Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


aa    ae    af    ak    al    am    an        ap    ar    as    aS    at    aT    au    aw    ay    

PMc   *-a   him, her, it (object pronoun)

Chuukese-y, -ye-; -w, -we-·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Woleaian-ya, -wa·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Gilbertese-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Kimbe*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Oceanic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun) (Ross 1988)

PMc   *-a, -Ta   reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)

Chuukese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Mortlockese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Puluwatese-ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Saipan Carolinian-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Satawalese-a, -ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Woleaian-sa, -ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Ulithian-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-da·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-a, -Ta·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Marshallese-jah·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Gilbertese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Kosraean·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-ta·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Sa’a-’apresent or general time 

Problems here.

PCMc   *aa-, aa-ni-   alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object

Chuukeseaa-general class of alienable object 
 áá-niown or acquire ownership of an alienable object 
 aayause an alienable object 
Puluwateseyaa-, yáá-ni, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Saipan Carolinianaa-, yáá-li, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Saipan Carolinian·Taa-, áá-ni·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Satawaleseyááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Woleaianyaa-, yaa-li-(i), yaayaa·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Pulo-Annanyaa-·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Proto-Chuukic*yaa-, yaa-ni-, yaayaa·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Pohnpeianaa-, ε-alienable object 
Marshallesehaha-·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Gilbertesea-alienable object 
 ana-ato take or get (something) 

— Cf. —


PWMc   *aapʷa   no

Pohnpeian(?) aapʷbut 

PMc   (?)   *ae₁   crawl

Chuukeseá, áá-swim, be swimming 
 ae (rake)go ashore 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*jaRamove, creep, flow, spill  (Ross 1988)
Kwaiotala-(fafo)shallow, swim close to the surface 
 tala-[ŋe’enia]arrive at a place, wash up 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *afe ‘swim’.

PMc   (?)   *ae₂   this

Gilberteseaethis here, the one that 
Proto-Oceanic(?) aRe·this
Lakalaialethis, the one that 
Fijian[ko]-yaa, [a]-yaathat [distant], the one that. 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesearewho, which, that yonder 

PMc   *afafi   coconut crab

Chuukeseeef, #eefi-·coconut crab
Saipan Carolinianáff, áffi-·coconut crab
Woleaianyaffi·coconut crab
Proto-Chuukic*affi·coconut crab
Pohnpeianεmp·coconut crab
Gilbertese(te)-aai·coconut crab
Kosraeanεi·coconut crab

PMc   *afaŋi   north

Chuukeseefen, efeŋnorth, trade wind season 
 efeni-(nap)due north, north wind 
Mortlockeseeféŋé-(n)toward the north 
 (le)-eféŋdry season 
 (le)-eféŋdry season 
Puluwateseyefáŋ, yefeŋi-north, be north (of wind or direction), trade wind season 
Saipan Carolinianefáŋ, áfáŋ·north
 (le)-efáŋwinter, trade wind season 
Woleaianyefaŋinorth, northern direction, trade wind season 
Marshalleseyaŋ, (yi)-yéŋnorth 
 (haŋen)-yaŋwintertime, dry season 

Cf. Kosraean epaŋ glossed as ‘south’ in dictionary looks like a loan (p unexpected, see Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *aúrú ‘south’). Cf. Marck’s (1994:310–323) Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *faŋi ‘dry season’.

PMc   *afara   shoulder

Chuukeseafar, afara-(n)shoulder, his shoulder 
 (éwúw)-éfarshoulder carrying pole 
 (éwúw)-éfaracarry (something) on a pole 
Mortlockeseawúfar, awúfara-(n)·shoulder
 yayéfarshoulder, load carried on the shoulder 
Saipan Carolinianaifar, aifár, ayúfar, aifara-(l)shoulder, carry a load on the shoulder, his shoulder 
Satawaleseefar, efara-(n)·shoulder
Woleaianyefare, yafera-(le)·shoulder
 yadadalacarry on the shoulder 
Pohnpeianapεrεhis shoulder 
Mokileseaprɔhis shoulder 
Marshallesehayer, hayeray·shoulder
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qafaRa·shoulder (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*qapaRa, qabaRa·shoulder
Proto-Austronesian*qabaRa·shoulder (Ross 1988)

There appears to have been corruption of the word for ‘shoulder carrying pole’ and its reinterpretation as ‘shoulder’ in Mortlockese, Puluwatese, and Saipan Carolinian.

— Cf. —

Kosraeanpælpælcarry on the shoulder 
 polo-ŋcarry (something) on the shoulders with a pole 
Arosiabaracarry under the arm 

PCMc   *afe   swim

Puluwateseyaf, yáfe-·swim
Satawaleseyaaf [sic]·swim
Saipan Carolinianáf, áfe-·swim

— Cf. —


Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ae₁ ‘crawl’.

PMc   *afi, afi-Si-   carry on the hip or under the arm

Mortlockeseafiyafcarry under the arm 
 afi-ticarry (a child) on the hip 
Puluwateseyafi-ti-(y)to carry (a child) on ones side 
Saipan Carolinianafi-ti, áfi-ticarry (a child or object) on ones side 
Satawaleseáfiyáfcarry on the hip (as a baby) 
 áfi-ticarry (a child) in the arms on the side 
Woleaianyafiyeficarry under one arm 
 yafi-ti-(i)carry it under the arm 
Pulo-Annanyadi-ticarry it under the arm 
Proto-Chuukic*afiafi, afi-di-·carry on the hip or under the arm
Pohnpeianapi-dto carry (something) on ones side or under ones arm 
Mokileseapi-dcarry (something) under arm 
Kosraeanεto hold on the hip 
 εihold or carry (something) on the hip 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*afi·carry on the hip or under the arm
Bugotuavi nicarry in the arms 

— Cf. —

Marshallesehabʷ jayjéycarry tucked under one arm 
Bugotuachicarry under the arm 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[qØ]afi-ŋaarmpit 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *api.

