st
Updated: 3/19/2012
Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Introduction      Languages      References      

Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*a   

aa    ae    af    ak    al    am    an        ap    ar    as    aS    at    aT    au    aw    ay    

PMc   *-a   him, her, it (object pronoun)

Chuukese-y, -ye-; -w, -we-·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Woleaian-ya, -wa·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Gilbertese-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Kimbe*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun)
Proto-Oceanic*-a·him, her, it (object pronoun) (Ross 1988)

PMc   *-a, -Ta   reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)

Chuukese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Mortlockese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Puluwatese-ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Saipan Carolinian-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Satawalese-a, -ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Woleaian-sa, -ya·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Ulithian-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-da·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-a, -Ta·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Marshallese-jah·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Gilbertese-a·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Kosraean·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-ta·reality mode marker (suffixed to subject pronoun)
Sa’a-’apresent or general time 

Problems here.

PCMc   *aa-, aa-ni-   alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object

Chuukeseaa-general class of alienable object 
 áá-niown or acquire ownership of an alienable object 
 aayause an alienable object 
Puluwateseyaa-, yáá-ni, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Saipan Carolinianaa-, yáá-li, yááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Saipan Carolinian·Taa-, áá-ni·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Satawaleseyááyá·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Woleaianyaa-, yaa-li-(i), yaayaa·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Pulo-Annanyaa-·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Proto-Chuukic*yaa-, yaa-ni-, yaayaa·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Pohnpeianaa-, ε-alienable object 
Marshallesehaha-·alienable object (with possessive suffix), acquire an alienable object
Gilbertesea-alienable object 
 ana-ato take or get (something) 

— Cf. —

Fijiankaathing 
Uraustronesisch*kayapossession 

PWMc   *aapʷa   no

Chuukeseaapʷ·no
Puluwateseyaapʷ·no
Woleaianyeebe·no
Pohnpeian(?) aapʷbut 
Marshalleseyahabʷ·no

PMc   (?)   *ae₁   crawl

Chuukeseá, áá-swim, be swimming 
Gilberteseaecrawl 
 ae (rake)go ashore 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*jaRamove, creep, flow, spill  (Ross 1988)
Kwaiotala-(fafo)shallow, swim close to the surface 
 tala-[ŋe’enia]arrive at a place, wash up 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *afe ‘swim’.

PMc   (?)   *ae₂   this

Gilberteseaethis here, the one that 
Proto-Oceanic(?) aRe·this
Lakalaialethis, the one that 
Fijian[ko]-yaa, [a]-yaathat [distant], the one that. 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesearewho, which, that yonder 

PMc   *afafi   coconut crab

Chuukeseeef, #eefi-·coconut crab
Saipan Carolinianáff, áffi-·coconut crab
Woleaianyaffi·coconut crab
Proto-Chuukic*affi·coconut crab
Pohnpeianεmp·coconut crab
Gilbertese(te)-aai·coconut crab
Kosraeanεi·coconut crab

PMc   *afaŋi   north

Chuukeseefen, efeŋnorth, trade wind season 
 efeni-(nap)due north, north wind 
Mortlockeseeféŋé-(n)toward the north 
 (le)-eféŋdry season 
 (le)-eféŋdry season 
Puluwateseyefáŋ, yefeŋi-north, be north (of wind or direction), trade wind season 
Saipan Carolinianefáŋ, áfáŋ·north
Satawaleseeffáŋnorth 
 (le)-efáŋwinter, trade wind season 
Woleaianyefaŋinorth, northern direction, trade wind season 
Pulo-Annan(i)-edaŋi·north
Proto-Chuukic*yafaŋi·north
Pohnpeian(pali)-εpεŋ·north
Marshalleseyaŋ, (yi)-yéŋnorth 
 (haŋen)-yaŋwintertime, dry season 
Gilbertese(me)-aaŋ·north

Cf. Kosraean epaŋ glossed as ‘south’ in dictionary looks like a loan (p unexpected, see Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *aúrú ‘south’). Cf. Marck’s (1994:310–323) Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *faŋi ‘dry season’.

PMc   *afara   shoulder

Chuukeseafar, afara-(n)shoulder, his shoulder 
 (éwúw)-éfarshoulder carrying pole 
 (éwúw)-éfaracarry (something) on a pole 
Mortlockeseawúfar, awúfara-(n)·shoulder
Puluwateseyefarshoulder 
 yayéfarshoulder, load carried on the shoulder 
Saipan Carolinianaifar, aifár, ayúfar, aifara-(l)shoulder, carry a load on the shoulder, his shoulder 
Satawaleseefar, efara-(n)·shoulder
Woleaianyefare, yafera-(le)·shoulder
Pulo-Annanyadalashoulder 
 yadadalacarry on the shoulder 
Proto-Chuukic*yafara·shoulder
Pohnpeianapεrεhis shoulder 
Mokileseaprɔhis shoulder 
Pingilapeseapεr·shoulder
Marshallesehayer, hayeray·shoulder
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qafaRa·shoulder (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*qapaRa, qabaRa·shoulder
Ulawan‘apalashoulder 
Proto-Kimbe*[kq]apala·shoulder
Proto-Austronesian*qabaRa·shoulder (Ross 1988)

There appears to have been corruption of the word for ‘shoulder carrying pole’ and its reinterpretation as ‘shoulder’ in Mortlockese, Puluwatese, and Saipan Carolinian.

— Cf. —

Kosraeanpælpælcarry on the shoulder 
 polo-ŋcarry (something) on the shoulders with a pole 
Arosiabaracarry under the arm 

PCMc   *afe   swim

Puluwateseyaf, yáfe-·swim
Satawaleseyaaf [sic]·swim
Woleaianyafe·swim
Ulithianeaf·swim
Saipan Carolinianáf, áfe-·swim
Pulo-Annanyada·swim
Proto-Chuukic*yafe·swim
Marshallesehaheh·swim
Gilbertese(te)-aedriftwood 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseuauaswim 
Samoan’a’auswim 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ae₁ ‘crawl’.

PMc   *afi, afi-Si-   carry on the hip or under the arm

Mortlockeseafiyafcarry under the arm 
 afi-ticarry (a child) on the hip 
Puluwateseyafi-ti-(y)to carry (a child) on ones side 
Saipan Carolinianafi-ti, áfi-ticarry (a child or object) on ones side 
Satawaleseáfiyáfcarry on the hip (as a baby) 
 áfi-ticarry (a child) in the arms on the side 
Woleaianyafiyeficarry under one arm 
 yafi-ti-(i)carry it under the arm 
Pulo-Annanyadi-ticarry it under the arm 
Proto-Chuukic*afiafi, afi-di-·carry on the hip or under the arm
Pohnpeianapi-dto carry (something) on ones side or under ones arm 
Mokileseapi-dcarry (something) under arm 
Kosraeanεto hold on the hip 
 εihold or carry (something) on the hip 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*afi·carry on the hip or under the arm
Bugotuavi nicarry in the arms 

— Cf. —

Marshallesehabʷ jayjéycarry tucked under one arm 
Bugotuachicarry under the arm 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[qØ]afi-ŋaarmpit 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *api.

