st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*c   

ca    ce    ci    co    cu    

PMc   *-ca   1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our

Chuukese-ch·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Mortlockese-sh·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Puluwatese-R·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Saipan Carolinian-sh·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Saipan Carolinian·T-R·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Satawalese-R; (suf to n.)·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Woleaian-she·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Pulo-Annan-sa·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Proto-Chuukic*-ca·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Pohnpeian-t·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Marshallese-d·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Gilbertese-ra·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Kosraean-sr·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Proto-Oceanic*-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Tonganta·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Fijian-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Sa’a-ka·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Bugotu-da·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Arosi-ga·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our
Lakalai-ga-[tou]·1st plural inclusive possessive pronoun, of us, our

PCMc   *ca-   state of being

Chuukeseche-, che-, cho-, chó-, chche-, -ch·state of being
Puluwatesecca-nto be 
Saipan Caroliniansha-(apaapa)be very flat (as a board) 
Saipan Carolinian·TRa-(apaap)be very flat 
Woleaiansha-(apaape)become flat, be flat 
 chchaa-liexist, be available 
Proto-Chuukic*ca-, cca- cca[a]-ni·state of being
Marshallesede-(pakpak)wide, broad 
 de-(kemʷkemʷ)noisy 
Gilbertesera-(itiiti)glitter ([te]-iti lightning) 
 ra-(baba)broad 

Cf. Pohnpeian tεtε- or tεtε-n in such honorific expressions as tεtεmpala, tεtεnsik. See Proto–Central Micronesian *cafifi ‘twisted, tangled’, Proto-Chuukic *ca-riwariwa ‘be shiny, glossy, bright, glitter’, Proto-Chuukic *cééú ‘continuously widespread’, Proto-Chuukic *cappa ‘be turned face down’, Proto-Chuukic *coroŋo ‘noisy condition’, Proto-Chuukic *caapaapa ‘flattened’.

PMc   *caa, cacaa   blood, be bloody

Chuukesechcha, chchaa-·blood, be bloody
Mortlockeseshshaa [sic]·blood, be bloody
Puluwatesecca, ccaa-·blood, be bloody
Saipan Caroliniantcha, tchaa-·blood, be bloody
Satawalesechcha, chchaa-·blood, be bloody
Woleaianchchaa·blood, be bloody
Pulo-Annanssa·blood, be bloody
Sonsorolesessaa·blood, be bloody
Proto-Chuukic*ccaa·blood, be bloody
Pohnpeiannta, ntaa-·blood, be bloody
Mokileseinsa, insaa-·blood, be bloody
Pingilapeseinda·blood, be bloody
Marshallesedah, ddah·blood, be bloody
Gilbertese(te)-raraa·blood, be bloody
Kosraeansræ·blood, be bloody
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*draRa·blood, be bloody (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*nraRaq·blood, be bloody (Ross 1988)
Fijiandraa·blood, be bloody
Proto-Kimbe*dara·blood, be bloody
Uraustronesisch*[dD]aRaq·blood, be bloody

PCMc   *cafifi   twisted, tangled

Chuukese-chefclassifier for counting tentacles of octopus or squid 
Woleaianshaffi·twisted, tangled
Proto-Chuukic*caffi·twisted, tangled
Gilberteseraai [sic]twist and tangle easily 

See Proto–Central Micronesian *ca- ‘state of being’, Proto-Chuukic *ffi, fiffi ‘tangled’.

PCMc   *cai   to spread

Woleaiansheespread out (as news), be announced (of something that had been lost), get through an object, discover 
Gilberteserai-ato spread over (something) 

— Cf. —

Gilberteserakeraketo spread about (as an odor) 

PCMc   *cakai   stone, coral

Chuukesecheekind of small, sharp coral 
Pulo-Annansakaiegg 
Proto-Chuukic*cakai·stone, coral
Pohnpeiantakaystone, rock 
 takay-(pʷεt)coral head 
Mokilesesakaystone, rock, coral 
Marshallesedekaystone, rock, gravel 
Gilberteserakaicoral shoal in lagoon, reef 

The Gilbertese form also reflects Proto-Micronesian *sakau ‘reef’, the two reflexes apparently having become homonyms closely similar in meaning, as noted by Marck (1994:317), who reconstructs this as Proto-Micronesian *t’akau.

