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Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*c   

ca    ce    ci    co    cu    

PMc   *-ca   1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our

Trukese-ch·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Mortlockese-sh·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Puluwatese-R·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Saipan Carolinian-sh·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Saipan Carolinian·T-R·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Satawalese-R; (suf to n.)·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Woleaian-she·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Pulo-Annan-sa·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Proto-Chuukic*-ca·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Ponapeian-t·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Marshallese-d·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Kiribati-ra·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Kusaiean-sr·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Proto-Oceanic*-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Tonganta·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Fijian-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Sa’a-ka·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Bugotu-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Arosi-ga·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
West Nakanai-ga-[tou]·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our

PCMc   *ca-   state of being

Trukeseche-, che-, cho-, chó-, chche-, -ch·state of being
Puluwatesecca-nto be 
Saipan Caroliniansha-(apaapa)be very flat (as a board) 
Saipan Carolinian·TRa-(apaap)be very flat 
Woleaiansha-(apaape)become flat, be flat 
 chchaa-liexist, be available 
Proto-Chuukic*ca-, cca- cca[a]-ni·state of being
Marshallesede-(pakpak)wide, broad 
 de-(kemʷkemʷ)noisy 
Kiribatira-(itiiti)glitter ([te]-iti lightning) 
 ra-(baba)broad 

Cf. Ponapeian tεtε- or tεtε-n in such honorific expressions as tεtεmpala, tεtεnsik. See Proto–Central Micronesian *cafifi ‘twisted, tangled’, Proto-Chuukic *ca-riwariwa ‘be shiny, glossy, bright, glitter’, Proto-Chuukic *cééú ‘continuously widespread’, Proto-Chuukic *cappa ‘be turned face down’, Proto-Chuukic *coroŋo ‘noisy condition’, Proto-Chuukic *caapaapa ‘flattened’.

PMc   *caa, cacaa   blood, be bloody

Trukesechcha, chchaa-·blood, be bloody
Mortlockeseshshaa [sic]·blood, be bloody
Puluwatesecca, ccaa-·blood, be bloody
Saipan Caroliniantcha, tchaa-·blood, be bloody
Satawalesechcha, chchaa-·blood, be bloody
Woleaianchchaa·blood, be bloody
Pulo-Annanssa·blood, be bloody
Sonsorolesessaa·blood, be bloody
Proto-Chuukic*ccaa·blood, be bloody
Ponapeiannta, ntaa-·blood, be bloody
Mokileseinsa, insaa-·blood, be bloody
Pingilapeseinda·blood, be bloody
Marshallesedah, ddah·blood, be bloody
Kiribatiraraa·blood, be bloody
Kusaieansræ·blood, be bloody
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*draRa·blood, be bloody (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*nraRaq·blood, be bloody (Ross 1988)
Fijiandraa·blood, be bloody
Proto-Kimbe*dara·blood, be bloody
Uraustronesisch*[dD]aRaq·blood, be bloody

PCMc   *cafifi   twisted, tangled

Trukese-chefclassifier for counting tentacles of octopus or squid 
Woleaianshaffi·twisted, tangled
Proto-Chuukic*caffi·twisted, tangled
Kiribatiraai [sic]twist and tangle easily 

See Proto–Central Micronesian *ca- ‘state of being’, Proto-Chuukic *ffi, fiffi ‘tangled’.

PCMc   *cai   to spread

Woleaiansheespread out (as news), be announced (of something that had been lost), get through an object, discover 
Kiribatirai-ato spread over (something) 

— Cf. —

Kiribatirakeraketo spread about (as an odor) 

PCMc   *cakai   stone, coral

Trukesecheekind of small, sharp coral 
Pulo-Annansakaiegg 
Proto-Chuukic*cakai·stone, coral
Ponapeiantakaystone, rock 
 takay-(pʷεt)coral head 
Mokilesesakaystone, rock, coral 
Marshallesedekaystone, rock, gravel 
Kiribatirakaicoral shoal in lagoon, reef 

The Kiribati form also reflects Proto-Micronesian *sakau ‘reef’, the two reflexes apparently having become homonyms closely similar in meaning, as noted by Marck (1994:317), who reconstructs this as Proto-Micronesian *t’akau.