PMc   *afi₁   fire

Chuukeseááf, efi-·fire
Puluwateseyááf·fire
Saipan Carolinian(a-ghúú)-áflight a signal fire 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a-gúú)-áflight a signal fire 
Woleaianyaafi, yafi-·fire
Pulo-Annanyaadi, yadi-·fire
Sonsoroleseyaafi·fire
Proto-Chuukic*yafi·fire
Pohnpeianaay·fire
Mokileseɔy·fire
Pingilapeseεy·fire
Gilbertese(te)-ai·fire
Kosraeane·fire
Proto-Oceanic*api·fire (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*afi·fire
Proto-Nakanai*havi·fire
Uraustronesisch*apuy·fire

PMc   *afi₂   pull on a line

Chuukeseef, efiyefpull on a line (as in fishing) 
 efi-i-(y)pull on (a line) 
 efi-i-(y)pull on (a line) 
Puluwateseyááf [sic], yáfi-i-(y)·pull on a line
Saipan Carolinianáfi-i-(y)pull it in (as a fish on a line) 
Pulo-Annanyadiedipull as a rope 
Sonsoroleseyafiefipull on a rope 
Proto-Chuukic*yafi, yafiyafi·pull on a line
Pohnpeianapi-ipull (something, usually with a rope) 
Mokileseɔppɔp, oppoppull 
 ópipull at 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*afi, afi-i-·pull on a line
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Raf[ei]pull  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Marshallesehayiktow (as a boat), pull, draw 
 hayik-eytow something 
Gilberteseaa-ito tow 
 aeae-ato tow, drag (something) 
 (te)-aeae-aa towing 

PMc   *-aki   passive suffix

Saipan Carolinian(ripis)-ághto be broken into pieces, shattered (ripiiy to shatter something) 
 (piles)-ághto become blocked, clogged (pileey to close, cover up, put the lid on something) 
Woleaian(liuwet)-agtossed (liuweti toss something) 
 (mʷulot)-agcrumpled (mwulot-i crumple something 
 (feshiŋ)-egpicked (feshiŋ-i pick something) 
Proto-Chuukic*-aki·passive suffix
Pohnpeian(diεr)-εkto be found (diar to find) 
 (εmʷir)-εkto be crumpled (amwir to crumple) 
Marshallese(wékʷt)-akbe changed (wiket-ey change something) 
 (wékj)-akbe overturned, capsized (wikej overturn something) 
Gilbertese(arir)-akipulled tight (arir-a to pull something tight) 
Kosraean(otwe)-yʌkwoven (otwe to weave) 
 (usruk)-yʌkbe shaken (usruk to shake). 

Reflexes of this suffix that have been recorded for Chuukese (see examples under Proto-Micronesian *-aki-ni below) all have it followed by reflexes of *-ni. See the statement about Chuukese -ási (-esi) in Goodenough and Sugita 1980.

PWMc   (?)   *aki, akiaki   to hide, hidden

Pohnpeianεkiεkto be hidden, concealed 
 εki-i-(la)hide it away 
Marshallese(til)-yékyékhide, be obscured 

PMc   *-aki-ni   passive suffix

Chuukese-ási-ni, -esi-ni(suf. to verb bases) be ~ because of (someone or something), be ~ on account of (someone or something), be ~ with (someone or something) 
 (sááwá)-ási-nibe embarrassed because of him 
Puluwatese-yáki-n-, yeki-n-·passive suffix
Saipan Carolinian(kkapasá)-ághi-lito intercede on behalf of someone (kkapas word, speech, talk, language, to speak) 
 (fasá)ághá-lito laugh at, make fun of someone, mock (ffas to laugh) 
Woleaian-yagi-li-(i), -agi-li-(i)·passive suffix
Pulo-Annan-aki-ni·passive suffix
Proto-Chuukic*-aki-ni-·passive suffix
Gilbertese-aki-natransitive suffix  (Bender et al. 1984)
Kosraean-ki-nfossilized transitive suffix  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-aki-ni·passive suffix
Bugotu-agi-ni·passive suffix
Sa’a-ái-ni [sic]·passive suffix

PMc   *ako   tie together

Chuukeseóóyóstrap or rope handle, carrier made of rope or line 
Puluwateseyóóyócoarse sennit used for lashing and calking, to calk 
Woleaianyagoyagoto tie together, bind 
Proto-Chuukic*yakoyako·tie together
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Rak[ou]-ttie, fasten  (Geraghty 1990) Note that the Lakalai forms can also be cognate with Fijian rako, rakorako ‘fitting or suiting well’
Lakalailao-ato clasp, have sexual intercourse with 
 lakolakoto stick fast (as adhesive tape) 
Uraustronesisch*Dakepjoin together 

PMc   *ako, akoako   steer a boat

Woleaian(ga)-ago·steer a boat
Pulo-Annan(ka)-ako·steer a boat
Proto-Chuukic*(ka)-ako·steer a boat
Kosraeanikʷikrudder, tiller, to steer. 

— Cf. —

Marshallesekahyiyekʷ, kahiyewekʷsteer directly for 

PMc   *ala₁   path, road

Chuukeseaan, ane-(n)path, road, route, path of 
Mortlockeseaal, ala-(n)road, his road 
Puluwateseyaal, yela-(n)path, road, street, his path 
Saipan Carolinianaal, ala-(l)path, road, his path 
Satawaleseyaan, ena-(n)road, his road 
Woleaianyaale, yela-(li)path, road, path of 
 yen-(nape) (< *yala-lapa)path, roadway 
Pulo-Annanyaana, yana-way, road, track 
Sonsoroleseyaararoad, path, way 
Proto-Chuukic*yala·path, road
Pohnpeianaalpath, road, trail 
Mokileseal·path, road
Pingilapeseal·path, road
Marshalleseyiyaḷ, yiyyaḷ·path, road

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zalapath  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*salanpath  (Ross 1988)
Fijiansala·path, road
Proto-Polynesian*hala·path, road
Sa’atala·path, road
Bugotuhatha [utu]a way 
Lautalaway, path 
Arositara [na]·path, road
Kwaiotala·path, road
Proto-Kimbe*dala, zala·path, road
Proto-Austronesian*Zalan·path, road

See also Marck (1994:321) Proto-Micronesian *ala.