PMc   *afi₁   fire

Chuukeseááf, efi-·fire
Saipan Carolinian(a-ghúú)-áflight a signal fire 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a-gúú)-áflight a signal fire 
Woleaianyaafi, yafi-·fire
Pulo-Annanyaadi, yadi-·fire
Proto-Oceanic*api·fire (Ross 1988)

PMc   *afi₂   pull on a line

Chuukeseef, efiyefpull on a line (as in fishing) 
 efi-i-(y)pull on (a line) 
 efi-i-(y)pull on (a line) 
Puluwateseyááf [sic], yáfi-i-(y)·pull on a line
Saipan Carolinianáfi-i-(y)pull it in (as a fish on a line) 
Pulo-Annanyadiedipull as a rope 
Sonsoroleseyafiefipull on a rope 
Proto-Chuukic*yafi, yafiyafi·pull on a line
Pohnpeianapi-ipull (something, usually with a rope) 
Mokileseɔppɔp, oppoppull 
 ópipull at 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*afi, afi-i-·pull on a line
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Raf[ei]pull  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Marshallesehayiktow (as a boat), pull, draw 
 hayik-eytow something 
Gilberteseaa-ito tow 
 aeae-ato tow, drag (something) 
 (te)-aeae-aa towing 

PMc   *-aki   passive suffix

Saipan Carolinian(ripis)-ághto be broken into pieces, shattered (ripiiy to shatter something) 
 (piles)-ághto become blocked, clogged (pileey to close, cover up, put the lid on something) 
Woleaian(liuwet)-agtossed (liuweti toss something) 
 (mʷulot)-agcrumpled (mwulot-i crumple something 
 (feshiŋ)-egpicked (feshiŋ-i pick something) 
Proto-Chuukic*-aki·passive suffix
Pohnpeian(diεr)-εkto be found (diar to find) 
 (εmʷir)-εkto be crumpled (amwir to crumple) 
Marshallese(wékʷt)-akbe changed (wiket-ey change something) 
 (wékj)-akbe overturned, capsized (wikej overturn something) 
Gilbertese(arir)-akipulled tight (arir-a to pull something tight) 
Kosraean(otwe)-yʌkwoven (otwe to weave) 
 (usruk)-yʌkbe shaken (usruk to shake). 

Reflexes of this suffix that have been recorded for Chuukese (see examples under Proto-Micronesian *-aki-ni below) all have it followed by reflexes of *-ni. See the statement about Chuukese -ási (-esi) in Goodenough and Sugita 1980.

PWMc   (?)   *aki, akiaki   to hide, hidden

Pohnpeianεkiεkto be hidden, concealed 
 εki-i-(la)hide it away 
Marshallese(til)-yékyékhide, be obscured 

PMc   *-aki-ni   passive suffix

Chuukese-ási-ni, -esi-ni(suf. to verb bases) be ~ because of (someone or something), be ~ on account of (someone or something), be ~ with (someone or something) 
 (sááwá)-ási-nibe embarrassed because of him 
Puluwatese-yáki-n-, yeki-n-·passive suffix
Saipan Carolinian(kkapasá)-ághi-lito intercede on behalf of someone (kkapas word, speech, talk, language, to speak) 
 (fasá)ághá-lito laugh at, make fun of someone, mock (ffas to laugh) 
Woleaian-yagi-li-(i), -agi-li-(i)·passive suffix
Pulo-Annan-aki-ni·passive suffix
Proto-Chuukic*-aki-ni-·passive suffix
Gilbertese-aki-natransitive suffix  (Bender et al. 1984)
Kosraean-ki-nfossilized transitive suffix  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-aki-ni·passive suffix
Bugotu-agi-ni·passive suffix
Sa’a-ái-ni [sic]·passive suffix

PMc   *ako   tie together

Chuukeseóóyóstrap or rope handle, carrier made of rope or line 
Puluwateseyóóyócoarse sennit used for lashing and calking, to calk 
Woleaianyagoyagoto tie together, bind 
Proto-Chuukic*yakoyako·tie together
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Rak[ou]-ttie, fasten  (Geraghty 1990) Note that the Lakalai forms can also be cognate with Fijian rako, rakorako ‘fitting or suiting well’
Lakalailao-ato clasp, have sexual intercourse with 
 lakolakoto stick fast (as adhesive tape) 
Uraustronesisch*Dakepjoin together 

PMc   *ako, akoako   steer a boat

Woleaian(ga)-ago·steer a boat
Pulo-Annan(ka)-ako·steer a boat
Proto-Chuukic*(ka)-ako·steer a boat
Kosraeanikʷikrudder, tiller, to steer. 

— Cf. —

Marshallesekahyiyekʷ, kahiyewekʷsteer directly for 

PMc   *ala₁   path, road

Chuukeseaan, ane-(n)path, road, route, path of 
Mortlockeseaal, ala-(n)road, his road 
Puluwateseyaal, yela-(n)path, road, street, his path 
Saipan Carolinianaal, ala-(l)path, road, his path 
Satawaleseyaan, ena-(n)road, his road 
Woleaianyaale, yela-(li)path, road, path of 
 yen-(nape) (< *yala-lapa)path, roadway 
Pulo-Annanyaana, yana-way, road, track 
Sonsoroleseyaararoad, path, way 
Proto-Chuukic*yala·path, road
Pohnpeianaalpath, road, trail 
Mokileseal·path, road
Pingilapeseal·path, road
Marshalleseyiyaḷ, yiyyaḷ·path, road

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zalapath  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*salanpath  (Ross 1988)
Fijiansala·path, road
Proto-Polynesian*hala·path, road
Sa’atala·path, road
Bugotuhatha [utu]a way 
Lautalaway, path 
Arositara [na]·path, road
Kwaiotala·path, road
Proto-Kimbe*dala, zala·path, road
Proto-Austronesian*Zalan·path, road

See also Marck (1994:321) Proto-Micronesian *ala.

