Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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S


Sa’a
Saipan Carolinian

Saipan Carolinian·T
Samoan

Satawalese
Sonsorolese

26. Sa’a (306) (Ivens 1918)

-’a‘present or general time’ (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

’a’a‘large green parrot’ (PMc: *karakara)

’a’a‘rise up clear (of the moon)’ (PMc: *ata)

’a’aila-[‘a]firm, strong (PMc: *kaila)

aaŋilikingfish (PMc: *taŋiri)

aau‘season of the southeast wind’ (PMc: *tau₂)

’ae·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

’ae, ’ae’aeleg, foot (PMc: *wae)

aha, aha-si‘to cut, score, notch’ (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

[áhi]-mawa‘to yawn’ (PMc: *mawa)

’áhuri·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

’ai‘a tree’ (PMc: *kayu)

-ái-ni [sic]·‘passive suffix’ (PMc: *-aki-ni)

’alabreak off, lop, bite (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

’alato break off or lop (of branches) (PMc: *talai)

(’ala) ŋiŋiteclench the teeth (PCMc: *ŋisa)

[a]-lahaa chief (PMc: *lapa)

alele‘be jubilant, rejoice in song’ (PMc: *alele)

’ali‘a cord’ (PMc: *tali)

’aliŋe‘ear, mushroom’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

Sa’a (20 / 306)

’alu‘to put, place’ (PMc: *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na)

aluto put, place (PCMc: *tawu₃)

’ama-father [referential] (PMc: *tama)

’ami·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

’amu·you (plural) (PMc: *kamʷu)

‘a-[na]his food to eat (PMc: *kai₁)

’a-(na)for him to eat (PMc: *kana, kani)

’anoground (PMc: *tano)

aŋa-’i‘to carry, act as a porter’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

’apa‘part, side, half’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

’apaleaf (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

’apa-a‘a staff’ (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

apa’apawing, shoulder, leaves (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

apeto encourage (someone) (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

’ápu·‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

ara-na‘to move (a thing) on’ (PMc: *are, are-ki)

aro‘wild ginger’ (PMc: *aŋo)

’ási-‘sibling of same sex’ (PMc: *ta[sS]i-)

’ási·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

asiŋe‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

Sa’a (40 / 306)

[a]-tei·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

’ato·‘rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

-áu·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

’áu-[sala]‘be a gadabout, neglect the home’ (PMc: *tau₁)

awaabe convalescent after a fever, be over the attack (PMc: *tawaa)

dánudraw water (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

dánu-’isprinkle with water (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

dáŋi·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

dáŋibe day, be daylight (PMc: *raani)

dara‘forehead’ (PMc: *camʷa)

dodolamixed (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

dola-lito commingle, dilute (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

’ehui·‘placenta, afterbirth’ (PMc: *ta[wØ]u[iu])

ʻelidig (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

ʻeli-ŋadigging (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

eno, enoenoto lie down (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

epa si‘to spread over (something) (PCMc: *epaepa)

fu’eto carry suspended from the head (PMc: *u-Ti, u-Taki)

ha’a‘platform for storing yams’ (PMc: *fata)

Sa’a (60 / 306)

[ha’a]-tau‘far off, distant’ (PCMc: *soa)

haha‘down side’ (PMc: *faa-)

haho‘above, top’ (PMc: *fawo)

hai·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

hale‘shed’ (PMc: *fale)

hali·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

hánue·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

hapa‘plank, thwart of canoe’ (PMc: *papa)

hási’obody flesh (PMc: *fiSiko)

háu·‘stone’ (PMc: *fatu)

ha’u, ha’u-si‘to plait’ (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

he’a, he’a-si·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

he’u·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

hili, hili-si and Ula ili-si‘choose’ (PMc: *fili, filifili)

hiri‘to lap with a string, to bind’ (PMc: *fira, fira-[kx]i)

hisuto pluck leaves, pull fruit (PMc: *wuti)

hiu·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

honu·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

hudi·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

hue, huehue·‘fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

Sa’a (80 / 306)

hunukill or cut up an animal (PMc: *maawunu)

huŋehuŋa-’ahillock (PMc: *wuŋa)

huŋu, huŋuhuŋubear fruit (PMc: *wuŋu)

hu’ocome early in the morning (PMc: *wuko)

hu’o‘fishnet net, seine’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

hutohuto‘froth, foam’ (PMc: *pʷu[sS]o)

hu’u·‘cough, to cough’ (PCMc: *pekopeko or *kopekope)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

[i] haha‘below, underside’ (PMc: *faa-)

i hei·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

i’e·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

’ie·‘stomach, belly, abdomen’ (PMc: *tia₁)

’i’e-lito plait (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

[ik]-ire·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

ilalatake an augury (PMc: *kilala)

[i]-laloinside (PMc: *lalo₂)

(i)-laŋisky, heaven (PMc: *laŋi)

ilePandanus odoratissimus (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

’ilestone axe (PMc: *kiiV, kiV-)

’imabearʻs-paw clam (PMc: *kima)

Sa’a (100 / 306)

’ini‘pinch, pluck’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

inu, inuinu·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

(i)-ŋanitewhen? (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

(i)-puriafter (PMc: *mʷuri-)

’iro, ’iro’iro‘to look at, look for, see’ (PMc: *tiro, tiro-ŋi)

’iteto find fault with, reject (PMc: *kiSa)

-ka·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

káli‘to surround’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

kálikeli‘around’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

kara, kara-si, ’ara-sito scrape (PMc: *kara, kara-si, kara-sa)

káru, kárukeruto scratch with the nails (PMc: *karu)

ki’e·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

-ku·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

la’a‘up’ (PMc: *lakalaka)

lahabig (PMc: *lapa)

lamalake (PMc: *lama₂)

láŋiraised up (PMc: *laŋi)

laŋo·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

la’o‘approach, steer or go toward’ (PMc: *lako, laa)

lawa‘spider web’ (PMc: *lawa)

Sa’a (120 / 306)

lime and Ula lima‘five’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

lio‘to look, see’ (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

liwecave (PMc: *lipʷa)

lolo‘red ants’ (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

loo-sito see (PMc: *loo, loo-Si)

luda-acargo (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

luda-ŋito carry cargo (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

ludecarry cargo (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

luethe rising tide (PMc: *ua₂; ua-pʷut[iu])

lue-·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

lumu·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

maa·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma’afather [vocative] (PMc: *tama)

madali, mamadali‘greasy, slippery’ (PMc: *ma-[sS]ali)

madoocooked (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mae·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

maholospace, interval of time or distance (PMc: *mawolo)

[ma]-hu’ohu’oearly morning, dawn (PMc: *wuko)

máihither, from (PMc: *mai₂)

Sa’a (140 / 306)

[má]-luto shade (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

mámi‘to taste something’ (PMc: *mami)

mánuto float (PMc: *maanu)

mánu‘bird, insect’ (PMc: *manu)

maŋoto breathe (PMc: *maŋo)

ma-rawabe blackish or purplish [of nuts before ripening] (PMc: *ma-rawa)

ma-ri’iri’ibroken into slivers (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

marouthirst (PMc: *marewu)

masa‘shy, ashamed’ (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

mata’i‘have an attack of malarial fever’ (PMc: *masaki)

ma-tawa·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

m-á’u·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

máuli, máumeuli·‘left handed’ (PCMc: *ma[iu]ŋi)

mauri‘to live, be alive, recover health’ (PMc: *mauri)

mawa‘to shout’ (PMc: *mawa)

mena-(ŋa’ini)do a thing perfectly (PMc: *meña-a)

modebe listless, faint (PMc: *mʷoe)

mou, mou-si·‘cut, sever, break off’ (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

-mu·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

Sa’a (160 / 306)

mʷaa‘snake, the disease lupus’ (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷa-daube easy, possible, soft, pliable (PMc: *ma-caucau)

mʷane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷa’uudisorderly (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

-na·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

naho·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

namo‘landlocked harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nanama‘be powerful’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

ni·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

niho·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

niu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

nonola·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

nukuto kink, have corrugations, be shriveled or wrinkled (PCMc: *lukuma)

nuku-mito crease, fold (something) (PCMc: *lukuma)

nume·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

nunushadow, reflection, likeness, soul (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

nuto·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

ŋáu, ŋáuŋeuto eat (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

ŋáu-[he]a feast (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

ŋáu-[laa]‘food’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

Sa’a (180 / 306)

ŋero‘to chew, nibble (of rats)’ (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋora‘snore’ (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

’o’a‘to settle [of birds]’ (PMc: *Toka)

’ohu·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

’o’i‘to break (something) in pieces’ (PMc: *toki)

okoeat raw food (PMc: *koca, oca)

oleto scrape with a shell, get the skin off yams (PMc: *koyi)

’olito return, relapse (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

’oli-sito change, alter (something) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

’olu·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

omito suck (something) (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

omi-ŋesucking (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

ono·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

’ono, ’ono-mito swallow (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

’ono, ’ono’ono, ’ono-mito swallow (PCMc: *woro-)

’oŋo·‘mangrove’ (PMc: *toŋo)

ooruwind, to blow (a loan) (PMc: *tokolau)

opa‘divide, separate’ (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

’oqabelly, bowels, stomach’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

paa·‘bait, worm’ (PMc: *paa₁)

Sa’a (200 / 306)

pa’ewa·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

pepe‘butterfly, moth’ (PMc: *pepe, pepepe)

pepebutterfly, moth (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

pile‘fish roe’ (PMc: *pia)

ponoto close, mend (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

pono-sito stuff up (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

poŋi and Ula qoŋitime, season (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

poo·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

puli‘cowrie shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

pulu‘pitch, resin’ (PMc: *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta)

pupuSouthern Cross (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

puriback of, behind (PMc: *mʷuri-)

puuto tread, stamp, stand firm (PMc: *pʷutu)

puu-listrike with the talons [of birds] (PMc: *pʷutu)

qa’ato rise [of heavenly bodies] (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

qa’a-[qito]to sprout, spring up [of plants] (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

qá’ito lever, prize (PMc: *pʷeki)

qálusu·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

qá’u·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

qoŋito promise (PMc: *pʷono)

Sa’a (220 / 306)

raŋa‘to rise (of the moon)’ (PCMc: *caŋa)

rara‘hot, pungent, be shriveled up, withered, parched’ (PMc: *rara)

ráu‘leaf used as food wrapper’ (PMc: *cau)

ráuscrape up, gather with the hands (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

ráuto scrape up, to gather up with the hands (PMc: *ra[wØ]u)

rodonight (PMc: *roco)

roŋo·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

rorodobe lowering, of clouds (PMc: *roco)

rue·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

ru’uto draw back, retire (PMc: *rut[iu])

ru’uto draw back, retire (PMc: *ruku₂)

ruu-sito shrink, shrivel (PMc: *ruku₂)

sae‘heart, mind, chest, liver’ (PMc: *ate)

salo‘to beckon, invite’ (PMc: *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i)

salo‘sky, heaven, clouds’ (PMc: *alo)

sa’o‘sago palm’ (PMc: *aTo)

saosaola‘yellow’ (PMc: *aŋo)

sasate·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

sásu, sá’usesu·‘smoke’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

sata·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

Sa’a (240 / 306)

sata-[a’i]‘to chafe, rub’ (PMc: *a[sS]a)

sato‘sun, sunshine’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

sáu·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

[sáu]-lehi·‘evening’ (PMc: *fakaafi)

siho‘descend, disembark’ (PMc: *siwo)

sii·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

si-kea thorn (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

sikito tap, touch with the fingers (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

siki-hito infect, carry contagion [to someone] (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

sili, sisilito enter (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

sili-hienter, go into [something] (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

sinetorch (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

sine-lito lighten, give light to (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

si’o. si’o-hi‘gather, collect’ (PMc: *[sS]iko)

siwe, siwa-na‘nine, ninth’ (PMc: *Siwa)

suli·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

susu‘breast, milk, to suck the breast’ (PMc: *susu)

suu, suu-hidive, sink, dive for (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

ta’a‘bad’ (PMc: *[sS]aa)

taa, taha·‘interrogative suffix’ (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

Sa’a (260 / 306)

taalu‘shoal water, coral patch’ (PMc: *sakau)

(ta’a)-talaa line, row (PMc: *Sali)

ta’eto rise up, stand (PMc: *[sS]ake)

ta’e·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

taha‘what?’ (PMc: *Safa)

[ta]-haŋa·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

taha-ŋito eat the first fruits (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tala·‘path, road’ (PMc: *ala₁)

tálu-hito draw out water, draw at a well (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

taŋathe crotch of the legs (PMc: *Saŋa)

[ta]-ŋa-hulu·‘unit of ten (in counting)’ (PMc: *-ŋawulu)

[ta]-ŋa-lai [mʷane]one hundred men (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

[ta]-ŋa-lauone hundred (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

taŋataŋaforked stick (PMc: *Saŋa)

táu-risew (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tawa‘opening in the shore reef’ (PMc: *sawa)

tere-hito fan (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

tohuto chop (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

tohu-le’i-nito chop (something) (PMc: *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-)

tolo‘hill, hill country’ (PMc: *Solo)

Sa’a (280 / 306)

tono, tono-hito drink (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

to’o, to’oto’o‘to hit, encounter, succeed’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

toto, toto-hito soak into, be absorbed in (liquid) (PMc: *Too)

’uhito blow with the mouth (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

uleule‘sinew, tendon, vein’ (PMc: *ua₁)

uluŋeserve as a pillow (PMc: *uluŋa)

umu·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

unahi·‘hair, feathers, scales, remove (hair or scales)’ (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

unufibrous spathe of a coconut frond (PMc: *unu)

’upu, ’upu’upu‘to swell’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

’ureto stand up (PMc: *tura)

’uru’uru‘to spill, dribble out’ (PMc: *turu)

’usu·‘to point or face’ (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

’usu‘to point’ (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

usu-rito rub (PMc: *us[ei])

ute‘heavy rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

uteto rub, polish (PMc: *us[ei])

uto-pith, core (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

’u’u’i·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

uunu‘to burn on a fire, roast on embers’ (PCMc: *tinitini, tini-mi)

Sa’a (300 / 306)

wádi‘whistle’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

walu·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

walu-(malau)the world, all the islands (PMc: *walu)

wate, wa’ewate‘to distribute food at a feast after making an oration’ (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

wáuadverb of place, there (PMc: *watu)

weteto hit (PMc: *wece or *woco)