PMc   *ala₂   to take, get

Pohnpeianalεtake, get, (something) 
 alaal-(di)be taken or gotten 
Mokileseɔlɔget, take, gather (something) 
 ɔlɔɔlget, take, gather 
Gilberteseana-(a)to take 
Proto-Oceanic*ala-(p)take 
Uraustronesisch*ala-(p)take 

— Cf. —

Marshallesehaleyprovisions, storehouse 
 haḷeyfish caught by encircling 

PMc   *ala[iu], alala[iu]   long

Chuukeseáney, ánneylong, tall, length 
 áneyi-(n)length or height of 
 -nááneylong 
Puluwateseyáláy, yelaylong (as hair), length, height 
 yelaye-(n)length or height of 
 lááláybe long, tall, last long 
Saipan Carolinianláálááybe long, tall 
 álláybe very long 
 aláálááybe very long 
 áláálááybe very long 
Woleaianyelai, yelai-(li)length, length of 
 yennaibe long, extended 
Pulo-Annanyanaibe long 
Proto-Chuukic*yalayi, yalalayi, layalayi·long
Marshalleseleyelleya great distance, far 
Gilberteseanau, ananaulong 
 (te)-anaulength 
 (te)-ananaulength 
Proto-Oceanic*[aØ]lau, [aØ]lalau·long
Proto-Kimbe*(ma)-laqulong, tall, far 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianaŋεdlong, tall 
Kosraeanloeslong, tall 
 loeloesvery long or tall 

PCMc   *ale   kind of coral

Chuukeseáán, áni-(n)kind of coral (live, white, and branching), coral of 
 áne-(pʷpʷo)a kind of coral 
Puluwateseyáál, yále-(y)·kind of coral
Saipan Carolinianyáál, áál·kind of coral
Proto-Chuukic*ale·kind of coral
Gilbertese(te)-anelive coral 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *laxa ‘kind of coral’ and Proto-Micronesian ? *laZe ‘kind of coral’.

PMc   *alele   to reckon, sing

Chuukeseánnáya, ánneyato read, count (something), reading, counting 
Puluwateseyalleyto think about, decide 
 yalleyato read, count (something) 
Woleaianyanneto be wise, smart 
Proto-Chuukic*alle, alle-a·to reckon, sing
Marshallesehalsing, song, music 
Gilberteseaneneto sing 
 anene-ato sing (a song, hymn, etc.) 
Kosraeanælʌllʌlto sing 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*alele·to reckon, sing
Sa’aalelebe jubilant, rejoice in song 
Arosiarerebe joyful 
 arere-hibe joyful on account of 

— Cf. —

Fijianleledirge 
Arosiare, arearecall on a ghost 
Kwaiolala, lalemake rustling noises 

— Cf. also —

Bugotusaleto sing, a song 
 sale ato sing (something) 

There is no basis for relating Gilbertese anene to Proto–Eastern Oceanic *taReRe ‘rejoice’, as suggested by Geraghty (1990). Cf. also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic ? *kaúlú ‘sing, song’ and Proto-Chuukic *alle ‘count, enumerate’. There may be two different roots here.

PWMc   *-ali, -aliali, mʷa-aliali   circle, circling, dizzy

Chuukesefá-ángo in a circle 
 fá-ániyena circle, ring, to talk round a subject 
 eni-(kes)winding the warp threads 
 mʷá-ániyendizziness, be dizzy 
Mortlockesefá-áliform a circle 
Puluwatesefá-aliyála circle 
 mʷá-áliyelbe dizzy, confused 
Saipan Carolinianmʷá-áliyáldizzy 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfa-aliyelround, circular, spherical 
Satawalese(á)-fá-ánmake a circle 
 fá-ániyángo in a circle 
Woleaianfa-aliyelito circle, go round 
 bʷa-aliyeligo in a circle, be round 
 bba-aliyeliround 
 mʷa-ali-yelibe dizzy, giddy, dazed 
Pulo-Annanda-anienito circle, go around 
Proto-Chuukic*-ali, aliali, fa-aliali, mʷa-aliali·circle, circling, dizzy
Pohnpeianmʷa-aliεlbe dizzy 
 mʷa-aliεlihis brain 
 sa-aliεldizzy, mentally ill or retarded 
Mokilesemʷe-eleeldizzy 
 mʷe-eleel-(la)unconscious 
Marshallese(hajji)-mʷa-halhaldizzy, sway back and forth, nod 

— Cf. —

Sa’akálito surround 
 kálikeliaround 
Laugaliround, around 
Kwaiogalicircle, round, around 

See also Proto-Chuukic *ka-falli ‘be careful of, attend to’, Proto-Chuukic *mʷaali ‘confused, mistaken’.

PMc   *ali-maŋo   mangrove crab

Chuukeseáni-móŋ·mangrove crab
Saipan Carolinianali-moŋlarge sea crab with red orange shell 
Pohnpeianeli-mɔŋ·mangrove crab
Mokileseel-mɔŋlobster [sic] variety 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*ali-maŋo·mangrove crab
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qali-maŋaw·mangrove crab (Blust 1980:39, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

Cf. Kosraean εi ‘crab’ where we would expect *εl.

PMc   *al[iu]ta   beard

Chuukeseenis, enisa-(n)beard, whiskers, mustache, his beard 
Mortlockesealúsbeard, mustache, whiskers 
Puluwateseyáálúh, yálúha-(n) [sic]·beard
Saipan Carolinianalús, aalis, alis, alúsa-(l)·beard
Saipan Carolinian·Talúh·beard
Woleaianyalúse, yalúsa-(le)·beard
Pulo-Annanyanúdasideburns 
Proto-Chuukic*yalúta·beard
Pohnpeianalis, εlisεbeard, mustache, his beard 
Mokilesealij ɔljɔbeard, mustache, his beard 
Kosraeanaltε-(l)his beard 
 ælutbearded 

Note Pulo-Annan d instead of expected t, there may be a problem here.

PMc   *alo   sun

Chuukese(nee)-yóno-(was)midday, noon (lit. high sun time) 
 (nee-kkunu)-yónlate afternoon (lit. sun turning time) 
Mortlockeseyóól, Wóól·sun
Puluwateseyóól, yólo-(n)sun, sun of 
 (le)-yólo-(wah)noon 
Saipan Carolinian(lee)-alo-(was), (lee)-ólo-(was)high noon 
Satawalese(lee)-yólo-(was)at noon 
Woleaianyaalo, yalo-·sun
Ulithianyal·sun
Pulo-Annanyaano, yano-·sun
Sonsoroleseyaaro·sun
Proto-Chuukic*yalo·sun
Marshallesehaḷ·sun
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qalo·sun
Sa’asalosky, heaven, clouds 
Lausalocloud, storm 
Arosiarosky, heavens 
Kwaiolalosky 

Yapese yaal’ ‘sun’ is probably a loan from Ulithian. See also Proto-Chuukic *yalle-pʷuta ‘a tree (Pittosporum)’ and cf. Proto-Chuukic *yaado ‘legendary woman’, Proto-Micronesian *a[sS]o ‘time’.