PMc   *ala₂   to take, get

Pohnpeianalεtake, get, (something) 
 alaal-(di)be taken or gotten 
Mokileseɔlɔget, take, gather (something) 
 ɔlɔɔlget, take, gather 
Gilberteseana-(a)to take 

— Cf. —

Marshallesehaleyprovisions, storehouse 
 haḷeyfish caught by encircling 

PMc   *ala[iu], alala[iu]   long

Chuukeseáney, ánneylong, tall, length 
 áneyi-(n)length or height of 
Puluwateseyáláy, yelaylong (as hair), length, height 
 yelaye-(n)length or height of 
 lááláybe long, tall, last long 
Saipan Carolinianláálááybe long, tall 
 álláybe very long 
 aláálááybe very long 
 áláálááybe very long 
Woleaianyelai, yelai-(li)length, length of 
 yennaibe long, extended 
Pulo-Annanyanaibe long 
Proto-Chuukic*yalayi, yalalayi, layalayi·long
Marshalleseleyelleya great distance, far 
Gilberteseanau, ananaulong 
Proto-Oceanic*[aØ]lau, [aØ]lalau·long
Proto-Kimbe*(ma)-laqulong, tall, far 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianaŋεdlong, tall 
Kosraeanloeslong, tall 
 loeloesvery long or tall 

PCMc   *ale   kind of coral

Chuukeseáán, áni-(n)kind of coral (live, white, and branching), coral of 
 áne-(pʷpʷo)a kind of coral 
Puluwateseyáál, yále-(y)·kind of coral
Saipan Carolinianyáál, áál·kind of coral
Proto-Chuukic*ale·kind of coral
Gilbertese(te)-anelive coral 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *laxa ‘kind of coral’ and Proto-Micronesian ? *laZe ‘kind of coral’.

PMc   *alele   to reckon, sing

Chuukeseánnáya, ánneyato read, count (something), reading, counting 
Puluwateseyalleyto think about, decide 
 yalleyato read, count (something) 
Woleaianyanneto be wise, smart 
Proto-Chuukic*alle, alle-a·to reckon, sing
Marshallesehalsing, song, music 
Gilberteseaneneto sing 
 anene-ato sing (a song, hymn, etc.) 
Kosraeanælʌllʌlto sing 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*alele·to reckon, sing
Sa’aalelebe jubilant, rejoice in song 
Arosiarerebe joyful 
 arere-hibe joyful on account of 

— Cf. —

Arosiare, arearecall on a ghost 
Kwaiolala, lalemake rustling noises 

— Cf. also —

Bugotusaleto sing, a song 
 sale ato sing (something) 

There is no basis for relating Gilbertese anene to Proto–Eastern Oceanic *taReRe ‘rejoice’, as suggested by Geraghty (1990). Cf. also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic ? *kaúlú ‘sing, song’ and Proto-Chuukic *alle ‘count, enumerate’. There may be two different roots here.

PWMc   *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali   circle, circling, dizzy

Chuukesefá-ángo in a circle 
 fá-ániyena circle, ring, to talk round a subject 
 eni-(kes)winding the warp threads 
 mʷá-ániyendizziness, be dizzy 
Mortlockesefá-áliform a circle 
Puluwatesefá-aliyála circle 
 mʷá-áliyelbe dizzy, confused 
Saipan Carolinianmʷá-áliyáldizzy 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfa-aliyelround, circular, spherical 
Satawalese(á)-fá-ánmake a circle 
 fá-ániyángo in a circle 
Woleaianfa-aliyelito circle, go round 
 bʷa-aliyeligo in a circle, be round 
 mʷa-ali-yelibe dizzy, giddy, dazed 
Pulo-Annanda-anienito circle, go around 
Proto-Chuukic*-ali, aliali, fa-aliali, mʷa-aliali·circle, circling, dizzy
Pohnpeianmʷa-aliεlbe dizzy 
 mʷa-aliεlihis brain 
 sa-aliεldizzy, mentally ill or retarded 
Marshallese(hajji)-mʷa-halhaldizzy, sway back and forth, nod 

— Cf. —

Sa’akálito surround 
Laugaliround, around 
Kwaiogalicircle, round, around 

See also Proto-Chuukic *ka-falli ‘be careful of, attend to’, Proto-Chuukic *mʷaali ‘confused, mistaken’.

PMc   *ali-maŋo   mangrove crab

Chuukeseáni-móŋ·mangrove crab
Saipan Carolinianali-moŋlarge sea crab with red orange shell 
Pohnpeianeli-mɔŋ·mangrove crab
Mokileseel-mɔŋlobster [sic] variety 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*ali-maŋo·mangrove crab
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qali-maŋaw·mangrove crab (Blust 1980:39, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

Cf. Kosraean εi ‘crab’ where we would expect *εl.

PMc   *al[iu]ta   beard

Chuukeseenis, enisa-(n)beard, whiskers, mustache, his beard 
Mortlockesealúsbeard, mustache, whiskers 
Puluwateseyáálúh, yálúha-(n) [sic]·beard
Saipan Carolinianalús, aalis, alis, alúsa-(l)·beard
Saipan Carolinian·Talúh·beard
Woleaianyalúse, yalúsa-(le)·beard
Pohnpeianalis, εlisεbeard, mustache, his beard 
Mokilesealij ɔljɔbeard, mustache, his beard 
Kosraeanaltε-(l)his beard 

Note Pulo-Annan d instead of expected t, there may be a problem here.

PMc   *alo   sun

Chuukese(nee)-yóno-(was)midday, noon (lit. high sun time) 
 (nee-kkunu)-yónlate afternoon (lit. sun turning time) 
Mortlockeseyóól, Wóól·sun
Puluwateseyóól, yólo-(n)sun, sun of 
Saipan Carolinian(lee)-alo-(was), (lee)-ólo-(was)high noon 
Satawalese(lee)-yólo-(was)at noon 
Woleaianyaalo, yalo-·sun
Pulo-Annanyaano, yano-·sun
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qalo·sun
Sa’asalosky, heaven, clouds 
Lausalocloud, storm 
Arosiarosky, heavens 

Yapese yaal’ ‘sun’ is probably a loan from Ulithian. See also Proto-Chuukic *yalle-pʷuta ‘a tree (Pittosporum)’ and cf. Proto-Chuukic *yaado ‘legendary woman’, Proto-Micronesian *a[sS]o ‘time’.