PMc   *calo, calocalo   dark, black

Trukesechón, chóchchón (<*cónócón)-dark, black 
 chóno-(kkich), chónu-(kkich), chóne-(kkich)very dark, jet black 
Mortlockeseshólblack 
PuluwateseRóól, Rólú-(n)soot, soot of 
 Róló-(kiiR)be black 
Saipan Carolinianshólbe dark, black all over 
 shótchólblack 
Saipan Carolinian·TRólbe dark, black all over 
Saipan Caroliniandótchólblack 
SatawaleseRól·dark, black
Woleaiansóólo, chchóchchóólobe black 
Pulo-Annansaano, sano-charcoal 
 sanomark on it, write on it 
Proto-Chuukic*calo, caccalo (<*calocalo)dark, black 
Ponapeiantɔɔlcoal 
 tɔntɔl (<*tɔttɔl, <*tɔlotɔl)black 
Mokilesesɔlblack 
Marshallesedawaldye 
Kusaieansrɒ lpaint 
 srɒ lsrɒ lblack 

PMc   *camʷa   forehead, brow

Trukesechaamʷ, chamʷa-(n)forehead, brow, his forehead 
 -chamʷcounting classfier for foreheads, brows, visors, etc. 
 (éwú)-chamʷcross-beam of house 
Mortlockeseshamʷe-(n)his forehead 
PuluwateseRaamʷforehead 
 (yee)-Ramʷ, (yeeyi)-Ramʷcross-beam of house 
Saipan Carolinian·TRaamʷ, Ramʷa-(n)forehead, his forehead, house gable 
Woleaian(geú)-shamʷetie beam of house 
Pulo-Annan(kaú)-samu [sic]end purlins of house 
Proto-Chuukic*camʷa·forehead, brow
Ponapeiantaamʷ, tεmʷεforehead, his forehead 
Mokilesesɔmʷ, sɔmʷe, sɔmʷɔ-(n)forehead, his forehead, forehead of 
 samʷgable 
Marshallesedamʷ, demʷa-forehead, brow, gable 
Kiribatiramʷaforehead, gable end 
Kusaiean(moton) sro-(n)forehead of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*damʷa·forehead, brow
Fijiandagathrow the head well back as in shaving or putting drops in ones eyes 
West Nakanaigamahead 

— Cf. —

Sa’adaraforehead 
Laudaraforehead 
Arosidaraforehead 
Kwaiodalaforehead 

— and cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*dramʷaforehead  (Ross 1988)

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *kaú-camʷa ‘tie beam’.

PMc   *camʷ [ai], camʷ [ai]-ti   to lick

Ponapeiantamʷεto lick (something) 
Mokilesesamʷsamʷto lick 
 samʷeto lick (something) 
Pingilapesesamʷεto lick (something) 
Marshallesedamʷdémʷto lick 
 damʷi-jlick (something) 

— Cf. —

Fijiandrami, drami-cato lap, lick 

PMc   *canu-, cacanu, canucanu   fresh water

Trukesechaan, chénú-fresh water, liquid 
 chchén (<*chéchén)wet 
 chéchchén (<*chénchén)wet 
Mortlockeseshaan·fresh water
PuluwateseRaan, ráni-·fresh water
Saipan Carolinianshaal, shalú-water, clear liquid 
Saipan Carolinian·TRanwater, clear liquid 
SatawaleseRaan, Raal, Ranú-·fresh water
Woleaianshaalú, shalú-liquid, fresh water 
 (le)-chchalúin water 
 chechchalúfilled with water 
Pulo-Annansaanú, sanú-·fresh water
Proto-Chuukic*canú, ccanú, caccanú·fresh water
Marshallesedan, dandanwater, liquid, juice 
Kiribatiranfresh water, sap 
 raranleaky 
 ranranjuicy, full of sap 
Kusaieansrɒ no-·fresh water
Proto-Oceanic*nranum, ranum·fresh water
Proto-Polynesian*lanu·fresh water
Fijiandranu·fresh water
Sa’adánudraw water 
 dánu-’isprinkle with water 
Proto-Kimbe*naLu·fresh water
Uraustronesisch*[dD]anum·fresh water

— Cf. —

Kwaiotalu·fresh water

See also Marck (1994:309) Proto-Micronesian *t’anu fresh water, nonsaline flowing liquids in general.

