beam under floor of house’ (PMc: *laŋo₂)

naaú, naú-·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

naawo, nawo-·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nako, -nako, na (sic)·‘go, proceed, (as directional) away’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

namanamahole, cave (PMc: *lama₂)

nama-(takúnni)circle (PMc: *lama-)

nama-(takúnú)to be round’ (lit. ‘egg shaped’) (PMc: *lama-)

na-(ni)in, at (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

na-(ni imʷa)at home (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

na-n-niya-(na)·‘place’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

nano-‘in, inside’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

nanoa·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

-naŋo‘into, inside’ (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

napa·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

napʷuto‘moray eel, sea snake’ (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

neewe, newe-·‘tongue’ (PMc: *lewe)

Pulo-Annan (280 / 534)

ni-·‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *li-)

-ni·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

niipʷa, nipʷa-grave, hole (PMc: *lipʷa)

nikinikito leave, throw, save (money), keep back (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

niki-tileave him, throw him (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

nima-, nima-ow, nima-iki·‘five, five (general), five (animate), fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

nipʷato bury (someone) (PMc: *lipʷa)

(ni)-pʷutwins (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

nnaka‘a sidereal month equated with July’ (PWMc: *laka)

nna-na‘its taste’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nnaú‘good taste, taste good’ (PMc: *ñañau)

nooko, noko-‘coconut frond’ (PMc: *noko)

nuka (sic)center, middle (PCMc: *luuka)

núkú-(na)·‘outside’ (PMc: *liku)

núkúnúkú‘make certain’ (PWMc: *liku)

núkúnúkú‘be secure’ (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

núlú (sic)shade, shelter, shadow (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nútúto jump, leap, spring (PMc: *luTu)

nútú-(ŋi)to jump or leap on it (PMc: *luTu)

núú·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

Pulo-Annan (300 / 534)

núúma, núma-·‘bailer’ (PMc: *[ln]ima)

nuumʷu, numʷu-·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

ŋaada, ŋada-na·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋaanú, ŋanú-na·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋaata, ŋata-‘hole’ (PMc: *ŋasa)

-ŋa-ladi·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋani‘to, toward’ (PWMc: *ŋani)

ŋaŋú·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

ŋei-dibite it (of meat)’ (PMc: *kai₁)

ŋii·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋiito, ŋito-·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

ŋŋeito be uncomfortable (PCMc: *ŋixo)

ŋúúŋúú‘roar, moan’ (PMc: *ŋuu)

ono-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

paabait, worm (PMc: *paa₁)

paado, pado-‘floor, flooring board’ (PCMc: *pawo)

paaka, paka-·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

paala, pala-·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

paa-niuse it as bait (PMc: *paa₁)

paapa·‘board, plank’ (PMc: *papa)

Pulo-Annan (320 / 534)

paapaause bait (PMc: *paa₁)

paata, pata-a piece that is cut out (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

paaú, paú-(na)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

pakoa·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

paŋaki‘to cross over’ (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

pasapasa‘foot’ (PMc: *paca, pacapaca)

PCk*wod[ao]-·‘Colocasia taro’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

peedi, pedi-·‘trash, rubbish’ (PMc: *peti)

peiki‘side beam of a house’ (PMc: *paiki)

piia·‘sand, beach’ (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

piini, pini- (sic)‘shellfish, mussel’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

pikipikiball (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pilikislap it, beat it (showing metathesis) (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pini, pinipini‘to twist, rotate, turn’ (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

ppana·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

ppao (sic)·‘to pound food’ (PMc: *pʷau)

ppedi·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

puna (sic)glow, flame, blinking of lights (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

pʷa·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷaalo, pʷalo-·‘box, hole’ (PMc: *pʷaro)

Pulo-Annan (340 / 534)

pʷaanni‘inspect, go around inspecting’ (PCMc: *pʷalili)

pʷaanú-‘soil’ (PCMc: *pʷalu)

pʷaaŋa, pʷaŋa-‘vagina’ (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

pʷaasa, pʷasa-·‘kind of round basket’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₂)

pʷaau, pʷau-·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷalo·‘curved, bent’ (PCMc: *pʷaro)

(pʷame)-tawhy (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

pʷatao (sic)·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

pʷatapʷatabe completely dry, withered (PCMc: *pʷata)

pʷaútú·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

-pʷe·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷe, pʷeŋito take (something) up from underground (PMc: *pʷeki)

pʷepʷe, pʷe-(yow), pʷe-ŋi (sic)‘take up from under ground, fish trap, take it up’ (PMc: *pʷai, pʷai-ti)

pʷesepʷese, pʷeese, pʷese-·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

pʷesi, pʷesi-kkala·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

pʷiidi, pʷidi-, pʷidi‘sibling of same sex, befriend’ (PWMc: *pʷiti)

pʷonú (sic)cover it (PMc: *pʷalu)

pʷonúpʷonúa cover, to cover (PMc: *pʷalu)

pʷoo·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

pʷoo·‘swelling’ (PCMc: *pʷoto)

Pulo-Annan (360 / 534)

pʷooŋi, pʷoŋi-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

pʷoosa, pʷosa-·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

pʷpʷatabe dry (PCMc: *pʷata)

pʷpʷuawaist, center (PMc: *pʷuto)

pʷuko-ditie it together, knot it (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷukopʷukoknots, tie knots, bind (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷukúa·‘node, joint, knot, knee’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

pʷunaka·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

pʷunúpʷunúbe sticky (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

pʷúŋú-(tio)‘to sit down’ (PCMc: *pʷuŋ[iu])

pʷuunú, pʷunú-‘gum, sap, glue (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

pʷuuŋú, pʷuŋú-·‘handle’ (PMc: *pʷuŋu)

pʷuuse, pʷuse-‘a fool’ (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuuta, pʷuta-navel (PMc: *pʷuto)

-sa·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

saano, sano-charcoal (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

saanú, sanú-·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

saao, sao-‘people’ (PCMc: *cao)

saapi, sapi-‘trunk’ (PWMc: *capi)

saaú, saú-·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

Pulo-Annan (380 / 534)

sakai‘egg’ (PCMc: *cakai)

sanomark on it, write on it (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

sawa·‘slow, late’ (PMc: *cawa)

siimʷa, simʷa-head (PMc: *cimʷe)

-siki·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

simʷanod the head (PMc: *cimʷe)

simʷa-(take)to get up (PMc: *cimʷe)

sipʷato pick up with chopsticks or forks (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

sipʷasipʷachopsticks (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

soou, sou-‘net’ (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

ssa·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

ssau·‘heavy, heaviness’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

ssi‘bone, thorn’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

súesúeto wear earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

súúe, súe-earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

ta-not (negative prefix) (PMc: *tai, ta-)

taama, tama-·‘outrigger float’ (PMc: *Sama)

taama, tama-·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

taani, tani-‘rope’ (PMc: *tali)

taapa, tapa-‘cheek, gill (of fish)’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

Pulo-Annan (400 / 534)

taapʷo, tapʷo-‘top, front, egde’ (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

taapʷu, tapʷu-‘taboo, ban marked by a taboo sign’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

taati, tati-·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

tadato slice soft things (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

-tadani·‘again, return’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

tadatadato slice, cut (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

taetae, tae-mi (sic)·‘sharpen’ (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

tai-(daú)‘new, fresh’ (PMc: *tau₂)

takaú‘group of islands, archipaleago’ (PMc: *sakau)

take‘ride on, rise, climb’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

-take·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

takkakkú-(ase)‘navigator’s cup with a handle’ (PWMc: *takaka)

takú-(lala)‘sword fish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

talawa·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

taleki‘to sail, navigate’ (PWMc: *taraki)

talúkú·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

(ta)-maúsin, badness, fault, be bad, mean, cruel (PMc: *mʷaau)

tanae·‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

tana-ti‘to save, rescue, forgive’ (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

taniŋa·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

Pulo-Annan (420 / 534)

taŋi, taŋitaŋi·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

taŋú‘smell it’ (PMc: *saŋu)

tao (sic)·‘reef pass, channel’ (PMc: *sawa)

tapaspeak about or announce (something) (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

tapakaú‘young, white, unopened coconut leaf’ (PMc: *tapaka[wØ]u)

tapa-kisplit it (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

tapa-ŋito help him (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tapatapato help (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tapatapasay, announce (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

tapatapato cut, split (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

tapatapato cut, split (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

tappiia (sic)wooden plate (PMc: *tapia)

taúdú·‘porcupine fish’ (PMc: *tautu)

tawa-dibe broken (PCMc: *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta)

tawa-(di) (sic)to be broken (PMc: *tawaa)

tawi (sic)·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

teitei, tei-di·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tii-ŋipush it, shove it (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiipa, tipa-·‘emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind’ (PMc: *sipa)

tiitiipush, shove (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

Pulo-Annan (440 / 534)