PMc   *calo, calocalo   dark, black

Chuukesechón, chóchchón (<*cónócón)-dark, black 
 chóno-(kkich), chónu-(kkich), chóne-(kkich)very dark, jet black 
Mortlockeseshólblack 
PuluwateseRóól, Rólú-(n)soot, soot of 
 Róló-(kiiR)be black 
Saipan Carolinianshólbe dark, black all over 
 shótchólblack 
Saipan Carolinian·TRólbe dark, black all over 
Saipan Caroliniandótchólblack 
SatawaleseRól·dark, black
Woleaiansóólo, chchóchchóólobe black 
Pulo-Annansaano, sano-charcoal 
 sanomark on it, write on it 
Proto-Chuukic*calo, caccalo (<*calocalo)dark, black 
Pohnpeiantɔɔlcoal 
 tɔntɔl (<*tɔttɔl, <*tɔlotɔl)black 
Mokilesesɔlblack 
Marshallesedawaldye 
Kosraeansrɒ lpaint 
 srɒ lsrɒ lblack 

PMc   *camʷa   forehead, brow

Chuukesechaamʷ, chamʷa-(n)forehead, brow, his forehead 
 -chamʷcounting classfier for foreheads, brows, visors, etc. 
 (éwú)-chamʷcross-beam of house 
Mortlockeseshamʷe-(n)his forehead 
PuluwateseRaamʷforehead 
 (yee)-Ramʷ, (yeeyi)-Ramʷcross-beam of house 
Saipan Carolinian·TRaamʷ, Ramʷa-(n)forehead, his forehead, house gable 
Woleaian(geú)-shamʷetie beam of house 
Pulo-Annan(kaú)-samu [sic]end purlins of house 
Proto-Chuukic*camʷa·forehead, brow
Pohnpeiantaamʷ, tεmʷεforehead, his forehead 
Mokilesesɔmʷ, sɔmʷe, sɔmʷɔ-(n)forehead, his forehead, forehead of 
 samʷgable 
Marshallesedamʷ, demʷa-forehead, brow, gable 
Gilbertese(te)-ramʷaforehead, gable end 
Kosraean(moton) sro-(n)forehead of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*damʷa·forehead, brow
Fijiandagathrow the head well back as in shaving or putting drops in ones eyes 
Lakalaigamahead 

— Cf. —

Sa’adaraforehead 
Laudaraforehead 
Arosidaraforehead 
Kwaiodalaforehead 

— and cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*dramʷaforehead  (Ross 1988)

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *kaú-camʷa ‘tie beam’.

PMc   *camʷ [ai], camʷ [ai]-ti   to lick

Pohnpeiantamʷεto lick (something) 
Mokilesesamʷsamʷto lick 
 samʷeto lick (something) 
Pingilapesesamʷεto lick (something) 
Marshallesedamʷdémʷto lick 
 damʷi-jlick (something) 

— Cf. —

Fijiandrami, drami-cato lap, lick 

PMc   *canu-, cacanu, canucanu   fresh water

Chuukesechaan, chénú-fresh water, liquid 
 chchén (<*chéchén)wet 
 chéchchén (<*chénchén)wet 
Mortlockeseshaan·fresh water
PuluwateseRaan, ráni-·fresh water
Saipan Carolinianshaal, shalú-water, clear liquid 
Saipan Carolinian·TRanwater, clear liquid 
SatawaleseRaan, Raal, Ranú-·fresh water
Woleaianshaalú, shalú-liquid, fresh water 
 (le)-chchalúin water 
 chechchalúfilled with water 
Pulo-Annansaanú, sanú-·fresh water
Proto-Chuukic*canú, ccanú, caccanú·fresh water
Marshallesedan, dandanwater, liquid, juice 
Gilbertese(te)-ranfresh water, sap 
 raranleaky 
 ranranjuicy, full of sap 
Kosraeansrɒ no-·fresh water
Proto-Oceanic*nranum, ranum·fresh water
Proto-Polynesian*lanu·fresh water
Fijiandranu·fresh water
Sa’adánudraw water 
 dánu-’isprinkle with water 
Proto-Kimbe*naLu·fresh water
Uraustronesisch*[dD]anum·fresh water

— Cf. —

Kwaiotalu·fresh water

See also Marck (1994:309) Proto-Micronesian *t’anu fresh water, nonsaline flowing liquids in general.