PCMc   *caŋa   move quickly

Trukesechaŋto fly, be flying (as a bird) 
Ponapeiantaŋto run, to flee, to swim (as a fish) 
 tεŋεto run to (something) 
Kiribatiraŋa-timove fast 
 raŋa-tato hasten (someone), make (someone) walk fast 

— Cf. —

Sa’araŋato rise (of the moon) 

PCMc   *caŋi   be loved, dear

Trukesechenbe loved, cherished 
 (e)-chenito love him/her 
 (á)-chengicheng(loan from another dialect) love, favoring, cherishing, to be dear 
Puluwatese(á)-Ráŋi-(y)to love him/her 
Woleaianshaŋibe loved 
 (ge)-shaŋisheŋibe loving 
Proto-Chuukic*caŋi·be loved, dear
Kiribati(ka)-raŋflattery, engage in flattery 

PCMc   *cao   group, group member

Trukesechóó, chóó-group, member (of group) 
 chóóchóbe heavily populated 
PuluwateseRóó-(n)person of 
Saipan Carolinianshóóclan, work force, team, member of a group 
Saipan Carolinian·TRóóclan, work force, team, member of a group 
SatawaleseRóó-group, person of 
Woleaianshóó, shóó-person, crew 
Pulo-Annansaao, sao-people 
Proto-Chuukic*cao·group, group member
Ponapeiantoo-(n)member of 
Mokilesesoo-(n)·group, group member
Marshallesedewe-(n)followers of 
Kiribatirao-(na)his companion, friend 

— Cf. —

Yapesechoo-(n)member of 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*joRamate, partner  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*soafriend 
Arosihoafriend 

PWMc   *capa, cacapa   adhere

see Proto–Western Micronesian *paca, papaca.

PWMc   *capi   beginning, origin, base

Trukesechááp, chepi-(n)genitals, his genitals 
 (nee)- chepi-(n)(at the) beginning of it 
PuluwateseRápi-(n)its lower trunk (of a tree) 
 Rápi-(n ppalú)an initiated navigator 
Saipan Carolinianshááp, shepi-lbase, trunk, source, core, beginning of 
Saipan Carolinian·TRááp, Repi-nbase, trunk, source, core, beginning of 
SatawaleseRápi-(n)beginning of 
Woleaianshaapi, shapi-beginning, origin, ancestor, base, bottom, foundation 
 shapibegin, start 
 shapi-i-(ye)begin it 
Pulo-Annansaapi, sapi-trunk 
Proto-Chuukic*capi·beginning, origin, base
Ponapeiantapiits beginning, base (of a tree) 
 tεpto begin, start 
Mokilesesap, sapi-(n)small of the back 
Marshallesedapi-base, foundation, bottom, stem, trunk 

— Cf. —

Kusaieansropo-(n)trunk of 

PMc   *cau   leaf

Trukesechéé, chéé-·leaf
PuluwateseRéé·leaf
Saipan Carolinianshéé·leaf
Saipan Carolinian·TRéé·leaf
SatawaleseRéé·leaf
Woleaianshéé, shéé-·leaf
Pulo-Annansaaú, saú-·leaf
Sonsorolesesaawú·leaf
Proto-Chuukic*caú·leaf
Ponapeiantεε·leaf
Mokilese·leaf
Pingilapese·leaf
Kiribatiraiflat board 
Kusaieansra·leaf
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*nrau, rau·leaf
Proto-Polynesian*lau·leaf
Fijiandrau·leaf
Sa’aráuleaf used as food wrapper 
Arosirau·leaf
Proto-Kimbe*Lau·leaf
Proto-Oceanic*raun·leaf
Proto-Austronesian*daSun·leaf (Ross 1988) (but Proto–Malayo-Polynesian (Dyen 1953))

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cau-, cau-lapa ‘wide, width’.

