st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*k   

ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    

PMc   *ka-   causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals

Chuukesea-, á-, e-, é-, o-, ó-, -ka-, kka-, akka-, ákká-, ekke-, ékké-, okko-, ókkó-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Puluwateseya-, yá-, yé-, yó-, -ka-, kka-, akka-, ákká-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Saipan Caroliniana-, á-, ó-, kka-, akka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Woleaianga-, ge-, kka-, kke-, kkekka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Pulo-Annanka-, kka-, kakka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Proto-Chuukic*ka-, kka-, kakka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Pohnpeianka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Mokileseka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Marshalleseka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Gilberteseka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ka-·causative prefix, prefix forming ordinal numerals
Fijianka-prefix forming ordinal numerals 

Kosraean æk- is presumably from Proto-Micronesian *fa-ka.

PCMc   *ka-, kaka-   plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns

Chuukesekka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Puluwatesekka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Saipan Caroliniankka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Satawalesekka·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Woleaiankka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Ulithiankka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Pulo-Annanka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Proto-Chuukic*ka-, kka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Pohnpeianka-·plural prefix for demonstrative pronouns
Marshallesekéyinthese (cf. yin this) 
Gilbertese(a)-ka-(nne)those (cf. a-nne that one) 

PWMc   *ka[aØ]mami, -kamami   we (exclusive)

Chuukeseáámwe (exclusive) 
 -keem, -kem, -keemi-, -kemi-us (exclusive) 
Mortlockeseyáámem·we (exclusive)
Puluwateseyáámem·we (exclusive)
Saipan Carolinianyáámem, -ghámem·we (exclusive)
Saipan Carolinian·Táám, -gem·we (exclusive)
Satawaleseyáámem, káámem·we (exclusive)
Woleaiangaamami, -gemami·we (exclusive)
Pulo-Annankamami, -kamami·we (exclusive)
Proto-Chuukic*ka[aØ]mami, -kamami·we (exclusive)
Mokilesekam·we (exclusive)
Marshallesekémmém(eastern dialect) 

— Cf. —

Fijiankeimami·we (exclusive)

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*kami·we (exclusive)
Sa’a’ami·we (exclusive)
Laugami·we (exclusive)
Bugotugami·we (exclusive)
Lakalaiami-[teu]·we (exclusive)

See Jackson 1986:206. Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *kami ‘we (exclusive), us’.

PMc   *kaaSu, kakaaSu   to scratch

Chuukesekkéétitch, scratch an itch 
 (a)-kéttú, (é)-kéttúscratch it 
 (fisi)-kéét, -kéttú-scratch a lot, scratching 
Puluwatesekéétto itch 
Saipan Caroliniankkéét,to be scratchy, itchy, 
Woleaiankkéétúbe itchy (from eating raw a kind of nonswamp taro) 
Pulo-Annankkatú [sic]itch, an itchy feeling 
Proto-Chuukic*kkaadú·to scratch
Gilbertesekaari-(a)scratch it, scrape it 
Kosraeankakʌto scratch 
 kawito scratch (something) 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianpitikiidabe itchy from something 

PMc   *kacawa   open space between

Chuukeseachawbasaltic rock (presumably from féwú-n achaw rock of heaven) 
 achawplace in the sky world (latterly identified with Kosrae) 
 (sowu)-kachawLord of Achaw (a powerful spirit and dynastic ancestor) 
 (tona)-achawbasalt peak (a place on Wééné that was sacred to the cult of sowukachaw
Puluwateseyarawvolcanic rock 
Saipan Carolinianashawhard basaltic rock, rocky cliff 
 ashawplace in the sky world (now identified with Kosrae) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tarawhard basltic rock, rocky cliff 
Woleaiangeshaweshawebig flat rock at seaside (i.e., beachrock) 
Proto-Chuukic*kacawa·open space between
Pohnpeiankatawmythical place now identified with Kosrae 
 (dau)-katawa sky god 
Gilbertesekarawasky 
Kosraeankʌsraoheaven 
 (pe) kushrahorizon 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic(ka)-dawa·open space between
Fijiandawa-[ka]to extend as far as 
Pre-POc*nsawaŋ·open space between
Proto-Austronesian*sawaŋatmosphere, distance  (Blust 1970:141)

PCMc   *kacawu   cloud, rain

Chuukesekuchu, kuchuu-(n)cloud, cloud of 
Mortlockesewoshowcloud 
PuluwatesewoRowwhite cloud 
Saipan Carolinianushowrain 
SatawalesewoRow, oRowrain, rain cloud 
Woleaiangoshourain, rainfall, shower, downpour 
Pulo-Annankosourain cloud 
Proto-Chuukic*kocou·cloud, rain
Pohnpeiankεtεwrain, to rain 
Mokilesekɔsɔwcloud 
Marshallesekedawcloud, overcast 
Gilbertesekarauto rain 
 (te)-karaurain-water, rain 

See also Marck (1994:311) Proto-Micronesian *kat’awu. There is a problem with the Chuukese forms.

PCMc   *kace   throw

Chuukeseáche-e-(y)throw it 
Mortlockeseashe·throw
PuluwateseyáRe-(y)·throw
Saipan Carolinianakkesh, akkásh, ákkeshto throw 
 ashe-(y), ashe-e-(y)to throw (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·TakkaRto throw 
 aRe-(y)to throw (something) 
SatawaleseyaRe-(i)·throw
Woleaiangashe-e-(ye)·throw
Pulo-Annankase-di·throw
Sonsorolesekase-fi [sic]·throw
Proto-Chuukic*kace, kace-ti-·throw
Pohnpeiankatεto stone, throw rocks at 
Mokilesekaskasto throw 
 kasɔthrow (something) 
Marshallesekadkaduse a throwing net 
 kad, kadeythrow (a net) 
Gilbertesekareengage in throwing 
 kare-athrow (something) 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanosrʷosr, osrakthrow 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *kace ‘to tack (in sailing)’.

PMc   *kaci   a large black ant

Chuukesewu-kech, wu-kechi-(n)species of large ant, ant of 
Puluwatesewu-keR, wu-keRe-(n)·a large black ant
Saipan Carolinianwu-ghesh·a large black ant
Saipan Carolinian·Tu-geR·a large black ant
Woleaianu-geshi·a large black ant
Pulo-Annanu-kesi·a large black ant
Proto-Chuukic*wu-keci·a large black ant
Pohnpeiankaatant 
 keti-(tik)a small ant 
Marshallesekal-(lep) < *kad-(lep)big black ant 
Kosraeankasr-(kin), kasr-(lεp)a kind of ant 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kadi·a large black ant
Fijiankadia large kind of black ant that stings 

PMc   *kai₁   bite

Saipan Caroliniangheyto tear off the husk of coconut or sugarcane with the teeth 
 ghei-ŋi, ghéi-ŋito husk (something) with the teeth 
Woleaiangeigeito bite with the teeth, husk coconuts into smaller layers 
Pohnpeiankεykεyto bite 
 bite it 
Mokilesekεykεyto bite 
 bite (something) 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*kai·bite
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ka-i·bite
Proto-Polynesian*kaifood, to eat 
Sa’a‘a-[na]his food to eat 
Bugotuga-[gna]his food to eat 
Kwaio‘a-[na]a piece for him 
Uraustronesisch*ka·bite

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanŋei-dibite it (of meat) 

Saipan Carolinian·T ahey ‘to husk (something) with the teeth’ is an apparent loan from Saipan Carolinian. See also Proto-Micronesian *kaŋi, Proto-Micronesian *kana.

PMc   *kai₂   to inform

Pohnpeiankai-rnews 
 kai-reekito inform 
Pingilapesekai-reki-nto notify 
Marshallesekahyi-ŋ, kahyi-ŋisend a command to, inform 
 key-yaŋannouncement 
Kosraeankaito warn, advise, admonish (someone) 

There is a possibility that some of these are loans.

— Cf. —

Fijiankai-nakibe said 
 kay-ato say 
 i-kaikaisomething said 
Tongan‘aitell, inform 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *kae- or *kaya- ‘speak, tell’, Proto-Chuukic *yari ‘a fish’.

PMc   *kaila   be strong

Puluwatesekkel [sic]·be strong
Woleaiankkailestrong, healthy 
 (ge)-kkaila-(a)strengthen it, make it strong 
Proto-Chuukic*kkaila·be strong
Pohnpeiankεεlstrength 
 kεεlayl (<*kailaila)strong, healthy, powerful 
Pingilapesekeelstrength 
Gilbertesekaina-(matoa)implaccable 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kailastrong, firm 
Sa’a’a’aila-[‘a]firm, strong 
Arosi’a’aira-[‘a]strong, firm 

— Cf. —

Bugotukakaibe firm, steady, faithful 

PCMc   *kai-peti   driftwood

Chuukeseá-piipidriftwood, flotsam 
Puluwateseyá-peyipeyi [sic]driftwood 
Saipan Caroliniana-peipeydriftwood 
 peipeyflotsam, driftwood 
Satawalese‘yá-peyipeydriftwood 
Pulo-Annanka-peipeidriftwood 
Proto-Chuukic*ka-peipei·driftwood
Pohnpeiankεε-pεydriftwood 
Mokilesekɔɔ-peepedriftwood 
Gilbertese(te)-kai-betidriftwood 

The Gilbertese form makes sense as kai ‘wood’ and beti ‘drift’. The Proto-Chuukic form has reinterpreted the initial element meaning wood as a causative prefix and shortened the vowel accordingly. See Proto-Micronesian *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti ‘to float’.