PMc   *alo, aloalo, alo-[fØ]i   to wave, beckon

Pohnpeianɔlɔɔlto wave, to signal 
 ɔlεto wave or signal to 
Mokilese(jei)- ɔɔl, (jei)- ɔɔlito wave, wave at (someone) 
Marshallese(jeyya)-haḷbeckon with downward motion of hand or by waving arm 
Gilberteseanoanoto beckon 
 (te)-anoanobeckoning 
 ano-ato beckon to (someone) 
 ano-i-(a)beckon him 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qalo, qalo-fi·to wave, beckon
Fijianyalo, yalo-vabeckon 
Tongan(ta)-’aloto wave, beckon 
Sa’asaloto beckon, invite 
Bugotuathoatho, atho-vito beckon, signal 
Arosisaroto beckon 
Baukaro-hito beckon 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qalepbeckon, wave  (Blust 1989:123, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

— Cf. —

Lausalo-fito prepare, clear a path, sweep 

The Mokilese form appears to be a loan from Marshallese.

PCMc   *amata   undercooked, raw

Chuukeseamas, amasa-·undercooked, raw
Mortlockeseames·undercooked, raw
Puluwateseyemah·undercooked, raw
Woleaianyemate·undercooked, raw
Pulo-Annanyamete·undercooked, raw
Proto-Chuukic*am[ae]ta·undercooked, raw
Pohnpeianamas·undercooked, raw
Marshallesehaméj·undercooked, raw
Gilberteseamata·undercooked, raw

— Cf. —

Kosraean(tæl) mwek, (tæk) mwekraw, uncooked 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*mataq·undercooked, raw (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*mata·undercooked, raw
Kwaioma’a·undercooked, raw
Uraustronesisch*ma(n)taq, *mentaq·undercooked, raw

PCMc   *amʷa   pertaining to nurture

Chuukesefa-amʷgiving birth, parturition, delivery 
 (a)-fa-amʷadeliver it (a baby) 
Woleaianfa-amʷeto adopt a child, be adopted, cared for 
 fa-amʷa-(a)adopt him/her 
Pulo-Annanda-amʷato adopt a child, take care of him/her 
Proto-Chuukic*fa-amʷa·pertaining to nurture
Gilbertese(te)-amʷa-(rake)food 

— Cf. —

Fijianyagauseful, valuable, necessary 

PMc   (?)   *[aØ]mʷi, [aØ]mʷi ni   to wash ones hands

Pohnpeianεmʷiεmʷ, amʷi-n·to wash ones hands
Marshallesehamʷin, hamʷin-iy·to wash ones hands
Kosraeanwinwin, winwin-i·to wash ones hands

There may be loans here.

PCMc   *amʷii   bunch or cluster of nuts

Pohnpeianεmʷiibunch of it (palm nuts) 
Pingilapeseεmʷi·bunch or cluster of nuts
Gilberteseamʷiifull bunch or cluster 

Could be loans in Pohnpeian and Pingilapese from Gilbertese.

PMc   *aneane   to wish, need

Chuukeseánáyán, áneyánto wish 
Puluwateseyániyánto wish 
Woleaianyaleyaleto wish 
Proto-Chuukic*aneane·to wish, need
Pohnpeiananaanbe necessary, indispensable 
 anaanεto need, require (something) 
Mokileseanaaneto need, want (something) 
Marshallese(k)-eṇahanwant, like, wish 
Kosraeanenenʌto need (something), be necessary 
 nεnεto need (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ane·to wish, need
Fijianyanato take another's goods without his consent 

PMc   *anitu   god, spirit

Chuukeseénú, énúú-(n), anú, anúú-(n)god, sky spirit, god of 
Mortlockeseanú, anúú-(n)ghost, god of 
Puluwateseyanúancient god 
Saipan Caroliniananú, anúú-(l)spirit, ghost, spirit of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tanúspirit, ghost 
Satawaleseanú, anúú-(n)ghost, god of 
Woleaianyalúsúgod, spirit, ghost 
Pulo-Annanyanúdúgod, spirit, ghost 
Sonsoroleseyarúdúspirit, ghost 
Proto-Chuukic*yanútú·god, spirit
Pohnpeianεnighost 
Mokileseenidemon, ghost 
Pingilapeseεnighost, spirit 
Marshallesehanijgod 
 hanijnijspell, enchantment, magic, sorcery 
 hanji(n-iy)cast a spell on someone 
Gilbertese(te)-antigod, spirit, ghost 
Kosraeaninutgod, spirit, ghost 
 intito enchant, cast a spell on (someone) 
Uraustronesisch*anitu·god, spirit
Proto-Austronesian*qaNitu·god, spirit (Wolff 1993)

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*qantu·god, spirit
Proto-Polynesian*aitu·god, spirit

See also Proto-Chuukic *faúrú-anútú ‘recite a spell’.

PMc   *anu[sS]a   small, uninhabited island

Woleaianyalútesmall uninhabited island 
Satawaleseyalútsmall uninhabited island 
Proto-Chuukic*anuda·small, uninhabited island
Pohnpeianandname of an atoll west of Pohnpei 
Proto-Oceanic*anusaisland 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*(q)anuza·small, uninhabited island (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianyanuca·small, uninhabited island

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*nusaisland 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *fanua ‘inhabited land’, and Marck’s (1994:307) *anu[sz]a ‘small island’.