PMc   *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i   to wave, beckon

Pohnpeianɔlɔɔlto wave, to signal 
 ɔlεto wave or signal to 
Mokilese(jei)- ɔɔl, (jei)- ɔɔlito wave, wave at (someone) 
Marshallese(jeyya)-haḷbeckon with downward motion of hand or by waving arm 
Gilberteseanoanoto beckon 
 ano-ato beckon to (someone) 
 ano-i-(a)beckon him 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qalo, qalo-fi·to wave, beckon
Fijianyalo, yalo-vabeckon 
Tongan(ta)-’aloto wave, beckon 
Sa’asaloto beckon, invite 
Bugotuathoatho, atho-vito beckon, signal 
Arosisaroto beckon 
Baukaro-hito beckon 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qalepbeckon, wave  (Blust 1989:123, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

— Cf. —

Lausalo-fito prepare, clear a path, sweep 

The Mokilese form appears to be a loan from Marshallese.

PCMc   *amata   undercooked, raw

Chuukeseamas, amasa-·undercooked, raw
Mortlockeseames·undercooked, raw
Puluwateseyemah·undercooked, raw
Woleaianyemate·undercooked, raw
Pulo-Annanyamete·undercooked, raw
Proto-Chuukic*am[ae]ta·undercooked, raw
Pohnpeianamas·undercooked, raw
Marshallesehaméj·undercooked, raw
Gilberteseamata·undercooked, raw

— Cf. —

Kosraean(tæl) mwek, (tæk) mwekraw, uncooked 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*mataq·undercooked, raw (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*mata·undercooked, raw
Kwaioma’a·undercooked, raw
Uraustronesisch*ma(n)taq, *mentaq·undercooked, raw

PCMc   *amʷa   pertaining to nurture

Chuukesefa-amʷgiving birth, parturition, delivery 
 (a)-fa-amʷadeliver it (a baby) 
Woleaianfa-amʷeto adopt a child, be adopted, cared for 
 fa-amʷa-(a)adopt him/her 
Pulo-Annanda-amʷato adopt a child, take care of him/her 
Proto-Chuukic*fa-amʷa·pertaining to nurture

— Cf. —

Fijianyagauseful, valuable, necessary 

PMc   (?)   *[aØ]mʷi, [aØ]mʷi ni   to wash ones hands

Pohnpeianεmʷiεmʷ, amʷi-n·to wash ones hands
Marshallesehamʷin, hamʷin-iy·to wash ones hands
Kosraeanwinwin, winwin-i·to wash ones hands

There may be loans here.

PCMc   *amʷii   bunch or cluster of nuts

Pohnpeianεmʷiibunch of it (palm nuts) 
Pingilapeseεmʷi·bunch or cluster of nuts
Gilberteseamʷiifull bunch or cluster 

Could be loans in Pohnpeian and Pingilapese from Gilbertese.

PMc   *aneane   to wish, need

Chuukeseánáyán, áneyánto wish 
Puluwateseyániyánto wish 
Woleaianyaleyaleto wish 
Proto-Chuukic*aneane·to wish, need
Pohnpeiananaanbe necessary, indispensable 
 anaanεto need, require (something) 
Mokileseanaaneto need, want (something) 
Marshallese(k)-eṇahanwant, like, wish 
Kosraeanenenʌto need (something), be necessary 
 nεnεto need (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ane·to wish, need
Fijianyanato take another's goods without his consent 

PMc   *anitu   god, spirit

Chuukeseénú, énúú-(n), anú, anúú-(n)god, sky spirit, god of 
Mortlockeseanú, anúú-(n)ghost, god of 
Puluwateseyanúancient god 
Saipan Caroliniananú, anúú-(l)spirit, ghost, spirit of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tanúspirit, ghost 
Satawaleseanú, anúú-(n)ghost, god of 
Woleaianyalúsúgod, spirit, ghost 
Pulo-Annanyanúdúgod, spirit, ghost 
Sonsoroleseyarúdúspirit, ghost 
Proto-Chuukic*yanútú·god, spirit
Mokileseenidemon, ghost 
Pingilapeseεnighost, spirit 
 hanijnijspell, enchantment, magic, sorcery 
 hanji(n-iy)cast a spell on someone 
Gilbertese(te)-antigod, spirit, ghost 
Kosraeaninutgod, spirit, ghost 
 intito enchant, cast a spell on (someone) 
Uraustronesisch*anitu·god, spirit
Proto-Austronesian*qaNitu·god, spirit (Wolff 1993)

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*qantu·god, spirit
Proto-Polynesian*aitu·god, spirit

See also Proto-Chuukic *faúrú-anútú ‘recite a spell’.

PMc   *anu[sS]a   small, uninhabited island

Woleaianyalútesmall uninhabited island 
Satawaleseyalútsmall uninhabited island 
Proto-Chuukic*anuda·small, uninhabited island
Pohnpeianandname of an atoll west of Pohnpei 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*(q)anuza·small, uninhabited island (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianyanuca·small, uninhabited island

— Cf. —


Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *fanua ‘inhabited land’, and Marck’s (1994:307) *anu[sz]a ‘small island’.