PCMc   *caŋa   move quickly

Chuukesechaŋto fly, be flying (as a bird) 
Pohnpeiantaŋto run, to flee, to swim (as a fish) 
 tεŋεto run to (something) 
Gilberteseraŋa-timove fast 
 raŋa-tato hasten (someone), make (someone) walk fast 

— Cf. —

Sa’araŋato rise (of the moon) 

PCMc   *caŋi   be loved, dear

Chuukesechenbe loved, cherished 
 (e)-chenito love him/her 
 (á)-chengicheng(loan from another dialect) love, favoring, cherishing, to be dear 
Puluwatese(á)-Ráŋi-(y)to love him/her 
Woleaianshaŋibe loved 
 (ge)-shaŋisheŋibe loving 
Proto-Chuukic*caŋi·be loved, dear
Gilbertese(ka)-raŋflattery, engage in flattery 

PCMc   *cao   group, group member

Chuukesechóó, chóó-group, member (of group) 
 chóóchóbe heavily populated 
PuluwateseRóó-(n)person of 
Saipan Carolinianshóóclan, work force, team, member of a group 
Saipan Carolinian·TRóóclan, work force, team, member of a group 
SatawaleseRóó-group, person of 
Woleaianshóó, shóó-person, crew 
Pulo-Annansaao, sao-people 
Proto-Chuukic*cao·group, group member
Pohnpeiantoo-(n)member of 
Mokilesesoo-(n)·group, group member
Marshallesedewe-(n)followers of 
Gilberteserao-(na)his companion, friend 

— Cf. —

Yapesechoo-(n)member of 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*joRamate, partner  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*soafriend 
Arosihoafriend 

PWMc   *capa, cacapa   adhere

see Proto–Western Micronesian *paca, papaca.

PWMc   *capi   beginning, origin, base

Chuukesechááp, chepi-(n)genitals, his genitals 
 (nee)- chepi-(n)(at the) beginning of it 
PuluwateseRápi-(n)its lower trunk (of a tree) 
 Rápi-(n ppalú)an initiated navigator 
Saipan Carolinianshááp, shepi-lbase, trunk, source, core, beginning of 
Saipan Carolinian·TRááp, Repi-nbase, trunk, source, core, beginning of 
SatawaleseRápi-(n)beginning of 
Woleaianshaapi, shapi-beginning, origin, ancestor, base, bottom, foundation 
 shapibegin, start 
 shapi-i-(ye)begin it 
Pulo-Annansaapi, sapi-trunk 
Proto-Chuukic*capi·beginning, origin, base
Pohnpeiantapiits beginning, base (of a tree) 
 tεpto begin, start 
Mokilesesap, sapi-(n)small of the back 
Marshallesedapi-base, foundation, bottom, stem, trunk 

— Cf. —

Kosraeansropo-(n)trunk of 

PMc   *cau   leaf

Chuukesechéé, chéé-·leaf
PuluwateseRéé·leaf
Saipan Carolinianshéé·leaf
Saipan Carolinian·TRéé·leaf
SatawaleseRéé·leaf
Woleaianshéé, shéé-·leaf
Pulo-Annansaaú, saú-·leaf
Sonsorolesesaawú·leaf
Proto-Chuukic*caú·leaf
Pohnpeiantεε·leaf
Mokilese·leaf
Pingilapese·leaf
Gilbertese(te)-raiflat board 
Kosraeansra·leaf
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*nrau, rau·leaf
Proto-Polynesian*lau·leaf
Fijiandrau·leaf
Sa’aráuleaf used as food wrapper 
Arosirau·leaf
Proto-Kimbe*Lau·leaf
Proto-Oceanic*raun·leaf
Proto-Austronesian*daSun·leaf (Ross 1988) (but Proto–Malayo-Polynesian (Dyen 1953))

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cau-, cau-lapa ‘wide, width’.