-tio·‘down, westward’ (PMc: *siwo)

tio-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

tio-ow·‘nine (general class of things)’ (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

-toko·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

toko·‘reach, arrive’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

tonabe mixed well, mingled, blended (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

tona-nito mix, blend, fuse (something) (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

tono‘to set (of sun)’ (PMc: *[sS]olo)

totano (sic)earth, ground (PMc: *tano)

tou-(tupʷa)‘spirit, god’ (PMc: *tau₁)

towai‘will not, do not (in negative commands)’ (PCMc: *t[ou]wai)

ttana·‘dream’ (PWMc: *sasana)

ttao·‘far, distant’ (PCMc: *soa)

ttao‘canoe thwart’ (PMc: *tao)

ttine‘light, to shine’ (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

túkú-mito wrap it, hide it (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkútúkúbe wrapped, to wrap (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tumʷuli‘a sidereal month equated with March’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

túttúú (sic)to bathe (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tútú‘breast, suck mother’s breast’ (PMc: *susu)

Pulo-Annan (460 / 534)

túúnú, túnú-·‘torch’ (PMc: *sulu)

ua (sic)fruit, flower (PMc: *wuaa)

udu‘to pluck, harvest by pulling’ (PMc: *wuti)

u-kesi·‘a large black ant’ (PMc: *kaci)

uku (sic)blow on it (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

ulo, uloulo·‘wash one’s face’ (PMc: *wuro, wuro-mata)

úlú-(paú)·‘to fan’ (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

(úlú)-paú‘to fan’ (PMc: *pau, paupau)

uma-(anna) (sic)hermit crab in the shell (PMc: *wumʷa)

umʷu·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

únú, únú-mi·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

únúŋa·‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

únú-tú‘pull it out’ (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

úsú-kekiquake, tremble (as in an earthquake), earthquake (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

úsú-kúshake it (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

úsúúsúto shake (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

úúa, úa-·‘a sail’ (PCMc: *yuwe)

uuko, uko-‘fishnet’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

úúla, úla-·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

úúna, úna-·‘hair, feathers, scales, remove (hair or scales)’ (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

Pulo-Annan (480 / 534)

úúnú‘coconut cloth, leaf of a tree’ (PMc: *inu or *uni)

uuŋa, uŋa-‘ridgepole, ceiling’ (PMc: *wuŋa)

uupʷa, upʷa-‘stomach’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

uupʷu, upʷu-‘green coconut, coconut milk’ (PMc: *wupʷu)

úúta, úta-·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

úya-(na)·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

waa, waa-·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waaka, waka-‘root, vein, sinew, artery’ (PMc: *waka)

waanú, wanú-green sprig used as a hair ornament (PMc: *walu)

walakala‘root, stalk’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *waka, wakara)

wani·‘pumice stone’ (PMc: *waani)

wanú- and wanú-iki·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

(wa)-ŋae-tawhen? (future) (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

we (sic)·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

wee‘be similar, alike’ (PMc: *wee)

wekito turn, change direction (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

weki-titurn it over, turn it around (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wiisi, wisi-(n)·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

wola·‘be, exist’ (PWMc: *oro)

wono-(tio)·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

Pulo-Annan (500 / 534)

wonuwonujungle, forest, bush (PMc: *walu)

woonú, wonú-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

woosa, wosa-·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

woota, wota-‘sweet taro grown on dry land’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

-wow‘outside, seaward’ (PMc: *wotu)

yaa-·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

yaade, yade-·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

yaadi, yadi-·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

yaado, yado-‘thatch, roof’ (PMc: *aTo)

yaana, yana-‘way, road, track’ (PMc: *ala₁)

yaano, yano-·‘sun’ (PMc: *alo)

yaate, yate-·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

yaawo, yawo-·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

yada·‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

yadadala‘carry on the shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

yadala‘shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

yadiedi‘pull as a rope’ (PMc: *afi₂)

yadi-ti‘carry it under the arm’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

yalaŋú‘coconut milk’ (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

yalemata·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

Pulo-Annan (520 / 534)

yalú-dúto stir (something) (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

yalúyalúto stir (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

yamete·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

yanai‘be long’ (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

yanúda‘sideburns’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

yanúdú‘god, spirit, ghost’ (PMc: *anitu)

yaŋe‘to reach out for’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yaŋi, yaŋiyaŋi·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

yatata [sic]‘to rub’ (PMc: *a[sS]a)

yaúair, climate. condition, appearance (PCMc: *au-)

yaú-(lani)weather, firmament, air (PCMc: *au-)

yaú-(siki)be long, narrow, skinny, thin (PCMc: *au-)

ye‘this by speaker’ (PMc: *ee)

yena (sic)this here (PMc: *ena)

23. Puluwatese (841) (Elbert 1972)

(a-ma)-atto grate something (such as raw taro) (PMc: *a[sS]a)

(a-ma)-atato grate it (PMc: *a[sS]a)

(á)-Ráŋi-(y)‘to love him/her’ (PCMc: *caŋi)

cca, ccaa-·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

cca-n‘to be’ (PCMc: *ca-)

ccen‘a tree (Messerschmidia argentea)’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

ccip (sic)‘stage in growth of skipjack fish’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

ccówo, ccówú- (sic)·‘heavy, heaviness’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

ceec, cece-(n)·‘shake, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

Crl: bʷol and Crn bʷon‘have something in the eye’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

cúú·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

éétiw, éétiwa-(afáŋ)·‘east’ (PMc: *kautiwa)

(e)-we, we, (i)-we·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

fa-, faa-, fé-, fo-, f-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

faah‘nest’ (PMc: *fata)

faal·‘bruised’ (PMc: *falu₁)

fáál·‘meeting house’ (PMc: *fale)

fáálchurch worship (PMc: *fali)

faal, falú-, falúfal‘spur (on a rooster), burr, thorn, spine on a fish’ (PWMc: *falu₂)

fá-aliyála circle (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

Puluwatese (20 / 841)

fáán·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

faa-(n), fáá-(n)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

faaR, faRá-(n)·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

faar, ferá-(n)‘core of breadfruit, sponge of coconut, core of’ (PMc: *fara)

fááriyáp·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

faat, fatú-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

fááte-ni-(y)‘to pierce it, penetrate it, string it (as fish)’ (PMc: *faa, faasa)

fáf, fáfi- (sic)evening meal (PMc: *fakaafi)

fanaa lagoon fish, probably a needlefish (PCMc: *fanaa)

fangbe loved (PWMc: *faŋu)

fangú-nlove of/for him or her (PWMc: *faŋu)

fanú, fanúwa-·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

faŋgive, allow (PMc: *faŋa)

fáŋ, faŋi-(y)‘to smoke (as fish or copra)’ (PCMc: *faŋi)

faraf, farafe-(n)·‘windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe’ (PWMc: *farafa)

fára-wa·‘lungs’ (PMc: *far[ae])

fawú (sic)stone, coral, rock (PMc: *fatu)

fawú-(má)dead coral (PMc: *fatu)

(fawú)-mʷó‘pebbles, coral rubble’ (PCMc: *mʷoka)

fáyi·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

Puluwatese (40 / 841)

fayi, fayifayi (sic)to plait (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fáyi-ŋi-(y), fáyi-ŋa-(a)to call, summon, invite (someone) (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

fééfé, féé-ti-(y)·‘tie, bind’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

féér, fééri-(y)·‘do, make’ (PMc: *fauru)

féét·‘do what, what?’ (PMc: *faiSa)

felsacred (PMc: *fali)

féne-(w) (sic)discipline, punish, advise, (someone) (PMc: *fanau)