PMc   *kaka, ka-Si, kaka-Si   tie thatch

Chuukesekkettie thatch to rafters 
 kketithatch it, tie thatch to it 
Puluwatesekáti-(y)tie (as sennit to thatch) 
Saipan Caroliniankkát, kketstringers used to tie thatch to a roof 
Woleaiankkatibe tied, tie, bind 
 kkati-i-(ye)tie it, bind it 
Proto-Chuukic*kkadi·tie thatch
Marshallesekéykéyto sew, stitch 
 kkétahakattachment, joint 
Gilbertesekakarito sew or tie on thatch 
Kosraeankæktie thatch to the roof 
 tie (it) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ka-si·tie thatch
Fijiankasi, kasi-natie a lot of things together, string things together 
Uraustronesisch*ka(ñ)ciŋfastener 

PMc   (?)   *kaka₁   cracked, split

Chuukese(sa)-kkakto split, crack, check (of wood or skin) (sa- of its own accord) 
Marshallesekek, kékcracked, split, chink 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kaka·cracked, split
Fijianka-cacracked, split 
 kaka-cacracked or split in many places 
Arosikakato split 
 kaka-sito split (something) 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kaka₂‘to make an intruding or interrupting sound’.

PMc   *kaka₂   to make an intruding or interrupting sound

Chuukesekak, kkak, kakkakring (as a bell), caw (as a bird), break (as a voice in speaking), sound of ringing 
Mortlockesekaaksound of cracking 
Proto-Chuukic*kaka, kkaka, kakka·to make an intruding or interrupting sound
Gilbertese(te)-kakaa kind of bird 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kaka·to make an intruding or interrupting sound
Fijiankakato stammer, stutter 
 kakaaany of several species of parrot 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *kaka₁ ‘cracked, split’.

PCMc   *kakaŋi   sharp

Chuukesekken·sharp
Mortlockesekkaŋ·sharp
Puluwatesekkáŋ·sharp
Saipan Caroliniankkáŋ·sharp
Saipan Carolinian·Tkkeŋ·sharp
Satawalesekkáŋ·sharp
Woleaiankkaŋi·sharp
Pulo-Annankkaŋi·sharp
Proto-Chuukic*kkaŋi·sharp
Pohnpeiankεŋ·sharp
Mokileseiŋkɔŋ·sharp
Marshallesekkaŋ·sharp
Gilbertesekakaŋ·sharp

— Cf. —

Kosraean(læl)-kʌŋsmart, intelligent, sharp, quick witted (probably a borrowing from Pohnpeian

PMc   *kala, ma-kala   break, cut, scatter

Saipan Carolinianma-ghalto scatter in different directions, disperse 
 ma-ghalaghalto be smashed 
 (bʷiti)-ghalle-(ló)to be mangled, torn, smashed, shredded (of flesh, meat, rotten vegetables) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tma-galagalto be smashed 
Woleaianme-galesplit, cut, divide, break, be dispersed 
 me-galegalescatter, disperse, be cracked up, be broken into pieces 
Pulo-Annanma-kanabe destroyed, broken, destroy, break 
Proto-Chuukic*ma-kala·break, cut, scatter
Gilbertesema-kanakanaeasily broken, not firm, weak, frail 
Kosraeankal, kalkʌlcut, shear, scissor, clip 
 kalkalfence, to separate or divide with fences 
Proto-Oceanic*kala·break, cut, scatter
Sa’a’alabreak off, lop, bite 
Laualabite 
Arosikarato cut 
Kwaio’alabite 
Lakalaikala-(hoho)bite down hard 

— See also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kaRa-tbite, hold in teeth  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Marshallese(peda)-kilkilcrumbled, shattered, broken in bits 

PCMc   *kalo   roll or twist fiber into rope

Chuukeseónaroll or twist (fiber) into cord or rope 
 kkónto roll or be rolled on the thigh (of fibers), kónne-e-(y) to roll or twist (fibers) together 
 kónne-e-(y)to roll or twist (fibers) together 
Puluwateseyólóólsennit rope, to braid sennit 
 yóle-e-(y)to braid (sennit) 
Woleaiangalogalosennit rope 
 galo-omake it into sennit 
Pulo-Annankanokanosennit cord 
Proto-Chuukic*kalo, kalokalo·roll or twist fiber into rope
Pohnpeiankɔlεto make (sennit) 
Mokilesekɔlkɔlto twist strands of coconut fiber to make string 
 kɔloto twist (strands), roll (a cigarette) 
Marshallesekʷkʷaḷcoconut fiber sennit, make sennit 
Gilbertesekanoaengage in twisting strands 
 kanoa-ato twist (strands of rope) together 

There is a problem with the added final a of the Gilbertese form.

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*galiŋto roll, twist 

See also Proto–Western Micronesian *kalo ‘loin cloth, skirt’.

PWMc   *kalo   loin cloth, skirt

Chuukeseón-(nomʷ), ón-(nomʷu)-(n)men's loin cloth, loin cloth of (a given type) (nomw stripping skin, bark, or leaves) 
Puluwatesewól-(lomʷ)womans loin cloth 
 wól-(lomʷo-ni-y)to use or own as a loin cloth 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *[kØ]alo-(lomʷo)·loin cloth, skirt
Pohnpeiankɔɔlgrass skirt worn by men 
 kɔlto wear a grass skirt 
Mokilesekɔlskirt made of leaves or grass 
Marshallesekaḷloin cloth, diaper 

— Cf. —

Yapesegaal'hibiscus tree, loin cloth or any cloth made of hibiscus bark 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *kalo ‘roll or twist fiber into rope’. Marshallese final consonant would call for final a in reconstructed form.

PWMc   *kami   we (exclusive), us

Chuukeseáám·we (exclusive), us
Saipan Carolinian·Táám·we (exclusive), us
Proto-Chuukic*kami·we (exclusive), us
Mokilesekam-·we (exclusive), us (root for dual and trial series) 
Marshallesekém·we (exclusive), us (western dialect) 
 kémʷ·we (exclusive), us (eastern dialect) 

See Jackson 1986:206. Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *ka[aØ]mami ‘we (exclusive), us.

PCMc   *kamii   you (plural)

Chuukeseáámiyou (plural) 
 -kemi, -keemii-you (plural object) 
Mortlockesekáámi, -kámi·you (plural)
Puluwateseyáámi·you (plural)
Saipan Carolinianáámi, -ghámi·you (plural)
Saipan Carolinian·Táámi, -gemi·you (plural)
Satawalesekámi·you (plural)
Woleaiangaamii, -gamii·you (plural)
Pulo-Annankaamii, -kamii·you (plural)
Proto-Chuukic*kaamii, -kamii·you (plural)
Marshallesekemiy·you (plural)
Gilbertese(ŋ)-kamiiyou (plural) 
 -kamiiyou (plural object) 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *kamʷu ‘you (plural).

PMc   *kamʷu   you (plural)

Pohnpeiankomʷ, komʷiyou (honorific) 
Marshallesekʷémʷ·you (plural)
Gilbertesekamʷ·you (plural)
Kosraeankom·you (plural)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kam[iØ]u·you (plural) (Geraghty 1983)
Bugotugamuyou 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*kam[iØ]u·you (plural)
Fijiankemu-(dou), kemu-(ni)·you (plural)
Sa’a’amu·you (plural)
Laugamu·you (plural)
Bugotugamu·you (plural)
Lakalaiamu-(tou)·you (plural)

— Cf. —

Pohnpeiankumʷayou (dual) 
 kumʷa-(il)you (plural) 
Mokilesekamʷayou (dual) 
 kamʷaiyou (plural) 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *kamii ‘you (plural).

PCMc   *kana, kai   habit, tendency

Chuukesekan, kayibe wont to, be in the habit of, be ones lot to, happen to 
Puluwatesekán, káyordinarily, commonly, for the moment 
Saipan Carolinianghalusually, regularly, habitually 
Saipan Carolinian·Tganusually, regularly, habitually 
Satawalesekanusually 
Woleaiangalegausually, habitually, only 
Pulo-Annankaeoften, usually 
 kanabe only 
Proto-Chuukic*kana, kai·habit, tendency
Marshallesekén, kkéyinused to (former habit) 
 kkayrepeatedly, usually, tend to, apt to 
 kkéyiniyto frequent, stay in touch with (distributive in form) 
Gilbertesekannearly, almost, soon 
 kan, kaniwant to, wish to 
 kaieasily, without difficulty, soon, readily 

There are problems here.

PMc   *kana, kani   food, eat (something)

Chuukeseana-(n)his cooked food (to eat) 
Puluwateseyana-(n)·food, eat (something)
Saipan Carolinianala-(l)·food, eat (something)
Saipan Carolinian·Tana-(n)·food, eat (something)
Woleaiangala-, gan-(ne)·food, eat (something)
Pulo-Annankana-·food, eat (something)
Proto-Chuukic*kana·food, eat (something)
Pohnpeiankana-possessive classifier for food 
Mokilesekana-(a), kene-(n)his food, food of 
Marshallesekaneat (something) 
 #kkanfood 
Gilbertesekana-(na)his food 
 kanaeat (something) 
 kann-a (<*kani-a)eat it 
Proto-Oceanic*kana, kani·food, eat (something)
Proto-Polynesian*kanieat 
Fijiankanaeat 
Bugotuganieat 
Lauanieat 
Kwaio’ani-[a]eat [something] 
Proto-Kimbe*qanieat 
Proto-Kimbe[il]-alifood 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’a-(na)for him to eat 
Bugotuga-(gna)his food to eat 
Uraustronesisch*ka, kaen·food, eat (something)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kaŋi‘eat (something)’, Proto-Micronesian *kai₁ ‘bite’.

PMc   *kanawa   a tree (Cordia subcordata)

Chuukeseanaw·a tree (Cordia subcordata)
Puluwateseyaanaw·a tree (Cordia subcordata)
Proto-Chuukic*[kØ]anawa·a tree (Cordia subcordata)
Mokilesekanawtree species 
Marshallesekeṇew·a tree (Cordia subcordata)
Gilbertese(te)-kanawaa tree 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*kanawaCordia spp  (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Kosraeankɔnyεbanyan tree 

Cf. Loans: Chuukese anné.