27. Saipan Carolinian (828) (Jackson and Marck 1991)

-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

a-, á-, ó-, kka-, akka-·‘causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals’ (PMc: *ka-)

aa-, yáá-li, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

aal, ala-(l)‘path, road, his path’ (PMc: *ala₁)

áámi, -ghámi·you (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

ááŋ, yááŋ, yáŋi-·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

ááp, ápi-‘buttocks, hip, keel or bottom of a canoe’ (PMc: *kapi)

áát, áte-l·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

áát, áti-(l)‘gallbladder, his gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

áf, áfe-·‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

(a)-fasafas‘nest’ (PMc: *fata)

áff, áffi-·‘coconut crab’ (PMc: *afafi)

áfi-i-(y)‘pull it in (as a fish on a line)’ (PMc: *afi₂)

afi-ti, áfi-ti‘carry (a child or object) on one’s side’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

(a)-ghule-e-(y)to let (someone) know something (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

(a-ghúú)-áf‘light a signal fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

aifar, aifár, ayúfar, aifara-(l)‘shoulder, carry a load on the shoulder, his shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

ailaŋ·‘clan, folk, tribe, stock’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

ai-(shigh)‘be thin, skinny, slender’ (PCMc: *au-)

ákkápi-toil for anointing the body or hair (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

Saipan Carolinian (20 / 828)

akkesh, akkásh, ákkeshto throw (PCMc: *kace)

aláálááybe very long (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

áláálááybe very long (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

ala-(l)·‘food’, ‘eat (something)’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

ali-moŋ‘large sea crab with red orange shell’ (PMc: *ali-maŋo)

álláybe very long (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

(a)-lléé-(w)‘make it taste better’ (PMc: *ñañau)

(a)-lloowfeces, excrement, to defecate (PMc: *laloua)

alús, aalis, alis, alúsa-(l)·‘beard’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

(a-ma)-at‘to grate, scrape, or mash something’ (PMc: *a[sS]a)

(a)-mara‘canoe sail’ (PMc: *maraa)

(a)-méé-(w), (a)-mééméé-(w)to buy (something) (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

(a)-mmatbailer (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

(a)-mmatato bail (a canoe) (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

(a)-móó-(l), móó-(l-atél)‘to yawn’ (PMc: *mawa)

(a)-mʷoŋo-o-(w)to feed (someone) (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

(a)-mʷootato cook (something) (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

(a)-mʷush·‘firewood’ (PMc: *mʷucu)

and Crn (e)-llet‘be correct, true, honest’ (PCMc: *lelesa)

and Crn paliya-·‘side’ (PWMc: *palia)

Saipan Carolinian (40 / 828)

anú, anúú-(l)‘spirit, ghost, spirit of’ (PMc: *anitu)

aŋaaŋ, eŋaaŋwork, to work (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋe-etito touch (someone or something) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋi·eat (something) (PMc: *kaŋi)

aŋŋé-étito touch (someone or something) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

aŋ-(ŋeli)to reach for (something) (PMc: *aŋa₁)

a-pahato say (something) (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

a-peipeydriftwood (PCMc: *kai-peti)

ápi-tianoint (someone) (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

(a)-pʷuta, (ó)-bʷutato dislike or hate (someone) (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

(araa-lú)-útsmell of smoke (PMc: *a[sS]u)

araar‘species of small, black bird’ (PMc: *karakara)

ara-mas, are-mas·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

áriárutensil to stir with, to stir things (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

arigh, árigh·‘white sand crab or ghost crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

ári-ti‘to stir (something) from the bottom up to the top (as when cooking), to scoop up from the bottom of the pot’ (PMc: *ari)

aro-‘about, around, near’ (PMc: *aro-)

(a)-rosato finish it, consume all of it, use it all up (PWMc: *rota)

arúŋcoconut cream (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

arúŋú-(w)add coconut cream to (a food) (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

Saipan Carolinian (60 / 828)

(a)-rúú-(w)scare, shock, surprise (someone) (PMc: *rut[iu])

arú-(w)to stir it (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

-as‘high, on top’ (PMc: *ata)

ásáa voyage by canoe, to sail a canoe or voyage by canoe’ (intepreted as a causative constructed from sááy) (PMc: *katea)

(a)-sakkslices of copra (PWMc: *takaka)

(a)-sakkato slice (copra) (PWMc: *takaka)

asam·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

(a)-sééséto rest, take it easy (PCMc: *Too)

(a)-séé-(w)(reflexive) to rest oneself, take it easy, relax (PCMc: *Too)

áse-(l)‘his liver’ (PMc: *ate)

ashawhard basaltic rock, rocky cliff (PMc: *kacawa)

ashawplace in the sky world (now identified with Kosrae) (PMc: *kacawa)

ashe-(y), ashe-e-(y)to throw (something) (PCMc: *kace)

(assa)-ŋúrto crunch with the teeth (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

asúl-(lé)‘small sp. of tuna’ (PMc: *atu)

(a)-taa-(y)‘destroy, devastate, smash’ (PMc: *[sS]aa)

átigh‘species of edible fish found outside reef’ (PMc: *kaseki)

(a)-tiwo-owa-(l)ninth (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

ato-(l)‘time of’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

(a)-tola-(feŋálli)‘mix (things) together’ (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

Saipan Carolinian (80 / 828)

(au)-sap·‘cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

a-uwa, ó-wuwáá-(li)·‘to whistle (of humans)’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

(a)-wutbe loaded, have something inside (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

(a)-wutapack it, put something in it (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

ay·‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ (PMc: *kayi)

ayú·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

a-yútt, a-yúttú-(l)·‘finger, toe’ (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

(a)-yúú-(ló)stop something, make it come to a stop (PMc: *tuu₂)

(a)-yúú-wbuild (something) (PMc: *tuu₁)

bʷábe or become visible, to appear (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

bʷaash·‘kind of round basket’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₂)

(bʷa)-atsmoky (PMc: *a[sS]u)

(bʷa)-atiyatbe smoking lightly (PMc: *a[sS]u)

bʷálto walk around (PCMc: *pʷalili)

bʷalabʷalcover, lid (PMc: *pʷalu)

bʷáli-i-(y), bʷeli-i-(y)to surround (something or someone), to go all the way around (something) (PCMc: *pʷalili)

bʷalú-wto cover (something) (PMc: *pʷalu)

bʷár, bʷer‘to go all the way through, pierce something through’ (PMc: *pʷera)

bʷe·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

-bʷe·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

Saipan Carolinian (100 / 828)

(bʷe) feita‘why? (in disagreement), what happened? (PMc: *faiSa)

bʷee, bʷee-(li), bʷee-(y)·‘knot divination’ (PWMc: *pʷee)

bʷeeshcoral lime (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

bʷeibʷogh, bʷoobʷoghto bring, take, carry (PMc: *pʷeki)

bʷelbegin (PMc: *pʷenu)

bʷele-(táá-)beginning (of something) (PMc: *pʷenu)

bʷéllbe completely planted (of a field) (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

bʷelú-(w)to start (something) (PMc: *pʷenu)

bʷesh, bʷeshebʷeshwhite, have lime on it (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

bʷeshi-kkar, a-bʷeshi·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

(bʷe)-tawhy, suppose, what if (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

bʷii, bʷiibʷi·‘group’ (PWMc: *pʷiti)

bʷiil‘cowrie shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

bʷili-ti, bʷúli-tú, bʷúli-ti·‘to slip off, put aside’ (PMc: *pʷili)

(bʷiti)-ghalle-(ló)to be mangled, torn, smashed, shredded (of flesh, meat, rotten vegetables) (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

bʷoo-·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

bʷoo, bʷo, bʷoobʷo·‘swelling’ (PCMc: *pʷoto)

(bʷoo-l) mó-óliyól, mʷó-óliyól, mʷó-óliyal·‘perspiration’ (PCMc: *ma-wono)

bʷooŋ, bʷoŋi-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

bʷoo-ŋashave a fragrant oder (PMc: *ŋata)

Saipan Carolinian (120 / 828)

bʷóór, bʷóro-(l)·‘box, hole’ (PMc: *pʷaro)

bʷoosh·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

bʷoot, bʷootú-·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

(bʷoo)-ttoŋotoŋ‘smell sweaty, unclean, unwashed’ (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

bʷór, bʷar·‘curved, bent’ (PCMc: *pʷaro)

bʷu, bʷuubʷuto step, stand on (PMc: *pʷutu)

bʷughári-(ŋŋas)F. atollensis (PWMc: *pʷukari)

bʷughe-e-(y)tie (it) in a knot (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

bʷugher, bʷughárF. cymosa (PWMc: *pʷukari)

bʷughi, bʷoghito carry, get, take, bring, transport (something) (PMc: *pʷeki)

bʷughobʷugha knot, tie knots (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

-bʷúghúw·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

bʷughúwa-‘node, protruding joint, protuberance’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

bʷula·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

bʷúll, bʷúllé-(l)‘heart, his heart’ (PWMc: *pʷulo, pʷul[ou]lo)

bʷupʷpʷulto be burning, in flames (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

bʷur‘to fall forward on one’s face’ (PMc: *pʷuro)

bʷuse·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

bʷush‘naive, ignorant, foolish, senile’ (PCMc: *pʷuce)

bʷutów·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

Saipan Carolinian (140 / 828)

bʷuubʷ·‘trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

bʷuubʷuto step on something, be standing on something (PMc: *pʷutu)

bʷuugh·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

bʷúúŋ, bʷuuŋ, bʷúŋu-l‘handle, its handle’ (PMc: *pʷuŋu)

bʷuu-rágh, bʷuu-reghto stomp the feet (as when throwing a tantrum) (PMc: *pʷutu)

bʷuu-rito step, stomp, tread on (something) (PMc: *pʷutu)

dótchólblack (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

e- and sa-(ŋaras)‘one thousand’ (PMc: *te-)

ee-ŋi·‘ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)’ (PCMc: *-ŋ[ei]a)

efáŋ, áfáŋ·‘north’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

epeep, epiyep·‘lee platform of sailing canoe, platform on side opposite to outrigger float’ (PCMc: *epaepa)

faa-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

fááf, fááfi·‘evening’ (PMc: *fakaafi)

faa-(l)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

faala bruise’, fall ‘be bruised, hurt (PMc: *falu₁)

fáál·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

faar, fara-(l)‘core, heart, pit of a fruit, core of’ (PMc: *fara)

faash, fasha-(l), #faasha-(l)·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

faat, fáát, fatú-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

Saipan Carolinian (160 / 828)

fáá-tikick (someone) (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

(faay) mó, (faay) mókk‘gravel’ (PCMc: *mʷoka)

faay, faaú, fayú-(l)‘stone, rock, seed, testicles, stone of’ (PMc: *fatu)

fai-ŋito call or beckon to (someone) (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

fái-soŋ and Crn fei-hoŋ‘kiss, rub noses’ (PWMc: *fai-Toŋo)

fala-‘in names of meeting houses’ (PMc: *fale)

falla-(ló), fal-(ló)be very swollen, severely infected (PMc: *falu₁)

falúw·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

faŋto give, send (PMc: *faŋa)

faŋ‘be very popular with the opposite sex, be a Don Juan, be sexually promiscous (of a woman)’ (PWMc: *faŋu)

(fara)-fetálabout to take a walk (PMc: *faSale)

fáre-wa, fare-wa, fáre-waa-(l)·‘lungs’ (PMc: *far[ae])

(fasá)ághá-lito laugh at, make fun of someone, mock (ffas ‘to laugh’) (PMc: *-aki-ni)

(fat)-oru-(l)‘its fish gills’ (PMc: *woro₁)

fayfayweave, do weaving (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fayú, faú, fayito weave or plait (something) (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

féé-tagh and Crn féé-tag‘set an anchor, tie up a boat’ (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

fela‘halfbeak’ (PCMc: *fanaa)

félé-é-(w)advise, instruct, counsel (someone) (PMc: *fanau)

fe-ŋáll, fe-sáŋ·‘reciprocal’ (PMc: *fa-)

Saipan Carolinian (180 / 828)

ferághto be spread out (of mats and cloth) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

ferághá-lispread it out (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

fetál‘around, somewhere, randomly (PMc: *faSale)

feyi, feey, ffey, fáyi‘rayfish, skate’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

ffato kick (PMc: *faa, faa-[sS]i)

ffaat, faat, ffáti-(l)‘stringer of fish, string of fish of’ (PMc: *faa, faasa)

ffayto call, beckon (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

fféér‘to do, make (PMc: *fauru)

fféérúto do or make (something)’ (PMc: *fauru)

#ffélgive advice or instruction, lecture or preach (PMc: *fanau)

fferághto spread out flat things (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

ffilto choose, select (PMc: *fili, filifili)

ffish‘scissors, to have a sudden sharp pain, rise suddenly without warning (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

ffooy, ffééy‘feel cold’ (PMc: *fou)

-ffósh‘all the way to a destination’ (PCMc: *faco)

ffót, fóto-ghi, fóót·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

fiifito do burning (PMc: *fiti)

fii-ghito burn or set fire to (something) (PMc: *fiti)

fiis, fisu-, fisú-, fisi-, fisa-, fisu-uw, fisi-igh·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

filichoose it (PMc: *fili, filifili)

Saipan Carolinian (200 / 828)

fishito cut (something), to play or strum a (stringed instrument), to strike (a light), to shoot (a weapon) (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

(fi)-tmix together (PMc: *[sS]i-)

fita-, fite- fiti-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

fi-(ti)to go with or accompany (someone) (PMc: *fi-)

fiti·‘accompany’ (PMc: *fiSi)

(fi)-tibe in addition to, go together with (PMc: *[sS]i-)

fitúg, fitugh·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

(fi)-yoow‘to fight someone’ (PCMc: *tou)

fi-(yoow)to fight someone (PMc: *fi-)

foo‘pole for pushing boats and canoes’ (PMc: *faxo)

fuŋu-rito blow (the nose) (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

fúú, fúú-(l)·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

ghalusually, regularly, habitually (PCMc: *kana, kai)

ghárbe very tired, exhausted (as from carrying a heavy load) (PCMc: *kari)

gháyi-, ghayú-‘penis’ (menʻs talk) (PMc: *kayu)

ghéé·‘fishhook, catch with hook’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

ghei-ŋi, ghéi-ŋito husk (something) with the teeth (PMc: *kai₁)

ghékké, kkékké and Crn gékké‘to crow (of rooster)’ (PWMc: *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri)

gheli-ŋidig up (something)’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

ghé-réé-tiscrape (the skin off a breadfruit) (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