#féné-(y)my punishment (that I suffered) (PMc: *fanau)

fénú-we-(er) (sic)punishment given by them (PMc: *fanau)

fé-ŋann, fe-háŋŋ·‘reciprocal’ (PMc: *fa-)

-fetál‘here and there, everywhere’ (PMc: *faSale)

fii-(yoow) (sic)to fight (PMc: *fi-)

(fii)-yoow (sic)to fight (PCMc: *tou)

fili-(i-y)choose it (PMc: *fili, filifili)

-fiR‘counter for blades’ (PCMc: *fica)

firá-kstrong rope (as used for caulking) (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

firá-ki-(ló)to spread out (as a mat), to braid a rope (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

fiRifiRto cut (as hair), knock, thump, snap (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fiRi-i-(y)to cut it, knock it, thump it, snap it (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fite-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

Puluwatese (60 / 841)

fitik, fitiko-·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

(fi)-ti-(ló)‘go away with someone’ (PMc: *[sS]i-)

fiti-(y)·‘accompany’ (PMc: *fiSi)

fiyoŋ, fiyoŋo-(n)‘tell a story, a story, story of’ (PMc: *fiaŋo)

fóRófóRó-(ló)‘do constantly, do steadily’ (PCMc: *faco)

fót, fóto-ki-(y)·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fúú·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

fúús, fúú-, féhu-uw, fii-k·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

-há·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

háá-ki-(y)‘remove (as clothes)’ (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

háá-ki-(y)to remove (clothes or outrigger), dislodge (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

#haakk, hakka-nhalved husked coconut shell, slice of it (PWMc: *takaka)

háál, háli-(n)‘rigging, rigging of’ (PMc: *tali)

hááliy (sic)accompanying food (PCMc: *talia)

háá-(ló)leave, not stay (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

háár, hári-‘child, infant’ (PMc: *tari)

háát, heti-·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

háfááll, háfalli-, háfááli-·‘again, return’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

-hakkslice of copra (in counting) (PWMc: *takaka)

hakúr·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

Puluwatese (80 / 841)

hále-ti-(y)‘untie, disentangle, excuse, pardon (something)’ (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

háliŋ, háliŋá-(n), háliŋá-(n hoomá)‘tree fungus, mushroom’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

háliya-le-(y)to eat (something) as accompanying food (PCMc: *talia)

hállap, héllap, hállapá-n‘builder, builder of’ (PCMc: *talilapa)

hama-(n)his father (PMc: *tama)

hamá-(n)father of (PMc: *tama)

hánif, hánifá-(y)anchovy, anchovy of (PMc: *tañifa)

háŋ·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

háŋi·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

háŋir‘yellowfin tuna’ (PMc: *taŋiri)

hap‘be taut, snagged, caught, be late, detained’ (PMc: *tapa₃)

hapa-(n), hapá-(n)·‘cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

hápiy, hápeybowl (PMc: *tapia)

hápiyá-ni-(y)keep or own (a bowl) (PMc: *tapia)

-hapʷ, -hópʷ‘exhortative negative’ (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

hara‘a kind of red fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

ha-ramlight, daylight, be light (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

haraw, harawá-(n)·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

háwi, háwii-·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

háwo (sic)·‘ashamed’ (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

Puluwatese (100 / 841)

hawu-‘expert, master, lord’ (PMc: *tawu-₁)

hawu-‘clan (prefamily in some clan names)’ (PMc: *tawu₂)

háyi-mi·‘sharpen’ (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

hee·‘penis’ (PMc: *Teka or *Tika)

héé (sic)be rested, quieted (PCMc: *Too)

héé-(fé)‘be new’ (PMc: *tau₂)

heeŋanportions of arm above and below elbow, leg below knee, thigh, portions between nodes (as of sugar cane and bamboo)’ (PMc: *Saŋa)

hééwú (sic)large growth stage of edible long-spined puffer fish (PMc: *tautu)

hele·‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

(he)-mʷaay‘sick’ (PMc: *mʷaau)

hepá-ki-y‘cut it’ (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

herák·‘to sail’ (PWMc: *taraki)

heri-ŋi-(y)‘encounter, chance upon, meet’ (PWMc: *Ter[ae])

hewiy, hewiyá-(n)‘blue spotted sea bass, bass of’ (PWMc: *tawia)

hi-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

hiim, himá-(n)·‘tridachna clam’ (PMc: *kima)

hiŋ, hiŋi-·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

hi-ŋéréŋér‘to crunch (as burned breadfruit seeds being eaten)’ (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

hiri-(n), hir‘urine of, urinate’ (PMc: *Tiri)

hó, hóó-(n)‘canoe thwart, thwart of’ (PMc: *tao)

Puluwatese (120 / 841)

hónto be lower (PMc: *tano)

hóno-(fiR)be smooth, level, flat (PMc: *tano)

hoo (sic)to light (as a fire or oven) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

hoo (sic)to land (as a plane) (PMc: *Toka)

hoo (sic)lower (as a fishtrap) (PMc: *Too)

hooho‘lashings’ (PMc: *TooToo)

hoo-(lap)‘waste, squander’ (PCMc: *tawu₃)

hoo-(ló), hoohoo-(ló)‘be or move a short distance away’ (PCMc: *Toa or *Towa)

hóónbottom (PMc: *tano)

hóón, hóno-surface, ground (PMc: *tano)

hoo-ni, hoo-naa-(ló)lower (as a fishtrap), soak (as clothes) (PMc: *Too)

hoo-ni. hoo-ni-(y)to build up (as a fire) (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni)

hoo-ni-(y)to lower it to the bottom (as a fish trap) (PMc: *Toka)

hóópʷ·‘district, division’ (PMc: *tapʷo)

hóópʷend (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

hoo-(tupʷ), hoo-(má)‘departed person, ghost’ (PMc: *tau₁)

hoow (sic)to cast off or sail (PWMc: *Towu)

hópʷe-(ló)finish completely (PMc: *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a)

horo-mi-(y)‘suck it in (as coffee), ‘draw it in (as cigarette smoke)’ (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

hoyo-ni-(féŋanni-y)‘to collect it’ (PMc: *Toko)

Puluwatese (140 / 841)

húri-(tiw)‘drip down’ (PMc: *turu)

huuhube open (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

huu-ki-(y)open it (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

(húyi)-mééyúŋ, (yii)-mééyúŋbe on the left side (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

i-fa·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

iik, ika-(n)·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

ireer, ireerá-(n)‘parts (as of the body), goods, articles’ (PMc: *iraira)

kán, káy‘ordinarily, commonly, for the moment’ (PCMc: *kana, kai)

káti-(y)‘tie (as sennit to thatch)’ (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

(ka)-wúú-(ló)to stop (PMc: *tuu₂)

kéé, yééfishhook (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

kéét‘to itch’ (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kékké‘to call, crow’ (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

kel, keli-ŋi-(y)·‘dig’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

(kéna)-mʷmʷe‘peace, comfort, ease, be at peace, tranquil, comfortable’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

keri-(y)scratch it (PMc: *kari)

kérúkérgrate or scrape (as coconut or breadfruit), shave (PMc: *karu)

kéru-(u-w)grate, scrape, shave (something) (PMc: *karu)

kiil, kili-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

kiiR, -kiR·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

Puluwatese (160 / 841)

kiki-(tiw) (sic)slip and fall (PMc: *ki, kiki)

kikkillmark with a taboo (PMc: *kilala)

(kili)-fé·‘hibiscus’ (PMc: *-fau)

kinah‘open sore, wound, scar, be cut or wounded’ (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

kinikinpart, section, division (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kini-(y)divide it, slice, break it into pieces, break it off (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

kiniy, kiniyá-(n)‘coarse matting of coconut leaves, mat of’ (PWMc: *kinia)

kitikit·‘small, little’ (PMc: *kisi)

kiyeki, kiye-·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

kiyekiy·‘white or fairy tern’ (PCMc: *kiakia)

kiyó·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kiyopʷ, kiyopʷú-(n)‘a broad-leafed spider lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

kka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

(kka)-mébuy (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

kkáŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kka-pah, kka-pahá-(n)speech, word, language, speak of (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

kkar·‘burnt’ (PMc: *kara, kakara)