PMc   *aŋa₁   to have or take in hand, to handle

Chuukeseaŋá-(tá)hand up, have in hand reaching up 
 aŋe-e-(y)take (something) in hand, take hold of 
 aŋa-(mʷáán)take without permission 
 aŋa-sbe adept 
 aŋa-(ta)work too hard, work to the point of collapse 
 aŋa-(kkáy)handle quickly 
 aŋa-(may)catch fish by means of a stone fish trap 
 aŋa-(maaw)snatch, take in hand roughly 
 aŋa-(mmaŋ)take in hand slowly 
 aŋa-(ŋŋaw)handle a thing badly or clumsily 
 aŋaaŋwork 
 aŋaaŋaput (someone) to work 
 aŋaaŋa-(ffat)work without pay 
Mortlockeseyaŋaaŋwork 
Puluwateseyaŋto take 
 yaŋa-(ta)be tired (as from work) 
 yáŋa-(tá)to reach up 
 yáŋe-(tá)to reach up 
 yaŋa-a-(y)to bring, take (something) 
 yaŋaaŋwork, to work 
Saipan Carolinianaŋaaŋ, eŋaaŋwork, to work 
 aŋ-(ŋeli)to reach for (something) 
 aŋe-etito touch (someone or something) 
 aŋŋé-étito touch (someone or something) 
Satawaleseyaŋaaŋwork 
Woleaianyaŋeto put ones hand out, to reach, extend ones hand 
 yaŋe-(kkúwe)to touch things constantly 
 yaŋŋe-(ŋŋaw)do something imperfectly, be clumsy, sloppy 
 yeŋaaŋework, to work 
 yeŋa-sito reach for it, touch it 
Pulo-Annanyaŋeto reach out for 
Proto-Chuukic*yaŋa, yaŋaaŋa, yaŋa-ti-·to have or take in hand, to handle
Pohnpeianεŋ-to reach for 
Mokileseto reach by stretching 
Gilbertese(ka)-aŋaaŋadifficult to do 
 (ua)-aŋaambidextrous 
 aŋa-(ua)ambidextrous 
 aŋa-(maiŋ)left-handed 
 aŋa-(atai)right handed 
 aŋa-(bai)pass loads from hand to hand 
 aŋa-(ra)awkward (as when using the left hand) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*aŋa. aŋa-ti·to have or take in hand, to handle
Sa’aaŋa-’ito carry, act as a porter 
Lauaŋa-ito lift, carry 
Arosiaŋaa carrying bag, to have in a bag 
 aŋa-’ito lift up 
 aŋa-’ito lift up 
Kwaioaŋa-[luaa]to put back in position when carrying 

PMc   *aŋa₂ or *yaŋa   spider shell (Strombidae)

Chuukesene-yaŋ, nne-yaŋany true conch shell (genus Strombus or genus Lambis
Puluwatesele-yaŋ, le-yaŋa-(y)spider shell, spider shell of 
Saipan Carolinianli-yaŋspider shell 
Woleaianle-yaŋekind of sea shell 
Proto-Chuukic*le-yaŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)
Pohnpeianla-aŋspider conch sp. 
Mokilesele-eŋshell with spike-like protrusions 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*le-aŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)
Marshalleseyaŋshell of family Strombidae 
Kosraeankind of shell 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Raŋa·spider shell (Strombidae) (Geraghty 1990)
Fijianyaga·spider shell (Strombidae)
Arosiraŋa·spider shell (Strombidae)

PMc   *aŋi, aŋiaŋi   wind

Chuukeseeni-, eniyenwind, blowing 
Mortlockeseyááŋsoft breeze 
Puluwateseyááŋ, yáŋiyáŋ·wind
Saipan Carolinianááŋ, yááŋ, yáŋi-·wind
Satawaleseyááŋ·wind
Woleaianyaaŋi, yaŋi-, yaŋiyeŋi·wind
Pulo-Annanyaŋi, yaŋiyaŋi·wind
Proto-Chuukic*aŋi, aŋiaŋi·wind
Pohnpeianaaŋ, εŋiεŋ·wind
Mokilese·wind
Pingilapeseεŋ·wind
Marshallesehaŋ·wind
Gilbertese(te)-aŋ, aŋi-·wind
Kosraeaneŋ, eŋyeŋ·wind
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*yaŋi·wind (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancagi·wind
Proto-Polynesian*aŋi·wind
Sa’adáŋi·wind
Arosidaŋi·wind
Uraustronesisch*haŋin·wind

See also Marck (1990:310) Proto-Micronesian *aŋi.

PMc   *aŋo   curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow

Chuukese#óŋi-(n)(? <*aŋo-ni) Curcuma plant 
Saipan Carolinianóŋeyóŋ, yóŋeyóŋyellow, be colored yellow 
 óŋo-(shigh)leaves and flowers of the ginger plant 
Satawaleseyóŋoyóŋpale light haze on the horizon 
Woleaianyaaŋogardenia, cape jasmine 
 yaaŋeginger 
 yaŋo-(shigi)Curcuma plant 
 yaŋoyaŋobe yellow, yellowish 
Tobi(tene)-oŋturmeric  (Kubary 1889)
Proto-Chuukic*yaŋo-, yaŋoyaŋo·curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow
Pohnpeianɔɔŋ, ɔŋε-(n)turmeric 
 ɔŋɔɔŋyellow 
 ɔŋεits yolk 
Mokileseɔŋturmeric 
Gilbertese(te)-aŋoa tree (Bender et al. 1984: Premna sp., yellow substance derived from its roots) 
Kosraeanæŋkind of plant 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*yaŋokind of ginger  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancagoturmeric plant [Curcuma longa
Tonganaŋoa ginger [Curcuma longa
Bugotuaŋoaŋoyellow 
Proto-Kimbe*[i]aŋoyellow 
Uraustronesisch*(za)-Raŋawa plant 

— Cf. also —

Lakalailaguyellow face paint 

— and cf. —

Sa’asaosaolayellow 
 arowild ginger 
Kwaiosa’oa tree with sweet smelling yellow flowers 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *reŋa ‘turmeric color’; Proto-Chuukic *yaloyalo.

PWMc   *apara   make alignment

Chuukese#para-aligned, oriented 
 aparaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) 
 áperaim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants) 
 apara, áperaaim at, line (something) up, align 
 #(kk)-áperbe aimed, aim 
 #pere-(yiŋiiŋ)turn on ones side, lean or tip sideways, list, slip between things by turning ones body, sidle 
 #pere-(yiniin)be square or rectangular 
Puluwateseyeparcalculation (for navigation), aim (as of a gun) 
 yepare-(kacc)to aim well 
Woleaianyeparea sign for locating where one is in navigation 
Proto-Chuukic*yapara·make alignment
Marshallesehaparstone markers along road 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*baRafence  (Geraghty 1990)

Note that Chuukese seems to have reinterpreted this form as having a causative prefix and derived the secondary forms marked # accordingly. The Woleaian and Marshallese forms cannot be understood as having a causative prefix.

PMc   *apili   a fish

Pohnpeianεpilgoatfish 
Mokileseɔpilgoatfish 
Marshalleseyapila fish 
Kosraeanapila kind of fish (a probable loan from Marshallese

PMc   *ara-mata   person, people

See Proto-Micronesian *mata, ara-mata ‘person, people’.

PMc   *are, are-ki   haul, pull, tow

Chuukeseárbe selected, chosen 
Marshalleseyarhaul a canoe or vessel up on shore 
 yare-khaul (a boat) up on shore 
Gilberteseaeae-ato tow, drag (something) 
 ae-katake (a passenger) ashore in a canoe, to take (food) from the fire 
Kosraeanælʌ-kto lift, pull, scoop (something) 

The following forms would indicate a low stem vowel instead, as Proto-Micronesian *ara:.