PMc   *aŋa₁   to have or take in hand, to handle

Chuukeseaŋá-(tá)hand up, have in hand reaching up 
 aŋe-e-(y)take (something) in hand, take hold of 
 aŋa-(mʷáán)take without permission 
 aŋa-sbe adept 
 aŋa-(ta)work too hard, work to the point of collapse 
 aŋa-(kkáy)handle quickly 
 aŋa-(may)catch fish by means of a stone fish trap 
 aŋa-(maaw)snatch, take in hand roughly 
 aŋa-(mmaŋ)take in hand slowly 
 aŋa-(ŋŋaw)handle a thing badly or clumsily 
 aŋaaŋaput (someone) to work 
 aŋaaŋa-(ffat)work without pay 
Puluwateseyaŋto take 
 yaŋa-(ta)be tired (as from work) 
 yáŋa-(tá)to reach up 
 yáŋe-(tá)to reach up 
 yaŋa-a-(y)to bring, take (something) 
 yaŋaaŋwork, to work 
Saipan Carolinianaŋaaŋ, eŋaaŋwork, to work 
 aŋ-(ŋeli)to reach for (something) 
 aŋe-etito touch (someone or something) 
 aŋŋé-étito touch (someone or something) 
Woleaianyaŋeto put ones hand out, to reach, extend ones hand 
 yaŋe-(kkúwe)to touch things constantly 
 yaŋŋe-(ŋŋaw)do something imperfectly, be clumsy, sloppy 
 yeŋaaŋework, to work 
 yeŋa-sito reach for it, touch it 
Pulo-Annanyaŋeto reach out for 
Proto-Chuukic*yaŋa, yaŋaaŋa, yaŋa-ti-·to have or take in hand, to handle
Pohnpeianεŋ-to reach for 
Mokileseto reach by stretching 
Gilbertese(ka)-aŋaaŋadifficult to do 
 aŋa-(atai)right handed 
 aŋa-(bai)pass loads from hand to hand 
 aŋa-(ra)awkward (as when using the left hand) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*aŋa. aŋa-ti·to have or take in hand, to handle
Sa’aaŋa-’ito carry, act as a porter 
Lauaŋa-ito lift, carry 
Arosiaŋaa carrying bag, to have in a bag 
 aŋa-’ito lift up 
 aŋa-’ito lift up 
Kwaioaŋa-[luaa]to put back in position when carrying 

PMc   *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa   spider shell (Strombidae)

Chuukesene-yaŋ, nne-yaŋany true conch shell (genus Strombus or genus Lambis
Puluwatesele-yaŋ, le-yaŋa-(y)spider shell, spider shell of 
Saipan Carolinianli-yaŋspider shell 
Woleaianle-yaŋekind of sea shell 
Proto-Chuukic*le-yaŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)
Pohnpeianla-aŋspider conch sp. 
Mokilesele-eŋshell with spike-like protrusions 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*le-aŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)
Marshalleseyaŋshell of family Strombidae 
Kosraeankind of shell 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Raŋa·spider shell (Strombidae) (Geraghty 1990)
Fijianyaga·spider shell (Strombidae)
Arosiraŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)

PMc   *aŋi, aŋiaŋi   wind

Chuukeseeni-, eniyenwind, blowing 
Mortlockeseyááŋsoft breeze 
Puluwateseyááŋ, yáŋiyáŋ·wind
Saipan Carolinianááŋ, yááŋ, yáŋi-·wind
Woleaianyaaŋi, yaŋi-, yaŋiyeŋi·wind
Pulo-Annanyaŋi, yaŋiyaŋi·wind
Proto-Chuukic*aŋi, aŋiaŋi·wind
Pohnpeianaaŋ, εŋiεŋ·wind
Gilbertese(te)-aŋ, aŋi-·wind
Kosraeaneŋ, eŋyeŋ·wind
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*yaŋi·wind (Geraghty 1983)

See also Marck (1990:310) Proto-Micronesian *aŋi.

PMc   *aŋo   curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow

Chuukese#óŋi-(n)(? <*aŋo-ni) Curcuma plant 
Saipan Carolinianóŋeyóŋ, yóŋeyóŋyellow, be colored yellow 
 óŋo-(shigh)leaves and flowers of the ginger plant 
Satawaleseyóŋoyóŋpale light haze on the horizon 
Woleaianyaaŋogardenia, cape jasmine 
 yaŋo-(shigi)Curcuma plant 
 yaŋoyaŋobe yellow, yellowish 
Tobi(tene)-oŋturmeric  (Kubary 1889)
Proto-Chuukic*yaŋo-, yaŋoyaŋo·curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow
Pohnpeianɔɔŋ, ɔŋε-(n)turmeric 
 ɔŋεits yolk 
Gilbertese(te)-aŋoa tree (Bender et al. 1984: Premna sp., yellow substance derived from its roots) 
Kosraeanæŋkind of plant 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*yaŋokind of ginger  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancagoturmeric plant [Curcuma longa
Tonganaŋoa ginger [Curcuma longa
Uraustronesisch*(za)-Raŋawa plant 

— Cf. also —

Lakalailaguyellow face paint 

— and cf. —

 arowild ginger 
Kwaiosa’oa tree with sweet smelling yellow flowers 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *reŋa ‘turmeric color’; Proto-Chuukic *yaloyalo.

PWMc   *apara   make alignment

Chuukese#para-aligned, oriented 
 aparaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) 
 áperaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) 
 apara, áperaaim at, line (something) up, align 
 #(kk)-áperbe aimed, aim 
 #pere-(yiŋiiŋ)turn on ones side, lean or tip sideways, list, slip between things by turning ones body, sidle 
 #pere-(yiniin)be square or rectangular 
Puluwateseyeparcalculation (for navigation), aim (as of a gun) 
 yepare-(kacc)to aim well 
Woleaianyeparea sign for locating where one is in navigation 
Proto-Chuukic*yapara·make alignment
Marshallesehaparstone markers along road 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*baRafence  (Geraghty 1990)

Note that Chuukese seems to have reinterpreted this form as having a causative prefix and derived the secondary forms marked # accordingly. The Woleaian and Marshallese forms cannot be understood as having a causative prefix.

PMc   *apili   a fish

Marshalleseyapila fish 
Kosraeanapila kind of fish (a probable loan from Marshallese

PMc   *ara-mata   person, people

See Proto-Micronesian *mata, ara-mata ‘person, people’.

PMc   *are, are-ki   haul, pull, tow

Chuukeseárbe selected, chosen 
Marshalleseyarhaul a canoe or vessel up on shore 
 yare-khaul (a boat) up on shore 
Gilberteseaeae-ato tow, drag (something) 
 ae-katake (a passenger) ashore in a canoe, to take (food) from the fire 
Kosraeanælʌ-kto lift, pull, scoop (something) 

The following forms would indicate a low stem vowel instead, as Proto-Micronesian *ara:.