PMc   *kaŋi   eat (something)

Chuukeseáni, eni·eat (something)
Mortlockeseaŋε·eat (something)
Puluwateseyaŋi-(y)nibble, munch, eat it 
Saipan Carolinianaŋi·eat (something)
Satawaleseaŋi·eat (something)
Woleaiangaŋi-(i)·eat (something)
Pulo-Annankaŋi·eat (something)
Proto-Chuukic*kaŋi·eat (something)
Pohnpeiankaŋ·eat (something)
Marshallesekaŋ·eat (something)
Gilbertesekaŋeat (things, plural of kana
 kaŋkaŋpalatable, tasty 
Kosraeankaŋeat 
 kaŋkaŋeat a little at a time 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kana, kani ‘food’, ‘eat (something)’, Proto-Micronesian *kai₁ ‘bite.

PMc   *kapa   bundle of something

Woleaiangaape, gepa-(li)a kind of woven cloth that has only two stripes and is not well woven 
Pohnpeiankapakapbundle, sheaf 
 kεpε-(n)bundle of 
 kεpεto carry a bundle 
 -kapclassifier for bundle or sheafs in counting 
Marshallesekaproll or bolt of cloth 
Kosraeankæpbundle, sheaf, faggot 

PMc   *kapi   bottom, butt end

Chuukeseepi-, -kepi-·bottom, butt end
Mortlockeseaap, api-bottom 
Puluwateseyááp, yápi-·bottom, butt end
Saipan Carolinianááp, ápi-buttocks, hip, keel or bottom of a canoe 
Satawaleseyááp, yápi-bottom, buttocks 
Woleaiangaapi, gapi-keel or bottom (of canoe), hip (of person) 
Pulo-Annankaapi, kapi-end, hip, buttocks 
Proto-Chuukic*kapi·bottom, butt end
Pohnpeiankapi-·bottom, butt end
Mokilesekap, kapi-·bottom, butt end
Pingilapesekapi-bottom, end, south 
Marshallesekapi-·bottom, butt end
Gilbertese(te)-kabi·bottom, butt end
Kosraeankapi-(n)bottom of, end of 

See also Proto-Chuukic *kapilipili ‘elbow, heel’.

PCMc   *kapi-sa, kapi-si   oil for skin or hair, anoint

Chuukeseepi-t, epi-ta-(n)hair oil, his/her hair oil 
 epi-tianoint him/her with oil or perfume 
 kkepi-tbe anointed, perfumed 
Mortlockeseapi-teto oil, anoint 
Puluwateseyapi-ta-hair oil 
 yapi-ti-(y)anoint him/her 
Saipan Carolinianápi-tianoint (someone) 
 kkápi-tbe anointed 
 ákkápi-toil for anointing the body or hair 
Woleaiangapigepicoconut oil for anointing 
 gapi-ta-(le)his/her anointing oil 
 gapi-tioil the body, anoint 
 gapi-ti-(i)apply lubricant to it, anoint it 
Proto-Chuukic*kapi, kapi-da, kapi-di·oil for skin or hair, anoint
Pohnpeiankeyto anoint, apply to the skin as lotion 
 keyεto anoint (someone) 
Marshallese#pitpit, kkapi-trub with oil as a medical treatment, massage 
 kapi-trub (someone) with oil 
 kapi-te-oil (with possessive suffix) 
Gilbertesekabi-raanointing oil, to anoint (someone) 
 kabi-ri-aanoint him/her 

— Cf. —

Fijiankabi, kabi-taadhere, stick to 

Irregular loss of [sS] in Pohnpeian.

PCMc   *kapʷu, kakapʷu   dull

Chuukesekkopʷ, kkopʷu-·dull
Puluwatesekópʷ·dull
Saipan Caroliniankkóbʷ·dull
Saipan Carolinian·Tkkobʷ·dull
Woleaiankkabu·dull
Proto-Chuukic*kapʷu, kkapʷu·dull
Marshallesekkébʷ·dull
Gilbertesekabʷubʷu.·dull

PMc   *kara, kakara   burnt

Chuukesekkarbe burnt, scorched 
 (a)-kkarsun (lit. scorcher) 
 (a)-kkaracause it to be burnt 
Puluwatesekkar·burnt
Saipan Caroliniankkar·burnt
Woleaiankkare·burnt
Pulo-Annankkala·burnt
Proto-Chuukic*kkara·burnt
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kaRa-tburn (something)  (Geraghty 1990)
Uraustronesisch*ga(rR)aŋ·burnt

PMc   *kara, kara-si, kara-sa   to scrape

Marshallesekarscrape 
 karkarcut out copra meat from the shell 
 kera-tcut (it) out 
Gilbertesekaa-rascrape, cut with a draw knife, grave or groove (something) 
 kaa-ri-(a)scrape it 
Kosraean(?) kʌrʷεrεscrape, sharpen, scratch 
 kʌre-tscrape, sharpen, scratch (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*kara-sito peel (a sweet potato)  (Ross 1988)
Sa’akara, kara-si, ’ara-sito scrape 
Kwaio’ala’alarough, scratchy 
 ’ala-si-ato scrape, scratch 
Proto-Kimbe*ka[rz]asharp, piercing 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*karkar·to scrape

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si, Proto-Micronesian *kari‘to scratch’, Proto-Micronesian *karu ‘to scrape, grate’.

PMc   *karakara   tern

Chuukesearaarwhite tern 
Puluwateseyaraara king or sooty tern 
Saipan Carolinianaraarspecies of small, black bird 
Woleaiangaregaregray-backed tern 
Proto-Chuukic*karakara·tern
Gilbertese(te)-kaakaaa bird 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kaRaparrot  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Marshallesekeyyarcrested tern 
Fijiankarato scold, to cry (of a parrot), to bark (of a dog) 
Sa’a’a’alarge green parrot 

PCMc   *karani   near, close

Pohnpeiankεrεnnear, close 
 karani-ibe near or close to 
Mokilesekɔrɔn·near, close
Gilbertesekaannear, close to 
 kaani-ato approach (someone or something) 

— Cf. —

Chuukesekkanbe near, close (? <*kanni <*karni
Marshallesekarʷahanbe with, accompany 
Rotuman‘ele, ‘ele-abe near, be near to 

PCMc   *karau   heron

Chuukeseéré, éréé-(n)heron, heron of 
Woleaiangéréé·heron
Proto-Chuukic(?) *karaú·heron
Gilbertese(te)-kaai.·heron

PMc   *kari   to scratch

Chuukeseerikeriscratch it 
 (fa)-arikerscratch lightly on a persons leg (as a signal) 
 (pʷeyi)-kercoconut grater 
Mortlockeseaikérbe scratched 
 aikarεscratch (something) 
Puluwateseyáriker, kerikerscratch 
 keri-(y)scratch it 
Saipan Caroliniangherigher, gheregherto scratch 
 gheriscratch, or grate (something) 
Satawalesekeriker·to scratch
Woleaiangerigeriscratch, rub 
Pulo-Annankelikeli·to scratch
Proto-Chuukic*karikari·to scratch
Pohnpeiankεri-(pʷud)scratch (as when itching) 
 kari- (pʷudε)scratch (an itch) 
Mokilesekari-(pʷɔd)to scratch 
 kari-(pʷɔdɔ)scratch (something) 
Marshallese(?) karscratch, scrape  (but see Proto-Micronesian *kara, kara-si, kara-sa ‘to scrape’ and Proto-Micronesian *karu ‘to scrape, grate’)
Proto-Oceanic*karisscratch  (Ross 1988)
Fijiankarito scrape, especially a coconut 
Bugotukarito scrape, of coconut 
 karia rasp 
Uraustronesisch*garis·to scratch

— Cf. —

Proto-Kimbe*kasito scrape, scratch 
Kwaiokolito scratch 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si ‘scraped, to scrape’, Proto-Micronesian *kara, kara-si, kara-sa ‘to scrape’, Proto-Micronesian *karu ‘to scrape, grate’, Proto–Western Micronesian *ŋani‘to, toward’.

PCMc   *kari   tired, exhausted

Chuukeseer, kkerbe tired of doing something 
 (kká)-árrunning race 
 (kká)-ári-(n waa-fétún)paddle-canoe race 
Saipan Carolinianghárbe very tired, exhausted (as from carrying a heavy load) 
 kkár, kkergive up, surrender (as when tired of arguing), be fed up, frustrated 
Saipan Carolinian·Tgárbe tired, exhausted (as from carrying a heavy load) 
Woleaiangaribe tired of, be sick of 
Proto-Chuukic*kari·tired, exhausted
Gilbertesekaibe in trouble, in straits, in difficulty 

— Cf. —

Kwaio(kʷaikʷai)-’ali-ito race, compete with (kwai mutually) 
 ali-ato best in competition, outdo 

PMc   *karu   to scrape, grate

Chuukese(a)-arú-(ŋi)grind ones teeth 
Puluwateseyarú-(ŋiy)click ones teeth 
 kérúkérgrate or scrape (as coconut or breadfruit), shave 
 kéru-(u-w)grate, scrape, shave (something) 
Saipan Carolinianghúrú, ghérúto scrape or grate (something) 
 ghúrúghúrto scrape or grate 
Woleaiangerú-(ú)grind it, shave it, crush it 
 gerú-gerúgrind, be ground, shave, crush 
Pulo-Annankalúkalúcoconut grater 
Proto-Chuukic*karú·to scrape, grate
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*karu·to scrape, grate
Sa’akáru, kárukeruto scratch with the nails 
Uraustronesisch*garusscratch 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesekerumake a gnawing sound 
 (kama)-kerukerugrind the teeth (presumably a loan from a Polynesian source) 

— Cf. also —

Saipan Carolinian·T(aha)-ŋúrúto grind (something) with the teeth 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si ‘scraped, to scrape’, Proto-Micronesian *kara, kara-si, kara-sa ‘to scrape’, Proto-Micronesian *kari ‘to scratch’.