PMc   *cau-, cau-lapa   wide, width

Chuukesechéé-width (of flat objects) 
 chéé-kisnarrow 
 chéé-napwide, broad 
 chéé-(péép), ché-(péép), chéé-(chéép)broad 
PuluwateseRééRéé-(ló)spread far (as news, people) 
 Réé-(paap) (<*Réé-apaap)be flat (as a fish) 
Woleaianshéé-gitibe narrow 
 shéé-lapebe wide, broad, spacious 
Proto-Chuukic*caú-, caú-kiTi, cau-lapa·wide, width
Pohnpeiantεε-(tik)narrow 
 tεε-lapwide 
Kosraeansra-(læp)wide 

— Cf. —

Marshallesede (pakpak)wide, broad 
Proto-Kimbe*Laufar 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*Za[hØ]uq·wide, width (Dyen 1953)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cau ‘leaf’.

PMc   *cawa   slow, late

Chuukesechchaw·slow, late
PuluwateseRaw, ccaw·slow, late
Pulo-Annansawa·slow, late
Proto-Chuukic*cawa, ccawa·slow, late
Gilberteserawato refuse 
Kosraeanralinger 

PMc   *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu   heavy, heaviness

Chuukesechchow, chchowu-heavy, heaviness, angry 
 chowuchowpressing, weighed down 
Mortlockeseshshow·heavy, heaviness
Puluwateseccówo, ccówú- [sic]·heavy, heaviness
Saipan Caroliniantchów·heavy, heaviness
Satawalesechchów·heavy, heaviness
Woleaianchchau·heavy, heaviness
Pulo-Annanssau·heavy, heaviness
Sonsorolesessawu·heavy, heaviness
Proto-Chuukic*ccau·heavy, heaviness
Pohnpeiantowtowheavy 
 taw-rweigh down 
Mokilesesɔwsɔw·heavy, heaviness
Marshalleseddew·heavy, heaviness
Gilberteserarauswoon 
 rarau-(aki)be satisfied, have enough food 

— Note also —

Gilberteseraraisulky 

PMc   *cece, cecece   shake, tremble

Chuukesechcheech, chechche-(n)quake, tremor, quake of, shake, shiver, tremble 
Mortlockeseshésh·shake, tremble
Puluwateseceec, cece-(n)·shake, tremble
Saipan Carolinianshetch·shake, tremble
Saipan Carolinian·Tdetch [sic]·shake, tremble
Satawalesecec, ceccec·shake, tremble
Woleaianchchechche·shake, tremble
Proto-Chuukic*cec, cecce·shake, tremble
Gilberteserereto dart quickly 
Proto-Oceanic*dede·shake, tremble
Samoantete·shake, tremble

Cf. also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *cee, ceecee ‘move quickly’, Proto-Micronesian *cici ‘tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’, Proto-Chuukic *caka-i-, ccaka-i- ‘chase, pursue’.

PMc   *ceni, ceceni   strand tree

Chuukesechchen·strand tree
Puluwateseccena tree (Messerschmidia argentea
Saipan Caroliniantchel·strand tree
Saipan Carolinian·Ttchen·strand tree
Satawalesechchen·strand tree
Woleaianchcheli·strand tree
Ulithianchél·strand tree
Proto-Chuukic*cceni·strand tree
Pohnpeiantitin·strand tree
Mokilesesisin·strand tree
Marshallese(ki)-den·strand tree
Gilbertese(te)-rena tree 
Kosraeansrʌsrʌna kind of tree 

— Cf. —

Fijiandanidania shrub (Nothopanax fruiticosum

Note that the vowel e in the Chuukese form is unexpected (we expect i). Yapese cheen ‘a beach heliotrope’ appears to be a loan from a Chuukic source.