Saipan Carolinian (220 / 828)

gheriscratch, or grate (something) (PMc: *kari)

gherigher, gheregherto scratch (PMc: *kari)

gheyto tear off the husk of coconut or sugarcane with the teeth (PMc: *kai₁)

ghiil, ghili-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

ghiish·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

ghilas‘a wound, cut’ (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

ghili‘type of woven coconut leaf mat’ (PWMc: *kinia)

ghilito harvest or pick (fruit or leaves from a tree) (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

ghilighilbe marked for later use or recognition (PMc: *kilala)

ghillto pick fruit from a tree (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

#(ghiló)-mʷdeep sleep, freedom, quiet, peace (PMc: *mʷoe)

ghit, ghikkit, ghitighiit·‘small, little’ (PMc: *kisi)

ghiye-·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

ghiyeghi·‘white or fairy tern’ (PCMc: *kiakia)

ghiyó, ghiiyó, kkiyó·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

ghiyobʷ·‘spider lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

gho- (archaic), u-·‘you (singular subject marker)’ (PMc: *ko-, koe)

ghola, ghula‘to reach it, reach and touch (something), arrive at (a place)’ (PCMc: *kona)

ghola, ghula‘(for a disease) to take (a person)’ (PMc: *kona)

ghomʷu-u-(w), ghumʷu-u-(w)‘to swish (water) around in the mouth, to rinse it’ (PMc: *kumʷu)

Saipan Carolinian (240 / 828)

ghóóghó·‘newly born, infant’ (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

ghoo-(l)‘its tentacle’ (PMc: *koo, koo-na)

ghoorpubic hair (PMc: *koro)

ghooshfiber from coconut husk used in making rope (PCMc: *koca)

ghootcoconut husking stick (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

ghoshto cut a coconut spathe in making toddy (PMc: *koco₁)

ghoshe-e-(y)to cut (a spathe) (PMc: *koco₁)

ghoshooshstringy pulp that develops in old yams and sweet potatoes (PCMc: *koca)

ghot, ghoto-(tá)·‘go aground, run on a reef’ (PCMc: *koso)

ghote-e-(y)to husk (a coconut) (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

ghotootact of husking (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

ghúto feed together at the surface of the water (of fish), to eat together from the same dish (of people) (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

ghú and Crn gú‘be alight, smolder, be burning’ (PCMc: *kio, kio-ri)

ghulto go out, be extinguished (PMc: *kunu)

ghul and Crn gul‘to try frantically to get as much as possible’ (PWMc: *kulu)

(ghúla)-mʷmʷeybe sleeping deeply (PMc: *mʷoe)

ghuleto know, learn (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

ghule-e-(y)to know (someone or something), be acquainted with (someone) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

(ghúlú)-fé, (ghili)-fé·‘hibiscus’ (PMc: *-fau)

ghulughulsomething that extinguishes a fire (PMc: *kunu)

Saipan Carolinian (260 / 828)

ghulu-u-(w)to put out, extinguish (a fire) (PMc: *kunu)

ghúrú, ghérúto scrape or grate (something) (PMc: *karu)

ghúrúghúrto scrape or grate (PMc: *karu)

ghuughubite repeatedly, be biting (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

ghúús·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

ghúúw·‘porpoise’ (PCMc: *kua)

ghúúw·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

ghú-ú-(w)to bite (something or someone) (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

i-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

i-·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

i-fa·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

ifi-i-(y)to pull up or dip (water) (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

i-gha, i-ghe-ey, i-ghi-la, i-gha-al, i-ghi-laal, i-ghi-mʷuul, i-ghi-we·‘at place’ (as designated) (PCMc: *i-ka-)

ii·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

iigh·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iil, ila-(l)·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

iimʷ, imʷa-(l)·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

iiŋ, iŋi-(l)‘dorsal fin (PMc: *iŋi)

iir·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

iit, ita-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

Saipan Carolinian (280 / 828)

(i)-lee-t, (i)-lee-ta·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

ileilbe hairy (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

ileila-feathers, fur, body hair (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

ili-(as)head hair’ (respect usage, lit. ‘high sprout’) (PMc: *ili)

ili-(as)head hair (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

ilil (? *ili-(l))young taro sprouts (PMc: *ili)

iŋiiŋtop of a gorge, precipice, sharp slope, ridge, rafters supporting the ridgepole in a house (PMc: *iŋi)

isá-li-(i-ló)put or store it away (PMc: *ita, itaita)

isiisto save or keep something for future use (PMc: *ita, itaita)

isi-i-(y)to cut off or break off (fruit that grows in bunches) (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

iti-fi‘to fetch it (of water)’ (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

itiit‘point, pointing projection’ (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

(i)-we, we·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

iya·‘where?’ (PCMc: *iaa)

(i)-yeelthis one (emphatic) (PMc: *ena)

(i)-yo, (ii)-yo·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

kka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

kkáŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kka-pas, kke-pasword, speech, talk, language (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

(kkapasá)-ághi-li‘to intercede on behalf of someone’ (kkapas ‘word, speech, talk, language, to speak’) (PMc: *-aki-ni)

Saipan Carolinian (300 / 828)

kkápi-tbe anointed (PCMc: *kapi-sa, kapi-si)

kkar·‘burnt’ (PMc: *kara, kakara)

kkár, kkergive up, surrender (as when tired of arguing), be fed up, frustrated (PCMc: *kari)

kkas, kkasa-(l)‘language, speech, his language’ (PMc: *kata)

kkát, kket‘stringers used to tie thatch to a roof’ (PMc: *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si)

kkáy‘be prompt, fast, quick, rapid’ (PWMc: *kaye)

kkéét,‘to be scratchy, itchy,’ (PMc: *kaaSu, kakaaSu)

kkeldig a hole with a digging implement (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kkeli-ŋidig (a hole) with an implement (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

kké-réto scrape (PMc: *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si)

kkóbʷ·‘dull’ (PCMc: *kapʷu, kakapʷu)

kkorbe especially hairy in the pubic area (PMc: *koro)

#kkú, kkú-(l), #úkk, #úkkú-(l)·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

kkúr, kkúrú-(ló)be pulled back (of the foreskin), be circumcized (PWMc: *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta)

kkúúghúbe in the habit of biting (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

-l·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

-l·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

laalpus or smegma (PMc: *nana)

láálááybe long, tall (PMc: *ala[iu], alala[iu])

lááŋ‘heaven’ (PMc: *laŋi)

Saipan Carolinian (320 / 828)

laayú, laay·‘tomorrow’ (PMc: *l[au]tuu)

lalhave pus (PMc: *nana)

lalew·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

lamalam‘beliefs, morals, ethics, religion’ (PMc: *lama₁)

lamalam‘good deeds’ (PMc: *lama-)

láŋiláŋ and Crn leŋileŋ‘have bad weather’ (PMc: *laŋi)

laŋú‘third of five growth stages of the skipjack’ (PMc: *laŋua)

lap; llape-·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

layú-·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

lee-at (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(lee)-alo-(was), (lee)-ólo-(was)‘high noon’ (PMc: *alo)

lee-(bʷel)taro patch (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

lee-(bʷoŋ)night-time (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

leel, llel·‘Morinda citrifolia (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

léélé‘puddle, lake, pond’ (PMc: *lau)

le-e-liy, le-e-liyá-(l), la-liyá-(l)·‘place’ (PMc: *ni[ae])

lééŋ·‘ant’ (PCMc: *l[eo]ŋu)

lee-(set)at the ocean or sea (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

(lee)-yutu-(l)‘its inside’ (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

-li·‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

Saipan Carolinian (340 / 828)

lifaŋ, lifaŋa-wake up (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

(li)-ffaŋgift, present (PMc: *faŋa)

(li)-filifilbe choosy (PMc: *fili, filifili)

lighi-ti and Crn ligi-ti‘leave (something) behind, stop using (something), leave (something) for someone else’ (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

liibʷ, libʷa-(l)‘hole dug by man or animal’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

liim, lima-, limo-uw, lim-mal, lime-igh·‘five, five (general), five (animate), fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

(lii)-welchange, exchange (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

(lii)-welito change (something), take the place of (someone) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

limi, limi-i-(ló)‘’to foldsomething, fold it up’ (PMc: *lumi)

(li)-pʷpʷeytwins of the same sex (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

(li)-pʷpʷeya-(alú)twins of opposite sex (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

lish, lúsh‘miss or long for someone or something’ (PMc: *lici)

li-yaŋ‘spider shell’ (PMc: *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa)

liye-, liya-·‘female person’ (PWMc: *lia-)

llá-ri‘taste it’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

llat·‘half flower (Scaevola) (PWMc: *nanasu)

llegh‘an edible fish with poisonous spines’ (PWMc: *leleki)

lló-(l)‘inside of it’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

llóŋbe swarming with flies (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lloowbe revolted, disgusted (PMc: *laloua)

Saipan Carolinian (360 / 828)

llur and Crn nnúr‘shaded, shady’ (PMc: *l[iu]nuru)

llus, lullus and Crn lluh‘to jump’ (PMc: *luTu)

lóllóól‘be deep, very deep’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

-loŋ‘inward, eastward, inside (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

lóó·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

lóómʷ, (lee)-lómʷ·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

lóómʷ, lómʷo-(l)‘mosquito, mosquito of’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

lóóŋhousefly (PMc: *laŋo₁)

lóóŋ, lóŋo-(l)‘prop, brace, support, platform’ (PMc: *laŋo₂)

loot‘sp. of edible fish’ (PWMc: *noso)

loow, lowu-·‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ (PMc: *nowu)

lughto troll for fish (PCMc: *liko)

lughe-e-(y), lughé-é-(y)to tow (something) (PCMc: *liko)

lughu-(l), lúghú-(l)‘outside of’ (PMc: *liku)

lúghúlúghto believe, think (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúghú-ú-(w)to believe or trust (someone) (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúú·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

luughname of the chief traditional god (PCMc: *luuka)

luugh, luugha-(l)center, middle, its center (PCMc: *luuka)

luugho-(lap)center, middle (of an object) (PCMc: *luuka)

Saipan Carolinian (380 / 828)

luumʷ, lumʷu-·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

ma‘be embarassed’ (PMc: *maa, maa-ki)

die (PMc: *mate)

ma-, má-, mó-, me-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

máádeath (PMc: *mate)

máái-lap·‘Altair, constellation in Aquila’ (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

máái-shigh‘a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *mati-ciki)

maal‘to drift’ (PMc: *maanu)

maal, malú-(l)·‘living creature of land or air’ (PMc: *manu)

ma-aliyél, má-áliyél, maaléél·‘thick’ (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

máámspecies of wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) (PMc: *mam[ei])

(maa)-ma-awbe strong, powerful (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

maan‘the star Sirius, month in the sidereal calendar’ (PCMc: *manu)

maarpreserved breadfruit (PMc: *mara)

maas, mesa-(l)·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

máásh, meshe-(l)tip, point, boundary, edge, point of land, small peninsula, thing of (PMc: *mece-a)

maat, maata-lfarm, his farm (PMc: *maata, maataata)

ma-awbe ripe but not yet soft or sweet (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

mááy·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

ma-ghalto scatter in different directions, disperse (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

Saipan Carolinian (400 / 828)

ma-ghalaghalto be smashed (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

maghú‘to burp up milk after feeding (of a baby)’ (PCMc: *makua)

maha-(a-tá)wake up (PMc: *mamata)

ma-law, (a)-ma-lawa·‘life, alive’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

má-lifilif‘thin’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

malléghbe forgetful (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

mallégú-(ú-w)forget (something) (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

mám, mem·‘sweet’ (PMc: *mami)

máŋi-i-(y)remember, recall, reminisce or think about (something) (PMc: *maŋi)

máŋimáŋbe thinking, thought, idea (PMc: *maŋi)

máŋ-(ŋáli)remind (one) of (something) (PMc: *maŋi)

marbe rotten, decayed, moldy (of fruits and vegetables), smell rotten (PMc: *mara)

ma-rammoon, month (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

má-ripbreak into pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

má-ripiripbe broken into pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

masamas and Crn mahamah‘species of edible red fish’ (PWMc: *matamata)

mashstink, smell bad (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

ma-sheishey, me-sheishey‘slimy, slippery substance such as mucus’ (PMc: *ma-cai)

mat, (a)-matú-(w)·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

mayúr·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

Saipan Carolinian (420 / 828)

me·‘and, with’ (PMc: *ma)

me·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

méé-(l)its cost (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

méé-lito buy (something) (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

méé-(ló)be sold out (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

(mee)-t, (mee)-tawhat? (PMc: *-Saa, mee-Saa)

me-sagh, ma-sagh, me-ságh and Crn me-hag, ma-hag·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

meshesteel, iron, scrap metal (PMc: *mece-a)

meshe-(ŋ), meshe-(ŋe-l)unopened top or head sprout of a tree, thing of (PMc: *mece-a)

metágh·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

me-taw, ma-taw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

miil, mili- and Crn mini-‘person (known but not specified), thing, object’ (PMc: *meña)

mila‘do something to correct (a problem)’ (PMc: *meña-a)

mmas‘to watch, wait and look, be awake (PMc: *mamata)

mmashbe very ripe, soft, ready to eat (of a fruit)’ (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mmatbe dry, low (of water), be low tide (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

mmit‘noise made when smacking the lips or tongue to show dissatisfaction, to make such a noise’ (PMc: *misi)

‘to have healed’ (PMc: *mawo)

móghomógh‘arrowroot’ (PWMc: *mʷakumʷaku)

móótto sit (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

Saipan Carolinian (440 / 828)

móóte-(tiw), móót-(tiw)sit down (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

móówulwar (PMc: *maawunu)

#móówulato attack (an enemy) (PMc: *maawunu)

-mʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

mʷa-, mʷá-, mʷó-, mʷe-·‘prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating, or variegated condition’ (PMc: *mʷa-)

mʷáál·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷá-áliyál‘dizzy’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

(mʷaa)-mʷaay‘be beautiful, pretty, handsome, good, healthy, successful’ (PMc: *mʷaau)

mʷáár; mʷare-possessive classifier for garlands, leis, necklaces … worn around the head or neck (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷaas, mʷasa-(l)stink, unpleasant smell, his unpleasant smell (PMc: *mʷata)

-mʷa-lúlength from inside elbow to finger tip, cubit (counting classifier) (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

mʷa-lú, mʷa-lúú-(l peshe)inside of the knee or elbow joint, inside of the knee (PMc: *mʷa-nuu)

mʷash’ be busy, detained’·‘busy, occupied, detained’ (PWMc: *mʷaca₁)

mʷéél‘species of fish similar to snapper’ (PMc: *mʷonu)

mʷei-tito break, part, snap (something) (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