PMc   *karuki   white sand crab or ghost crab

Mortlockese(li)-kkérúk·white sand crab or ghost crab
Puluwateseyárik, yárike-(n)a kind of small edible crab 
Saipan Carolinianarigh, árigh·white sand crab or ghost crab
Saipan Carolinian·Tarig·white sand crab or ghost crab
Woleaiangaripibeach crab (given as gariki in Bender et al. 1984
Sonsorolesekalikikind of crab 
Proto-Chuukic*karúki·white sand crab or ghost crab
Marshallesekarikʷ·white sand crab or ghost crab
Gilbertesekauki·white sand crab or ghost crab
Kosraeankuluk·white sand crab or ghost crab
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kuRuikisand crab  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Austronesian*kaRuki·white sand crab or ghost crab (Blust 1983–84:64)

— Cf. —

Chuukeseni-kkéwhite sand crab 

PMc   *kaseki   a fish

Chuukeseetik, etiki-(n)lethrinid fish (good eating), fish of 
Saipan Carolinianátighspecies of edible fish found outside reef 
Proto-Chuukic*[kØ]ad[ei]ki·a fish
Pohnpeiankadεkfish species 
Mokilesekadekfish species, kind of emperor fish 
Marshallesekatekwrasse (Epibulus insidiator
Kosraeankætʌka kind of fish 

— Cf. —

Chuukesefeyisiyuua fish (Epibulus insidiator

PMc   *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa   spit, spittle

Chuukeseóttif, ótiffa-(n)saliva, spittle, to spit, spit at, his spit (variants: óttuf, attof, óttof
 óttifa, attofa, attufato spit at it 
 óttife-(yiti), óttofe-(yiti)to spit on him/her 
Puluwateseyóttúfsaliva, sputum 
 óttúfeto spit 
 óttúfe-(yiti-y)to spit on it 
Saipan Carolinianóttufsaliva, to spit 
Proto-Chuukic*kaddifa·spit, spittle
Pohnpeiankendipto spit 
Mokileseandipto spit 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*kadidifa·spit, spittle
Proto-Oceanic*kasip + a·spit, spittle
Fijiankasivito spit 
 kasivi-taspit on or at 
Kwaio‘asito spit on, spray 

— Cf. —

Ulawanásiheto sneeze 
Arosi‘asiheto sneeze 

PMc   *ka[sS]o   rafter

Mortlockeseóótpole or beam used in building a house 
Puluwateseyóótverticle house rafter 
Satawaleseyóótdiagonal rafter 
Woleaiangaato, gato-thatch rafter of a house 
Proto-Chuukic*kado·rafter
Mokilesekad-(dal)rafter (loan from Marshallese?) 
Marshallesekat-(tal)horizontal rafter 
Proto-Oceanic*kaso·rafter (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*kaso·rafter
Fijian[i]-kasooutrigger boom 
Sa’a’ato·rafter
Bugotugaho·rafter
Kwaio’ato·rafter
Lakalaiaro·rafter
Uraustronesisch*kasaw·rafter

PMc   *kata   talk loudly

Chuukesekasakastalk aloud 
Mortlockesekasakasloud talking 
Saipan Caroliniankkas, kkasa-(l)language, speech, his language 
Woleaiankkaseforeign language, speak a foreign language 
Proto-Chuukic*kata·talk loudly
Pohnpeiankaas [sic]speak in anger, boast 
Marshallesekaj, kkajkajidiom, language, motto, pun, saying, slang 
Gilbertesekaka-(rabakau)conspire, plot insurrection (showing *t to k after *k
Kosraeankæsword, speech, language, chirp, cheep 
 kæskæstalk, chirp repeatedly 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kata·talk loudly
Proto-Polynesian*katato laugh 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annankada-(mmani)be funny, amusing (mmani laugh) 
Mokilesekójóia story 
Fijiankarascold, object, rebuke 
Lakalai(vi)-karato speak, language 
Proto-Austronesian*kaRispeak, language  (Blust 1970:129)
Proto-Austronesian*keraqchattering of monkeys  (Blust 1970:129)

— Cf. also —

Bugotugaegaheto boast 

Yapese gaas ‘speak a foreign language’ appears to be a loan from a Chuukic source.

PWMc   *katama   doorway, entrance, gateway

Chuukeseasam·doorway, entrance, gateway
Mortlockeseasam·doorway, entrance, gateway
Puluwateseyaham·doorway, entrance, gateway
Saipan Carolinianasam·doorway, entrance, gateway
Saipan Carolinian·Taham·doorway, entrance, gateway
Satawaleseasam·doorway, entrance, gateway
Woleaiangetame·doorway, entrance, gateway
Pulo-Annankatama·doorway, entrance, gateway
Proto-Chuukic*katama·doorway, entrance, gateway
Marshallesekejam·doorway, entrance, gateway

PMc   *katea   lee side of a sailing canoe

Chuukeseásá·lee side of a sailing canoe
Puluwateseyáhálee side of a sailing canoe 
 yáhá, yákkáhásteer before the wind 
Satawaleseákkásácanoe helm, rudder 
Woleaiangetaa·lee side of a sailing canoe
Proto-Chuukic*katea or *katae·lee side of a sailing canoe
Pohnpeiankasaaits (canoes) side opposite the outrigger 
Marshallesekejah, kejaha-(n)·lee side of a sailing canoe
Gilbertese(te)-katea·lee side of a sailing canoe
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*katea·lee side of a sailing canoe
Proto-Polynesian*katea·lee side of a sailing canoe

— Cf. —

Saipan Carolinianásáa voyage by canoe, to sail a canoe or voyage by canoe (intepreted as a causative constructed from sááy

Note that the Gilbertese form could be a loan from a Polynesian source as well as directly inherited from Proto-Micronesian. Kosraean (fa)-kata ‘turn a ship to port’ is an apparent loan.

PMc   *katuu   mast (of a canoe)

see Proto-Micronesian *kautu or *katuu.

PWMc   *kau, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri   call, call to

Chuukesekké, kkéé-(wu), kékkécall, cry, shout 
 kkéé-ricall to, shout to 
Puluwatesekékkéto call, crow 
Saipan Carolinianghékké, kkékké and Crn gékkéto crow (of rooster) 
Woleaiankkéé, kkékkéécrow (as a rooster) 
Pulo-Annankkaúsalute, greet 
Proto-Chuukic*kkaú·call, call to
Pohnpeiankεε-rto call (as in to give someone a bad name), to badmouth 
Mokilesekee-reto bow to, pay homage to (someone) 
 kee-reekbow, pay homage 
Marshallesekki-rcall, crow, invitation, summons 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianεkεrto call, to summon 

— Cf. also —

Bugotukuakualacry out, call 

There are problems with the Marshallese vowel.

PMc   *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta   fishhook, catch with hook

Chuukeseéé, éé-fishhook 
 éé-yihook it 
Puluwatesekéé, yééfishhook 
 yéé-yá-(á-tiw)hook it down (in picking breadfruit) 
Saipan Carolinianghéé·fishhook, catch with hook
Saipan Carolinian·Tgéé·fishhook, catch with hook
Satawalesekéé·fishhook, catch with hook
Woleaiangéé, géé-fishhook 
 géé-si-(i)hook it 
 géé-tagibe hooked 
Pulo-Annankaaú, kaú-·fishhook, catch with hook
Sonsorolesekaaú·fishhook, catch with hook
Proto-Chuukic*kaú, kaú-ti·fishhook, catch with hook
Pohnpeiankεε-s, kεε-sεfishhook, hook it 
Mokilesekɔɔ-s·fishhook, catch with hook
Marshallesekaya-j, kay-ji-fishhook 
 kaw-jékcaught on a hook 
Gilbertese(ua)-kaitwo fishhooks 
Kosraeankafishhook 
 ka-icatch with a hook 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kawi-t·fishhook, catch with hook
Bugotukaube caught, hung up, entangled 
Arosi’awia hook 
Uraustronesisch*kawit·fishhook, catch with hook

— Cf. —

Proto-Austronesian*kawiN or *kawil·fishhook, catch with hook (Wolff 1993)

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic (?) *kaúta ‘sibling-in-law of same sex, affinal relative.

PCMc   *ka-uae   whistle

See Proto-Micronesian *uae, ka-uae to whistle (of humans).

PCMc   *kausaa   a pelagic fish

Chuukeseowutaspecies of tuna (skipjack) 
Saipan Carolinianówutaspecies of edible fish found outside reef 
Proto-Chuukic*[kØ]awudaa·a pelagic fish
Gilbertese(te)-kairaaa fish 

PMc   (?)   *kautiwa   east

Chuukeseéétiweast 
 éétiwá-(áfen)northeast 
Puluwateseéétiw, éétiwa-(afáŋ)·east
Woleaiangootuwe, gootuwa-(afaŋi)·east
Pulo-Annankatúwa [sic]·east
Proto-Chuukic(?) *ka[uØ]d[iu]wa·east
Marshallesekawtéwnortheast tradewind 
Kosraeankʌtʌ-(lεp)·east

PMc   *kautu or *katuu   mast (of a canoe)

Chuukeseéwú, éwúú-·mast (of a canoe)
MortlockeseaWú·mast (of a canoe)
Puluwateseyaawu [sic], yaayúw [sic]·mast (of a canoe)
Saipan Carolinianayú·mast (of a canoe)
Satawaleseyaú·mast (of a canoe)
Woleaiangaúsú·mast (of a canoe)
Pulo-Annankaúdú·mast (of a canoe)
Proto-Chuukic*kaútú·mast (of a canoe)
Pohnpeiankεεw·mast (of a canoe)
Mokilesekeew·mast (of a canoe)
Marshallesekajiw, kijiw·mast (of a canoe)
Gilbertesekaututop part of a tree, a chief of high rank 
Kosraeankʷesu·mast (of a canoe)

Marshallese and Kosraean reflect the second reconstruction;note that the Kosraean form may be a loan because Kosraean lacked a local sailing tradition.