PMc   *cepa, cecepa   Carangid fish

Chuukesechchepkind of pompano fish 
Puluwateseccip [sic]stage in growth of skipjack fish 
Saipan Caroliniantchepsmallest of five stages of growth of the skipjack 
Woleaianchchepea kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*ccep[ae]·Carangid fish
Pohnpeiantεεpa skipjack (Caranx
Marshalleseddépa fish 
Gilbertese(te)-rerebaa young jack (Caranx
Kosraeansrapskipjack 

PMc   *cia   give voice

Chuukesechigive voice, utter 
 chiye-(tá)be begin (as a vocalization) 
Woleaianshii-(tage)begin, start (as a prayer) 
Proto-Chuukic*ci[ai]·give voice
Pohnpeiantia-kto start a song 
Gilbertese(te)-riaa lip 
Kosraeansriasrato lead or start a song 

PMc   *cici   tremble

Marshallese(wi)-diddidtremble, quake 
 ddi-(pikpik)flutter, flop around 
 ddi-(piŋpiŋ)throb 
Gilbertese(ma)-ririfeel cold (but see Samoan lili shiver, tremble from which it may be a loan) 
Proto-Oceanic*didi·tremble
Lakalai[ma]-gigi[< Proto-Nakanai *(ma)-didi] to shake as in epilepsy  Cf. Sa’a áriri ‘tremble’; Bugotu ariri ‘shake’; Lau ariri ‘be shaken’; Arosi ariri ‘tremble’; Kwaio alili ‘tremble’

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *cece, cecece ‘shake, tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *cucu ‘tremble, shake’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’.

PMc   *ciciŋi   inscribe, tattoo

Pohnpeianntiŋto write, to tattoo 
 ntiŋi-ito write or tattoo (something) 
Mokileseinsiŋletter of the alphabet, mark, tattoo 
 insiŋeto write, mark, or tattoo (something) 
Pingilapeseiisiŋwriting 
Kosraeansrisriŋtattoo 
 srisriŋimark (the skin) with a tattoo 

PMc   (?)   *ciilee   swelling

Pohnpeiantiilεsty, have a sty 
Kosraeansrɔlɔlump, mass, clot 

See also Proto-Micronesian (?) *cili‘have a sty in the eye.

PMc   *ciki   small, little

Chuukese-chik, -chis, -sich, chikichiiki-·small, little
PuluwateseRik, (ya)-RikiRik·small, little
Saipan Carolinian-shigh·small, little
Woleaian-shigi·small, little
Pulo-Annan-siki·small, little
Proto-Chuukic*ciki·small, little
Pohnpeiantikitik·small, little
Mokilesesiksik·small, little
Marshallesedik, (wi)-ddik·small, little
Gilbertese(wa)-rikinarrow 
Kosraeansrik, srisrik·small, little
Proto-Oceanic*nriki, riki·small, little
Proto-Polynesian*rikismall 
Lakalai[gu]-liliki, [gu]-likilikichild, children but not ones offspring 
Uraustronesisch*Diki[hq]·small, little

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(ua)-rerekesmall 

PMc   (?)   *cili   have a sty in the eye

Chuukesechinhave a sty 
 chini-(n maas)sty of the eye 
Mokilesesilsty 
Kosraeansrolsty, have a sty 

There seems to be a problem with the vowel of the Kosraean form. See also Proto-Micronesian ? *ciilee (?) ‘swelling’.

PMc   *cimʷe   tip up, raise up, nod, bob

Chuukesechiimʷ, chimʷa-nhead, his head 
 chimʷ, chimʷechimʷnod the head 
 chimʷe-(tá)tip the head back, look up in the air 
PuluwateseRiimʷhead 
 RimʷeRimʷnod repeatedly, toss up and down (of a canoe) 
 Rimʷo-(tá)get up (as in the morning) 
Saipan Carolinianshiimʷ, shimʷa-lhead, his head 
 shimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head 
Saipan Carolinian·TRimʷnod or raise the head 
Saipan CarolinianRimʷe-rigreet or signal (someone) by nodding or raising the head 
Woleaianshiimʷe, shimʷe-head, convex shape 
 shimʷeshimʷe, chchichchimʷemove up and down, be in balance 
Pulo-Annansiimʷa, simʷa-head 
 simʷanod the head 
 simʷa-(take)to get up 
Proto-Chuukic*cimʷe, cimʷe-cimʷe, cimʷe-(dake)·tip up, raise up, nod, bob
Marshallesedim-(tak)jerk a fish line to hook a fish 
Kosraeansrimbow 
 srimsrimnod, bob 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-rimwaridge at the side of a plank caused by its having a greater thickness than the adjoining plank 
 rimwabe thicker than the adjoining plank 