Gilberteseaa-ito tow 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ara·haul, pull, tow
Fijianyara, yara-kato haul, drag 
Sa’aara-nato move (a thing) on 
Bugotujara-hafishing net ten fathoms long drawn between two canoes 
Arosiara, ara-sito set a net 
Kwaioalafish by setting large net with multiple operators 
 ala-si-[a]lift [fish] from water in a large net 

PCMc   *ar[eo]ŋu   coconut cream, scraped coconut meat

Chuukesearúŋ, arúŋú-(n)coconut cream, coconut cream for (a food) 
 (a)-arúŋbreadfruit pudding served with coconut cream 
Mortlockeseyarúŋcoconut cream 
Puluwateseyarúŋcoconut cream 
 yarúŋú-(w)mix it with coconut cream 
Saipan Carolinianarúŋcoconut cream 
 arúŋú-(w)add coconut cream to (a food) 
Woleaianyareŋúcoconut cream 
Pulo-Annanyalaŋúcoconut milk 
Sonsoroleseyaléŋúcoconut cream 
Proto-Chuukic*yareŋú·coconut cream, scraped coconut meat
Pohnpeianεriŋripe coconut 
Mokileseɔriŋbrown stage of coconut 
Gilbertese(te)-aoŋscraped coconut mixed with other food 
 aoŋseasoned with scraped coconut 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyaḷ, yaḷi-coconut milk 
Kosraeanelelcoconut milk 

PMc   *ari   to scoop up

Puluwateseyeri-(y)to scoop (something) out (as coconut flesh) 
Saipan Carolinianári-tito stir (something) from the bottom up to the top (as when cooking), to scoop up from the bottom of the pot 
Woleaianyariyerito scoop up, dig up (from a shell) 
 yere-ti-(i) [sic]to scoop it up, dig it out 
Proto-Chuukic*ari·to scoop up
Marshalleseharhar, harharʷpick out food from teeth, pick out splinters, extricate (as meat from a clam) 
 harʷi-j(i)pick something out 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ari·to scoop up
Fijianyari, yari-ato scrape off the soft flesh of a drinking coconut with the thumb 

— Cf. —

Bugotujaria dug channel 

Rounding in Marshallese forms unexplained; possible contamination by reflexes of Proto-Micronesian *aru, which are now near homonyms with Marshallese reflexes cited here. Semantics of Saipan Carolinian form help explain possible confusion between these two etyma, Proto-Micronesian *ari and *aru.

PMc   *aro-   shore, beach, vicinity

Chuukeseóór, óru-(n)vicinity, immediate surroundings, environs, vicinity of; outer surface of skin, his o. shore 
 (wini)-yórvicinity, neighborhood 
 óro-(s-set), aro-(s-set)shore, coast, seaside 
Puluwateseyero-·shore, beach, vicinity
Saipan Carolinianaro-about, around, near 
Woleaianyaro-(li)vicinity of, near 
Proto-Chuukic*yaro-·shore, beach, vicinity
Pohnpeianɔrɔɔrshore, land near the ocean, landing place for boats 
Mokileseɔrɔɔrshore 
Marshallesehar, hare-(n)lagoon beach 
Gilbertese(te)-ao-(ataata)beach above the high water line 
Kosraeanyɔrɔ-(l)his vicinity 
 yuru-(n)vicinity of 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *Soru- ‘near, beside’.

PMc   *aroŋo   a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack

Chuukesearoŋ, óroŋ, aroŋe-(n)sp. of pompano fish, pompano fish of 
Saipan Carolinian·Taroŋfourth of five growth stages of the skipjack 
Woleaianyaroŋoa kind of fish (C. melampygus
Proto-Chuukic*aroŋo·a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack
Pohnpeianɔroŋblue jack crevally (C. melampygus
MarshallesehareŋʷAfrican pompano (Hynnis cubensis
Gilbertese(te)-aoŋoa jackfish (C. lugubria
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*aroŋo·a Carangid fish, pompano, skipjack
Tonganaloŋokind of shark with head like that of a stingray 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanloŋa kind of fish 
Tonganloŋoa shark 

PMc   *aru, aruaru, aru-ti-   to stir

Chuukeseérúwérstirring stick, to stir with a stick or spoon 
 érú-ú-(w)stir (something) with a stick 
Mortlockesearúyarbe stirring 
 arústir it 
Puluwateseyaru-(w)to stir (a liquid) 
Saipan Carolinianáriárutensil to stir with, to stir things 
 arú-(w)to stir it 
Saipan Carolinian·Tarúto stir (soup or stew) 
Satawaleseyariyarto stir 
 yarú-(w)stir it 
Woleaianyarúyerústirring stick, to stir 
 garu-suto mix, blend, fuse 
Pulo-Annanyalúyalúto stir 
 yalú-dúto stir (something) 
Proto-Chuukicyarúyarú, yarú-ti-·to stir
Pohnpeianεriεrto stir, to probe 
 ari-ito stir (something) 
Marshalleseharharstir or poke food or fire with a stick 
 harʷi-jstir or poke (something) 
Gilberteseai-a, aiai-ato swing (something) round and round 
Kosraeanæryærto stir 
 ærʌ-kstir, poke (something) 

— Cf. —

Mokileseɔrrɔrto dismantle an earth oven 
 ɔrito dismantle (an earth oven) 

Note that the initial g of the Woleaian garusu is unexpected, unless the form is a misrendering of *(ga)-aru-su with a causative prefix.

PMc   *a[sS]a   to grate, scrape

Chuukese(ma)-ataatbe rough to the touch (but not to the eye) 
 (a-ma)-atato grate (something) 
Puluwatese(a-ma)-atto grate something (such as raw taro) 
 (a-ma)-atato grate it 
Saipan Carolinian(a-ma)-atto grate, scrape, or mash something 
Pulo-Annanyatata [sic]to rub 
Proto-Chuukic*(ma)-ada, (ma)-adaada·to grate, scrape
Pohnpeianadaadto sharpen, put an edge on something 
 εdεto sharpen (something) 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*ada, adaada·to grate, scrape
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[qØ]azagrind  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianyaca, yaca-ato grate, grind 
Sa’asata-[a’i]to chafe, rub 
Bugotuaahato grate, rub down on a stone 
Arosiata, ata-ito scrape, rub 

PMc   *a[sS]e   jaw, chin

Chuukese#eet, #eti-nc., chin of 
Puluwateseyáát·jaw, chin
Saipan Carolinianáát, áte-l·jaw, chin
Satawaleseyáát·jaw, chin
Woleaianyaate, yate-li·jaw, chin
Pulo-Annanyaate, yate-·jaw, chin
Sonsoroleseyaate·jaw, chin
Proto-Chuukic*ate·jaw, chin
Marshallesehat-(laḷ)lower jaw 
 hat-(léŋ)upper jaw 
Gilbertese(te)-are-(i-eta)upper set of teeth 
 are-(i-nano)lower set of teeth 
Proto-Oceanic*qase·jaw, chin (Ross 1988)
Sa’asasate·jaw, chin
Kwaiolate·jaw, chin
Bugotuahe, atheathebreathe 
Proto-Kimbe*hazemouth 

Note the expected Chuukese forms are *áát, *áti-n.