PMc   *kawa-, kawakawa   a fish

Mortlockeseawaawa reef fish 
Woleaiangawegawea fish (Chlorurus pulchellus
Proto-Chuukic*kawakawa·a fish
Pohnpeiankookodolphin fish (Coryphoena hippurus) (loan from Marshallese?) 
Mokilesekookodolphin fish (loan from Marshallese?) 
Marshallesekéwkéwdolphin fish (Coryphoena hippurus
Gilbertese(te)-kawa-(riki)a fish 
Kosraeankʷεwe-(n lɒ t)dolphin 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kawakawa·a fish
Proto-Polynesian*kawakawaa species of fish 

— Cf. —

Puluwateseyawésnapper fish 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qawa?milkfish  (Blust 1984–85)

PCMc   *ka[wØ]o   newly born, infant

Chuukese(ni)-kkóbaby girl 
 (wu)-kkóbaby boy 
 kóókóbaby (up to three months) 
Puluwatese(li)-kkó, (wu)-kkó·newly born, infant
Saipan Carolinianghóóghó·newly born, infant
Saipan Carolinian·Tgóógó·newly born, infant
Woleaian(li)-kkóó, kkókkóó·newly born, infant
Proto-Chuukic*-kkóó, kóókóó·newly born, infant
Marshallesekawfetus, embryo, still-born baby 
Gilbertese(te)-kaoumbilical cord 

PWMc   (?)   *kaye   hurry, move quickly

Chuukesekkáy, kákkáybe fast, be quick, hurry 
 kkáye-(nó), kkáyi-(nó)hurry away 
 kkáye-(to), kkáyi-(to)hurry hither 
Puluwatesekkaybe fast 
 kkayi-(to)come quickly 
Saipan Caroliniankkáybe prompt, fast, quick, rapid 
Saipan Carolinian·Tkkaybe prompt, fast, quick, rapid 
Woleaiankkeyetravel far, fly (by the force of some agent) 
Proto-Chuukic*kkaye·hurry, move quickly
Pohnpeiankεy-(do)move toward speaker 
 kay-(do)move (something) toward speaker 
Marshallesekayturn, shift, change (as of wind) 

Possible problems here.

PMc   *kayi   we (exclusive, subject marker)

Chuukeseáyi-·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Puluwateseyáy·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Saipan Carolinianay·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Satawaleseyáy·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Woleaiangai·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Pulo-Annankai·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Proto-Chuukic*kayi·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kai·we (exclusive, subject marker)
Fijiankai-we [exclusive]  (Geraghty 1983)

See Proto-Chuukic *kawú ‘you (plural, subject marker).

PMc   *kayinaŋa   clan, folk, tribe, stock

Chuukeseeyinaŋ, eyinaŋa-(n)matrilineal clan or sib., clan of 
Mortlockeseainaŋa-(n)·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Puluwateseyáyinaŋ·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Saipan Carolinianailaŋ·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Saipan Carolinian·Tainaŋ·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Satawaleseailaŋa-(n)·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Woleaiangailaŋeclan, tribe, tribal division 
Pulo-Annankainaŋafamily, land, home, village, estate 
Proto-Chuukic*kayinaŋa·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kainaŋa·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Haw‘ainana·clan, folk, tribe, stock
Tikkainaŋa·clan, folk, tribe, stock

— Cf. —

Pohnpeiankεynεklineage, extended family, clan 

Note that Gilbertese kaaiŋa ‘ancestral residence’ is a loan from Samoan, as is Gilbertese kaaina ‘inhabitant, occupant, citizen’.

PMc   *kayu   wood, pole

Chuukeseeyi-(ni-wow)pole for carrying 
 éwú-(chamʷ)crossbeam of a house 
Puluwateseyéé-(Ramʷ), yéé-yi-Ramʷhouse beam 
Saipan Caroliniangháyi-, ghayú-penis (men's talk) 
Woleaiangaai, gai-penis 
 geú-(shamʷ)tie-beam of a house 
Pulo-Annankaai, kai-penis 
Proto-Chuukic*kai, kayu-·wood, pole
Marshallesekaya-n, kéyi-ntree, tree trunk, torso 
Gilbertese(te)-kai-(ni-)(in compounds) stick for 
 (te)-kai-(na)pandanus tree (the important food tree historically) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanickayuwood  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiankacuwood 
Sa’a’aia tree 
Bugotugaitree, spear shaft 
Arosi’aitree 
Kwaio’aitree, branch, stick 
Proto-Kimbe*qaitree 
Uraustronesisch*kahiw·wood, pole (Dyen)
Uraustronesisch*kayu·wood, pole (Dempwolff)

— Cf. —

Yapesegaak’iytree, wood, shrub, plant 

PMc   *keli, keli-ŋi-   dig

Chuukesessindig up root crops 
 sin-ni, sini-nidig it up (of root crops) 
Puluwatesekel, keli-ŋi-(y)·dig
Saipan Caroliniankkeldig a hole with a digging implement 
 kkeli-ŋidig (a hole) with an implement 
 gheli-ŋidig up (something) 
Satawalesekkeldig 
Woleaiankeli, keli-ŋi-(i)·dig
Pulo-Annankeni-ŋi·dig
Proto-Chuukic*keli, keli-ŋi-·dig
Gilbertesekenikendig 
Kosraeankʌlkʌldig, turn up 
 kilʌ-ŋdig (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*keli·dig
Proto-Polynesian*keli·dig
Fijiankeli, keli-a, keli-ca·dig
Sa’a'elidig 
 'eli-ŋadigging 
Proto-Willaumez*Keli·dig

— Cf. —

Lakalaioli, oli-adig with a shovel 

PMc   *ki, kiki   move, be moved

Chuukeseki, kii-be lifted, moved 
 kkikmove, change location 
Puluwatesekiki-(tiw) [sic]slip and fall 
Woleaiankkihappen, occur, show up, come 
 kki-(togo)come (to speaker) 
Proto-Chuukic*kki, kikki·move, be moved
Gilberteseki [sic]go 
 ki-(wati)stand away, give place 
 ki-(mai)come here 
Kosraeankimove 

PCMc   *kiakia   white or fairy tern

Chuukeseesiyes, ekiyek(showing metathesis) 
Puluwatesekiyekiy·white or fairy tern
Saipan Carolinianghiyeghi·white or fairy tern
Saipan Carolinian·Tgiyegi·white or fairy tern
Woleaiangiyegiye·white or fairy tern
Pulo-Annankiekiebutterfly 
Proto-Chuukic*kiakia·white or fairy tern
Gilbertesekiakiaa bird 

PMc   *kiaZo   outrigger boom

Chuukesekiyó, kiyóó-·outrigger boom
Mortlockesesiye·outrigger boom
Puluwatesekiyó·outrigger boom
Saipan Carolinianghiyó, ghiiyó, kkiyó·outrigger boom
Satawalesekiyó·outrigger boom
Woleaiangiyóó·outrigger boom
Pulo-Annankiao·outrigger boom
Proto-Chuukic*kiao·outrigger boom
Pohnpeiankiaystrut supporting outrigger 
Mokilesekiastruts on outrigger 
Pingilapesekia·outrigger boom
Marshallesekiyéy·outrigger boom
Gilbertese(te)-kiaro·outrigger boom
Kosraeankiyεs·outrigger boom
Proto-Oceanic*kiajo, kiado·outrigger boom (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*kiato·outrigger boom

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*katiR·outrigger boom

For discussion of Proto-Oceanic *j (there *z), see Goodenough (1992, fn. 8). See also Ross (1988:79, 344).

PMc   *kica   we (inclusive), us

Chuukesekiich, -kich·we (inclusive), us
Mortlockesekiish, -kish·we (inclusive), us
PuluwatesekiiR, -kiR·we (inclusive), us
Saipan Carolinianghiish·we (inclusive), us
Saipan Carolinian·TgiiR·we (inclusive), us
SatawalesekiiR, -kiR·we (inclusive), us
Woleaiangiishe, -gishe·we (inclusive), us
Pulo-Annankiisa·we (inclusive), us
Proto-Chuukic*kica·we (inclusive), us
Pohnpeiankiit, -kit·we (inclusive), us
Mokilesekiis·we (inclusive), us
Pingilapesekiis·we (inclusive), us
Gilbertese(ŋa)-ira·we (inclusive), us
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kida·we (inclusive), us
Proto-Polynesian*kita·we (inclusive), us
Fijiankeda·we (inclusive), us

Note that Marshallese kéj and Kosraean kʌt, kitε--(l) indicate a Proto-Micronesian doublet *kita.

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kita·we (inclusive), us (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’aki’e·we (inclusive), us
Ulawanki’a·we (inclusive), us
Bugotugita·we (inclusive), us
Proto-Oceanic*kita·we (inclusive), us (Ross 1988)
Uraustronesisch*kita·we (inclusive), us

Pohnpeic reflexes are for ‘we (exclusive)’.

PMc   *kie, kiekie   plaited mat

Chuukesekiyeki, kiye-, kiya-plaited pandanus mat, mat of 
Mortlockesekiyeké [sic]·plaited mat
Puluwatesekiyeki, kiye-·plaited mat
Saipan Carolinianghiye-·plaited mat
Saipan Carolinian·Tgiya-·plaited mat
Satawalesekiyeki·plaited mat
Woleaiangiyegiye·plaited mat
Pulo-Annankiia, kia-·plaited mat
Proto-Chuukic*kiye·plaited mat
Pohnpeiankiε-thing to sleep on 
Mokilesekiɔ, kie-(n)his mat, mat of 
Marshallese(?) kiyi-side of a house, wall 
Gilbertese(te)-kie·plaited mat
Kosraeankiε-, kia-ka·plaited mat
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kiRe·plaited mat (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Polynesian*kiekiepandanus 
Sa’ailePandanus odoratissimus 
Arosikirepandanus 
Kwaio’ilepandanus variety 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’i’e-lito plait 

PMc   *kiepʷu   spider lily

Chuukesesiipʷ, #sipʷpʷe-(n), kiyopʷ, kiyopʷu-(n)variety of spider lily, spider lily of 
Mortlockesekiyopʷ·spider lily
Puluwatesekiyopʷ, kiyopʷú-(n)a broad-leafed spider lily 
Saipan Carolinianghiyobʷ·spider lily
Saipan Carolinian·Tgiyobʷ·spider lily
Satawalesekiyopʷu·spider lily
Woleaiangiyebua land plant (Crinum sp.) 
 giyobubroad-leafed spider lily, white lily 
Pulo-Annankiyopʷuspider lily 
Proto-Chuukic*kiepʷu·spider lily
Pohnpeiankiεpʷlily sp. 
Marshallesekiyébʷa plant (Crinum asiaticum
Gilbertese(te)-kiebʷua lily 
Kosraeankiyʌfspider lily 

Note that Chuukese kiyopʷ is an apparent loan from Mortlockese or Pul.