(kka)-wúerect (as a house) (PMc: *tuu₁)

kkaybe fast (PWMc: *kaye)

kkayi-(to)come quickly (PWMc: *kaye)

Puluwatese (180 / 841)

kkel (sic)·‘be strong (PMc: *kaila)

-kkit‘repeatedly, constantly’ (PCMc: *siki)

kkú-úto bite (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

#kkúú, kkú-(n)·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

kkú-ú-wá-(n)the bite suffered by (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

konto catch fish (PMc: *kona)

kono-(n)a catch of (PMc: *kona)

kópʷ·‘dull’ (PCMc: *kapʷu, kakapʷu)

kor (sic)pubic or underarm hair (PMc: *koro)

‘be burning but not flaming’ (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

kúle-e-(y)‘find it, know it, understand it’ (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kun, kunu-(ló)‘to burn out, go out (as fire or electricity)’ (PMc: *kunu)

kúre-e-(y)·‘pulled back, pull back (of foreskin or eyelid)’ (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

kúrér, kúrére-(y)‘a belch, to belch, belch of’ (PMc: *kurer[ae])

kúúh·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kuul‘take freely (as leftovers)’ (PWMc: *kulu)

kúúw, kúwá-(n)‘porpoise, porpoise of, a constellation’ (PCMc: *kua)

kúúw, #kúwá-(n)·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

la (sic)star in Pegasus, a sidereal month (PWMc: *laka)

lááláybe long, tall, last long (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

Puluwatese (200 / 841)

lááŋ, láŋi-‘sky, rain’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lamalam‘religion, thought’ (PMc: *lama₁)

lamalam‘character, condition’ (PMc: *lama-)

laŋ‘a kind of fish (perhaps a crevally) caught by trolling’ (PMc: *laŋua)

laŋe-tá‘stand, rise above, be higher, rise up (of airplane)’ (PMc: *lakalaka)

lap·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

láp, lápi-(n) (sic)red dye made from earth (used on canoes), red dye of’ (PMc: *lape)

layú·‘tomorrow’ (PMc: *l[au]tuu)

le-, lee-, lo-at (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(lee)-fáf (sic)time of evening meal (PMc: *fakaafi)

lee-(hapan)cheek (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

léélé‘be full of liquid’ (PMc: *lau)

lééŋ, léŋi-(n)‘ant, ant of’ (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

lee-(pʷoŋ)at night (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

le-(het)sea, in the sea (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

léllól‘be deep (as the sea), a deep place’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

le-yaŋ, le-yaŋa-(y)‘spider shell, spider shell of’ (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

(le)-yólo-(wah)noon (PMc: *alo)

li-·‘agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)’ (PCMc: *li-)

(li)-ffaŋgift (PMc: *faŋa)

Puluwatese (220 / 841)

(li)-filifilmatter, be fussy, choosy (PMc: *fili, filifili)

liik (sic), liko-to troll (PCMc: *liko)

liim, lime-, limo-ow, lim-man, lime·‘five, five (general), five (animate), fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

liipʷ, lipʷa-(n)‘pool for soaking fibers, his pit’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

liiR (sic), liRi-grieve (as over a death), regret (as stolen objects) (PMc: *lici)

(lii)-welto change, substitute for, exchange, translate (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(lii)-weli-(n)revenge for, pay back for (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

liki-ti-(y)‘leave it’ (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

(li)-kkó, (wu)-kkó·‘newly born, infant’ (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

liko-wii-y (sic)tow it (PCMc: *liko)

li-(kúú)-ŋer‘a small louse’ (lit. ‘back of head nibbler’) (PWMc: *li-ŋaŋari)

liye-·‘female person’ (PWMc: *lia-)

llafavorite food (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

llek,lleki-n‘young stage of a reef fish’ (PWMc: *leleki)

lletright, correct, true (PCMc: *lelesa)

lló-(n); ‘i. of it’·‘inside’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

llow (sic)be revolted, disgusted (PMc: *laloua)

llúw‘be all, entire’ (PCMc: *lua)

ló, la·‘go, proceed, (as directional) away’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

-loŋ‘inside, into, inland, ashore’ (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

Puluwatese (240 / 841)

lóŋe-(e-y)elevate it, prop it up (PMc: *laŋo₂)

lóóŋ, lóŋo-(n)prop, prop of (PMc: *laŋo₂)

lóóŋ, lóóŋo-(n) (sic)·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lo-(pʷoŋ ewe)last night (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

lúh (sic)to jump, to slip (as a muscle), to be loosened (as copra from its shell) (PMc: *luTu)

lúkú-(cécaan), lúkú-(Récaan) (sic)‘be wet, humid, damp’ (PMc: *l[iu]ku-)

lúkúlúkhave faith, be confident, faith, confidence (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúkúlúkú-(n)cover of (PMc: *liku)

lúkú-(n)its outside (PMc: *liku)

lúkú-ú-(w)believe, have faith in (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúmi, limi-(y)‘fold it (as a mat)’ (PMc: *lumi)

luuk, luuka-(n)‘center, its center’ (PCMc: *luuka)

luumʷ, lumʷu-·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

ma-, má-, mó-, me-, mé-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maah, meha-(n), mehá-(n)·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma-aliyéél (sic)be thick (as paper), thickness (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

(maa)-ma-awbe strong, healthy, vigorous (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

maanto drift (PMc: *maanu)

maan‘a scattered group of stars, Canopus, Sirius, Procyon, name of a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *manu)

Puluwatese (260 / 841)

maan, manú-(n)·‘living creature of land or air’ (PMc: *manu)

maane-(ló)drift away (PMc: *maanu)

maaŋ, maŋi-·‘pandanus leaf’ (PMc: *maŋu)

maar, merá-(n)·‘preserved breadfruit’ (PMc: *mara)

ma-awo (sic)be ripe and ready for eating (as bananas or breadfruit) (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

mááy·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

mááy-lap (sic)Altair, sidereal month (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

máhbe worn out (PMc: *maki)

mahaa (sic)watch over (something) (PMc: *mamata)

mahamah‘snapper (Monotaxis grandoculis)’ (PWMc: *matamata)

(ma)-héé-(ló)to quiet down (as wind, sea, or anger), be cured (as sickness)’ (PCMc: *Too)

máhi-(n)worn out thing of (PMc: *maki)

(makúre-mʷa)-ŋereŋerhave kinky hair (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

malleki-(y), malleka-(a-ló)‘to forget’ (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

mám (sic)a kind of large fish (perhaps a wrasse) (PMc: *mam[ei])

manaman·‘be efficacious, have spiritual power’, ‘efficacy, spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

má-naw, (ya)-ma-nawa·‘life, alive’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

máŋi-(i-y)remember it (PMc: *maŋi)

máŋimáŋthought, to think (PMc: *maŋi)

ma-rammoon, month (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

Puluwatese (280 / 841)

mat·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

matér·‘hiccough’ (PMc: *maSeru)

mawon (sic)·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

mawúr·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

me, mé·‘and, with’ (PMc: *ma)

me, mé·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

méé-(n)its cost (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

méé-nipurchase (something) (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

(mee)-tawhat?, why? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

me-hakbe afraid (PMc: *ma-taku)

me-hakú-(w)fear him (PMc: *ma-taku)

mem, memmem·‘sweet’ (PMc: *mami)

mémméwóó-(n-atél)‘to yawn’ (PMc: *mawa)

me-ŋeriŋer‘be rough (as bark, beard, or skin of filefish)’ (PCMc: *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari)

meRámetal, iron’ (presumably from iron nails) (PMc: *mece-a)

meRe-(n)summit of, end of, top of, tip of (PMc: *mece-a)

meták·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

me-taw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

miin‘the person or thing under discussion’ (PMc: *meña)

min, mina-(a)‘treat, attend to, fix’ (PMc: *meña-a)