Gilberteseaa-ito tow 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ara·haul, pull, tow
Fijianyara, yara-kato haul, drag 
Sa’aara-nato move (a thing) on 
Bugotujara-hafishing net ten fathoms long drawn between two canoes 
Arosiara, ara-sito set a net 
Kwaioalafish by setting large net with multiple operators 
 ala-si-[a]lift [fish] from water in a large net 

PCMc   *ar[eo]ŋu   coconut cream, scraped coconut meat

Chuukesearúŋ, arúŋú-(n)coconut cream, coconut cream for (a food) 
 (a)-arúŋbreadfruit pudding served with coconut cream 
Mortlockeseyarúŋcoconut cream 
Puluwateseyarúŋcoconut cream 
 yarúŋú-(w)mix it with coconut cream 
Saipan Carolinianarúŋcoconut cream 
 arúŋú-(w)add coconut cream to (a food) 
Woleaianyareŋúcoconut cream 
Pulo-Annanyalaŋúcoconut milk 
Sonsoroleseyaléŋúcoconut cream 
Proto-Chuukic*yareŋú·coconut cream, scraped coconut meat
Pohnpeianεriŋripe coconut 
Mokileseɔriŋbrown stage of coconut 
Gilbertese(te)-aoŋscraped coconut mixed with other food 
 aoŋseasoned with scraped coconut 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyaḷ, yaḷi-coconut milk 
Kosraeanelelcoconut milk 

PMc   *ari   to scoop up

Puluwateseyeri-(y)to scoop (something) out (as coconut flesh) 
Saipan Carolinianári-tito stir (something) from the bottom up to the top (as when cooking), to scoop up from the bottom of the pot 
Woleaianyariyerito scoop up, dig up (from a shell) 
 yere-ti-(i) [sic]to scoop it up, dig it out 
Proto-Chuukic*ari·to scoop up
Marshalleseharhar, harharʷpick out food from teeth, pick out splinters, extricate (as meat from a clam) 
 harʷi-j(i)pick something out 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ari·to scoop up
Fijianyari, yari-ato scrape off the soft flesh of a drinking coconut with the thumb 

— Cf. —

Bugotujaria dug channel 

Rounding in Marshallese forms unexplained; possible contamination by reflexes of Proto-Micronesian *aru, which are now near homonyms with Marshallese reflexes cited here. Semantics of Saipan Carolinian form help explain possible confusion between these two etyma, Proto-Micronesian *ari and *aru.

PMc   *aro-   shore, beach, vicinity

Chuukeseóór, óru-(n)vicinity, immediate surroundings, environs, vicinity of; outer surface of skin, his o. shore 
 (wini)-yórvicinity, neighborhood 
 óro-(s-set), aro-(s-set)shore, coast, seaside 
Puluwateseyero-·shore, beach, vicinity
Saipan Carolinianaro-about, around, near 
Woleaianyaro-(li)vicinity of, near 
Proto-Chuukic*yaro-·shore, beach, vicinity
Pohnpeianɔrɔɔrshore, land near the ocean, landing place for boats 
Marshallesehar, hare-(n)lagoon beach 
Gilbertese(te)-ao-(ataata)beach above the high water line 
Kosraeanyɔrɔ-(l)his vicinity 
 yuru-(n)vicinity of 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *Soru- ‘near, beside’.

PMc   *aroŋo   a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack

Chuukesearoŋ, óroŋ, aroŋe-(n)sp. of pompano fish, pompano fish of 
Saipan Carolinian·Taroŋfourth of five growth stages of the skipjack 
Woleaianyaroŋoa kind of fish (C. melampygus
Proto-Chuukic*aroŋo·a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack
Pohnpeianɔroŋblue jack crevally (C. melampygus
MarshallesehareŋʷAfrican pompano (Hynnis cubensis
Gilbertese(te)-aoŋoa jackfish (C. lugubria
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*aroŋo·a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack
Tonganaloŋokind of shark with head like that of a stingray 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanloŋa kind of fish 
Tonganloŋoa shark 

PMc   *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-   to stir

Chuukeseérúwérstirring stick, to stir with a stick or spoon 
 érú-ú-(w)stir (something) with a stick 
Mortlockesearúyarbe stirring 
 arústir it 
Puluwateseyaru-(w)to stir (a liquid) 
Saipan Carolinianáriárutensil to stir with, to stir things 
 arú-(w)to stir it 
Saipan Carolinian·Tarúto stir (soup or stew) 
Satawaleseyariyarto stir 
 yarú-(w)stir it 
Woleaianyarúyerústirring stick, to stir 
 garu-suto mix, blend, fuse 
Pulo-Annanyalúyalúto stir 
 yalú-dúto stir (something) 
Proto-Chuukicyarúyarú, yarú-ti-·to stir
Pohnpeianεriεrto stir, to probe 
 ari-ito stir (something) 
Marshalleseharharstir or poke food or fire with a stick 
 harʷi-jstir or poke (something) 
Gilberteseai-a, aiai-ato swing (something) round and round 
Kosraeanæryærto stir 
 ærʌ-kstir, poke (something) 

— Cf. —

Mokileseɔrrɔrto dismantle an earth oven 
 ɔrito dismantle (an earth oven) 

Note that the initial g of the Woleaian garusu is unexpected, unless the form is a misrendering of *(ga)-aru-su with a causative prefix.

PMc   *a[sS]a   to grate, scrape

Chuukese(ma)-ataatbe rough to the touch (but not to the eye) 
 (a-ma)-atato grate (something) 
Puluwatese(a-ma)-atto grate something (such as raw taro) 
 (a-ma)-atato grate it 
Saipan Carolinian(a-ma)-atto grate, scrape, or mash something 
Pulo-Annanyatata [sic]to rub 
Proto-Chuukic*(ma)-ada, (ma)-adaada·to grate, scrape
Pohnpeianadaadto sharpen, put an edge on something 
 εdεto sharpen (something) 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*ada, adaada·to grate, scrape
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[qØ]azagrind  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianyaca, yaca-ato grate, grind 
Sa’asata-[a’i]to chafe, rub 
Bugotuaahato grate, rub down on a stone 
Arosiata, ata-ito scrape, rub 

PMc   *a[sS]e   jaw, chin

Chuukese#eet, #eti-nc., chin of 
Puluwateseyáát·jaw, chin
Saipan Carolinianáát, áte-l·jaw, chin
Satawaleseyáát·jaw, chin
Woleaianyaate, yate-li·jaw, chin
Pulo-Annanyaate, yate-·jaw, chin
Sonsoroleseyaate·jaw, chin
Proto-Chuukic*ate·jaw, chin
Marshallesehat-(laḷ)lower jaw 
 hat-(léŋ)upper jaw 
Gilbertese(te)-are-(i-eta)upper set of teeth 
 are-(i-nano)lower set of teeth 
Proto-Oceanic*qase·jaw, chin (Ross 1988)
Sa’asasate·jaw, chin
Kwaiolate·jaw, chin
Bugotuahe, atheathebreathe 

Note the expected Chuukese forms are *áát, *áti-n.