PMc   *asi   gallbladder, gall

Chuukeseeti-ngallbladder  (Käser 1990:28)
Puluwateseyáátspleen, gallbladder 
Saipan Carolinianáát, áti-(l)gallbladder, his gallbladder 
Satawaleseyáát, yáti-(n)gallbladder, his gallbladder  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto-Chuukic*yadi·gallbladder, gall
Pohnpeianεdihis bile 
Mokileseand·gallbladder, gall
Pingilapeseadbile  (Bender et al. 1984)
Marshallesehati-gallbladder 
Gilbertese(te)-arigall, gallbladder 
Kosraeanεsgallbladder 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qas[iu]·gallbladder, gall
Tongan‘ahugallbladder 
Nggelaahugallbladder 
Arosiasube angry 
 ahubelly, heart, mind 

PCMc   *asi   spathe, unopened bud

Chuukese#eet, eti-(n)unopened sheath or pod of a coconut or banana, unopened spathe of 
Puluwateseyát, yáti-(n) [sic]first stage of formation of certain fruits (as banana), flower (of various taros), spathe (of coconut), bud (of hibiscus), spathe of 
Woleaianyaati, yati-coconut spathe 
 yatito bear flowers or fruit, to bud 
Proto-Chuukic*yadi·spathe, unopened bud
Gilbertese(te)-aricoconut spathe 

PMc   *a[sS]o   time

Chuukeseótu-(n), atu-(n)time of or for (something) 
Puluwateseyoto-(n)time of, duration of 
Saipan Carolinianato-(l)time of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tato-(n)time of 
Woleaianyato-(li)time of, at the time when 
Proto-Chuukic*yado-·time
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qazosun, day  (Geraghty 1983)
Tongan‘ahoday 
Sa’asatosun, sunshine 
Bugotuahosun 
Lausasosun 
Arosiato-(aa)noon (lit. high sun) 
Proto-Kimbe*hazosun, day 
Uraustronesisch*qa(n)jawday, sun 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-aro, (te)-aroarocustom, way, manner 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *alo ‘sun’.

PMc   *a[sS]u   smoke

Chuukeseéét, étú-(n)smoke, smoke of 
 ét, étúwétto smoke, be smoky 
 (a)-atúto smoke or steam (something) 
Mortlockeseéét, étú-(n)smoke, smoke of 
 εtiyetsmoky 
Puluwateseyaatsmoke 
 yatiyat, yatúyatsmoke foam, be smoky, be foam-coated 
Saipan Carolinian(araa-lú)-útsmell of smoke 
 (bʷa)-atsmoky 
 (bʷa)-atiyatbe smoking lightly 
Satawaleseyátúyátsmoky 
Woleaianyatúto splash water, dash water about 
 (gera)-atúbe smoky, foggy 
 (gera)-atúyetúmist, dust, fog, cloud 
Pulo-Annan(bʷ)-atú [sic]be smoky 
Proto-Chuukic*adú·smoke
Pohnpeianadiits vapor, smoke, mist 
 εdiεdcloudy, blurred, smoky 
Marshallese(bʷa)-hathatto smoke 
 hatiytiyto smoke, dry fish or copra by heat 
Gilbertese(bʷe)-ariodor of smoke; odoriferous; fragrant from having been smoked [as in magic rites], scorched, having a scorched smell 
 ari-(a)to inhale a smoky inhalation; to perfume someone or something 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qazusmoke  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*qahu·smoke
Sa’asásu, sá’usesu·smoke
Ulawansaisesu·smoke
Bugotuahu·smoke
Lausasu·smoke
Arosiasu-[na]its smoke 
 asu-’asmoky 
 sasucloudy, smoky 
Proto-Oceanic*qasu·smoke (Ross 1988)
Uraustronesisch*qasu(h)·smoke

— Cf. —

Kwaiolasusmoke 

See also Marck (1994:324) Proto-Micronesian *asu.

PMc   *aSiŋi   kind of crab

Mokileseaadiŋcrab sp. (loan from Marshallese?) 
Marshallesehatiŋbrown land crab 
Kosraeanεiŋcoconut crab 

PMc   *ata   upper part, top

Chuukeseaasupper part, top, summit, eastern side 
 asa-(n)its upper s., above him 
 -yas, -yahigh, east 
Mortlockese-yasup, east 
Puluwateseyáhbe tall, high, upper, easterly 
 yeho-(n), yaaha-(n)above (something) 
 yeyahbe easterly 
Saipan Carolinian-ashigh, on top 
Satawaleseyáástop, on land 
 -yasup, east 
Woleaian-yaseup, upside 
 (i)-yateabove, topside 
Proto-Chuukic*yata·upper part, top
Pohnpeianyyasa-(da)to be risen 
Marshallese-yéj(suffix in place names) upper, eastern 
Gilbertese(i)-etaup, on high, above 
 ata-(ŋa)an upper plank in a canoe 
 (ao)-ataatabeach above the high water line 
Kosraeanyateastern part of a village 
 (fʌlʷ)-εthigh, lofty 
Proto-Oceanic*qatassummit  (Ross 1988)
Arosi[ato]-aanoon [lit. high sun] 
Proto-Nakanai*-ataup 
Uraustronesisch*qa(n)tas·upper part, top

— Cf. —

Sa’a’a’arise up clear (of the moon) 

See Marck (1994:323) Proto-Micronesian *ata.

PMc   *ata-i-   to know

Pohnpeianεsεto know, understand (something) 
 (sε)-εsεto not know 
Mokilese(je)-ejɔto be ignorant of, not to know (something)  (Bender et al. 1984)
Marshallese(j)-ahjéynot know 
Gilberteseata-ito know, have knowledge 
 ata-aknow (something) 
Kosraeanetʌknow, understand (something) 
 eta-(twen)understanding, kind, sympathetic, helpful 
 (se)-eta-(twen)not understanding, not perceiving 

PCMc   (?)   *atarei   child

Marshallesehajriychild, kid, toddler 
Gilberteseataeichild, children 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tari ‘child’.