Puluwatese (300 / 841)

mit (sic)sound made by pursing the lips (PMc: *misi)

miti-i-(y)make a kiss-like sound with pursed lips, summon (someone) with this sound (PMc: *misi)

mmaRbe very ripe (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmaR, mmeRa-(n)boil, infected sore, his boil (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmat·‘be low tide, dry’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mmólbe tired, out of breath, exhausted (PMc: *mawa)

to disappear, be erased, healed (PMc: *mawo)

mó (sic), móó-(n)scar or trace of (PMc: *mawo)

mólomʷ·‘to drown’ (PMc: *malemʷu)

món·‘waterproof, not leaky’ (PCMc: *mano)

móól, móóli-(n)empty shell, empty shell of (PMc: *mawolo)

mó-óniyón (sic), (<*mó-óno-yón?)·‘perspiration’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

móóŋ·‘top of head, fontanel’ (PMc: *maŋo)

moor‘be winded, out of breath; thirsty’ (PMc: *maaru)

móótto sit (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mor (sic)breathe hard, have a cold (PMc: *maura)

mó-tiw (sic)sit down (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

mulo-tá-(á-tiw)‘to rub (something) together in one’s hands (as fragrant leaves)’ (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

-mʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-, mʷá-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

Puluwatese (320 / 841)

mʷá-áliyelbe dizzy, confused (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

mʷáánman (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷááne-(n)brother of (a woman) (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷáár, mʷára-mʷár, mʷára-ni-(y)·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷahsmell bad (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷaha-(n)his bad odor (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷahey, mʷahiy·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷakét·‘be in motion’ (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

mʷakomʷak·‘arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides)’ (PWMc: *mʷakumʷaku)

mʷaR‘be late, detained’ (PWMc: *mʷaca₁)

mʷéén, #mʷééni-(n)‘small red reef fish (perhaps a red snapper), fish of’ (PMc: *mʷonu)

mʷéŋé, mʷéŋéé-(n)‘eat, food, food of’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mʷétto walk fast (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷétémʷétbe fast (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷéte-(tiw)to jump down (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷéy (also méy, méyi-ti-(y))break as rope, adopt a child (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷéyi-(ló)‘disappear (as food in famine), be gone away’ (PMc: *mʷotu)

mʷiri-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

mʷmʷaay·‘be slow’ (PCMc: *mʷea[wØ]u)

mʷmʷa-(n)ahead of him (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

Puluwatese (340 / 841)

mʷmʷe-(e-y)to lead (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷmʷétto jump (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷmʷuh·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷootcooked (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mʷoot, (yó)-mʷota-‘thing cooked’ (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

mʷúúR·‘firewood’ (PMc: *mʷucu)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

-n·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

naan, náná-(y)‘pus, my pus’ (PMc: *nana)

nánewú (sic)·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

nawú-n, nawúnaw, náyi-náy·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

náyi-·‘feminine prefix (with personal names of women)’ (PCMc: *n[ae]i-)

neen·‘Morinda citrifolia (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

ne-e-niy, ne-e-niya-(n)·‘place’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

néér, nérú-(n) (sic)‘shadow, shade’ (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nénnán‘taste, to taste’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

niimbailer (PMc: *[ln]ima)

nime-(y)to bail (a canoe) (PMc: *[ln]ima)

-ni-(y)·‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

nnat, nnatú-n·‘half flower (Scaevola) (PWMc: *nanasu)

Puluwatese (360 / 841)

nné, nénné·‘delicious, taste good’ (PMc: *ñañau)

nóó·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nóómʷmosquito (PMc: *ñamʷu)

nóómʷ, nómʷo-(n)·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

noot‘a kind of fish’ (PWMc: *noso)

noow·‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ (PMc: *nowu)

núú, núú-·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

ŋaaf, ŋafá-n·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋaaŋ, ŋa·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

ŋaaR‘jaw’ (PCMc: *ŋace)

ŋaat, ŋatá-n‘hole, hole of’, ŋat ‘be punctured’ (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋahbe fragrant (PMc: *ŋata)

ŋaniy‘give him’ (PWMc: *ŋani)

ŋatbe punctured (PMc: *ŋasa)

-ŋe-ray·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋere-e-(y)saw it (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

ŋereŋercrackle, scrape, creak, a saw (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

ŋeri-i-(y)gnaw it (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋeriŋergnaw (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋii, ŋii-(n), -ŋi·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

Puluwatese (380 / 841)

ŋiiŋi-(n) (sic)accent, voice, tune, pronunciation, sound of (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋiit, ŋito-(n)·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

ŋit‘gasp (as a dying man)’ (PCMc: *ŋisa)

-ŋool·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

#ŋúún, ŋúnú-n·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

(ó)-móó-(ye-ló)to erase it, heal it (as a wound) (PMc: *mawo)

óttúfeto spit (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

óttúfe-(yiti-y)to spit on it (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

-pa‘garland, bead belt (in counting)’ (PMc: *paa₂)

paa·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

páá-ŋ, páá-ŋi-(y)to count (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

páá-ŋicount (something) (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

paap, pápá-(n)board, plank (PMc: *papa)

paapato count (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

páápáto count (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

paat, petá-(n)swamp, swamp of (PWMc: *pasa)

paaw, pawú-n·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

pááwo (sic), pááwa-·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

pachch, pachchi-(n)‘thunder, thunder of’ (PMc: *para, parara)

pahdrift (PMc: *pata)

Puluwatese (400 / 841)

paha-(ló)drift away (PMc: *pata)

pakúpakdo cutting (PMc: *paku)

pakú-(w)cut it, fell it (PMc: *paku)

páppá-(n faaló)warp beam (PMc: *papa)

par, parapar; par, pappar, parapar·‘red’ (PMc: *para)

paRa-(ló)to adhere, stick (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

parapar‘a flattish reef fish with vertical stripes’ (PMc: *parapara)

paRe-(eti-y)adhere to (something) (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

peeki-(i-láŋ)‘compass direction (side of heaven), sky’ (PMc: *paiki)

péé-nito slap (PMc: *peo)

péépéto sweep (as with a coconut branch) (PMc: *peo)

peey, peyipey·‘trash, rubbish’ (PMc: *peti)

peeyik (sic)to dive deep, hold the breath long (PMc: *patiki)

peliy, peliye-·‘side’ (PWMc: *palia)

penipen·‘sea cucumber’ (PCMc: *panipani)

peŋák·‘crossways’ (PCMc: *paŋa, paŋaki)

peyah, peyaha-(n), peyiha-(n)‘ashes, ashes of’ (PMc: *peyata)

piik‘name of Pikelot Island’ (PMc: *pike)

piki-ri-y‘touch (it) hard with the hand’ (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

piná-á-(y)prevent it, stop it (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

Puluwatese (420 / 841)

pinápinbottle cap, stopper (of hole in canoe) (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

(pi)-ŋor, -ŋore-(y) (sic)‘hard palate, my hard palate’ (PMc: *ŋaco)

pir, piro (sic)‘growth or lump under the skin, coconut sponge beginning to form, to form a lump’ (PMc: *piri)

piRi-(ló)‘be released (as from jail)’ (PWMc: *pici)

póó‘raised sleeping platform’ (PCMc: *pawo)

pótóówo (sic)·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

ppáán, ppááni-(n)side, along side of (PMc: *pa-)

ppel·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

ppey·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

ppi, ppiyá-n·‘sand, beach’ (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

ppin·‘twisted, tangled’ (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

ppiR, ppiRi-(ló)‘to snap (as fish spear or rat trap’ (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

pukár (sic)Fimbristylis sedge’ (PWMc: *pʷukari)

puu-ri-(y) (sic)to stamp or tread on (PMc: *pʷutu)

pʷá, pʷáá-appear (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷaaR·‘loose’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₁)

pʷáá-ri-(y)show (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷah‘dry, withered’ (PCMc: *pʷata)

pʷak‘open a bit (as a bud)’ (PWMc: *pʷaku)

pʷalli-i-(y)go around it, surround it (PCMc: *pʷalili)

Puluwatese (440 / 841)