(mʷe)-ŋereŋer, (mʷo)-ŋereŋer, (mʷo)-ŋaraŋarhave a rough surface, be very rough or raspy (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

mʷet‘to go away, get away’, mwetemwet ‘be fast, hurry up’ (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷetemʷetbe fast, hurry up (PWMc: *mʷese, mʷemʷese)

mʷiri-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

-mʷmʷaay, -mʷmʷaayú-‘carefully, slowly, without rushing’ (PCMc: *mʷea[wØ]u)

Saipan Carolinian (460 / 828)

mʷmʷa-(l)‘in front of him’ (PMc: *mʷ[ou]a)

mʷmʷeybe broken, snapped, parted (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷmʷulbe infested with maggots (PMc: *ulo)

mʷmʷus·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷmʷusi·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷóghut, mʷóghutughut·‘be in motion’ (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

mʷoi-(we), mʷei-(we)‘the past (at least two or three generations ago), in olden days’ (PMc: *metu)

mʷoŋostaple food (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

mʷool‘be generous, very kind’ (PWMc: *mʷool[iu])

#mʷóóŋ, móóŋ, #mʷóŋo-, móŋo-‘forehead’ (PMc: *maŋo)

mʷoor‘be out of breath, breathe hard’ (PMc: *maaru)

mʷoorbe out of breath, breathing hard (as from exertion or asthma) (PMc: *maura)

mʷoos‘edible fish similar to a snapper’ (PCMc: *mʷoTo)

mʷootbe cooked (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mʷoot, mʷoota-·‘cooked’ (PMc: *ma[wØ]u[sS][au])

mʷórbe dry, dried up (PMc: *marewu)

mʷuli-ti, mʷoli-ti‘to rub (something) back and forth (such as to crumple leaves with the fingers), to roll (two pieces of rope) together, to rub (the eyes)’ (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mʷuulmaggot (PMc: *ulo)

ŋaaf, -ŋaf·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

ŋaaŋ, #ghaaŋ·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

Saipan Carolinian (480 / 828)

ŋaaŋa·‘sea bird, duck’ (PMc: *ŋaaŋaa)

ŋaasaroma, scent (PMc: *ŋata)

ŋáásh, ŋáshe-(l)‘lips, mouth, his lower jaw’ (PCMc: *ŋace)

ŋaat, ŋata-lhole, its hole (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋáli·‘to, toward’ (PWMc: *ŋani)

ŋár‘to have been gnawed or nibbled’ (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋári-i-(y), ŋeri-i-(y)‘to gnaw or nibble on (something hard)’ (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

ŋashe-(l)‘side, edge, border of’ (PWMc: *ŋace)

ŋatá-li, ŋate-limake a hole in it (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋataŋatmake holes (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋéél, ŋélú-(l)·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋereŋerbe rough, raspy (PMc: *ŋere, ŋereŋere)

-ŋé-réw, -ŋa-ras·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋii, ŋii-(l)·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋiiŋisound, pronunciation, dialect (cf. Crl ŋiŋŋi ‘to cry out, squeal, of animals or machinery) (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋŋúspeak loudly, be loud (PMc: *ŋuu)

ŋúúŋúmoan (of a person in pain), to sound (as a distant car or plane) (PMc: *ŋuu)

ŋúút, ŋúti-(l)·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

(ó)-foŋofoŋblow one’s nose (PCMc: *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-)

o-mey‘species of reef fish’ (PMc: *tewe, tewe-mea)

Saipan Carolinian (500 / 828)

óŋeyóŋ, yóŋeyóŋyellow, be colored yellow (PMc: *aŋo)

óŋo-(shigh)leaves and flowers of the ginger plant (PMc: *aŋo)

ool, olo-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

óósthatch (PMc: *aTo)

oot, wootColocasia taro (PMc: *wos[ao])

óse-(y)to thatch (something) (PMc: *aTo)

óttuf‘saliva, to spit’ (PMc: *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa)

(ó)-ubʷ‘breast, teat’ (PCMc: *wupʷu-₂)

óus‘cover, b.’, óuse-(y) ‘to cover (s.o.)’ (PMc: *[ao]ut[ae])

ówuta‘species of edible fish found outside reef’ (PCMc: *kausaa)

-pa‘flower leis and compound leaves (in counting)’ (PMc: *paa₂)

paa, páá·‘excrement’ (PMc: *peka)

paap, papa-(l)·‘board, plank’ (PMc: *papa)

paat‘running water, stream, flowing water’ (PWMc: *pasa)

pááw·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

paay, payú-(l)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

pachch, pachchú-(l)·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

paghbe cut, split (PMc: *paku)

paghú-(w)cut it (PMc: *paku)

parapar‘species of edible fish found outside the reef’ (PMc: *parapara)

Saipan Carolinian (520 / 828)

pash‘adhere, stick (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pashapashbe sticky (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

passdrift in the water (PMc: *pata)

passe-(ló)drift away (PMc: *pata)

peey, peipey·‘trash, rubbish’ (PMc: *peti)

-peighhalf (in counting) (PMc: *paiki)

peigh, peighi-side, half, direction (PMc: *paiki)

peighi-(má)to be in a life-or-death situation, be close to death (PMc: *patiki)

peipey‘flotsam’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

peipeyflotsam, driftwood (PCMc: *kai-peti)

pele-yawspecies of edible freshwater fish (PCMc: *pe[ln]e-awa)

pelipel‘trepang’ (PCMc: *panipani)

peraf·‘windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe’ (PWMc: *farafa)

pighipighclap with the hands (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pighi-rislap (it) with the hands (PMc: *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-)

pilapilstopper (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pile-e-(y)to close, cover up, put a lid on, turn off (of faucet) (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

(piles)-ágh‘to become blocked, clogged’ (pileey ‘to close, cover up, put the lid on something’) (PMc: *-aki)

pilito string (a garland or lei) (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

(po)-ŋóósh‘hard palate, roof of the mouth’ (PMc: *ŋaco)

Saipan Carolinian (540 / 828)

póó‘floor’ (PCMc: *pawo)

ppashbe joined together, stuck (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

ppé and Crn pé‘to bounce a ball’ (PMc: *peo)

ppeighto be able to hold one’s breath under water for a long time, to have endurance (PMc: *patiki)

ppel·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

ppi·‘sand, beach’ (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

ppilbe tangled (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

ppish, ppishi-(ló)‘to snap or break (like a string or rubber band), snap off (as button from a shirt), to snap or pop out of joint, to hurt (of a broken bone), throb (as pain)’ (PMc: *pici, pici-ki)

ppishi-(ló)‘become unfastened (as a shirt) (PWMc: *pici)

pʷóów, pʷów·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷpʷáappear suddenly (PMc: *pʷax[ae])

pʷpʷár, pʷpʷer‘to emerge, sprout’ (PMc: *pʷere)

pʷpʷas. pʷpʷasa-(ló)‘be dried up’ (PCMc: *pʷata)

pʷpʷash‘be old and wrinkled’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₁)

pʷpʷel, pʷpʷelú-, pʷpʷél, pʷpʷélú-‘dirt, soil, be dirty, soiled’ (PCMc: *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu)

pʷpʷopestle for pounding, to pound with a pestle (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷpʷoo-lito pound (food) with a mortar and pestle (PMc: *pʷau)

pʷpʷulto burn, be burning (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

ráá-, ráá-lbranch (PMc: *rae)

ráágh, rághi-‘year’ (PCMc: *raki)

Saipan Carolinian (560 / 828)

ráál, rááli-·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

raaŋyellow ginger (PMc: *reŋa)

ráárábe full of branches (PMc: *rae)

raaw, róós, #róóso-l·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

raŋaraŋbe orange, yellow (PMc: *reŋa)

raŋi-(y)‘warm (oneself)’ (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

re-, ra-·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

re-, ree-·‘person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)’ (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

Reu-nidip up (small fish) with a net (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

Rimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head (PMc: *cimʷe)

ripbe cracked, broken (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripi-i-(y)shattered it, break it (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripi-(ŋagh)be shattered, broken (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripiripbe shattering things, be breaking into pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ripi-(sagh)piece of shattered object, be shattered (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

(ripis)-ágh‘to be broken into pieces, shattered’ (ripiiy ‘to shatter something’) (PMc: *-aki)

riyá‘be frustrated, have a skin rash as an object of bad gossip’ (PCMc: *riea)

róghumʷ·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

roŋ, roŋoroŋ·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

rosto be finished, used up, depleted (PWMc: *rota)

Saipan Carolinian (580 / 828)

roshto be dark (PMc: *roco)

rosho-(pʷpʷuŋ)be very dark (PMc: *roco)

roso-(ló)be completely finished (PWMc: *rota)

be startled, scared, frightened, shocked (PMc: *rut[iu])

rúgh‘go under water (of outrigger)’ (PMc: *ruku₁)

rúúrúbe worried, anxious (PMc: *rut[iu])

rúúw, ruwa-, ruwo-, ruwe-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

ruwoow, ruwouw·‘two (general class of objects)’ (PMc: *ru[ao]-ua)

sáá-ghi‘lift, move, or remove (something)’ (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

sáá-ghito lift, move, or remove (an object or magic spell) (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

sáál, sáli-lrope, rope of (PMc: *tali)

saamfather (PMc: *tama)

sáár, sári-·‘child’ (PMc: *tari)

saasspecies of yellow snapper (PWMc: *tata)

sáát·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

saghúr·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

sálito coil (a rope) (PMc: *tali)

sálif‘species of small fish’ (PMc: *tañifa)

sáliŋ, (bʷoo)-sáliŋsmell musty or moldy from long storage (PMc: *taliŋa)

sáli-ti‘to relax or reduce (tension), make peace between (people)’ (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

Saipan Carolinian (600 / 828)

sáliya-, sáliyáli, sáliili‘meat or sauce eaten together with rice or taro’ (PCMc: *talia)

sáŋ, sáŋisáŋcry (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

sáŋi, seŋi·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

sáŋi-ticry at (someone) (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

(sa)-ŋuruŋurbe crunchy (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

sapasapmachete with broad blade (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sápe-face or proceed (in a direction) (with directional suffix) (PCMc: *tape₂)

sápe-ghichop it with a machete (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sápi, sápiya-(l)‘bowl, his bowl’ (PMc: *tapia)

sara‘species of edible reef fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

sa-rambrightness, light, illumination, be bright (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

saraw·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

sáre-(l), sári-(l)‘age mate of, peer of’ (PWMc: *tare)

(sá)-tip, (sá)-tipa-lslice, piece (of firewood, banana, breadfruit), slice of’ (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

sawi, sawii-·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

-se·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

(se li)-filifildoes not matter’(‘not a matter of choice’) (PMc: *fili, filifili)

séé-(la)placenta, afterbirth (PMc: *ta[wØ]u[iu])

séé-(ló)be resting, calm, relaxed (PCMc: *Too)

sefáál, sefáále-·‘again, return’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

Saipan Carolinian (620 / 828)

seisey, sei-mi·‘sharpen’ (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

sele·‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

sellapexpert canoe builder (PCMc: *talilapa)

sema-(l)his father (PMc: *tama)

serágh, serághi-·‘to sail’ (PWMc: *taraki)

-sh·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

shaal, shalú-‘water, clear liquid’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

shááp, shepi-l‘base, trunk, source, core, beginning of’ (PWMc: *capi)

sha-(apaapa)‘be very flat (as a board)’ (PCMc: *ca-)

shéé·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

shééw, shoowdipping net (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

shetch·‘shake, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

-shigh·‘small, little’ (PMc: *ciki)

shiimʷ, shimʷa-lhead, his head (PMc: *cimʷe)

shimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head (PMc: *cimʷe)

shólbe dark, black all over (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

shóó‘clan, work force, team, member of a group’ (PCMc: *cao)

(shóó)-bʷutwoman, female (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

shoo-ghidip up (small fish) with a net (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

shoowstar and month name (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

Saipan Carolinian (640 / 828)

shótchólblack (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

shuumeeting (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

shúú·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

shuu-ŋimeet, encounter (someone) (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

si-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

siimtridachna clam (said to be loan from Chk) (PMc: *kima)

siir, sir‘urine, urinate’ (PMc: *Tiri)

siŋ, siŋisiŋ·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

sóóbʷno, I wonʻt (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

sóóbʷ, sóbʷo-(l), -sóbʷ·‘district, division’ (PMc: *tapʷo)

soo-(lap)‘squander, waste’ (PCMc: *tawu₃)

soo-lito trap (a fish or small animal) (PMc: *Too)

soo-(má), soo-(tubʷ)respectful term for one who is dead (PMc: *tau₁)

soo-(pe)respectful term for ghost or spirit (PMc: *tau₁)

soosoto place a fish trap in the water (PMc: *Toka)

soosoa fish trap, to lower a fishtrap in the water (PMc: *Too)

sooso‘line that secures the outrigger float to the outrigger boom’ (PMc: *TooToo)

sóó-(tiw)alight, land (of flying things) (PMc: *Toka)

soowspecies of lagoon fish, perhaps a goatfish (PMc: *tautu)

soow‘a lagoon fish (perhaps a goatfish)’ (PCMc: *tawu or *co[wØ]a-)

Saipan Carolinian (660 / 828)

-sópʷ, -ssópʷfuture negative (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

soro-mi and Crn horo-mi‘to sip (liquid) through a straw, to siphon (liquid)’ (PWMc: *Toro-mi)

sóssól‘be low, be near the ground, be low in rank or grade’ (PMc: *tano)

sóu-expert (PMc: *tawu-₁)

sóu-lito be expecting (someone), to wait for (someone’s arrival) (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

sóusówevil magician, sorcerer (PMc: *tawu-₁)

ssáswing the arms quickly when walking or running, run off, run away (PCMc: *taxe, taxe-ki-)

ssó, sóó‘canoe thwart’ (PMc: *tao)

ssów, sóusówlie in wait for prey (as a hunter), wait patiently to catch a desired variety of fish (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

ssowa‘to break (as waves on a beach), hatch (as an egg)’ (PMc: *tawaa)

ssubʷ‘drop (of liquid)’, drip down’ (PCMc: *Tepʷu)

ssúrdribble (PMc: *turu)

ssúrú-(tiw)drip down, run down (PMc: *turu)

suu-ghto be open (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

suu-ghiopen (something) (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

suu-(ló)leave, depart, go (PWMc: *Towu)

suusuto be opening (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

-tá·‘up, upward’ (PMc: *Sake)

taagh·‘needlefish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

taam, tama-(l)·‘outrigger float’ (PMc: *Sama)