PMc   *cau-, cau-lapa   wide, width

Trukesechéé-width (of flat objects) 
 chéé-kisnarrow 
 chéé-napwide, broad 
 chéé-(péép), ché-(péép), chéé-(chéép)broad 
PuluwateseRééRéé-(ló)spread far (as news, people) 
 Réé-(paap) (<*Réé-apaap)be flat (as a fish) 
Woleaianshéé-gitibe narrow 
 shéé-lapebe wide, broad, spacious 
Proto-Chuukic*caú-, caú-kiTi, cau-lapa·wide, width
Ponapeiantεε-(tik)narrow 
 tεε-lapwide 
Kusaieansra-(læp)wide 

— Cf. —

Marshallesede (pakpak)wide, broad 
Proto-Kimbe*Laufar 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*Za[hØ]uq·wide, width (Dyen 1953)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cau ‘leaf’.

PMc   *cawa   slow, late

Trukesechchaw·slow, late
PuluwateseRaw, ccaw·slow, late
Pulo-Annansawa·slow, late
Proto-Chuukic*cawa, ccawa·slow, late
Kiribatirawato refuse 
Kusaieanralinger 

PMc   *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu   heavy, heaviness

Trukesechchow, chchowu-heavy, heaviness, angry 
 chowuchowpressing, weighed down 
Mortlockeseshshow·heavy, heaviness
Puluwateseccówo, ccówú- [sic]·heavy, heaviness
Saipan Caroliniantchów·heavy, heaviness
Satawalesechchów·heavy, heaviness
Woleaianchchau·heavy, heaviness
Pulo-Annanssau·heavy, heaviness
Sonsorolesessawu·heavy, heaviness
Proto-Chuukic*ccau·heavy, heaviness
Ponapeiantowtowheavy 
 taw-rweigh down 
Mokilesesɔwsɔw·heavy, heaviness
Marshalleseddew·heavy, heaviness
Kiribatirarauswoon 
 rarau-(aki)be satisfied, have enough food 

— Note also —

Kiribatiraraisulky 

PMc   *cece, cecece   shake, tremble

Trukesechcheech, chechche-(n)quake, tremor, quake of, shake, shiver, tremble 
Mortlockeseshésh·shake, tremble
Puluwateseceec, cece-(n)·shake, tremble
Saipan Carolinianshetch·shake, tremble
Saipan Carolinian·Tdetch [sic]·shake, tremble
Satawalesecec, ceccec·shake, tremble
Woleaianchchechche·shake, tremble
Proto-Chuukic*cec, cecce·shake, tremble
Kiribatirereto dart quickly 
Proto-Oceanic*dede·shake, tremble
Samoantete·shake, tremble

Cf. also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *cee, ceecee ‘move quickly’, Proto-Micronesian *cici ‘tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’, Proto-Chuukic *caka-i-, ccaka-i- ‘chase, pursue’.

PMc   *ceni, ceceni   strand tree

Trukesechchen·strand tree
Puluwateseccena tree (Messerschmidia argentea
Saipan Caroliniantchel·strand tree
Saipan Carolinian·Ttchen·strand tree
Satawalesechchen·strand tree
Woleaianchcheli·strand tree
Ulithianchél·strand tree
Proto-Chuukic*cceni·strand tree
Ponapeiantitin·strand tree
Mokilesesisin·strand tree
Marshallese(ki)-den·strand tree
Kiribatirena tree 
Kusaieansrʌsrʌna kind of tree 

— Cf. —

Fijiandanidania shrub (Nothopanax fruiticosum

Note that the vowel e in the Trukese form is unexpected (we expect i). Yapese cheen ‘a beach heliotrope’ appears to be a loan from a Chuukic source.