-pʷaŋ‘hole (in counting) (PCMc: *pʷaŋa)

pʷe·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

-pʷe·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷe (sic), pʷee-(ni)·‘knot divination’ (PWMc: *pʷee)

pʷee-(wu), pʷee-y·‘pull up, take up’ (PMc: *pʷai, pʷai-ti)

pʷekto carry (on the shoulders or in the hand) (PMc: *pʷeki)

pʷeki-(y)to carry (something) (PMc: *pʷeki)

pʷeR, pʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

pʷeR, pʷeRi-kkar, ya-pʷeri-(y)·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

(pʷé)-tawhy? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

pʷi-, pʷiipʷiy (sic)·‘group’ (PWMc: *pʷiti)

pʷihe·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

pʷiil cowrie s. scraper’·‘shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

pʷil·‘to slip off, put aside’ (PMc: *pʷili)

pʷil‘bring down toddy from a tree’ (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

pʷo‘pound (breadfruit)’ (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷo, pʷoopʷo·‘swelling’ (PCMc: *pʷoto)

pʷo, pʷowú-(n)·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

pʷon‘to promise, agree’ (PMc: *pʷono)

pʷono-(ló)‘be crowded, packed, filled’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

Puluwatese (460 / 841)

pʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

pʷóópʷ, pʷópʷu-(n)‘kind of shark, shark of (PCMc: *pʷapʷu)

pʷooR, pʷoRe-(y)·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

pʷóór, pʷóro-(n)·‘box, hole’ (PMc: *pʷaro)

pʷoot, pʷootú-·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

pʷówo (sic)·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷpʷél, pʷpʷéli-‘soil’ (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

pʷpʷór·‘curved, bent’ (PCMc: *pʷaro)

pʷukopʷukknot (as in a tree) (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷuko-(y)knot it (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷúkúwknee (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

pʷúl (sic)burn’ (Bender et al. 1984: pwpwul ‘burn, flame up’) (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

pʷula‘a common reef fish’ (PWMc: *pʷulaka₁)

pʷula·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

pʷull·‘heart’ (PWMc: *pʷulo, pʷul[ou]lo)

pʷupʷ (sic)·‘trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

pʷupʷpʷuRé-(ér)‘scream (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuRcrazy (PCMc: *pʷuce)

pʷuro-ti-(y)‘to hit, collide with, bump against’ (PMc: *pʷuro)

-pʷut, (yó)-pʷut, (Róó)-pʷut·‘bad, improper’ (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

Puluwatese (480 / 841)

pʷuuknavel (PMc: *pʷuto)

-R·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

ráá, ráá-n·‘branch’ (PMc: *rae)

ráák, ráki-n‘main breadfruit season, season of southwesterly winds’ (PCMc: *raki)

Raamʷforehead (PMc: *camʷa)

ráán·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

Raan, ráni-·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

raaŋ‘turmeric’ (PMc: *reŋa)

ráŋi-i-(y)‘warm (oneself) as by a fire’ (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

Rápi-(n)its lower trunk (of a tree) (PWMc: *capi)

Rápi-(n ppalú)an initiated navigator (PWMc: *capi)

Raw, ccaw·‘slow, late’ (PMc: *cawa)

rawa-(fanú)·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

re-, ra-·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

ree-·‘person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)’ (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

Réé·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

réé, réé-yi‘to catch fish with the hands’ (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

Réé-(paap) (<*Réé-apaap)be flat (as a fish) (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

RééRéé-(ló)spread far (as news, people) (PMc: *cau-, cau-lapa)

Riimʷhead (PMc: *cimʷe)

Puluwatese (500 / 841)

Rik, (ya)-RikiRik·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

RimʷeRimʷnod repeatedly, toss up and down (of a canoe) (PMc: *cimʷe)

Rimʷo-(tá)get up (as in the morning) (PMc: *cimʷe)

ripto shatter (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripi-i-(y)break it, shatter it (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripi-ya-(n) (sic)object shattered by him (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

rohbe finished, used up, exhausted (as a supply) (PWMc: *rota)

Róló-(kiiR)be black (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

roŋ, roŋoroŋhear, listen, obey (PMc: *roŋo)

róókum (sic)·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

Róól, Rólú-(n)soot, soot of (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

Róó-(n)‘person of’ (PCMc: *cao)

rooR (sic)to be dark (PMc: *roco)

Roow,‘hand net, star and month name’ (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

roRa-(ppúŋ)to be dark, to be ignorant (PMc: *roco)

be surprised, astonished, alarmed (PMc: *rut[iu])

Ru, Ruu-ri·‘meet, encounter’ (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

rúúw, rúwa-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

Ruwá-possessive classifier for earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

Rúwa-ni-(y)own as earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

Puluwatese (520 / 841)

RúwaRúwear as earrings (PMc: *cua, cuacua or *ciwa)

ruwoow·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

-tá·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

taak·‘needlefish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

taakú-laar (sic)·‘swordfish, marlin’ (PMc: *[sS]aku-laara)

taa-(ló)‘be ruined’ (PMc: *[sS]aa)

taam, teme-(n)·‘outrigger float’ (PMc: *Sama)

táá-(riŋa-a-ló)‘tear it away (as a sail)’ (PMc: *sae)

táátá‘to ride on’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

tafto pick (of leaves) (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

(taki)-hónbe low, short (PMc: *tano)

tale-(wu) (sic)washed object, to wash (as hands or rice) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

táli-(n)‘line of’ (PMc: *Sali)

tawe‘be free, not busy’ (PMc: *sawee)

téé‘uninhabited reef island’ (PMc: *sakau)

teete, tee-y·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tefá-, tefe-‘what relationship? where?’ (PMc: *Safa)

tefa-ŋipick (leaves) with the hands (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tefá-ŋipick (something) with the hands (as breadfruit, bananas, etc.) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

tefe-ŋaa-(to)pick and bring (leaves) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

Puluwatese (540 / 841)

téla-a-(ló), tála-a-(ló)to wash (something) off (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

téŋú-ú-(w)‘to smell, sniff (something)’ (PMc: *saŋu)

ti (faaR)sew thatch (pandanus) (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

tiil, tili-(n)‘tiny growth stage of various fish’ (PWMc: *sili)

tii-ŋsend, order, push (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tii-ŋaa-(ló)send it away (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiipslice (as of breadfruit or taro) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

tiip, tipa-(n)·‘emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind’ (PMc: *sipa)

ti-ksew (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

ti-kekneedle (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

ti-ki-i-(y)sew it (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

til‘to place, put’ (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tinto shine (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

tini-nshining of (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

tipáá-ki-y (sic)to slice (as breadfruit or taro), to cut (as coconut fronds) (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

-tiw·‘down, westward’ (PMc: *siwo)

-to·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

tolo-(ló)to disappear (PMc: *[sS]olo)

tolo-nsetting of (a star) (PMc: *[sS]olo)

toŋotoŋto burn, itch, sting, have a sharp taste (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

Puluwatese (560 / 841)

toŋo-(y)to sting (someone) (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

tool, tolo-(n)‘top section of mast on sailing canoe’ (showing metathesis) (PMc: *lo[sS]o-)

tool, tolo-(n)mast-head, mast-head of (PMc: *Solo)

toolato rub together (as leaves to obtain fragrance) (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

too-(wo-ló)·‘far, distant’ (PCMc: *soa)

toro-fi-ygrab, catch (something) (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

tottorto catch with the hands (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

tow‘dig earth (as with a shovel)’ (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

tów‘be enough (in food distribution)’ (PCMc: *sawu)