Saipan Carolinian (680 / 828)

taaŋ, taŋa-(l)upper, inner part of the thigh, his upper thigh (PMc: *Saŋa)

táá-(riŋa), táá-(riŋi-i-y)to tear or rip (something) (PMc: *sae)

taawbe far (PCMc: *soa)

taawu-(ló)be very far (PCMc: *soa)

taay, taaya-(l)means of transportation, ride, vehicle that provides transportation, his means of transportation (PMc: *[sS]ake)

tafa-, tefa-‘what relationship?’ (PMc: *Safa)

tafataf‘pick leaves (from branches)’ (PMc: *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-)

tafatafto pick leaves from branches (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

tafe-ŋito pick (leaves) (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

táfito open (something) wide (PMc: *[sS]afi₂)

tagha-laar·‘swordfish, marlin’ (PMc: *[sS]aku-laara)

tálmake rows or lines (PMc: *Sali)

táliplant (something) in rows (PMc: *Sali)

táli-lrow of, line of (PMc: *Sali)

talú-(w)to wash (dishes, hands) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tapbe free to do a task without outside interference (PCMc: *sapa)

tapatapto help, aid, assist (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tapé-(légh), tapú-(légh)be able to do a job despite outside distractions, be ready, prepared (PCMc: *sapa)

tattalto wash kitchen things (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tawe‘be free to do something, be free from interference in one’s work’ (PMc: *sawee)

Saipan Carolinian (700 / 828)

tcha, tchaa-·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

tchel·‘strand tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

tchep‘smallest of five stages of growth of the skipjack’ (PMc: *cepa, cecepa)

tchibʷtongs, poker, animal prod, stick used in the roasting of breadfruit (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

tchibʷe-e-yto nudge, prod, or poke (something) (PMc: *cipʷa₂)

tchów·‘heavy, heaviness’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

téé‘small atolls, low islands’ (PMc: *sakau)

teete, tee-yi·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

tepa-ŋito help (someone) (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tii-ŋi‘to push (something)’ (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiip, tipa-(l)·‘emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind’ (PMc: *sipa)

tiip, tipa-(l)slice, chunk, piece, slice of (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

tiiw, tiwa-, tiwo-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

tilto push brush or grass or other obstructions out of one’s way when traveling in the forest (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tili-fághto wedge an object into a crack or space between objects for safekeeping or storage (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tili-fághe-(li)to shove or wedge (something) into a space for storage (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tili-(fatal)to wander between and among objects or people (PMc: *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi)

tili-(l)shining of (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

-tiwdown (PMc: *siwo)

tiwe-(y)chop or cut (something) down (PMc: *siwo)

Saipan Carolinian (720 / 828)

tiwo-ownine (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

-to·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

tol‘to disappear’ (PMc: *[sS]olo)

tool‘mountain peak’ (PMc: *Solo)

too-ri‘reach, arrive at’ (PMc: *[sS]oko)

toro-fi‘to catch something (either catcher or prey must be moving)’ (PMc: *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-)

tow‘have enough’ (PCMc: *sawu)

ttáá-(riŋ)be torn, ripped (PMc: *sae)

ttáfbe wide open (of wound, vagina, eyelid rolled back) (PMc: *[sS]afi₂)

ttal·‘dream’ (PWMc: *sasana)

-ttigh‘hot, spicy, overly flavored (of food)’ (PCMc: *siki)

ttilto shine (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

tu, túto submerge, dive from the surface (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tughe-e-y‘scoop up, shovel up (sand, rice)’ (PMc: *[sS]iko)

tughu-miwrap (something) into a bundle (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túghútúgh, tughutughany tightly wrapped bundle (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tughu-u-(w)to punch, hit (someone or something) (PMc: *suku)

tumʷur‘Antares, a sidereal month’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

túú-fito dive for (something) (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

tuughclosed fist (PMc: *suku)

Saipan Carolinian (740 / 828)

túúl·‘torch’ (PMc: *sulu)

túútsuckle, nurse (from a breast) (PMc: *susu)

túútúto bathe (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

ubʷu-t‘shoot of a coconut frond’ (PCMc: *wupʷu-₁)

ubʷu-(tiw)‘be born’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

ughto be early in the morning (PMc: *wuko)

ughu-(tá)get up early in the morning (PMc: *wuko)

úghúúghdo pounding (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

ughu-u-(w)‘to blow air on (of a person or wind)’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

úghú-wpound food into paste (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

úl, úlú-mi,úlú-ma-·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

úli-(l), yúli-(l)his head (respect usage) (PMc: *ulu)

úlú-(l)leaf of (PMc: *ulu)

úlúŋ, úlúŋa-‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluŋa)

úlúúl‘use a pillow’ (PMc: *uluulu)

úlú-(yaraw)have thick, black, shiny hair (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

umʷá-(l), umʷe-(l)·‘hermit crab’ (PMc: *wumʷa)

umʷu-lé·‘a reef fish prized as food’ (PCMc: *wumʷu-lau)

úrá-(li)use or set up on posts (PMc: *tura)

úrú‘to drag or pull (something)’ (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

Saipan Carolinian (760 / 828)

uru-mi, oro-mi·‘swallow’ (PCMc: *woro-)

ushóósh, ushe-e-(y)·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

ushow‘rain’ (PCMc: *kacawu)

úshú-gúto shake (something) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

útt, úttú-(l)‘breast, her breast (PMc: *susu)

uu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

uubʷ, ubʷa-(l) ‘a., stomach, his a.; ’ Wol uube, uba-(l) ‘chest, his c.’·‘belly, abdomen, torso’ (PMc: *wupʷa)

úú-(ló)stop (PMc: *tuu₂)

uumʷ, umʷu-li·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

uuŋ, wuuŋ, uŋa-(l)·‘ridgepole, top’ (PMc: *wuŋa)

úúpD. elipitica vine (used for fish poison) (PMc: *upa)

uuR·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

úúr·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

úúrmain post (PMc: *tura)

úús, úsa-‘float on a net’ (PCMc: *iTo)

úút·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

úú-(tá)stand up (PMc: *tuu₁)

uuti‘pour or sprinkle water’ (PCMc: *wusi, wuwusi)

úúw, úwa-(l)·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

úúw, yúúw·‘a sail’ (PCMc: *yuwe)

Saipan Carolinian (780 / 828)

uwa, wwa, uwaa-(l)‘fruit, flower, its fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

uwa-s‘scent or aroma (pleasant or unpleasant) on the air’ (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

uwóbʷo-(l)‘growing top sprout of leaves (as of banana)’ (PWMc: *tiapʷo)

waa, waa-(l)veins, arteries, his vein (PMc: *waka)

waa, wáá-li·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

wáál·‘pumice stone’ (PMc: *waani)

waal, walú-, walu-uw, wali-igh·‘eight, eight (general)’ (PMc: *walu, walu-ua)

wáá-(li-yáŋ)‘crossbeam connecting outrigger booms on sailing canoe’ (PCMc: *wa[xØ]a)

waar, waara-(l)‘roots, root of’ (PMc: *waka, wakara)

wáát‘spuffer of balloon fish’ (PMc: *wasi, wasiwasi)

waawato have varicose or badly swollen veins (PMc: *waka)

walúwal, #walawal‘forest, jungle’ (PMc: *walu)

weet, weti-(l)semen, his semen (PMc: *weSe)

weewebe the same (PMc: *wee)

wee-(y)to resemble, look like (something) (PMc: *wee)

weli-ghito turn (something) over, till (the ground) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wer, wwerbe illuminated (PWMc: *were, werewere)

werewerlightning (PWMc: *were, werewere)

wetiwetto masturbate (PMc: *weSe)

wibe fat (of animals and fish) (PWMc: *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae])

Saipan Carolinian (800 / 828)

wito pull up or uproot a plant (PMc: *wuti)

wiifat (PWMc: *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae])

wii-sághbe uprooted, pulled up (PMc: *wuti)

wiish, wisha- wishe-·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

woghe-tághto turn and face in the oppposite direction (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wogho-ti, weghe-tito flip (something) over (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

woghowoghto turn food when cooking (PMc: *woki, woki-si-)

wol·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woŋowoŋ, woŋo-ti·‘wring out’ (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

wooŋ, woŋi-, #woŋo-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

woosh, wosho-·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

woow, wowu-·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

wosto cut and gather firewood, to crack a coconut shell in half (PMc: *kota)

wose-e-(y)‘to cut and gather (firewood)’ (PCMc: *woTo)

wose-e-(y)cut and gather (firewood), crack (a coconut shell) into halves (PMc: *kota)

woto-(shall)a kind of Colocasia taro (PMc: *wos[ao])

-wow‘outward, westward’ (PMc: *wotu)

wu-ghesh·‘a large black ant’ (PMc: *kaci)

-y·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

yáál, áál·‘kind of coral’ (PCMc: *ale)

Saipan Carolinian (820 / 828)

yááli-, yááli-(l)‘boundary, boundary of’ (PCMc: *tiaa)

yáámem, -ghámem·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

(yaké)-kkúle-e-(y)teach (someone) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

-yáy·‘me’ (suffixed object pronoun) (PMc: *-au)

yeelthis close to speaker (PMc: *ena)

yóó·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

yooŋ, yoŋo-·‘mangrove’ (PMc: *toŋo)

yoor (sic)·‘be, exist’ (PWMc: *oro)

28. Saipan Carolinian·T (269) (Jackson and Marck 1991)

a-·‘one (prefixed to classifiers)’ (PMc: *te-)

aa-, áá-ni·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

áám·‘we (exclusive), us’ (PWMc: *kami)

áám, -gem·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

áámi, -gemi·you (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

(a)-fahafah‘nest’ (PMc: *fata)

(a-gúú)-áf‘light a signal fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

(a)-hakkslices of copra (PWMc: *takaka)

(a)-hakkato slice (copra) (PWMc: *takaka)

aham·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

(aha)-ŋúrúto grind (something) with the teeth (PMc: *karu)

(a)-hééhébe resting, calm, relaxed (PCMc: *Too)

(a)-héé-(y)to rest oneself (PCMc: *Too)

ainaŋ·‘clan, folk, tribe, stock’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

ai-(Rig)‘be thin, skinny, slender’ (PCMc: *au-)

akkaRto throw (PCMc: *kace)

alúh·‘beard’ (PMc: *al[iu]ta)

(a)-mʷoŋo-o-(y)‘to feed (someone)’ (PMc: *mʷaŋau)

(a)-mʷuR·‘firewood’ (PMc: *mʷucu)

ana-(n)·‘food’, ‘eat (something)’ (PMc: *kana, kani)

Saipan Carolinian·T (20 / 269)

(a)-nnéé-(w)‘make it taste better’ (PMc: *ñañau)

anú‘spirit, ghost’ (PMc: *anitu)

a-pahato say (something) (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

ara-mah·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

araw‘hard basltic rock, rocky cliff’ (PMc: *kacawa)

aRe-(y)to throw (something) (PCMc: *kace)

arig·‘white sand crab or ghost crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

aroŋ‘fourth of five growth stages of the skipjack’ (PMc: *aroŋo)

arú‘to stir (soup or stew)’ (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

(assa)-ŋér‘to crunch with the teeth’ (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

asúl-(léy)‘a small sp. of tuna’ (PMc: *atu)

(a)-tiwo-uwa-(n)ninth (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

ato-(n)‘time of’ (PMc: *a[sS]o)

(au)-hap·‘cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

a-uwá·‘to whistle (of humans)’ (PCMc: *uae, ka-uae)

bula‘kind of surgeon fish’ (PWMc: *pʷulaka₁)

bʷaaR·‘kind of round basket’ (PCMc: *pʷaca₂)

bʷalú‘to cover (something)’ (PMc: *pʷalu)

bʷene-(táá-)‘beginning (of something)’ (PMc: *pʷenu)

bʷeR·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

Saipan Carolinian·T (40 / 269)

bʷeRi-kkar, a-bʷeRi·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

bʷogobʷog‘to bring, take, carry’ (PMc: *pʷeki)

bʷonnbe completely planted (of a field) (PMc: *pʷon[ao])

bʷoo-ŋahhave a fragrant odor (PMc: *ŋata)

bʷooR·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

bʷugerF. cymosa (PWMc: *pʷukari)

bʷuge-(y)‘knot it’ (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

bʷúgú·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

bʷugúya-‘node, protruding joint, protuberance’ (PMc: *pʷuku, pʷukua)

bʷuhe·‘feces’ (PCMc: *pʷuta[ei])

bʷuR‘naive, ignorant, foolish, senile’ (PCMc: *pʷuce)

bʷutow·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

bʷuug·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

bʷuuta-gbad, improper, rude, ugly (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

detch (sic)·‘shake, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

eyito cut off or break off (fruit that grows in bunches) (PCMc: *i[tØ]i)

fa-aliyel‘round, circular, spherical’ (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

fáán·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

faaR, fara-(n)·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

(faay) móg‘gravel’ (PCMc: *mʷoka)

Saipan Carolinian·T (60 / 269)

fana‘halfbeak’ (PCMc: *fanaa)

fanú·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

faŋ‘be proper, well behaved, well liked (of people)’ (PWMc: *faŋu)

fatal‘to walk, journey, take a walk’ (PMc: *faSale)

fato-gi·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

féné-é-(y)advise, etc, (someone) (PMc: *fanau)

fe-ŋánn·‘reciprocal’ (PMc: *fa-)

#fféngive advice, etc. (PMc: *fanau)

ffiRscissors (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fii-gi‘to burn or set fire to (something)’ (PMc: *fiti)

fiRito play or strum (a stringed insgtrument), to strike (a light), to shoot (a weapon) (PMc: *fici, fici-ki)

fore-y‘to hang oneself’ (PCMc: *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka)

futug·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

ganusually, regularly, habitually (PCMc: *kana, kai)

gár‘be tired, exhausted (as from carrying a heavy load)’ (PCMc: *kari)

géé·‘fishhook, catch with hook’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

giil, gili-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

giiR·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

giligilbe marked for later use or recognition (PMc: *kilala)

gin‘to pick fruit from a tree’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