PMc   *asi   gallbladder, gall

Chuukeseeti-ngallbladder  (Käser 1990:28)
Puluwateseyáátspleen, gallbladder 
Saipan Carolinianáát, áti-(l)gallbladder, his gallbladder 
Satawaleseyáát, yáti-(n)gallbladder, his gallbladder  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto-Chuukic*yadi·gallbladder, gall
Pohnpeianεdihis bile 
Mokileseand·gallbladder, gall
Pingilapeseadbile  (Bender et al. 1984)
Gilbertese(te)-arigall, gallbladder 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qas[iu]·gallbladder, gall
Arosiasube angry 
 ahubelly, heart, mind 

PCMc   *asi   spathe, unopened bud

Chuukese#eet, eti-(n)unopened sheath or pod of a coconut or banana, unopened spathe of 
Puluwateseyát, yáti-(n) [sic]first stage of formation of certain fruits (as banana), flower (of various taros), spathe (of coconut), bud (of hibiscus), spathe of 
Woleaianyaati, yati-coconut spathe 
 yatito bear flowers or fruit, to bud 
Proto-Chuukic*yadi·spathe, unopened bud
Gilbertese(te)-aricoconut spathe 

PMc   *a[sS]o   time

Chuukeseótu-(n), atu-(n)time of or for (something) 
Puluwateseyoto-(n)time of, duration of 
Saipan Carolinianato-(l)time of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tato-(n)time of 
Woleaianyato-(li)time of, at the time when 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qazosun, day  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’asatosun, sunshine 
Arosiato-(aa)noon (lit. high sun) 
Proto-Kimbe*hazosun, day 
Uraustronesisch*qa(n)jawday, sun 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-aro, (te)-aroarocustom, way, manner 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *alo ‘sun’.

PMc   *a[sS]u   smoke

Chuukeseéét, étú-(n)smoke, smoke of 
 ét, étúwétto smoke, be smoky 
 (a)-atúto smoke or steam (something) 
Mortlockeseéét, étú-(n)smoke, smoke of 
 yatiyat, yatúyatsmoke foam, be smoky, be foam-coated 
Saipan Carolinian(araa-lú)-útsmell of smoke 
 (bʷa)-atiyatbe smoking lightly 
Woleaianyatúto splash water, dash water about 
 (gera)-atúbe smoky, foggy 
 (gera)-atúyetúmist, dust, fog, cloud 
Pulo-Annan(bʷ)-atú [sic]be smoky 
Pohnpeianadiits vapor, smoke, mist 
 εdiεdcloudy, blurred, smoky 
Marshallese(bʷa)-hathatto smoke 
 hatiytiyto smoke, dry fish or copra by heat 
Gilbertese(bʷe)-ariodor of smoke; odoriferous; fragrant from having been smoked [as in magic rites], scorched, having a scorched smell 
 ari-(a)to inhale a smoky inhalation; to perfume someone or something 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qazusmoke  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’asásu, sá’usesu·smoke
Arosiasu-[na]its smoke 
 sasucloudy, smoky 
Proto-Oceanic*qasu·smoke (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —


See also Marck (1994:324) Proto-Micronesian *asu.

PMc   *aSiŋi   kind of crab

Mokileseaadiŋcrab sp. (loan from Marshallese?) 
Marshallesehatiŋbrown land crab 
Kosraeanεiŋcoconut crab 

PMc   *ata   upper part, top

Chuukeseaasupper part, top, summit, eastern side 
 asa-(n)its upper s., above him 
 -yas, -yahigh, east 
Mortlockese-yasup, east 
Puluwateseyáhbe tall, high, upper, easterly 
 yeho-(n), yaaha-(n)above (something) 
 yeyahbe easterly 
Saipan Carolinian-ashigh, on top 
Satawaleseyáástop, on land 
 -yasup, east 
Woleaian-yaseup, upside 
 (i)-yateabove, topside 
Proto-Chuukic*yata·upper part, top
Pohnpeianyyasa-(da)to be risen 
Marshallese-yéj(suffix in place names) upper, eastern 
Gilbertese(i)-etaup, on high, above 
 ata-(ŋa)an upper plank in a canoe 
 (ao)-ataatabeach above the high water line 
Kosraeanyateastern part of a village 
 (fʌlʷ)-εthigh, lofty 
Proto-Oceanic*qatassummit  (Ross 1988)
Arosi[ato]-aanoon [lit. high sun] 
Uraustronesisch*qa(n)tas·upper part, top

— Cf. —

Sa’a’a’arise up clear (of the moon) 

See Marck (1994:323) Proto-Micronesian *ata.

PMc   *ata-i-   to know

Pohnpeianεsεto know, understand (something) 
 (sε)-εsεto not know 
Mokilese(je)-ejɔto be ignorant of, not to know (something)  (Bender et al. 1984)
Marshallese(j)-ahjéynot know 
Gilberteseata-ito know, have knowledge 
 ata-aknow (something) 
Kosraeanetʌknow, understand (something) 
 eta-(twen)understanding, kind, sympathetic, helpful 
 (se)-eta-(twen)not understanding, not perceiving 

PCMc   (?)   *atarei   child

Marshallesehajriychild, kid, toddler 
Gilberteseataeichild, children 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tari ‘child’.