(tówu)-nómʷmosquito net (PMc: *ñamʷu)

ttanto dream (PWMc: *sasana)

ttana-adream it (PWMc: *sasana)

ttiw, ttiwa-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

ttiwo-ownine (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

to dive deep (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

-túkú-mpackage (in counting) (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkú-mito wrap (it) in a leaf package (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túkútúk, túkútúkú-(n)package, leaf package, package of (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tuku-u-(w)‘hit, strike (something)’ (PMc: *suku)

tumʷur‘Antares, a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

Puluwatese (580 / 841)

túú-fi-(y)to dive for (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

túúl‘torch’ (PMc: *sulu)

túút‘breast, nipple’ (PMc: *susu)

túútúto swim, bathe (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

waa,waa-n. wáá-n, waa-ni-(y)·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waal, wali-(n)forest, jungle, forest of (PMc: *walu)

waal, walú-, walu-uw, wali-ik·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

waa-(n)‘vein or artery of’ (PMc: *waka)

wáá-(ni-yáŋ)‘yoked stringer connecting outrigger booms’ (PCMc: *wa[xØ]a)

waar, waara-(n)·‘root’ (PMc: *waka, wakara)

walúwalplant, trees, forest, be forested (PMc: *walu)

waw·‘toward or in direction of person addressed’ (PMc: *watu)

wéélé‘name of same island’ (PMc: *tokolau)

weli-(feháŋŋ)difference, be different, strange (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

weli-(iti)to become (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wereshine brightly (PWMc: *were, werewere)

weri-(n)bright shining of (PWMc: *were, werewere)

wet (sic)·‘semen, sperm’ (PMc: *weSe)

we-(y) (sic)to resemble (something) (PMc: *wee)

wiiká-á-(tá)blow (something) upwards (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

Puluwatese (600 / 841)

wiiki-(y)to blow (something) as by wind or person (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

wiiwipull up with the hands (as taro or seaweeds) (PMc: *wuti)

wii-(y)pull it up, jerk it up (PMc: *wuti)

wo-; ko, wo(vocative hon.) (PMc: *ko-, koe)

wohe-e-(y)to halve husked coconuts (PMc: *kota)

wohe-e-(y)‘cut it in half’ (PCMc: *woTo)

wohóh (sic) (? wohóóh)break coconut shells in two (PMc: *kota)

wól-(lomʷ)woman’s loin cloth (PWMc: *kalo)

wól-(lomʷo-ni-y)to use or own as a loin cloth (PWMc: *kalo)

wono-(ccip)sleep restlessly (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woŋi-ti-(y), #woŋe-ti-(y)‘wring it’ (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

woo‘vertical rafter’ (PMc: *xawu)

woon (sic)lie down (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woon, wono-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

wooŋ, woŋi-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

wooR, kooR, koRo-(y)coconut fiber prepared for rope making, coconut fiber of (PCMc: *koca)

wóóR, wórá-n·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

wootColocasia taro (PMc: *wos[ao])

woow·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

woowúh,woowuhá-(n)(sic) (?*wowúh) ‘b., sheet, loomed cloth used as a cover’ (PMc: *[ao]ut[ae])

Puluwatese (620 / 841)

wór·‘be, exist’ (PWMc: *oro)

woRaaR, woRe-e-(y), woRa-a-(n)·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

woro-mi-(y)·‘swallow’ (PCMc: *woro-)

woRo-(n), woRe-(e-y)‘slice off (the end of a coconut spathe to cut toddy)’ (PMc: *koco₁)

woroor‘pier, dock’ (PMc: *woro₂)

woRow‘white cloud’ (PCMc: *kacawu)

wote-(y)‘to husk (a coconut)’ (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

woto-(pʷeR)a kind of Colocasia taro (PMc: *wos[ao])

-wow‘outward, seaward’ (PMc: *wotu)

wú-, yi-·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

wuk (sic)to pound (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

wuke-e-(y)come or go to do (something) in the early morning (PMc: *wuko)

wu-keR, wu-keRe-(n)·‘a large black ant’ (PMc: *kaci)

wúki-i-(y)to pound it (as poi) (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

wuko-(ló)go off in the early morning (PMc: *wuko)

wukookrepeatedly come or go in the early morning (PMc: *wuko)

wúkú-(chcha)red-tailed tropic bird (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

wúkú-(pak)a short white-tailed tropic bird (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

wúkúúkto pound (as taro) (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

wúl, wúlú-(n) (sic)budding leaf, tree top, budding leaf of’ (PMc: *ulu)

Puluwatese (640 / 841)

wúlúŋá-(n)‘pillow of’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

wúlúúl‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluulu)

wumʷówumʷ, wumʷówumʷá-(n)·‘hermit crab’ (PMc: *wumʷa)

wumʷu-lé·‘a reef fish prized as food’ (PCMc: *wumʷu-lau)

wún (sic), wúnú-(n)hair, feathers, scales, his hair (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wún, wúnú-mi-(y), wúnu-ma-(n)·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

wún, wúnú-(n)coconut cloth, strainer made of coconut cloth, strainer of or for (PMc: *unu)

wúnawúnhair, etc. (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wúne-fito remove feathers, hair, scales (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

wúni-(i-nú)·‘coconut cloth’ (PMc: *inu or *uni)

wúnú-ú-(w)to strain (something) (PMc: *unu)

wuŋe-(lap)main (lower of two) ridgepole (PMc: *wuŋa)

wúpe-e-(y)to poison (a fish or human) (PMc: *upa)

wupʷu-t‘new upright shoot of pandanus or coconut leaf’ (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

wupʷu-(tiw)‘be born’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

wúrá-n‘post of’ (PMc: *tura)

wúri-(i-y)drag it, pull it (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

wúRú-ki-(y)‘shake it (as a coconut or child)’ (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

wúrúúrdrag, hoist, raise, lower (of sail), halyard (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

wút, wúté-(n) (sic)·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

Puluwatese (660 / 841)

wútá-n, wútá-ná-(n)‘be loaded, cargo or load, cargo of’ (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

wuti-(y)‘throw water on (something)’ (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

#wúttútt‘choose, select’ (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

wútúút‘rub sticks to make a fire with a fire plow’ (PCMc: *iso)

wútúút·‘make fire with fireplow’ (PMc: *us[ei])

wuu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

wúúktropic bird (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

wuuk, wukook, wukooko-n‘seine, web, web of’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

wúúk, wúkú-·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

wuul·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

wuumʷ, wumʷu-ni-(y)·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

wuuŋridgepole (PMc: *wuŋa)

wúúp, wúpá-(n)shrub (D. elliptica) used as fish poison (PMc: *upa)

wuupʷ, wupʷe-(er)‘belly, stomach, their belly’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

wúúr, wúrá-(n)·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

wuuR, wuRú-(n)·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

wúú-(tá)stand up, rise (PMc: *tuu₁)

wúúw, wúwa-(n)·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

wuwa‘fruit, flower, bur’ (PMc: *wuaa)

wuwa-a-(to)carry it hither (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

Puluwatese (680 / 841)

wuwa-h, wuwa-há-(n)burden, carried object, burden of (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wuwa-(y)carry, transport (something) (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wuwóówo (sic)to carry (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

wuwów (sic)to carry (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

-y·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

-ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

ya-, yá-, yé-, yó-, -ka-, kka-, akka-, ákká-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

yaa-, yáá-ni, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

yááf·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

yááf [sic], yáfi-i-(y)·‘pull on a line’ (PMc: *afi₂)

yáál, yále-(y)·‘kind of coral’ (PCMc: *ale)

yaal, yela-(n)‘path, road, street, his path’ (PMc: *ala₁)

yáálúh, yálúha-(n) [sic]·‘beard’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

yáámem·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

yáámi·you (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

yaanaw·‘a tree (Cordia subcordata)’ (PMc: *kanawa)

yááŋ, yáŋiyáŋ·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

yááp, yápi-·‘bottom, butt end’ (PMc: *kapi)

yaapʷ·‘no’ (PWMc: *aapʷa)

yaatsmoke (PMc: *a[sS]u)

Puluwatese (700 / 841)

yáát‘spleen, gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

yáát·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

yaawu (sic), yaayúw (sic)·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

yááwúwó-(túr), -(túrú-) [sic]a lagoon fish much desired for food, probably a milkfish (PMc: *aua)

yááyá·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

yaf, yáfe-·‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

(ya)-fféwú (sic)to interpret, translate, to splice (as rope) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

yafi-ti-(y)‘to carry (a child) on one’s side’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

yáhbe tall, high, upper, easterly (PMc: *ata)

yáhálee side of a sailing canoe (PMc: *katea)

yáhá, yákkáhásteer before the wind (PMc: *katea)

yaham·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

(ya)-hééhéto rest (PCMc: *Too)

-yáki-n-, yeki-n-·‘passive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

(ya)-kiyánn, -kiyánne-(n)‘border, boundary, boundary of’ (loan from Chk?) (PCMc: *tiaa)