PMc   (?)   *kiiV, kiV-   adze

Pohnpeiankiishell adze made from the shell of the giant clam 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kiRa·adze (Geraghty 1990)
Sa’a’ilestone axe 
Bugotukiekiletomahawk set on a long handle for fighting, axe, adze 
Laukilastone axe 
Arosi’irastone axe or adze 
Kwaio’ilaflint, flint tool 
Proto-Kimbe*qilaadze 

— Cf. —

Chuukesekii-pertaining to shell fish or other marine life 

PMc   *kila, kila-a, kila-i   to know

Chuukesesineknow how (to do something), be skilled 
 sine-e-(fichi-i-y)know it well 
 sine-e-(y)know him/her/it (a person, idea, intention) 
 sine-e-(ya-n)his knowledge (based on verbal explanation) 
Mortlockesekúle-e-(y)know him 
Puluwatesekúle-e-(y)find it, know it, understand it 
Saipan Carolinianghuleto know, learn 
 ghule-e-(y)to know (someone or something), be acquainted with (someone) 
 (a)-ghule-e-(y)to let (someone) know something 
 (yaké)-kkúle-e-(y)teach (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tguleto know, to learn 
 gule-e-(y)to know (someone or something), be acquainted with (someone) 
Satawalesekúle-e-(y)know him 
Woleaiangilebe clear, seen clearly, recognized 
Proto-Chuukic*kila, kila-i; kula, kula-a, kula-i·to know
Pohnpeiankila-(ŋ)to see, discern, look at, observe, examine 
Marshallesekileyrecognize, realize, distinguish, be familiar with, identify, notice, perceive 
Gilbertesekina-arecognize, know 
 kina-i-(a)recognize him 
Kosraean(a)-kile-(n)notice (tr.) 
 (se-a)-kile-(n)unable to recognize 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kila·to know
Fijiankila, kila-ato know, understand 
Proto-Austronesian*kilat, kulatopen the eyes wide  (Blust 1989:145)

— Cf. —

Proto-Austronesian*keNarecognize at a glance, understand  (Wolff 1993)

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *kilala sign, symbol.

PMc   *kilala   sign, symbol

Chuukesesiin, sissiinknown as fact 
 (e)-sissin, (e)-sissinna-(n)sign, symbol, sign of it 
 (e)-sinna, (e)-sissinnasignify it, symbolize it, guess it (of a riddle) 
Puluwatesekikkillmark with a taboo 
Woleaianginnemark, visible symbol 
 (ga)-ginneomen 
Proto-Chuukic*killa·sign, symbol
Pohnpeiankilεlsign, mark, picture 
 kilεlεphotograph it 
Mokilesekilelpicture, photograph 
 kileletake a picture of 
 kilele-e-(di)mark for reciprocal bad treatment 
Marshallese(ka)-keḷḷeysign, symbol 
Proto-Oceanic*kilala·sign, symbol
Sa’ailalatake an augury 
Lauinaladiscern by casting lots 
Bugotugithathato know, be aware of, recognize 
Arosi’irarato know, understand, perceive, divination 
Lakalaiilalatime or date of an event 

— Cf. also —

Saipan Carolinianghilighilbe marked for later use or recognition 
Saipan Carolinian·Tgiligilbe marked for later use or recognition 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *kila, kila-a, kila-i to know.

PMc   *kima   tridachna clam

Chuukesesiim, #siime-(n), #simme-(n)medium sized tridachna shell, tridachna shell of 
Puluwatesehiim, himá-(n)·tridachna clam
Saipan Caroliniansiimtridachna clam (said to be loan from Chuukese
Woleaiansúúme, súma-(li)·tridachna clam
Mokilesekimclam sp. 
Gilbertesekiima, (te)-kima·tridachna clam
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kima·tridachna clam
Sa’a’imabear's-paw clam 
Uraustronesisch*kima·tridachna clam

It looks as if the Chuukese, Mokilese, and Gilbertese forms are inherited reflexes of the Uraustronesisch, whereas the Puluwatese, Saipan Carolinian, and Woleaian are loans from Chuukese.

— Cf. —

Yapesekiimgiant clam 
Palauankimtype of large clam 

— Cf. also —

Marshallesekkimclose tight (as a clam) 
 kimi-jclose it tight 

PMc   *kina, kina-ta   cut, wound, sore, scar

Chuukesekinasa cut, cut wound, be cut or wounded 
 (e)-kinasacut or wound him 
Puluwatesekinahopen sore, wound, scar, be cut or wounded 
Saipan Carolinianghilasa wound, cut 
Saipan Carolinian·Tginaha wound, cut 
Woleaiangilatebe wounded, injured 
Proto-Chuukic*kilata·cut, wound, sore, scar
Marshallesekiné-jwound, scar 
 kinéj-néjbe wounded, marred 
Gilbertesekinanicked, marred, defaced 
 kinakadisease of the skin, be afflicted with this disease (*t > k after k
Kosraeankinetwound, cut, scar 

PMc   *kini, kini-ti, kini-ta   pick, pinch off

Chuukesekinbe cut, separated, segmented, picked (of fruit) 
 kinikinpartition, division, section 
 kini-i-(y)cut it, divide it, pick it 
Puluwatesekinikinpart, section, division 
 kini-(y)divide it, slice, break it into pieces, break it off 
Saipan Carolinianghillto pick fruit from a tree 
 ghilito harvest or pick (fruit or leaves from a tree) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tginto pick fruit from a tree 
Woleaiangilito pick, pluck with the hands 
 giligilidivide into small pieces, slice, apportion, womans cutter for banana fibers 
 gili-i-(ye)cut it, slice it, apportion it 
Pulo-Annankinito pick up (fruit) 
 kini-(e)section of a house marked off by a partition 
 kini-dipick it up 
Proto-Chuukic*kini, kini-ti·pick, pinch off
Pohnpeiankinikinto pinch kini-(i) to pinch (something) 
 kini-(i)to pinch (something) 
Mokilesekin, kinkinpinch with the nails, cut grass, pluck feathers, pick flowers 
 kinipinch , etc. (something) 
Marshallesekin-ji-(y)pinch with fingernails 
Gilbertesekini-ka, kinikini-kato nip (something) (*t > k after k
Kosraeankinpick, pinch 
 kini-spick or pinch (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*kinit·pick, pinch off
Fijiankini, kini-tapinch with the nails 
Samoan‘inipinch, nip 
Sa’a’inipinch, pluck 
Lauinito pinch 
Kwaio’inipinch, squeeze 
Proto-Kimbe*qinito pick leaves, to weed 
Proto-Austronesian*kinit·pick, pinch off (Blust 1986:51)

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*kiñitpinch  (Blust 1978:59)

PWMc   *kinia   coarse mat

Chuukesesini, kini(in compounds only) made of coconut frond matting 
 kini, kiniye-(n), #kinii-(n)kind of mat (made of coconut leaves with midribs down the middle of the mat, mat of, to be made of such matting 
Puluwatesekiniy, kiniyá-(n)coarse matting of coconut leaves, mat of 
Saipan Carolinianghilitype of woven coconut leaf mat 
Saipan Carolinian·Tginitype of woven coconut leaf mat 
Woleaiangiliyeoutdoor mat, coconut leaves used as outdoor mat 
Pulo-Annankinie-possessive classifier for mats 
Proto-Chuukic*kinia·coarse mat
Marshallesekiniye-possessive classifier for mats 

PCMc   (?)   *kio, kio-ri   burn

Chuukesecatch fire, be lit (of a fire), glow (of a coal) 
 kúú-riburn it, scorch it 
 (é)-kúú-wlight it (a fire), cause it to glow 
Mortlockese(a)-kútend a fire 
Puluwatesebe burning but not flaming 
Saipan Carolinianghú and Crn gúbe alight, smolder, be burning 
Woleaiangúúburn, glow 
 (ga)-gúú-(we)set fire to it, light it 
Ulithian(?) gusburn (Bender et al. 1984
Pulo-Annankúúburn 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *kú[tØ]ú, kú[tØ]ú-ri·burn
Gilbertesekio-iburn furiously with leaping flames 

The s of the Ulithian form is unexpected.

PMc   *kisi   small, little

Puluwatesekitikit·small, little
Saipan Carolinianghit, ghikkit, ghitighiit·small, little
Saipan Carolinian·Tgit, gitigiit·small, little
Woleaiangiti, gitigiiti, kkitismall, little 
 -gitismall piece (counting classifier) 
Proto-Chuukic*kidi·small, little
Pohnpeiankisi-small piece, fragment 
Mokilesekijbit, piece 
Gilbertesekirikirifine gravel 
Kosraeankiti-(n)a little, a few, some 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kisi·small, little
Tongankihistunted, dwarfed 

See also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *-ki[st][ai] little bit.

PMc   *kiSa   strong

Chuukesekit, kitekitstrong, firm, steady 
 (e)-kitamake a strong effort at (something) 
 (e)-kitekitpersevere, be zealous 
Mortlockesekitakit·strong
Proto-Chuukic*kida, kidakida·strong
Marshallesekketstrong, great capacity 
Kosraeanstrong, healthy, well, powerful, stout 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’iteto find fault with, reject 

PMc   *kita   we (inclusive), us

See Proto-Micronesian *kica we (inclusive), us.