PMc   *cipʷa₁   curve, bend inward

Chuukesechipʷechipʷcurve, arch, bow 
 chchipʷbe warped or bent by fire 
 chiipʷdivination by bending (breaking) the midrib of a coconut leaflet back and forth across the palm of ones hand 
 chipʷe-yidivine for it 
 chipʷa-(ŋ)be tired, weary (from work) 
Woleaianshiibe, shibe-bay, inward curve, kind of divination 
 shibebe embayed, curve inward 
 shiba-adivine for it 
Proto-Chuukic*chipʷa·curve, bend inward
Pohnpeiantipʷbe broken (of any long object) 
 tipʷa-ŋbreak it (a long object) 
 cipʷe-ŋe-(n pee)crook of the arm 
Mokilesesipʷ, sipʷe-(n)bend (as in a road), joint, joint of 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*cipʷa, cipʷa-ŋa·curve, bend inward
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ntipʷa·curve, bend inward
Arosidiwa, didiwathe u-shaped groove at top of the main post in which the ridgepole rests 
Kwaiodikʷa, [ma]-dikʷabroken, break 

See also Proto-Micronesian *cipʷa₂ ‘tongs’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kupʷe, kupʷe-li ‘be bent, to bend (something).

PMc   *cipʷa₂   tongs

Saipan Caroliniantchibʷtongs, poker, animal prod, stick used in the roasting of breadfruit 
 tchibʷe-e-yto nudge, prod, or poke (something) 
Woleaianshibeshibeto take up with a fork 
 shibe-i-(e)take it up with a fork 
 shibe-t-(agi)be lifted up 
Pulo-Annansipʷato pick up with chopsticks or forks 
 sipʷasipʷachopsticks 
Proto-Chuukic*cipʷa, cipʷacipʷalifting sticks 
Pohnpeiantiipʷpair of sticks used to pick up hot rocks from an earth oven 
Kosraeansrʌfpliers, pincers, tongs 
 srʌfihold or pick up with pliers, pincers, tongs 

Reference may originally have been to a green stick that was bent (broken) to make tongs. See also Proto-Micronesian *cipʷa₁ ‘curve, bend inward’.

PMc   *ciwa   pertaining to the ear

see Proto-Micronesian *cua, cuacua.

PCMc   (?)   *co[wØ]a-   a fish

see Proto–Central Micronesian *tawu.

PMc   *cowu, cowu-ki   hand net

Chuukesecheew, chuu-, #cheewi-hand net, constellation Corona borealis, month name 
 chuu-nicatch (fish) with a net 
PuluwateseRoow,hand net, star and month name 
Saipan Carolinianshééw, shoowdipping net 
 shoowstar and month name 
 shoo-ghidip up (small fish) with a net 
Saipan Carolinian·TReewdipping net 
Saipan CarolinianReu-nidip up (small fish) with a net 
Woleaianshoou, shou-scoop net, Corona borealis 
 shoushoube capturing, scooping up 
 shou-gi-(i)capture it, scoop it 
 shou-gegibe captured, scooped 
Pulo-Annansoou, sou-net 
Proto-Chuukic*ceewu (?), cowu-, cowu-ki-·hand net
Pohnpeiantowtowscoop out 
Mokilesesoososcoop up with a net 
 soo-kto scoop (something) up with a net 
Pingilapesesowsowcatch with a net 
Marshallesedéwnet for washing arrowroot and soaking breadfruit 