PMc   *cepa, cecepa   Carangid fish

Trukesechchepkind of pompano fish 
Puluwateseccip [sic]stage in growth of skipjack fish 
Saipan Caroliniantchepsmallest of five stages of growth of the skipjack 
Woleaianchchepea kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*ccep[ae]·Carangid fish
Ponapeiantεεpa skipjack (Caranx
Marshalleseddépa fish 
Kiribatirerebaa young jack (Caranx
Kusaieansrapskipjack 

PMc   *cia   give voice

Trukesechigive voice, utter 
 chiye-(tá)be begin (as a vocalization) 
Woleaianshii-(tage)begin, start (as a prayer) 
Proto-Chuukic*ci[ai]·give voice
Ponapeiantia-kto start a song 
Kiribatiriaa lip 
Kusaieansriasrato lead or start a song 

PMc   *cici   tremble

Marshallese(wi)-diddidtremble, quake 
 ddi-(pikpik)flutter, flop around 
 ddi-(piŋpiŋ)throb 
Kiribati(ma)-ririfeel cold (but see Samoan lili shiver, tremble from which it may be a loan) 
Proto-Oceanic*didi·tremble
West Nakanai[ma]-gigi[< Proto-Nakanai *(ma)-didi] to shake as in epilepsy  Cf. Sa’a áriri ‘tremble’; Bugotu ariri ‘shake’; Lau ariri ‘be shaken’; Arosi ariri ‘tremble’; Kwaio alili ‘tremble’

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *cece, cecece ‘shake, tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *cucu ‘tremble, shake’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’.

PMc   *ciciŋi   inscribe, tattoo

Ponapeianntiŋto write, to tattoo 
 ntiŋi-ito write or tattoo (something) 
Mokileseinsiŋletter of the alphabet, mark, tattoo 
 insiŋeto write, mark, or tattoo (something) 
Pingilapeseiisiŋwriting 
Kusaieansrisriŋtattoo 
 srisriŋimark (the skin) with a tattoo 

PMc   (?)   *ciilee   swelling

Ponapeiantiilεsty, have a sty 
Kusaieansrɔlɔlump, mass, clot 

See also Proto-Micronesian (?) *cili‘have a sty in the eye.

PMc   *ciki   small, little

Trukese-chik, -chis, -sich, chikichiiki-·small, little
PuluwateseRik, (ya)-RikiRik·small, little
Saipan Carolinian-shigh·small, little
Woleaian-shigi·small, little
Pulo-Annan-siki·small, little
Proto-Chuukic*ciki·small, little
Ponapeiantikitik·small, little
Mokilesesiksik·small, little
Marshallesedik, (wi)-ddik·small, little
Kiribati(wa)-rikinarrow 
Kusaieansrik, srisrik·small, little
Proto-Oceanic*nriki, riki·small, little
Proto-Polynesian*rikismall 
West Nakanai[gu]-liliki, [gu]-likilikichild, children but not ones offspring 
Uraustronesisch*Diki[hq]·small, little

— Cf. —

Kiribati(ua)-rerekesmall 

PMc   (?)   *cili   have a sty in the eye

Trukesechinhave a sty 
 chini-(n maas)sty of the eye 
Mokilesesilsty 
Kusaieansrolsty, have a sty 

There seems to be a problem with the vowel of the Kusaiean form. See also Proto-Micronesian ? *ciilee (?) ‘swelling’.

PMc   *cimʷe   tip up, raise up, nod, bob

Trukesechiimʷ, chimʷa-nhead, his head 
 chimʷ, chimʷechimʷnod the head 
 chimʷe-(tá)tip the head back, look up in the air 
PuluwateseRiimʷhead 
 RimʷeRimʷnod repeatedly, toss up and down (of a canoe) 
 Rimʷo-(tá)get up (as in the morning) 
Saipan Carolinianshiimʷ, shimʷa-lhead, his head 
 shimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head 
Saipan Carolinian·TRimʷnod or raise the head 
Saipan CarolinianRimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head 
Woleaianshiimʷe, shimʷe-head, convex shape 
 shimʷeshimʷe, chchichchimʷemove up and down, be in balance 
Pulo-Annansiimʷa, simʷa-head 
 simʷanod the head 
 simʷa-(take)to get up 
Proto-Chuukic*cimʷe, cimʷe-cimʷe, cimʷe-(dake)·tip up, raise up, nod, bob
Marshallesedim-(tak)jerk a fish line to hook a fish 
Kusaieansrimbow 
 srimsrimnod, bob 