PMc   *ko-, koe   you (singular subject marker)

Chuukeseke-, ké-, ko-, ka-, ká- kó- and ko, wo(vocative honorific) 
Mortlockeseó-·you (singular subject marker)
Puluwatesewo-; ko, wo(vocative hon.) 
Saipan Caroliniangho- (archaic), u-·you (singular subject marker)
Woleaiango-, go(sentential vocative) 
Pulo-Annanko, ko(e)(polite) 
Proto-Chuukicko-, koe·you (singular subject marker)
Pohnpeiankε; koo, kowε(independent pronoun) 
Mokilesekɔɔ, kɔwɔ(independent pronoun) 
Marshallesekʷe-, kʷey(independent pronoun) 
Gilberteseko-, ŋ-koe(vocative and independent pronoun) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ko, koe·you (singular subject marker)
Proto-Polynesian*koe·you (singular subject marker)
Bugotu-gothee 
Proto-Willaumez*Koe·you (singular subject marker)
Uraustronesisch*kaw·you (singular subject marker)

PCMc   *koca   coconut fiber

Chuukesekochokochshort hairs on top of forehead (especially of women) 
 (more-ni)-kochthread of any kind used on a loom 
PuluwatesewooR, kooR, koRo-(y)coconut fiber prepared for rope making, coconut fiber of 
Saipan Carolinianghooshfiber from coconut husk used in making rope 
 ghoshooshstringy pulp that develops in old yams and sweet potatoes 
Saipan Carolinian·TooR, gooRfiber from coconut husk used in making rope 
Woleaiangoosho, gosho-dry coconut fiber used for making rope 
Proto-Chuukic*koco·coconut fiber
Pohnpeiankoothibiscus fiber 
Mokilesekɔs, kɔsi-(n)a weave, fiber 
Marshallesekʷedcoconut husk, fiber 
Gilbertese(te)-koracoconut fiber rope 
 kora-nthread or fiber of a coconut husk 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *koco₁ ‘to cut’, Proto-Micronesian *kota ‘cut, break’, Proto-Micronesian (?) *koo, koo-na ‘tentacle, strand of hair or fiber’.

PMc   *koca, oca   eat raw food

Chuukesewochooch, woche-e-(y),wocha-a-(n))eat (of fish, meat or uncooked food), eat it, his food 
Mortlockesewoshe-e-(y), wosha-a-(n)·eat raw food
PuluwatesewoRaaR, woRe-e-(y), woRa-a-(n)·eat raw food
Saipan Carolinianushóósh, ushe-e-(y)·eat raw food
Saipan Carolinian·TuRóóR, uRe-e-(y)·eat raw food
SatawaleseoRa-(n) [sic]·eat raw food
Woleaiangoshooshe (<*goshaosha), gosha-(a-le)·eat raw food
Pulo-Annankosa-·eat raw food
Proto-Chuukic*koca·eat raw food
Mokilesewasaus, wɔsɔ·eat raw food
Gilberteseoraora, ora-(ia)·eat raw food
Kosraeanosræsr, osre·eat raw food
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*koda, qoda·eat raw food
Fijiankoda·eat raw food
Proto-Polynesian*qota·eat raw food
Uraustronesisch*qo(n)ta·eat raw food

— Cf. —

Sa’aokoeat raw food 

It is evident that we have doublets in Proto-Micronesian as well as Proto–Eastern Oceanic, reflecting both Proto–Eastern Oceanic initial *k and initial *q. See discussion by Geraghty (1983:161).

PMc   *koco₁   to cut

Chuukesewoche-e-(y)cut a slice off of (the bound coconut spathe in making toddy 
 woche-(ni)notch it, cut notches in it 
PuluwatesewoRo-(n), woRe-(e-y)slice off (the end of a coconut spathe to cut toddy) 
Saipan Carolinianghoshto cut a coconut spathe in making toddy 
 ghoshe-e-(y)to cut (a spathe) 
Saipan Carolinian·ToRto cut a coconut spathe in making toddy 
Woleaiangosheto cut a toddy tap 
 goshe-(e-ye)cut it (in cutting for toddy) 
Pulo-Annankosoto slice thinly 
 koso-dislice it thinly 
Sonsorolesekoso-fislice it thinly 
Proto-Chuukic*koco·to cut
Pohnpeiankotokot(honorific) be given a haircut, a haircut 
 kotεcut a girls hair straight across at the bottom, to cut down 
 kotε-(kεεp)first feast of the yam season 
Mokilesekoskoscut into something 
 kosocut into it 
Gilbertesekorokoroengage in cutting 
 kore-ato cut something 
 koro-(atuu)engage in hair cutting (atuu head) 
Kosraeankɔsrɔsharp edged, sharp 
 kɔsrito circumcize (someone) 
Proto-Oceanic*konso, koso·to cut
Fijiankoso, koso-vato cut with a bivalve shell 
Lakalaikorokoro, koro-ato cut 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*koti·to cut
Proto-Polynesian*koti, kokoticut, clip 
Arosi’oicut off tops of taro for planting 

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *koca ‘coconut fiber’, Proto-Micronesian *kota ‘cut, break’.

PMc   *koco₂   slow growing, durable

Chuukesewochwell preserved, long-lived, durable 
 woche-(n)durability of 
Woleaiangoshoto endure, be resistant, last long 
Proto-Chuukic*koco·slow growing, durable
Pohnpeiankotin good condition, young looking, slow in maturing, stuck 
Gilbertesekoro-(ubu)unripe 
Kosraeankɔsrkɔsrbe preventing, blockading, blocking, obstructing 
 kɔsreto prevent, block, obstruct, blockade (something) 

PCMc   *kona   to arrive, be able

Saipan Carolinianghola, ghulato reach it, reach and touch (something), arrive at (a place) 
Woleaiangola-ato arrive at, reach, land at, come to (shore) 
Proto-Chuukic*ko[ln]a·to arrive, be able
Pohnpeiankɔnɔto catch up with (someone), be on time for (an event) 
Gilbertesekonacan, be able 
 kona-(a)be able to do 

See also Proto-Micronesian *kona ‘a catch (as of fish), to catch’.

PMc   *kona   a catch (as of fish), to catch

Puluwatesekonto catch fish 
 kono-(n)a catch of 
Saipan Carolinianghola, ghula(for a disease) to take (a person) 
Satawalesekonato catch (something) 
Woleaiangola-(a)catch it, grab it, capture it, seize it 
 gola-a-ya-thing caught by (someone) 
Ulithiangola-(a)to catch (something) 
Pulo-Annankonato catch and have (something) in ones possession 
Proto-Chuukic*kona·a catch (as of fish), to catch
Mokilesekónó-(ó)his catch 
 kónó-(n)catch of 
Marshallesekʷeṇa-(possessive classifier) a catch (of fish, crabs, or birds) 
Gilbertese(te)-konaa catch (Bender et al. 1984
Kosraeankɒ no-(n)catch of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kona·a catch (as of fish), to catch
Kwaio’onato own, hold title to 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *kona ‘to arrive, be able’.

PMc   (?)   *koo, koo-na   tentacle, strand of hair or fiber

Chuukeseóótentacle of octopus or squid 
 -yéthread, hair (in counting) 
 éé-n, éé-ne-(n)fiber thread in weaving, strand of hair, fiber tentacle of 
 (ni)-kééképerson who cant be separated from the company of his or her spouse (lit. fastened one) 
Puluwateseyóóntentacle 
Saipan Carolinianghoo-(l)its tentacle 
Woleaiangéégééfasten with straps 
Pulo-Annankéékéébandage 
Proto-Chuukic*kéé, kéékéé·tentacle, strand of hair or fiber
Marshallesekewtentacle, strand of rope or wire 
Gilbertesekoofirmly bound 
 (ka)-koo-(a)fasten 
 (te)-ko-na [sic]cord or twine made of coconut fiber 
Kosraeanstripe, line, fiber, string figure 

— Cf. —

Fijiankoahair on the buttocks 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *koca ‘coconut fiber’.

PCMc   *kopekope   cough, to cough

see Proto–Central Micronesian *pekopeko.

PMc   *koro   pubic hair

Chuukesekkor, kkora-(n)underarm hair, his underarm hair 
Puluwatesekor [sic]pubic or underarm hair 
Saipan Carolinianghoorpubic hair 
 kkorbe especially hairy in the pubic area 
Saipan Carolinian·Tgoor·pubic hair
Woleaiangooro, goro-·pubic hair
Pulo-Annankolo·pubic hair
Proto-Chuukic*koro·pubic hair
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*koRo·pubic hair (Geraghty 1990)

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *koca ‘coconut fiber’.