— Cf. —

Bugotujaufishnet 
Arositausmall handnet 

PMc   *cua, cuacua or *ciwa   pertaining to the ear

PuluwateseRuwá-possessive classifier for earrings 
 RúwaRúwear as earrings 
 Rúwa-ni-(y)own as earrings 
Woleaianshúwa-possessive classifier for earrings 
 shúweshúwewear in ones ears 
 shúwe-li-(i)have as ones earrings 
Pulo-Annansúúe, súe-earrings 
 súesúeto wear earrings 
Proto-Chuukic*cúwa-, cúwacúwa, cúwa-ni·pertaining to the ear
Pohnpeiantia-tito wear earrings 
 tiεclassifier for earrings 
Mokilesesi, siɔ, sie-(n)ear, his ear, ear of 
 siasiclassifier for things worn in the ear 
Marshallesediyédéywear earrings 
 diye-possessive classifier for things worn on the ears 
 die-kwear (earrings) 
Kosraeansrʷε-ear, possessive classifier for ear decorations 
 srʷεsraput flowers behind the ears 
 srʷewear it behind the ear 

PMc   *cucu   tremble, shake

Chuukesechchú-nito possess him/her (of a spirit) 
 chchú-nóshade, shadow (representing a persons bad soul) 
Pohnpeiantito possess or inhabit a human body (of a spirit) 
Gilberteseruru, rurururuto tremble 
 ru-ato change, alter, take the place of (someone) 
Kosraean(ku)-srusrtremble, quake, vibrate 

— Cf. —

Marshallesetiweybe possessed (by evil spirit), to possess 
Kosraeansrʌ, sruo khold, catch 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *cece, cecece ‘shake, tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *cici ‘tremble’, Proto-Micronesian *rere ‘tremble (with fear)’.

PWMc   *cuu, cuu-ŋi   meet, encounter

Chuukesechumeet, come together 
 chuu-rimeet, encounter, or join him/her 
Mortlockeseshuu-ŋi·meet, encounter
PuluwateseRu, Ruu-ri·meet, encounter
Saipan Carolinianshuumeeting 
 shuu-ŋimeet, encounter (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·TRuu, Ruu-ŋi·meet, encounter
SatawaleseRuu, Ruu-ŋi, Ruu-Rumeet with (someone) 
Woleaianshuu, shuu-ŋi-(i)·meet, encounter
Proto-Chuukic*cuu, cuu-ŋi·meet, encounter
Pohnpeiantu·meet, encounter
Mokilesesube met, reached 
 su-ɔŋmeet (someone) 
Pingilapesesu-ɔŋ·meet, encounter
Marshallesediwgather to dance 

Kosraean su-n ‘to meet (someone), arrive at (a place)’ is presumably a loan.

PMc   *cuyi-   bone

Chuukesechúú, chúú-bone 
 chúúchúbony, skinny 
Puluwatesecúú·bone
Saipan Carolinianshúú·bone
SatawaleseRúú·bone
Woleaianshúú, shúú-·bone
Pulo-Annanssibone, thorn 
Sonsorolesesii·bone
Proto-Chuukic*cúyi·bone
Pohnpeiantiihis bone 
Mokilesesi, sii-·bone
Marshallesediy, diyi-·bone
Gilbertese(te)-rii, rii-·bone
Kosraeansri·bone
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*duRi·bone (Geraghty 1990) Cf. Proto–Eastern Oceanic zuRi (Geraghty 1983) and *cuRi (Geraghty 1990)
Fijiansui·bone
Sa’asuli·bone
Bugotuhuli·bone
Kwaiosuli [na]·bone
Proto-Oceanic*suRi·bone (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*[dD]uRi·bone

See also Proto-Chuukic *cúyicúyi ‘yard, boom (of canoe)’. Note that this example, along with Proto-Micronesian *mʷotu, mʷotu-Si ‘cut, sever, break off’, shows that pre Proto-Oceanic *ns merged with Pre POc *nd and *nt as Proto-Oceanic *d, contrary to present reconstructions for Proto-Oceanic (Grace 1969, Ross 1988). For further discussion and examples, see Goodenough (1992 fn. 6, 1997).

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