Saipan Carolinian·T (80 / 269)

ginah‘a wound, cut’ (PMc: *kina, kina-ta)

gini‘type of woven coconut leaf mat’ (PWMc: *kinia)

git, gitigiit·‘small, little’ (PMc: *kisi)

giya-·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

giyegi·‘white or fairy tern’ (PCMc: *kiakia)

giyobʷ·‘spider lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

góógó·‘newly born, infant’ (PCMc: *ka[wØ]o)

goor·‘pubic hair’ (PMc: *koro)

got·‘go aground, run on a reef’ (PCMc: *koso)

gúkkúbe in the habit of biting (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

gule‘to know, to learn (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

gule-e-(y)to know (someone or something), be acquainted with (someone) (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

gun, gunugun, gunu·‘extinguished’ (PMc: *kunu)

(gúna)-mʷmʷeyto sleep deeply (PMc: *mʷoe)

#(gúnó)-mʷdeep sleep, freedom, quiet, peace (PMc: *mʷoe)

gú-(nú-fey)‘species of grouper’ (PCMc: *kuu)

gúú·‘porpoise’ (PCMc: *kua)

gúú·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

gúúh·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

háá-gi‘lift, move, or remove (something)’ (PCMc: *tae, tae-ki-)

Saipan Carolinian·T (100 / 269)

haam·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

haapʷno, I wonʻt (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

háát·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

hááw·‘ashamed’ (PCMc: *taaw(ae))

hafáál·‘again, return’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

hagúr·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

hallap·‘builder, bind together’ (PCMc: *talilapa)

hap‘face or proceed (in a certain direction)’ (PCMc: *tape₂)

hapahapmachete (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

hapi-gichop it with a machete (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

ha-rambrightness (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

hawi·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

-he·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

héé-(fé)‘new’ (PMc: *tau₂)

hele·‘adze’ (PMc: *talai)

heli‘to coil (a rope)’ (PMc: *tali)

heliŋ·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

heŋ·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

heŋi·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

hepi·‘bowl, constellation Delphinus’ (PMc: *tapia)

Saipan Carolinian·T (120 / 269)

hera-(n)‘his age mate, his peer’ (PWMc: *tare)

hi-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

-hóbʷfuture negative (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

hóóbʷ, hóbʷo-(n)·‘district, division’ (PMc: *tapʷo)

hoo-ni to trap(a fish or small animal)’ (PMc: *Too)

hóó-(tiw)alight, land (of flying things) (PMc: *Toka)

hoo-(tubʷ)‘respectful term for one who is dead’ (PMc: *tau₁)

hou-‘expert’ (PMc: *tawu-₁)

hou-ni‘be expecting (someone)’ (PCMc: *ta[wØ]u₂)

huuhu, huu-g, huu-gi·‘be open’ (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

ifito pull up or dip (water) (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

iig·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iin, ina-(n)·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

ili-·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

(i)-nee-ta; (i)-lee-t·‘when?’ (PMc: *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa)

(i)-yeen‘this one (emphatic)’ (PMc: *ena)

(i)-yo·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

kka-pahword, speech, talk, language (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

kkay‘be prompt, fast, quick, rapid’ (PWMc: *kaye)

kkeŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

Saipan Carolinian·T (140 / 269)

kkobʷ·‘dull’ (PCMc: *kapʷu, kakapʷu)

kkúto bite (something or someone) (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

lááŋ‘heaven, have bad weather’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lap; llape-·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

le-at (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

le-(het)at the ocean or sea (PWMc: *lee-, law-)

liim, lima-, lomo-ow, lime-ig·‘five, five (general), five (animate), fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

(li)-pʷ-pʷeya-(anú)‘twins of opposite sex’ (PMc: *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe)

lug‘to troll for fish’ (PCMc: *liko)

lúgúto believe or trust (someone) (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúgúlúgto believe, think (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lugu-(n)‘outside of’ (PMc: *liku)

maah, maha-(n)·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

ma-alúyel·‘thick’ (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

maan‘to drift’ (PMc: *maanu)

maan·‘living creature of land or air’ (PMc: *manu)

maan‘the star Sirius, month in the sidereal calendar’ (PCMc: *manu)

ma-galagal‘to be smashed (PMc: *kala, ma-kala)

magú‘to burp up milk after feeding (of a baby)’ (PCMc: *makua)

maha-(ló)wake up (PMc: *mamata)

Saipan Carolinian·T (160 / 269)

mallegbe forgetful (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

mallegi-(i-y)forget (something) (PMc: *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku)

ma-naw, (a)-ma-nawa·‘life, alive’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

maRstink, smell bad (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

ma-rammoon (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

méé-ni‘to buy (something)’ (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

meResteel, iron, scrap metal (PMc: *mece-a)

meRe-(ŋ)unopened top or head sprout of a tree (PMc: *mece-a)

meteg·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

mmah‘to watch, wait and look, be awake (PMc: *mamata)

mmaRbe very ripe, etc. (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

mógomóg‘arrowroot’ (PWMc: *mʷakumʷaku)

mógut·‘be in motion’ (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

#móówulato attack (an enemy) (PMc: *maawunu)

móówunwar (PMc: *maawunu)

mʷaah‘stink, unpleasant smell’ (PMc: *mʷata)

mʷáán·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷéén‘species of squirrel fish’ (PMc: *mʷonu)

mʷmʷuh·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷmʷuhi·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

Saipan Carolinian·T (180 / 269)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

-n·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

nanew·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

nayú-·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

neen·‘Morinda citrifolia (PMc: *ñoñ[iu])

-ni·‘verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership’ (PCMc: *-ni, -na)

nnat·‘half flower (Scaevola) (PWMc: *nanasu)

nne-ri‘taste it’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nnó-(n)‘inside of it’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

nóó·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nóómʷ·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nóómʷ·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

núú·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

nuunuu-(pi)·‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ (PMc: *nowu)

ŋéén, ŋénú-(n)·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋeni·‘to, toward’ (PWMc: *ŋani)

-ŋé-réw, -ŋa-ras·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋii, ŋii-(n)·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋiiŋisound, pronunciation, dialect (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋiit·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

Saipan Carolinian·T (200 / 269)

ohe-(y)‘cut and gather (firewood), crack (a coconut shell) in half’ (PMc: *kota)

ohe-(y)‘to cut and gather firewood’ (PCMc: *woTo)

on·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

óóh·‘thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

oon, ono-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

ooR, gooR‘fiber from coconut husk used in making rope’ (PCMc: *koca)

ooR, oRo-·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

oR‘to cut a coconut spathe in making toddy’ (PMc: *koco₁)

ote-(y)to husk (a coconut) (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

oto-(maR)coconut husking stick (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

otootact of husking (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

óuh‘cover, b.’ (PMc: *[ao]ut[ae])

paap, papa-(n)·‘board, plank’ (PMc: *papa)

paat‘pond, puddle’ (PWMc: *pasa)

paR‘adhere, stick (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

paRapaRbe sticky (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

(pare)-iŋiiŋ‘top of a gorge, precipice, sharp slope, rafters supporting ridgepole of a house’ (PMc: *iŋi)

patú‘pompano’ (PWMc: *pasiu or *pasui)

ppaRbe joined together, stuck (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

pʷpʷów‘species of snapper’ (PCMc: *pʷaua)

Saipan Carolinian·T (220 / 269)

-R·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

ráág‘year’ (PCMc: *raki)

Raamʷ, Ramʷa-(n)‘forehead, his forehead, house gable’ (PMc: *camʷa)

ráán·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

Rááp, Repi-n‘base, trunk, source, core, beginning of’ (PWMc: *capi)

Ra-(apaap)‘be very flat’ (PCMc: *ca-)

Ran‘water, clear liquid’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

Réé·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

Reewdipping net (PMc: *cowu, cowu-ki)

Rimʷnod or raise the head (PMc: *cimʷe)

Rólbe dark, black all over (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

Róó‘clan, work force, team, member of a group’ (PCMc: *cao)

(Róó)-bʷutwoman, female (PMc: *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka)

roR·‘be dark’ (PMc: *roco)

Ruu, Ruu-ŋi·‘meet, encounter’ (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

sóu-‘clan (prefamily in some clan names)’ (PMc: *tawu₂)

ssawa‘to break, hatch’ (PMc: *tawaa)

taag·‘needlefish’ (PMc: *[sS]aku)

tááy‘means of transportation’ (PMc: *[sS]ake)

tapé-(nég)‘be ready, prepared’ (PCMc: *sapa)

Saipan Carolinian·T (240 / 269)

tchen·‘strand tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

tefi‘to open (something) wide’ (PMc: *[sS]afi₂)

teliplant (something) in rows (PMc: *Sali)

teli-(n)row of, line of (PMc: *Sali)

ti-geg‘needle’ (PMc: *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka)

tiwo-uwnine (PCMc: *Siwa-ua)

ttan·‘dream’ (PWMc: *sasana)

-ttig‘hot, spicy, overly flavored (of food)’ (PCMc: *siki)

ttinto shine (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

ttini-(n)shining of (PMc: *[sS]in[ae])

tuge-y‘scoop up, shovel up (sand, rice)’ (PMc: *[sS]iko)

túgú-miwrap (something) into a bundle (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

túgútúgany tightly wrapped bundle (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tuug‘closed fist’ (PMc: *suku)

ug‘very early in the morning’ (PMc: *wuko)

u-geR·‘a large black ant’ (PMc: *kaci)

ún, únú-mi·‘drink’ (PMc: *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma)

úna-feathers, fur, body hair (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

únaúnabe hairy (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

ún-nito sift (something) (PMc: *unu)

Saipan Carolinian·T (260 / 269)

uRóóR, uRe-e-(y)·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

úRú-gito shake (something) (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

úúnsieve (PMc: *unu)

uwabʷo-(n)·‘growing tip of a tree’ (PWMc: *tiapʷo)

uwa-h‘scent or aroma on the air’ (PMc: *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta)

waa, wáá-ni·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

weli-(gi)to turn (something) over, till (the ground) (PMc: *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-)

wito pull up or uproot a plant (PMc: *wuti)

wii-hegbe uprooted, pulled up (PMc: *wuti)

29. Samoan (20) (Milner 1966)

’a’au‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

’aisi‘to ask’, from which could be derived a passive *’aisa’i (PMc: *tiSaki)

asu‘to ladle, scoop’ (PCMc: *isi-fi, esi-fi)

fafagu·‘awakened, awaken’ (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

gafa·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

gali‘gnaw’ (PMc: *ŋari, ŋari-ti)

‘ini‘pinch, nip’ (PMc: *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta)

la’ato step, march (PMc: *lakalaka)

la’asi-ato step over, go beyond (PMc: *lakalaka)

legaturmeric (PMc: *reŋa)

maavavato yawn (PMc: *mawa)

[’o]-ai·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

pepebutterfly (PCMc: *pʷepʷe)

*piaarrowroot starch, smegma (PMc: *pia)

pula’a·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

pute·‘navel’ (PMc: *pʷuto)

tapa’aucoconut-leaf floor mat (PMc: *tapaka[wØ]u)

tau-owner, expert (PMc: *tawu-₁)

tete·‘shake, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

to’a‘be still, settle down [of a liquid], run aground’ (PMc: *Toka)

30. Satawalese (417) (Bender et al. 1984)

-a, -ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun) (PMc: *-a, -Ta)

(á)-fá-ánmake a circle (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

áfi-ti‘carry (a child) in the arms on the side’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

áfiyáf‘carry on the hip (as a baby)’ (PMc: *afi, afi-Si-)

ailaŋa-(n)·‘clan, folk, tribe, stock’ (PMc: *kayinaŋa)

ákkásá‘canoe helm, rudder’ (PMc: *katea)

(a)-mara‘canoe sail’ (PMc: *maraa)

(a)-mmoot‘cook’ (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

anú, anúú-(n)‘ghost, god of’ (PMc: *anitu)

aŋi·eat (something) (PMc: *kaŋi)

a-pasasay it (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

asam·‘doorway, entrance, gateway’ (PWMc: *katama)

(a)-sópʷusópʷ‘stated proscriptions, statements of taboos’ (PMc: *tapʷu₁)

(a)-tapataphelp, give help (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

(a)-yútload something (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

(a)-yútaload it (PMc: *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na)

cec, ceccec·‘shake, tremble’ (PMc: *cece, cecece)

chcha, chchaa-·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

chchen·‘strand tree’ (PMc: *ceni, ceceni)

chchów·‘heavy, heaviness’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

Satawalese (20 / 417)

e-·‘he, she, it (subject marker)’ (PMc: *e-)

e- and sa-(ŋaras)‘one thousand’ (PMc: *te-)

efar, efara-(n)·‘shoulder’ (PMc: *afara)

effáŋ‘north’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

faa-·‘four’ (prefixed to classifier) (PMc: *faa-, fa-)

faa-(l)·‘underside, under’ (PMc: *faa-)

fáán·‘the number four’ (in serial counting) (PMc: *faŋi)

fá-ániyángo in a circle (PWMc: *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali)

faaR·‘pandanus’ (PMc: *faca)

faat, fatú-·‘eyebrow’ (PMc: *faSu)

faay‘stone, rock’ (PMc: *fatu)

fai-soŋ‘kiss, rub noses’ (PWMc: *fai-Toŋo)

fál‘to worship traditional gods’ (PMc: *fali)

falú, falúwa-·‘inhabited land’ (PMc: *fanua)

falú-(w)‘pierce (something), tattoo (someone)’ (PWMc: *falu₂)

faŋa-(ló)‘give away’ (PMc: *faŋa)

faŋú-i‘awaken (someone)’ (PMc: *faŋu, faŋu-ni)

fasefas‘nest’ (PMc: *fata)

fatúw·‘child of sibling of opposite sex’ (PMc: *fa[sS]ua)

fay‘to call’ (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

Satawalese (40 / 417)

fayfayto weave (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fayi·‘rayfish, stingray’ (PMc: *fai, fai-a)

fayúweave it (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fééri·‘do, make’ (PMc: *fauru)

fééy‘cold’ (PMc: *fou)

fe-ŋán·‘reciprocal’ (PMc: *fa-)

fetál, fetán‘walk’ (PMc: *faSale)

ffót, fóto-ki, fóót·‘planted, to plant, a planted thing’ (PMc: *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka)

filchoose (PMc: *fili, filifili)

fili-(y)choose him (PMc: *fili, filifili)

fitá-·‘how many’ (PMc: *fi[sS]a-)