— Cf. —

Kiribatirimwaridge at the side of a plank caused by its having a greater thickness than the adjoining plank 
 rimwabe thicker than the adjoining plank 

PMc   *cipʷa₁   curve, bend inward

Trukesechipʷechipʷcurve, arch, bow 
 chchipʷbe warped or bent by fire 
 chiipʷdivination by bending (breaking) the midrib of a coconut leaflet back and forth across the palm of ones hand 
 chipʷe-yidivine for it 
 chipʷa-(ŋ)be tired, weary (from work) 
Woleaianshiibe, shibe-bay, inward curve, kind of divination 
 shibebe embayed, curve inward 
 shiba-adivine for it 
Proto-Chuukic*chipʷa·curve, bend inward
Ponapeiantipʷbe broken (of any long object) 
 tipʷa-ŋbreak it (a long object) 
 cipʷe-ŋe-(n pee)crook of the arm 
Mokilesesipʷ, sipʷe-(n)bend (as in a road), joint, joint of 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*cipʷa, cipʷa-ŋa·curve, bend inward
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ntipʷa·curve, bend inward
Arosidiwa, didiwathe u-shaped groove at top of the main post in which the ridgepole rests 
Kwaiodikʷa, [ma]-dikʷabroken, break 

See also Proto-Micronesian *cipʷa₂ ‘tongs’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kupʷe, kupʷe-li ‘be bent, to bend (something).

PMc   *cipʷa₂   tongs

Saipan Caroliniantchibʷtongs, poker, animal prod, stick used in the roasting of breadfruit 
 tchibʷe-e-yto nudge, prod, or poke (something) 
Woleaianshibeshibeto take up with a fork 
 shibe-i-(e)take it up with a fork 
 shibe-t-(agi)be lifted up 
Pulo-Annansipʷato pick up with chopsticks or forks 
 sipʷasipʷachopsticks 
Proto-Chuukic*cipʷa, cipʷacipʷalifting sticks 
Ponapeiantiipʷpair of sticks used to pick up hot rocks from an earth oven 
Kusaieansrʌfpliers, pincers, tongs 
 srʌfihold or pick up with pliers, pincers, tongs 

Reference may originally have been to a green stick that was bent (broken) to make tongs. See also Proto-Micronesian *cipʷa₁ ‘curve, bend inward’.

PMc   *ciwa   pertaining to the ear

see Proto-Micronesian *cua, cuacua.

PCMc   (?)   *co[wØ]a-   a fish

see Proto–Central Micronesian *tawu.

PMc   *cowu, cowu-ki   hand net

Trukesecheew, chuu-, #cheewi-hand net, constellation Corona borealis, month name 
 chuu-nicatch (fish) with a net 
PuluwateseRoow,hand net, star and month name 
Saipan Carolinianshééw, shoowdipping net 
 shoowstar and month name 
 shoo-ghidip up (small fish) with a net 
Saipan Carolinian·TReewdipping net 
Saipan CarolinianReu-nidip up (small fish) with a net 
Woleaianshoou, shou-scoop net, Corona borealis 
 shoushoube capturing, scooping up 
 shou-gi-(i)capture it, scoop it 
 shou-gegibe captured, scooped 
Pulo-Annansoou, sou-net 
Proto-Chuukic*ceewu (?), cowu-, cowu-ki-·hand net
Ponapeiantowtowscoop out 
Mokilesesoososcoop up with a net 
 soo-kto scoop (something) up with a net 
Pingilapesesowsowcatch with a net 
Marshallesedéwnet for washing arrowroot and soaking breadfruit 