PMc   *ate   liver

Chuukeseyááyá·liver
Mortlockesewáá-(n) [sic]his liver 
Puluwateseyááyá·liver
Saipan Carolinianáse-(l)his liver 
Satawaleseyááyáá-(n)his liver 
Woleaianyaase, yase-·liver
Pulo-Annanyaade, yade-·liver
Sonsoroleseyaade·liver
Proto-Chuukic*yate·liver
Pohnpeianεεhis liver 
Mokileseɔj, ɔjɔliver, his liver 
Marshalleseyajliver, spleen 
Gilbertese(te)-ato(the o is unexpected) 
Kosraeanεs, esyε-(l)liver, his liver 
Proto-Oceanic*qate·liver (Ross 1988)
Fijianate·liver
Proto-Polynesian*qate·liver
Sa’asaeheart, mind, chest, liver 
Bugotuate·liver
Arosisaemind, heart, thought, liver of a pig 
Kwaiosae-[founa]·liver
Proto-Kimbe*hate·liver
Uraustronesisch*qatay·liver

PMc   *atu   tuna, bonito

Chuukeseéwúntuna, albacore 
Puluwateseyawúúl [sic]·tuna, bonito
Saipan Carolinianasúl-(lé)small sp. of tuna 
Saipan Carolinian·Tasúl-(léy)a small sp. of tuna 
Satawaleseyaas·tuna, bonito (Bender et al. 1984)
Woleaianyaúle·tuna, bonito
Proto-Chuukic*atú, atúla·tuna, bonito
Marshallesehajiy-(lewwed)school of bonito trapped in a lagoon 
Gilbertese(te)-ati·tuna, bonito
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qatu·tuna, bonito
Fijianyatu·tuna, bonito
Bugotuatu·tuna, bonito
Sa’asáu·tuna, bonito
Kwaiosau·tuna, bonito
Proto-Oceanic*qatun·tuna, bonito

The *l of the Proto-Chuukic reconstruction depends entirely on the Puluwatese and Saipan Carolinian·T forms, which may result from loans.

PMc   *aTo   thatch

Chuukeseóós, ósu-(n)thatch section, roof, thatch section of 
 ósu-ni, óssu-nito thatch, apply thatch to (a house) 
Mortlockeseyóósthatch roof 
Puluwateseyóóh, yóho-(n), yeho-(n)·thatch
Saipan Carolinianóósthatch 
 óse-(y)to thatch (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tóóh·thatch
Satawaleseyóós, yóso-roof 
Woleaianyaaso, yaso-·thatch
Pulo-Annanyaado, yado-thatch, roof 
Sonsoroleseyaado·thatch
Proto-Chuukic*yaTo·thatch
Pohnpeianɔɔsivory nut palm (a source of thatch) 
Mokileseɔjthatch, roof 
Pingilapeseɔsdry pandanus leaves used for thatch 
Marshallesehajthatch 
Gilbertese(te)-atothatch 
Proto-Oceanic*qato·thatch
Proto-Polynesian*qatothatch 
Sa’asa’osago palm 
Bugotuatosago palm, sago thatch 
Lausaosago palm, thatch 
Arosiaosago palm 
Lakalaihatosago palm, thatch 
Proto-Austronesian*qatepsago thatch  (Ross 1988)

PMc   *-au   me (suffixed object pronoun)

Chuukese-yey, -yeyi-, -wey, -weyi-·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Saipan Carolinian-yáy·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Woleaian-yai·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Pulo-Annan-ei·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Chuukic*-ai·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Pohnpeian-yε·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Marshalleseyéh·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Gilbertese-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Kosraean-yʌ·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Oceanic*-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Fijian-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Arosi-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Sa’a-áu·me (suffixed object pronoun)
Proto-Kimbe*-au·me (suffixed object pronoun)

PCMc   *au-   appearance, condition, shape

Chuukeseéwú-width, thickness 
 éwú-(chik)slender, narrow, thin 
Puluwateseyawú-physical characteristic 
 yawú-(Rik)be physically small 
 yawú-(RiRRik)be thin 
Saipan Carolinianai-(shigh)be thin, skinny, slender 
Saipan Carolinian·Tai-(Rig)be thin, skinny, slender 
Satawaleseyaú-(chchán)atmosphere 
Woleaianyaú-appearance, condition, shape 
 yaú-(shigi)be skinny, thin, slender, narrow 
 yaú-resize (used with long, thin objects), thickness 
 yaú-(chchaali)atmosphere, weather condition 
 yaú-(libongi)atmospheric condition at night 
Pulo-Annanyaúair, climate. condition, appearance 
 yaú-(siki)be long, narrow, skinny, thin 
 yaú-(lani)weather, firmament, air 
Proto-Chuukic*yaú-·appearance, condition, shape
Pohnpeianεy-(paay)walking with swinging arms 
Marshallesehayi-(dik)skinny, thin of body 
Gilberteseai-(n-toa)powerful, of great muscular strength 
 ai-(baba)foolish 

This does not seem to be cognate with Proto–Eastern Oceanic *[qØ]aRu ‘dew’ (Geraghty 1990). See also Loans: Chuukese éwú-ni-yár.

PMc   *aua   kind of fish

Puluwateseyááwúwó-(túr), -(túrú-) [sic]a lagoon fish much desired for food, probably a milkfish 
 yawúwa-(chch), -(chchi-)kind of small lagoon fish 
 yawúwa-(túr), -(túre-)larger growth stage of latter fish 
Satawaleseyawuwkind of mullet 
Woleaianyaúwekind of fish 
Gilberteseauaa fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qaRuafish, juvenile mullet  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *[ao]ut[ae]   blanket, coverlet

Chuukesekuus, kuusa--(n)c. or cover of woven material, sheet, b., her c. 
Puluwatesewoowúh,woowuhá-(n)(sic) (?*wowúh) b., sheet, loomed cloth used as a cover 
Saipan Carolinianóuscover, b., óuse-(y) to cover (s.o.) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tóuhcover, b. 
Woleaiangouselavalava that covers a dead person, covering 
Proto-Chuukic*kout[ae]·blanket, coverlet
Marshallesekawaj, kawje-b., b. of (poss. classifier), kawajwéj use a b. 
Kosraeankæotc., b., sheet. Note that Kir (te)-kouti small mat worn over the shoulders appears to be loan from English coat 

PMc   *awo   fishline

Chuukeseóó, óó-·fishline
Puluwateseyóó·fishline
Saipan Carolinianyóó·fishline
Satawaleseyóó·fishline
Woleaianyóó, yóó-·fishline
Pulo-Annanyaawo, yawo-·fishline
Proto-Chuukic*yawo·fishline
Mokileseo·fishline
Marshalleseyew·fishline
Gilbertese(te)-ao·fishline
Kosraeanæ·fishline
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*afo·fishline
Proto-Polynesian*afo·fishline

PMc   *ayu, ayuSa   current

Chuukeseéwút, éwúta-current 
 éwú-(rá), éwú-(wé)river or brook 
Puluwateseyawútcurrent 
Woleaianyautecurrent 
Proto-Chuukic*yaú, yaúda·current
Pohnpeianaad·current
Mokileseaad·current
Marshallesehayey, hayét·current
Gilbertese(te)-aira·current
Kosraeangush 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qaRu[cs]·current (Geraghty 1990)
Uraustronesisch*qaRus.·current

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y