(fi)-ti‘go with, accompany (someone)’ (PMc: *[sS]i-)

fituk·‘flesh’ (PMc: *fiSiko)

fiyóŋ‘story’ (PMc: *fiaŋo)

fúú, fúú-(n)·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

fúús, fisú-uw·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

i-·I (1st singular subject marker) (PCMc: *i)

i-fa·‘where?’ (PMc: *-faa)

iik·‘fish’ (PMc: *ika, ika-na-)

iimʷ, imʷa-(n)·‘house’ (PMc: *umʷa, imʷa)

Satawalese (60 / 417)

iin, ina-·‘mother’ (PMc: *tina)

iiy·he, she, it (independent pronoun) (PMc: *ia)

(ii)-yo·‘who?’ (PMc: *tau₃)

(i)-lól‘underwater’ (PMc: *lalo₁)

isen-(tiw)‘put down’ (PMc: *ita, itaita)

it, iti-to point (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

ita-·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

ite-e-(y)press on it (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

ite-ŋipress down on it (PMc: *isa, isa-ŋi-)

iti-ŋipoint (something) out (PWMc: *tisi, tisi-ŋi)

kámi·you (plural) (PCMc: *kamii)

kan‘usually’ (PCMc: *kana, kai)

kéé·‘fishhook, catch with hook’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

keriker·‘to scratch’ (PMc: *kari)

kiiR, -kiR·‘we (inclusive), us’ (PMc: *kica)

kili-·‘skin, bark’ (PMc: *kuli)

(kili)-fé·‘hibiscus’ (PMc: *-fau)

kiyeki·‘plaited mat’ (PMc: *kie, kiekie)

kiyó·‘outrigger boom’ (PMc: *kiaZo)

kiyopʷu·‘spider lily’ (PMc: *kiepʷu)

Satawalese (80 / 417)

kka·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns (PCMc: *ka-, kaka-)

(kka)-mé‘buy’ (PMc: *mau, mau-ni)

kkáŋ·‘sharp’ (PCMc: *kakaŋi)

kka-pasword, language (PCMc: *tapa, ka-tapa)

kkel‘dig’ (PMc: *keli, keli-ŋi-)

#kkú·‘fingernail, toenail, claw’ (PMc: *kuku)

kona‘to catch (something)’ (PMc: *kona)

kotoot, kote-(y)‘do husking, husk it’ (PMc: *koso, koso-mi)

(kúla)-mʷmʷe‘sleep well’ (PMc: *mʷoe)

kúle-e-(y)‘know him’ (PMc: *kila, kila-a, kila-i)

kumʷukumʷ‘suck’ (PMc: *kumʷu)

kúúkúto bite (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

kúús·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

kúúw‘porpoise, constellation (Cassiopeia)’ (PCMc: *kua)

kúúw·‘louse’ (PMc: *kutu)

kú-ú-(W)bite (something) (PMc: *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti)

-l, -n·‘his, her, its’ (PMc: *-ña)

laa, naa·‘star(s) in Pegasus’ (PWMc: *laka)

lááŋ‘sky, heaven’ (PMc: *laŋi)

lááp, lápe-(l), lápe-(y)‘red clay (used for caulking), red clay of, apply red clay to’ (PMc: *lape)

Satawalese (100 / 417)

lap·‘big, main’ (PMc: *lapa)

léé‘pool, pond’ (PMc: *lau)

(le)-efáŋ‘winter, trade wind season’ (PMc: *afaŋi)

(lee)-móólo-‘area under arm or inside elbow’ (PMc: *mawolo)

(lee)-utu-‘inside of the body’ (PMc: *u[sS][ou]-)

(lee)-yólo-(was)‘at noon’ (PMc: *alo)

lewe-(l)‘his tongue’ (PMc: *lewe)

(li)-filifilchoosy (PMc: *fili, filifili)

liim·‘bailer’ (PMc: *[ln]ima)

liipʷ‘pool where coconut fibers are soaked’ (PMc: *lipʷa)

liki-ti-(y)‘leave it behind’ (PMc: *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si)

lima-·‘five, five (general), five (animate), fifty’ (PMc: *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu)

llóŋ‘infested with flies’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

-loŋ‘inland, into’ (PMc: *loŋ[ao])

loow·‘scorpion fish, stonefish’ (PMc: *nowu)

lúkúlúkhave faith (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúkú-(n)‘outside it’ (PMc: *liku)

lúkú-ú-(w)believe it (PMc: *l[iu]ku)

lúú·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

luumʷ·‘seaweed, moss, algae, scum’ (PMc: *limʷu, lumʷu)

Satawalese (120 / 417)

ma-·‘stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being’ (PMc: *ma-)

má, máá-·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

maai-nap‘Altair’ (PCMc: *mati-lapa)

ma-alúwél·‘thick’ (PMc: *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu)

maandrift, float (PMc: *maanu)

maan‘Procyon, Sirius, Canopus’ (PCMc: *manu)

maan, manú-(n), (e)-mal·‘living creature of land or air’ (PMc: *manu)

maane-(to)drift hither (PMc: *maanu)

maar·‘preserved breadfruit’ (PMc: *mara)

maat·‘cleared space’ (PMc: *maata, maataata)

mááy·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

malaman·‘be efficacious, have spiritual power’, ‘efficacy, spiritual power’ (PMc: *mana, manamana)

ma-lifilif·‘thin, flimsy’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

malúweki-(y)‘forget it’ (PCMc: *maluoki, maluoka)

mámm, memmemm·‘sweet’ (PMc: *mami)

mamma-aw‘strong’ (PMc: *ma-toa, ma-toatoa)

má-nawa-(n)‘his life, existence’ (PMc: *ma-[nñ]awa)

máŋremember (PMc: *maŋi)

máŋimáŋthink (PMc: *maŋi)

maR‘rotten, very ripe’ (PMc: *maca, mamaca)

Satawalese (140 / 417)

má-ripbreak, crack (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ma-ripi-i-(y)break it into many pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

ma-ripiripshattered pieces (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

mat·‘sated (with food or drink)’ (PMc: *masu)

matér·‘hiccough’ (PMc: *maSeru)

mawúr·‘sleep’ (PMc: *maturu)

mawúr‘unopened bud (of plants)’ (PMc: *mauri)

me·‘and, with’ (PMc: *ma)

me·‘from’ (PMc: *mai₂)

melaal‘cleared ground’ (PMc: *malala)

me-ram‘moon’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

me-sak·‘to fear, be afraid’ (PMc: *ma-taku)

mese-n túút·‘nipple’ (lit. ‘point of breast or nursing’) (PMc: *mata-ni-susu)

metakú (sic)·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

metaw·‘deep sea, open sea’ (PMc: *ma-Sawa)

mmas‘awake’ (PMc: *mamata)

mmat·‘be low tide, dry’ (PMc: *masa, mamasa)

healed (PMc: *mawo)

móó-(ló)healed up (PMc: *mawo)

móótsit (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

Satawalese (160 / 417)

móóto-(tiw)sit down (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

móówun·‘war, fighting’ (PMc: *maawunu)

-mʷ·‘your (singular)’ (PMc: *-mʷu)

(mʷaa)-mʷaaybeautiful (PMc: *mʷaau)

mʷáán, mʷááni-(n)‘man, man of’ (PMc: *mʷaane)

mʷáár, mʷaremʷar·‘shoulder garland’ (PMc: *mʷare)

mʷéy‘broken off, separated’ (PMc: *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si)

mʷmʷus·‘to vomit’ (PMc: *mʷumʷuta)

mʷokutukut·‘be in motion’ (PCMc: *mʷakusu)

mʷosi·‘to sneeze’ (PCMc: *mʷaTie)

mʷulo-ti‘to twist (something)’ (PMc: *mʷulo, mʷulo-Si-)

mʷuri-·‘behind’ (PMc: *mʷuri-)

mʷuun‘kind of fish’ (PWMc: *mʷuno)

mʷV-(vowel varies) (PMc: *mʷa-)

-n·‘of, pertaining to’ (PMc: *-ni)

nánew·‘yesterday’ (PMc: *ñañoa)

nayú-·‘child; classifier for cherished possessions’ (PMc: *natu)

nnan‘taste’ (PMc: *ñaña, ñañaña)

nnat·‘half flower (Scaevola) (PWMc: *nanasu)

nnó-(n)·‘inside’ (PMc: *lalo₂)

Satawalese (180 / 417)

nnus‘to jump’ (PMc: *luTu)

nóó·‘waves’ (PMc: *nawo)

nóómʷ·‘lagoon, harbor’ (PMc: *namʷo)

nóómʷ·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

nuuk‘center, middle’ (PCMc: *luuka)

ŋaaŋ·‘I; 1st person singular pronoun’ (PMc: *ŋaa, ŋau)

ŋaaŋa·‘sea bird, duck’ (PMc: *ŋaaŋaa)

ŋaaR‘lower jaw’ (PCMc: *ŋace)

-ŋaf·‘fathom’ (PMc: *ŋafa)

-ŋa-ras·‘thousand (numeral classifier)’ (PMc: *-ŋa-ratu)

ŋataŋat‘drill a hole’ (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋéén, ŋénú-(n)·‘soul, spirit’ (PMc: *ŋenu)

ŋii·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

ŋiiŋi, ŋiiŋii-(n)intonation, squeeking sound, dialect, speech, his intonation (PMc: *ŋii)

ŋúúŋú‘murmur, noise heard at a distance’ (PMc: *ŋuu)

ŋúút·‘squid’ (PMc: *nu[sS]o)

ool, olo-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

oRa-(n) (sic)·‘eat raw food’ (PMc: *koca, oca)

-pácounting classifier for coconut or taro leaves (PMc: *paa₂)

paa·‘bait, worm’ (PMc: *paa₁)

Satawalese (200 / 417)

páá-(ley)leaf of coconut tree (PMc: *paa₂)

paap·‘board, plank’ (PMc: *papa)

paapa·‘to count, enumerate’ (PMc: *paa, paapaa)

pááw·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

paay, payú-(n)·‘hand, arm, wing’ (PMc: *pau)

pakú-ú-(tiw)cut it down (PMc: *paku)

pakú-ú-(w)cut it (PMc: *paku)

paniye-(n)‘side of’ (PWMc: *palia)

parapar·‘red’ (PMc: *para)

pas, pasa-(ló)‘drift, drift away’ (PMc: *pata)

penipen·‘sea cucumber’ (PCMc: *panipani)

pii, piya-(n)·‘sand, beach’ (PMc: *pia, pipia, piapia)

piik‘name of small sandy islands’ (PMc: *pike)

pile-sagh, pile-sághbecome blocked or clogged (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pinápinstopper, stopped up (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

pine-e-(y)stop it up (PMc: *pina, pina-ti-)

ppachch·‘thunder’ (PMc: *para, parara)

ppan·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

ppaRsticky (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

ppa-yi-leŋ·‘horizon’ (lit. ‘edge of heaven’) (PWMc: *pa-i-laŋi)

Satawalese (220 / 417)

ppey·‘to float’ (PMc: *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti)

ppin‘braided, tied, twisted (of hair or leis)’ (PMc: *pini, pinipini)

pukʷopʷuk, pʷuko-(y)·‘knot, node’ (PMc: *pʷuk[ao])

pʷaaw·‘fishing pole’ (PMc: *pʷawu)

pʷayipʷay‘be silly, disrespectful’ (PWMc: *pʷaipʷai)

pʷe·‘because’ (PCMc: *pʷ[ae])

-pʷe·‘future aspect marker’ (PMc: *pʷ[ae])

pʷel, pʷelúpʷel‘to break’ (PCMc: *pʷelu)

pʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·‘white, powdered lime’ (PMc: *pʷece, pʷecepʷece)

pʷeRi-kkar·‘hot’ (PMc: *pʷeci)

pʷii, pʷiipʷi·‘group’ (PWMc: *pʷiti)

pʷiin·‘shell’ (PMc: *pʷuli)

pʷiki‘to bring (something)’ (PMc: *pʷeki)

pʷon‘be crowded, have no more room’ (PMc: *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta)

pʷoo-·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

pʷoo·‘swelling’ (PCMc: *pʷoto)

pʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·‘night’ (PMc: *pʷoŋi)

pʷóópʷ‘species of shark’ (PCMc: *pʷapʷu)

pʷooR·‘turtle shell’ (PMc: *pʷoca)

pʷoot, pʷootú-·‘nose’ (PMc: *pʷauSu)

Satawalese (240 / 417)

pʷotaaw (sic)·‘basket’ (PMc: *pʷasau)

pʷpʷon‘agree, promise’ (PMc: *pʷono)

pʷpʷun‘be alight’ (PMc: *pʷula, pʷupʷula)

-pʷúkúw·‘hundred’ (PMc: *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua)

pʷula·‘Cyrtosperma taro’ (PMc: *pʷulaka₂)

pʷuuŋ·‘handle’ (PMc: *pʷuŋu)

pʷuupʷ·‘trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross’ (PMc: *pʷupʷu)

-R; (suf to n.)·‘1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our’ (PMc: *-ca)

ráák‘year’ (PCMc: *raki)

ráán·‘day’ (PMc: *raani)

Raan, Raal, Ranú-·‘fresh water’ (PMc: *canu-, cacanu, canucanu)

raaŋturmeric, yellow powder (PMc: *reŋa)

raaw·‘whale’ (PMc: *rato)

rakúrakscrape out (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

raŋaraŋyellow (PMc: *reŋa)

raŋi-(y)‘warm (oneself) (PMc: *raŋi, raŋiraŋi)

Rápi-(n)‘beginning of’ (PWMc: *capi)

re-·‘they (3pl subject marker) (PMc: *re-, ra-)

re-·‘person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)’ (PCMc: *re-, ri-)

Réé·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

Satawalese (260 / 417)

rékú-(w)scraped (something) out (PMc: *raku, rakuraku)

ripi-i-(y)break it in half (PMc: *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi)

riyá‘sin, feel sinful’ (PCMc: *riea)

Ról·‘dark, black’ (PMc: *calo, calocalo)

roŋ, roŋoroŋ·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

Róó-‘group, person of’ (PCMc: *cao)

róókumʷ (sic)·‘crab’ (PMc: *rak[ou]mʷu)

roR·‘be dark’ (PMc: *roco)

rrú‘surprised’ (PMc: *rut[iu])

rúk‘enter with head down’ (PMc: *ruku₂)