— Cf. —

Bugotujaufishnet 
Arositausmall handnet 

PMc   *cua, cuacua or *ciwa   pertaining to the ear

PuluwateseRuwá-possessive classifier for earrings 
 RúwaRúwear as earrings 
 Rúwa-ni-(y)own as earrings 
Woleaianshúwa-possessive classifier for earrings 
 shúweshúwewear in ones ears 
 shúwe-li-(i)have as ones earrings 
Pulo-Annansúúe, súe-earrings 
 súesúeto wear earrings 
Proto-Chuukic*cúwa-, cúwacúwa, cúwa-ni·pertaining to the ear
Ponapeiantia-tito wear earrings 
 tiεclassifier for earrings 
Mokilesesi, siɔ, sie-(n)ear, his ear, ear of 
 siasiclassifier for things worn in the ear 
Marshallesediyédéywear earrings 
 diye-possessive classifier for things worn on the ears 
 die-kwear (earrings) 
Kusaieansrʷε-ear, possessive classifier for ear decorations 
 srʷεsraput flowers behind the ears 
 srʷewear it behind the ear 

PMc   *cucu   tremble, shake

Trukesechchú-nito possess him/her (of a spirit) 
 chchú-nóshade, shadow (representing a persons bad soul) 
Ponapeiantito possess or inhabit a human body (of a spirit) 
Kiribatiruru, rurururuto tremble 
 ru-ato change, alter, take the place of (someone) 
Kusaiean(ku)-srusrtremble, quake, vibrate 

— Cf. —

Marshallesetiweybe possessed (by evil spirit), to possess 
Kusaieansrʌ, sruo khold, catch 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *cece, cecece ‘shake, tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *cici ‘tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’.

PWMc   *cuu, cuu-ŋi   meet, encounter

Trukesechumeet, come together 
 chuu-rimeet, encounter, or join him/her 
Mortlockeseshuu-ŋi·meet, encounter
PuluwateseRu, Ruu-ri·meet, encounter
Saipan Carolinianshuumeeting 
 shuu-ŋimeet, encounter (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·TRuu, Ruu-ŋi·meet, encounter
SatawaleseRuu, Ruu-ŋi, Ruu-Rumeet with (someone) 
Woleaianshuu, shuu-ŋi-(i)·meet, encounter
Proto-Chuukic*cuu, cuu-ŋi·meet, encounter
Ponapeiantu·meet, encounter
Mokilesesube met, reached 
 su-ɔŋmeet (someone) 
Pingilapesesu-ɔŋ·meet, encounter
Marshallesediwgather to dance 

Kusaiean su-n ‘to meet (someone), arrive at (a place)’ is presumably a loan.

PMc   *cuyi-   bone

Trukesechúú, chúú-bone 
 chúúchúbony, skinny 
Puluwatesecúú·bone
Saipan Carolinianshúú·bone
SatawaleseRúú·bone
Woleaianshúú, shúú-·bone
Pulo-Annanssibone, thorn 
Sonsorolesesii·bone
Proto-Chuukic*cúyi·bone
Ponapeiantiihis bone 
Mokilesesi, sii-·bone
Marshallesediy, diyi-·bone
Kiribatirii, rii-·bone
Kusaieansri·bone
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*duRi·bone (Geraghty 1990) Cf. Proto–Eastern Oceanic zuRi (Geraghty 1983) and *cuRi (Geraghty 1990)
Fijiansui·bone
Sa’asuli·bone
Bugotuhuli·bone
Kwaiosuli [na]·bone
Proto-Oceanic*suRi·bone (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*[dD]uRi·bone

See also Proto-Chuukic *cúyicúyi ‘yard, boom (of canoe)’. Note that this example, along with Proto-Micronesian *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si ‘cut, sever, break off’, shows that pre Proto-Oceanic *ns merged with Pre POc *nd and *nt as Proto-Oceanic *d, contrary to present reconstructions for Proto-Oceanic (Grace 1969, Ross 1988). For further discussion and examples, see Goodenough (1992 fn. 6, 1997).

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