(ya)-kúúkúcause to bite (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

yáláy, yelaylong (as hair), length, height (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

yá-lletaassert it as true (PCMc: *lelesa)

yalleyto think about, decide (PMc: *alele)

yalleyato read, count (something) (PMc: *alele)

Puluwatese (720 / 841)

(ya)-mara‘canoe sail’ (PMc: *maraa)

(ya)-mʷoot, (yó)-mʷootto cook (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

(ya)-mʷootacook it (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

yana-(n)·‘food’, ‘eat (something)’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

yániyán‘to wish’ (PMc: *aneane)

yanú‘ancient god’ (PMc: *anitu)

yaŋto take (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yaŋaaŋwork, to work (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yaŋa-a-(y)to bring, take (something) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

ya-ŋahfragrance (PMc: *ŋata)

yaŋa-(ta)be tired (as from work) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yáŋa-(tá)to reach up (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yáŋe-(tá)to reach up (PMc: *aŋa₁)

yaŋi-(y)‘nibble, munch, eat it’ (PMc: *kaŋi)

ya-pahato say it, speak it (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

(ya)-paR, -paRato add or join, adhere or join it (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

yá-peyipeyi (sic)driftwood (PCMc: *kai-peti)

yapi-ta-hair oil (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

yapi-ti-(y)anoint him/her (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

(ya)-pʷpʷal, -pʷpʷale-(n)‘cover, lid, cover of’ (PMc: *pʷalu)

Puluwatese (740 / 841)

yaraar‘a king or sooty tern’ (PMc: *karakara)

yaraw‘volcanic rock’ (PMc: *kacawa)

yáRe-(y)·‘throw’ (PCMc: *kace)

yárik, yárike-(n)‘a kind of small edible crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

yáriker, kerikerscratch (PMc: *kari)

(ya)-roha-a-(ló)finish it up, use it up (PWMc: *rota)

(ya)-rú, (ya)-rú-(w)to startle, surprise, shock (someone) (PMc: *rut[iu])

yarúŋcoconut cream (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

yarú-(ŋiy)click one’s teeth (PMc: *karu)

yarúŋú-(w)mix it with coconut cream (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

yaru-(w)‘to stir (a liquid)’ (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

yát, yáti-(n) [sic]‘first stage of formation of certain fruits (as banana), flower (of various taros), spathe (of coconut), bud (of hibiscus), spathe of’ (PCMc: *asi)

yáti-fi-(y)·‘dip it up, dip it out, scoop it up’ (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

(yá)-tipto slice breadfruit (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

(yá)-tipato slice it (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

yatiyat, yatúyatsmoke foam, be smoky, be foam-coated (PMc: *a[sS]u)

(yá)-ttiwo-owa-(n)ninth (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

yawésnapper fish (PMc: *kawa-, kawakawa)

yawú-physical characteristic (PCMc: *au-)

yawú-(Rik)be physically small (PCMc: *au-)

Puluwatese (760 / 841)

yawú-(RiRRik)be thin (PCMc: *au-)

yawút‘current’ (PMc: *ayu, ayuSa)

-ya-wútfinger (c.c.) (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

ya-wútú-(n)his finger (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

yawúúl [sic]·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

(ya)-wúú-we-(ló)to stop (something) (PMc: *tuu₂)

yawúwa-(chch), -(chchi-)kind of small lagoon fish (PMc: *aua)

yawúwa-(túr), -(túre-)larger growth stage of latter fish (PMc: *aua)

yáy·‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ (PMc: *kayi)

yayéfar‘shoulder, load carried on the shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

yáyinaŋ·‘clan, folk, tribe, stock’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

ye-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

ye-·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

yéél, yélú-, yelu-(uw)and yeli-ik (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

yeen·‘this, that’ (PMc: *ena)

yee-ŋiy, yee-ŋiyá-(n)·‘ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)’ (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

(yee)-Ramʷ, (yeeyi)-Ramʷcross-beam of house (PMc: *camʷa)

yéé-(Ramʷ), yéé-yi-Ramʷ‘house beam’ (PMc: *kayu)

yéé-yá-(á-tiw)hook it down (in picking breadfruit) (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

yefáŋ, yefeŋi-‘north, be north (of wind or direction), trade wind season’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

Puluwatese (780 / 841)

yefar‘shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

yeho-(n), yaaha-(n)above (something) (PMc: *ata)

yelaye-(n)length or height of (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

yeli-ik·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

yemah·‘undercooked, raw’ (PCMc: *amata)

yepar‘calculation (for navigation), aim (as of a gun) (PWMc: *apara)

yepare-(kacc)to aim well (PWMc: *apara)

yepeep, epeepá-(n)·‘lee platform of sailing canoe, platform on side opposite to outrigger float’ (PCMc: *epaepa)

(ye)-pʷúkúw·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

yere-mah·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

yeri-(y)‘to scoop (something) out (as coconut flesh)’ (PMc: *ari)

yero-·‘shore, beach, vicinity’ (PMc: *aro-)

yeyahbe easterly (PMc: *ata)

yi-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

-yi-·‘of’ (PMc: *-i-)

yihá-ni-(y)to keep, save (PMc: *ita, itaita)

yiháyihkeep save, deposit (PMc: *ita, itaita)

yihel-ló‘keep, store away’ (PMc: *ita, itaita)

-yii (sic)·‘hand of bananas’ (counting classifier) (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

yiimʷ, yimʷa-(n), yimʷá-ni-(y), yimʷáyimʷ·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

Puluwatese (800 / 841)

yiin, yiná-(y)‘mother, my mother’ (PMc: *tina)

yiiŋdorsal fin (PMc: *iŋi)

yiir·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

yiit, yita-, yitá-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

yiiy·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

yi-ka, yi-ke-ey, yi-ka-na, yi-ke-na, yi-ka-naan, yi-ke-naan, yi-ko-mʷuun·‘at place’ (as designated) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

yil, ile-(ló)·‘come to land’ (PWMc: *ila)

(yi)-nee-t, (yi)-ŋe-t (sic)·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

yiŋiiŋside (as of a person) (PMc: *iŋi)

yiro-ŋi-(y)‘to look for or at (something)’ (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

(yite)-fáye-(ló)be famous, well known (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

yite-ŋi-(y)press down lightly on (something) (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

yite-(tiw)apply pressure with the hands (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

yiti-lie (as a stick), face (as a house) (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

yitiitto point (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

yitiiti-(wow)protrude (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

yiti-ŋi-iyto point out (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

yiti-(wenewen)face directly east or west (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

yiwiiy, yiwiyá-(n)greasy or oily matter (as in some fish), greasy matter of (PWMc: *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae])

yiya·‘where?’ (PCMc: *iaa)

Puluwatese (820 / 841)

(yi)-yé·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

(yó)-foŋefoŋ·‘blow (one’s nose)’ (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

yóle-e-(y)to braid (sennit) (PCMc: *kalo)

(yó)-llowfeces (polite), to defecate (PMc: *laloua)

yólóólsennit rope, to braid sennit (PCMc: *kalo)

(yó)-lúhá-(á-tá) (sic)loosen it (as copra from its shell) (PMc: *luTu)

(yó)-lúlúh (sic)to dislodge dried copra from its shell (PMc: *luTu)

(yó)-mʷotá- (sic)food cooked (by someone) (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

yóó·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

yoo, yooyo·‘cane, walking stick’ (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

yóóh, yóho-(n), yeho-(n)·‘thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

yóól, yólo-(n)sun, sun of (PMc: *alo)

yóón‘tentacle’ (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

yoopʷ (sic)to hit (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

yóót‘verticle house rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

yó-ówá, yakkó-ówa (sic)·‘to whistle (of humans)’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

yóóyó‘coarse sennit used for lashing and calking, to calk’ (PMc: *ako)

yopʷu-li-(y)to beat, hit, switch (as with a club or as with a ball) (PCMc: *w[ao]pʷo)

(yóro)-ppá-á-laŋ·‘horizon’ (lit. ‘edge of heaven’) (PWMc: *pa-i-laŋi)

yoto-(n)‘time of, duration of’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

Puluwatese (840 / 841)

yóttúfsaliva, sputum (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

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