Rúú·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

Ruu, Ruu-ŋi, Ruu-Ru‘meet with (someone)’ (PWMc: *cuu, cuu-ŋi)

ruwa-·‘two’ (PMc: *rua)

saam, sema-·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

sáán‘rope, line, sennit’ (PMc: *tali)

saap, sepa-(n)·‘cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

sáárperson born at same time as oneself (PMc: *tari)

sáát, sáti-·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

safasafto cut, slice (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

safá-ticut or slice (something) (PMc: *tafa, tafa-si)

Satawalese (280 / 417)

sái-mi·‘sharpen’ (PMc: *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma)

sakúrú-·‘back (of body)’ (PMc: *takuru)

sáliŋ, sáliŋa-·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

sáni-ti‘untie (something)’ (PMc: *tala, tala-[sS]i)

sáŋi·‘from (something), away from’ (usually suffixed to verbs) (PWMc: *taŋi)

sapasaplarge knife (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sápi·‘bowl, constellation Delphinus’ (PMc: *tapia)

saraw·‘barracuda’ (PCMc: *tarawa)

sárisárbe born at the same time (PMc: *tari)

sawi·‘triton or trumpet shell’ (PMc: *tawui)

-se·‘not’ (PMc: *tai, ta-)

sefáán·‘again, return’ (PWMc: *tafaali)

(se)-mʷaaysick (PMc: *mʷaau)

sepa‘to support, hold up (something)’ (PMc: *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki)

sepaaw‘mat made from young coconut leaves’ (PMc: *tapaka[wØ]u)

sepá-kicut, lop off, trim (something) (PMc: *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki)

sera·‘squirrel fish’ (PMc: *taraa)

serák·‘to sail’ (PWMc: *taraki)

si-·‘we (inclusive, as subject marker)’ (PCMc: *Ti-)

siir, sir·‘spurt, squirt’ (PMc: *Tiri)

Satawalese (300 / 417)

siŋ·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

si-ŋérúŋér‘to crunch (as chewing on bones)’ (PMc: *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru)

só, sóó-(tiw)‘to land, alight’ (PMc: *Toka)

sólo-mi·‘to catch (water) in a container’ (PMc: *tano-mi-)

sóól‘land, soil’ (PMc: *tano)

soo-ni‘soak it, immerse it in water’ (PMc: *Too)

sóópʷ, sópʷo-(n), -sópʷ·‘district, division’ (PMc: *tapʷo)

sópʷ‘future negative’ (PMc: *tapʷu₂)

súkú, yúkú-(w)‘pound it’ (PMc: *tuki, tukituki)

súúk‘tropic bird’ (PMc: *tiku or *tuki)

suu-ki‘open it’ (PCMc: *Tuu-ki)

taaw, tawe-(n)·‘reef pass, channel’ (PMc: *sawa)

talúwash (something) (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

taŋa-(l)‘inside of his or her thigh’ (PMc: *Saŋa)

téé‘ininhabited low island’ (PMc: *sakau)

teete, tee-yi·‘sew’ (PMc: *saisai, sai-ti)

téŋúsmell it (PMc: *saŋu)

tettalto wash things (PMc: *salu, salusalu)

tii-ŋipush it (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiip, tipa-(l)piece, piece of (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

Satawalese (320 / 417)

tiitito push (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

tiiw, tiwa-·‘nine’ (PMc: *Siwa)

(ti)-ŋor, (ti)-ŋoroŋor·‘to snore’ (PMc: *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro)

tipá-kicut it into pieces (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

tipá-ŋihelp (someone) (PMc: *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi)

tipatippieces (PMc: *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki)

-tiw·‘down, westward’ (PMc: *siwo)

-to·‘toward speaker, hither’ (PCMc: *soko)

toláá-li‘mix it’ (PMc: *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a)

toŋotoŋ·‘to smart, sting’ (PMc: *soŋo, soŋosoŋo)

ttéŋsmell (PMc: *saŋu)

túkú-mi‘wrap it’ (PMc: *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi)

tumʷur·‘the star Antares’ (PCMc: *sumʷuru)

túút‘breast’ (PMc: *susu)

túútú‘to bathe’ (PMc: *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-)

úlúúl‘pillow’ (PMc: *uluulu)

upʷu-(to), supʷu-(to)‘be born’ (PMc: *t[iu]pʷu)

úrá-niset (something) up on posts (PMc: *tura)

úRú-kishake it (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

uru-(pé)·‘to fan’ (PMc: *iri, iri-pi-)

Satawalese (340 / 417)

(uru)-pé‘to fan’ (PMc: *pau, paupau)

úRúúRto shake (PMc: *ucuucu, ucu-ki)

uumʷ, umʷu-(n)·‘earth oven, bake in an oven’ (PMc: *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-)

úúrhouse post (PMc: *tura)

uwa·‘fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

uwan·‘pumice stone’ (PMc: *waani)

waa, waa-·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waa-(n)·‘a frame’ (PMc: *waxa₁)

waar, waara-(n)·‘root’ (PMc: *waka, wakara)

waniwan‘forest, vegetated area’ (PMc: *walu)

we·‘that (out of sight or in the past)’ (PMc: *oo)

wiiR, wiRi-(l)·‘banana’ (PMc: *wuci)

wiiwi‘pluck up grass’ (PMc: *wuti)

wolo-(tiw)·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woŋowoŋ, woŋo-ti·‘wring out’ (PCMc: *woŋ[iu]-si)

wooŋ, woŋi-·‘turtle’ (PMc: *woñu)

wooR·‘coral reef’ (PCMc: *woca)

woot·‘Colocasia taro’ (PMc: *wos[ao])

woow·‘sugarcane’ (PMc: *towu)

woro-mi·‘swallow’ (PCMc: *woro-)

Satawalese (360 / 417)

woroor‘pier, wall, breakwater’ (PMc: *woro₂)

woRow, oRow‘rain, rain cloud’ (PCMc: *kacawu)

-wow·‘outward’ (PMc: *wotu)

wuko-(l)‘fishnet of’ (PMc: *wuko, wuko-ti-)

wúlef‘parrot fish’ (PCMc: *ulafi)

wuŋe-(lap)main ridgepole (PMc: *wuŋa)

wuu·‘wicker fish trap’ (PMc: *wuu)

wuuŋridgepole (PMc: *wuŋa)

wuus, wuso-(l), wusu-(l)‘a float, any kind of wood that floats well, ‘its float, float of’ (PCMc: *iTo)

wuut‘a small tree with fragrant flowers’ (PMc: *uS[iu])

-y·‘my, of me’ (suffixed possessive pronoun) (PMc: *-xu)

yaaf [sic]·‘swim’ (PCMc: *afe)

yáámem, káámem·‘we (exclusive)’ (PWMc: *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami)

yaan, ena-(n)‘road, his road’ (PMc: *ala₁)

yááŋ·‘wind’ (PMc: *aŋi, aŋiaŋi)

yááp, yápi-‘bottom, buttocks’ (PMc: *kapi)

yaas·‘tuna, bonito’ (PMc: *atu)

yáástop, on land (PMc: *ata)

yáát·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

yáát, yáti-(n)‘gallbladder, his gallbladder’ (PMc: *asi)

Satawalese (380 / 417)

yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object (PCMc: *aa-, aa-ni-)

yááyáá-(n)‘his liver’ (PMc: *ate)

yalút‘small uninhabited island’ (PMc: *anu[sS]a)

yaŋaaŋ‘work’ (PMc: *aŋa₁)

(ya)-paRgum, glue (PWMc: *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa)

‘yá-peyipey‘driftwood’ (PCMc: *kai-peti)

yaRe-(i)·‘throw’ (PCMc: *kace)

yare-mas·‘person, people’ (PMc: *mata, ara-mata)

yariyarto stir (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

yarú-(w)stir it (PMc: *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-)

-yasup, east (PMc: *ata)

yátúyát‘smoky’ (PMc: *a[sS]u)

yaú·‘mast (of a canoe)’ (PMc: *kautu or *katuu)

yaú-(chchán)‘atmosphere’ (PCMc: *au-)

ya-wút‘finger’ (PMc: *tu[sS]u)

yawuw‘kind of mullet’ (PMc: *aua)

yáy·‘we (exclusive, subject marker)’ (PMc: *kayi)

ye‘this near speaker’ (PMc: *ee)

yéél, yélú-·‘three, three (general)’ (PMc: *telu, telu-ua)

yi-·at (locative) (PMc: *i-)

Satawalese (400 / 417)

yiir·‘they (independent pronoun), them (suffixed object pronoun.), their (suffixed possessive pronoun)’ (PMc: *ira)

yóŋoyóŋ‘pale light haze on the horizon’ (PMc: *aŋo)

yoo-·‘cane, walking stick’ (PMc: *toko, toko-na)

yóó·‘fishline’ (PMc: *awo)

yooŋ·‘mangrove’ (PMc: *toŋo)

yóós, yóso-‘roof’ (PMc: *aTo)

yóót‘diagonal rafter’ (PMc: *ka[sS]o)

yor·‘be, exist’ (PWMc: *oro)

yúkú-(l)·‘tail’ (PMc: *iku)

yúnú-ti‘pull it out’ (PMc: *unu-[sS]i)

yúrúúr‘drag’ (PMc: *uri, uruuru)

yúúl, yúla-(n), wúlawúl, únúún, yúnú-fi·‘hair, feathers, scales, remove (hair or scales)’ (PMc: *una, unauna, una-fi)

yúúl, yúlú-·‘maggot’ (PMc: *ulo)

yúúp, úpú-(l)fish poison, fish poison of (PMc: *upa)

yúúr, yúra-(l)·‘langusta, lobster’ (PMc: *ura)

yúút‘rain’ (archaic) (PMc: *u[sS]a)

yuuw·‘neck’ (PMc: *ua₃)

31. Sonsorolese (75) (Oda 1977, Bender et al. 1984)

bʷoú·‘odor, smell’ (PMc: *pʷoi, pʷoa)

diŋi·‘fart’ (PMc: *Tiŋi)

dúúle‘house post’ (PMc: *tura)

faane·‘meeting house’ (PMc: *fale)

fada-ŋú‘call (someone) (PCMc: *fato, fato-ŋi-)

fadúfédú‘to weave’ (PMc: *fatu, fatufatu)

fadúkú·‘head’ (PCMc: *fatuku)

fafiauncultivated land (PMc: *fafia)

fakafi·‘evening’ (PMc: *fakaafi)

falaki-nito be scattered, spread, to scatter or spread (something) (PMc: *feraki, feraki-ni-)

fanaúlesson, precept, commandment (PMc: *fanau)

faúfaú‘to weave (PMc: *fau, fau-Si)

fei-ŋitear it apart, tatter it (PMc: *[sS]afi₁)

feyifini·‘woman’ (PMc: *faifine)

ffééú‘cold’ (PMc: *fou)

fidi·‘star’ (PMc: *fit[ou]u)

fidu-·‘seven’ (PMc: *fitu, fitu-ua)

fiŋi-ti‘to twist, wring, squeeze (something)’ (PWMc: *fiŋi-[sS]i)

iita·‘name’ (PMc: *iSa, aSa)

kaaú·‘fishhook, catch with hook’ (PMc: *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta)

Sonsorolese (20 / 75)

kaliki‘kind of crab’ (PMc: *karuki)

(ka)-mataki·‘be painful, hurt’ (PMc: *masaki)

kase-fi (sic)·‘throw’ (PCMc: *kace)

kiita·‘octopus’ (PMc: *kuyita)

koso-fi‘slice it thinly’ (PMc: *koco₁)

laa‘branch’ (PMc: *rae)

loŋoloŋo·‘hear, listen’ (PMc: *roŋo)

maata·‘eye, face’ (PMc: *mata)

maato·‘to sit’ (PMc: *maaso, masoso)

maay·‘breadfruit’ (PMc: *mai₁)

made·‘die, lose consciousness’ (PMc: *mate)

ma-lama‘moon’ (PMc: *rama, ma-rama)

ma-rifi·‘thin, flimsy’ (PMc: *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi)

mééta·‘cooked’ (PMc: *ma[sS]o)

mʷaane·‘man, male (PMc: *mʷaane)

nuu·‘coconut’ (PMc: *niu)

ŋaata‘hole’ (PMc: *ŋasa)

ŋii·‘tooth’ (PCMc: *ŋii)

paa·‘bait, worm’ (PMc: *paa₁)

pakowa·‘shark’ (PMc: *pakewa)

Sonsorolese (40 / 75)

ppare·‘light, of weight’ (PWMc: *pale)

raamʷu·‘mosquito’ (PMc: *ñamʷu)

raaŋo·‘fly (insect)’ (PMc: *laŋo₁)

rabʷuto‘moray eel’ (PCMc: *lapʷ[ou]so)

raŋúya‘a kind of fish’ (PMc: *laŋua)

saawú·‘leaf’ (PMc: *cau)

sii·‘bone’ (PMc: *cuyi-)

ssaa·‘blood, be bloody’ (PMc: *caa, cacaa)

ssawu·‘heavy, heaviness’ (PMc: *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu)

taani‘rope, string’ (PMc: *tali)

taati·‘salt water’ (PMc: *taSi)

tama (sic)·‘father’ (PMc: *tama)

taŋi·‘cry, weep’ (PMc: *taŋi, taŋi-Si-)

tapa (sic)·‘cheek’ (PMc: *tapa₂)

táriŋa·‘ear, mushroom, fungus’ (PMc: *taliŋa)

tii-ŋi‘push it’ (PMc: *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-)

uwaa·‘fruit’ (PMc: *wuaa)

wa (sic)·‘canoe’ (PMc: *waxa₂)

waka (sic)root (PMc: *waka)

walaga(showing meathesis) (PMc: *waka, wakara)

Sonsorolese (60 / 75)

wetewet‘to count’ (PMc: *waSe, waSe-ki)

woro-·‘lie down, sleep’ (PMc: *w[eo]n[eo])

woro-·‘six’ (PMc: *wono-)

wuugu‘to blow’ (PMc: *wuku, wuuku)

wúúta·‘rain’ (PMc: *u[sS]a)

yaade·‘liver’ (PMc: *ate)

yaado·‘thatch’ (PMc: *aTo)

yaafi·‘fire’ (PMc: *afi₁)

yaara‘road, path, way’ (PMc: *ala₁)

yaaro·‘sun’ (PMc: *alo)

yaate·‘jaw, chin’ (PMc: *a[sS]e)

yafiefi‘pull on a rope’ (PMc: *afi₂)

yaléŋú‘coconut cream’ (PCMc: *ar[eo]ŋu)

yarúdú‘spirit, ghost’ (PMc: *anitu)

yiiŋi·‘dorsal fin’ (PMc: *iŋi)

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