PMc   *ate   liver

Mortlockesewáá-(n) [sic]his liver 
Saipan Carolinianáse-(l)his liver 
Satawaleseyááyáá-(n)his liver 
Woleaianyaase, yase-·liver
Pulo-Annanyaade, yade-·liver
Pohnpeianεεhis liver 
Mokileseɔj, ɔjɔliver, his liver 
Marshalleseyajliver, spleen 
Gilbertese(te)-ato(the o is unexpected) 
Kosraeanεs, esyε-(l)liver, his liver 
Proto-Oceanic*qate·liver (Ross 1988)
Sa’asaeheart, mind, chest, liver 
Arosisaemind, heart, thought, liver of a pig 

PMc   *atu   tuna, bonito

Chuukeseéwúntuna, albacore 
Puluwateseyawúúl [sic]·tuna, bonito
Saipan Carolinianasúl-(lé)small sp. of tuna 
Saipan Carolinian·Tasúl-(léy)a small sp. of tuna 
Satawaleseyaas·tuna, bonito (Bender et al. 1984)
Woleaianyaúle·tuna, bonito
Proto-Chuukic*atú, atúla·tuna, bonito
Marshallesehajiy-(lewwed)school of bonito trapped in a lagoon 
Gilbertese(te)-ati·tuna, bonito
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qatu·tuna, bonito
Fijianyatu·tuna, bonito
Bugotuatu·tuna, bonito
Sa’asáu·tuna, bonito
Kwaiosau·tuna, bonito
Proto-Oceanic*qatun·tuna, bonito

The *l of the Proto-Chuukic reconstruction depends entirely on the Puluwatese and Saipan Carolinian·T forms, which may result from loans.

PMc   *aTo   thatch

Chuukeseóós, ósu-(n)thatch section, roof, thatch section of 
 ósu-ni, óssu-nito thatch, apply thatch to (a house) 
Mortlockeseyóósthatch roof 
Puluwateseyóóh, yóho-(n), yeho-(n)·thatch
Saipan Carolinianóósthatch 
 óse-(y)to thatch (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tóóh·thatch
Satawaleseyóós, yóso-roof 
Woleaianyaaso, yaso-·thatch
Pulo-Annanyaado, yado-thatch, roof 
Pohnpeianɔɔsivory nut palm (a source of thatch) 
Mokileseɔjthatch, roof 
Pingilapeseɔsdry pandanus leaves used for thatch 
Sa’asa’osago palm 
Bugotuatosago palm, sago thatch 
Lausaosago palm, thatch 
Arosiaosago palm 
Lakalaihatosago palm, thatch 
Proto-Austronesian*qatepsago thatch  (Ross 1988)

PMc   *-au   me (suffixed object pronoun)

Chuukese-yey, -yeyi-, -wey, -weyi-·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Saipan Carolinian-yáy·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Woleaian-yai·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-ei·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-ai·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Pohnpeian-yε·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Marshalleseyéh·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Gilbertese-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Kosraean-yʌ·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Oceanic*-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Fijian-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Arosi-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Sa’a-áu·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Kimbe*-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)

PCMc   *au-   appearance, condition, shape

Chuukeseéwú-width, thickness 
 éwú-(chik)slender, narrow, thin 
Puluwateseyawú-physical characteristic 
 yawú-(Rik)be physically small 
 yawú-(RiRRik)be thin 
Saipan Carolinianai-(shigh)be thin, skinny, slender 
Saipan Carolinian·Tai-(Rig)be thin, skinny, slender 
Woleaianyaú-appearance, condition, shape 
 yaú-(shigi)be skinny, thin, slender, narrow 
 yaú-resize (used with long, thin objects), thickness 
 yaú-(chchaali)atmosphere, weather condition 
 yaú-(libongi)atmospheric condition at night 
Pulo-Annanyaúair, climate. condition, appearance 
 yaú-(siki)be long, narrow, skinny, thin 
 yaú-(lani)weather, firmament, air 
Proto-Chuukic*yaú-·appearance, condition, shape
Pohnpeianεy-(paay)walking with swinging arms 
Marshallesehayi-(dik)skinny, thin of body 
Gilberteseai-(n-toa)powerful, of great muscular strength 

This does not seem to be cognate with Proto–Eastern Oceanic *[qØ]aRu ‘dew’ (Geraghty 1990). See also Loans: Chuukese éwú-ni-yár.

PMc   *aua   kind of fish

Puluwateseyááwúwó-(túr), -(túrú-) [sic]a lagoon fish much desired for food, probably a milkfish 
 yawúwa-(chch), -(chchi-)kind of small lagoon fish 
 yawúwa-(túr), -(túre-)larger growth stage of latter fish 
Satawaleseyawuwkind of mullet 
Woleaianyaúwekind of fish 
Gilberteseauaa fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qaRuafish, juvenile mullet  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *[ao]ut[ae]   blanket, coverlet

Chuukesekuus, kuusa--(n)c. or cover of woven material, sheet, b., her c. 
Puluwatesewoowúh,woowuhá-(n)(sic) (?*wowúh) b., sheet, loomed cloth used as a cover 
Saipan Carolinianóuscover, b., óuse-(y) to cover (s.o.) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tóuhcover, b. 
Woleaiangouselavalava that covers a dead person, covering 
Proto-Chuukic*kout[ae]·blanket, coverlet
Marshallesekawaj, kawje-b., b. of (poss. classifier), kawajwéj use a b. 
Kosraeankæotc., b., sheet. Note that Kir (te)-kouti small mat worn over the shoulders appears to be loan from English coat 

PMc   *awo   fishline

Chuukeseóó, óó-·fishline
Saipan Carolinianyóó·fishline
Woleaianyóó, yóó-·fishline
Pulo-Annanyaawo, yawo-·fishline
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*afo·fishline

PMc   *ayu, ayuSa   current

Chuukeseéwút, éwúta-current 
 éwú-(rá), éwú-(wé)river or brook 
Proto-Chuukic*yaú, yaúda·current
Marshallesehayey, hayét·current
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qaRu[cs]·current (Geraghty 1990)

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