PCMc   *koso   go aground, run on a reef

Chuukesewot·go aground, run on a reef
Saipan Carolinianghot, ghoto-(tá)·go aground, run on a reef
Saipan Carolinian·Tgot·go aground, run on a reef
Proto-Chuukic*kodo·go aground, run on a reef
Gilbertesekoroaground, stranded 

— Cf. —

Fijiankasago aground 

PMc   *koso, koso-mi   to husk coconuts

Chuukesewoot, wote-(n)coconut husking stick, digging stick used in cultivation 
 wotootdo husking, do clearing of vegetation, weeding, gardening 
 wote-(e-y)husk it, clear it of vegetation 
Mortlockesewotoot, wote-e-(y)do husking, husk it 
Puluwatesewote-(y)to husk (a coconut) 
Saipan Carolinianghootcoconut husking stick 
 ghote-e-(y)to husk (a coconut) 
 ghotootact of husking 
Saipan Carolinian·Toto-(maR)coconut husking stick 
 ote-(y)to husk (a coconut) 
 otootact of husking 
Satawalesekotoot, kote-(y)do husking, husk it 
Woleaiangoto-(ŋi-i)husk it, skin it 
Pulo-Annankotokotococonut husking stick, to husk with a husking stick 
Proto-Chuukic*kodo, kodokodo·to husk coconuts
Pohnpeiankodokodto husk with a stick 
 kodo-(m)to husk (a coconut) 
Mokilesekod, kodkod, kodo-(m)husking stick, husk with a husking stick, husk it 
Gilbertese(te)-korostick for husking coconuts 
Kosraeankɔtkɔtto scrub, rub off, scour, kote to scrub, scour, or rub (something) off 
 koteto scrub, scour, or rub (something) off 
Proto-Oceanic*kojo-mito husk, pierce  (Ross 1988)

PMc   *kota   cut, break

Chuukesewos, wosoosbe cut in half 
 wose-e-(y)cut it in half 
Puluwatesewohe-e-(y)to halve husked coconuts 
 wohóh [sic] (? wohóóh)break coconut shells in two 
Saipan Carolinianwosto cut and gather firewood, to crack a coconut shell in half 
 wose-e-(y)cut and gather (firewood), crack (a coconut shell) into halves 
Saipan Carolinian·Tohe-(y)cut and gather (firewood), crack (a coconut shell) in half 
Woleaiangota-(a)crack it, knock it, split it 
 gotó-óteto crack, knock, split 
Pulo-Annankodokodoto break, snap (branches) 
 kodo-dibreak or snap (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*kota, kotakota, kota-ti·cut, break
Kosraeankɔtkɔtto break apart 
 koteto break (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*kotas·cut, break
Uraustronesisch*ge[nØ]tas·cut, break

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *koco₁ to cut.

PMc   *koyi   bivalve shell, shell knife or grater

Chuukesekii-shell (in names of shellfish) 
Pohnpeiankoykoybe shaved (of the head), be scraped on a grater (of coconut) 
 koo-kεgrate (something) on a grater 
Mokilese(mɔŋ) koykoyhave a shaved head 
 koto grind (as coconuts), shave 
 koo-kóto grind (coconuts) 
Marshallese(raan)kéygrate coconuts, grater 
 cog, gear, ratchet’·bivalve shell, shell knife or grater
Gilbertese(te)-koikoibivalve shell used in scraping food 
 koato scrape (a coconut) with a shell 
Kosraeankoe, koekoescrape, grate, smooth out, plane 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*koRigrater  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Polynesian*koisharp 

— Cf. —

Fijiankaibivalve shell 
Sa’aoleto scrape with a shell, get the skin off yams 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*koriscrape  (Ross 1988:461)

Marshallese rounded expected.

PMc   *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti   bite

Chuukesekkúk, kúkkúkbite, be wont to bite 
 kkú-ú-(w)bite it 
 ssis, sissi-bite something off or in two 
 ssi-i-(y)bite it off 
Mortlockesekúúkúbite 
 kú-ú-(w)bite it 
Puluwatesekkú-úto bite 
 kkú-ú-wá-(n)the bite suffered by 
 (ya)-kúúkúcause to bite 
Saipan Carolinianghúto feed together at the surface of the water (of fish), to eat together from the same dish (of people) 
 ghú-ú-(w)to bite (something or someone) 
 kkúúghúbe in the habit of biting 
 ghuughubite repeatedly, be biting 
Saipan Carolinian·Tkkúto bite (something or someone) 
 gúkkúbe in the habit of biting 
Satawalesekúúkúto bite 
 kú-ú-(W)bite (something) 
Woleaiankúkkúto bite, sting (as mosquitoes) 
 gúúgúúbite, chew, hold, squeeze 
 gú-ú-(w)bite or chew it 
Pulo-Annankúkú, #kútúkútúto bite, sting 
 kú-dúbite it 
Proto-Chuukic*kkú, kúkkú, kú-tú, kútúkútú·bite
Marshallesekikbite 
 kki-jbite 
 ki-jiybite (something) 
Uraustronesisch*gugutnibble off 

— Cf. —

Fijiankuu, kuu-tato bite 

PCMc   *kua   porpoise

Chuukesekúúw, kúú, #kúúwe-(n)porpoise, porpoise of, a constellation of stars 
 (ŋii-ni)-kúa star (lit. tooth of porpoise) 
Mortlockesekúú·porpoise
Puluwatesekúúw, kúwá-(n)porpoise, porpoise of, a constellation 
Saipan Carolinianghúúw·porpoise
Saipan Carolinian·Tgúú·porpoise
Satawalesekúúwporpoise, constellation (Cassiopeia) 
Woleaiangúúwe, gúwa-porpoise, a star 
Pulo-Annankúe-(siki)·porpoise
Proto-Chuukic*kúa·porpoise
Pohnpeian(laydini)-kiporpoise (laydini fish of) 
Marshallesekéy·porpoise
Gilbertese(te)-kuaa whale 
 (te-bʷuki-ni)-kuaa constellation (Bender et al. 1984

— Cf. —

Tongankuikind of fish 

PMc   *kuku   fingernail, toenail, claw

Chuukese#kkú, #wúúk, kkú-(n), #wúkkú-(n)fingernail, toenail, claw, his fingernail 
Mortlockesekkúk, kkú-(n)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Puluwatese#kkúú, kkú-(n)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Saipan Carolinian#kkú, kkú-(l), #úkk, #úkkú-(l)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Satawalese#kkú·fingernail, toenail, claw
Woleaian#kkú, kkú-(le)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Pulo-Annan#kkú·fingernail, toenail, claw
Proto-Chuukic*#kkú, kkú-·fingernail, toenail, claw
Pohnpeiankiik, kiki-(n pεε)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Mokilesekiki-(n)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Marshallesehakkiy, hakkiyi-(n pay)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Gilberteseuuki, uki-(na)·fingernail, toenail, claw
Kosraean(tɔ)-ku-(n pæo)fingernail 
Proto-Oceanic*kukuclaw, nail, finger  (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*kukuclaw, nail 
Fijian[tau]-kuku·fingernail, toenail, claw
Bugotugugu-hoof, claw 
 guugugu-fingernail, toenail 
Proto-Kimbe*kukufinger 
Proto-Austronesian*kutkutfinger  (Ross 1988)

Marshallese rounded s expected.

PMc   *kuli   skin, bark

Chuukesesiin, sini-·skin, bark
Mortlockesekiil, kili-·skin, bark
Puluwatesekiil, kili-·skin, bark
Saipan Carolinianghiil, ghili-·skin, bark
Saipan Carolinian·Tgiil, gili-·skin, bark
Satawalesekili-·skin, bark
Woleaiangiili, gili-·skin, bark
Pulo-Annankiini, kini-·skin, bark
Proto-Chuukic*kili·skin, bark
Pohnpeiankiil, kili-·skin, bark
Mokilesekil, kili-·skin, bark
Marshallesekil·skin, bark
Gilbertese(te)-kun, kuni-·skin, bark
Kosraeankulu-(k), kolo-(l)my skin, his/her skin 
Proto-Oceanic*kulit·skin, bark (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*kili·skin, bark
Fijiankuli·skin, bark
Bugotuguiguli·skin, bark
Proto-Kimbe*kuli)·skin, bark
Uraustronesisch*kulit·skin, bark

See also Proto-Chuukic *mʷa-kilikili ‘tickling or pleasant feeling.

PMc   *kulu   kind of bird

Pohnpeiankulugolden plover 
Mokilesekuulbird species 
Marshallesekʷelsemipalmate sandpiper 
 kʷél-(yéj)golden plover 
Gilbertese(te)-kuna bird 
 kunikunabounding in such birds 
Kosraeankululkind of bird, sandpiper 

Note Pohnpeian form has unexpected expression of final vowel. Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic (?) *koyikoyi ‘piping or whistling sound, piping bird’, Proto-Chuukic *kul[iu]ŋa ‘plover’.

PWMc   *kulu   grab

Puluwatesekuultake freely (as leftovers) 
Saipan Carolinianghul and Crn gulto try frantically to get as much as possible 
Woleaianguluto take freely 
Proto-Chuukic*kulu·grab
Pohnpeiankulto grab, seize 
 kuli-igrab, seize (something) 
Marshallesekʷkʷiwilto grab, squeeze, choke, embrace 

PMc   *kumʷu   have liquid in the mouth

Chuukese-kummouthful or swallow of liquid (counting classifier) 
 kumu-u-(w)hold or swish it in the mouth (of liquid) 
 kumukumhold or swish a fluid in the mouth 
 -kkumʷportion of premasticated food (counting classifier) 
Mortlockesekumʷukumʷrinse out mouth 
Saipan Carolinianghomʷu-u-(w), ghumʷu-u-(w)to swish (water) around in the mouth, to rinse it 
Satawalesekumʷukumʷsuck 
Woleaian-gumʷumouthful of liquid (counting classifier) 
 gumʷu-u-(we)suck it, draw it up (of liquid) 
 gumʷugumʷuput liquid in ones mouth, suck, slurp 
 kkumʷmouthful 
Proto-Chuukic*kumʷu, kkumʷu, kumʷukumʷu·have liquid in the mouth
Uraustronesisch*kumuR·have liquid in the mouth

We cannot account for the m of Chuukese instead of expected .

PMc   *kumʷukumʷu   a thudding noise

Pohnpeiankumʷukumʷ·a thudding noise
Marshallesekkimʷkimʷfast beating of the heart 
Kosraeankimkimhaving a thudding sound 
Proto-Oceanic*kumu·a thudding noise
Lakalaiumuto quake, shake 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesebʷukito resound 
 bʷukibʷukito beat or throb (as the heart) 

PMc   *kunu   extinguished

Chuukesekun, kunu-(nó)be extinguished, go out (of fire, stove, lamp) 
 kunukunextinguishing 
 kunu-(u-w)extinguish it 
Puluwatesekun, kunu-(ló)to burn out, go out (as fire or electricity) 
Saipan Carolinianghulto go out, be extinguished 
 ghulughulsomething that extinguishes a fire 
 ghulu-u-(w)to put out, extinguish (a fire) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tgun, gunugun, gunu·extinguished
Woleaiangulube extinguished, blotted out, destroyed 
 gulu-guluto destroy, extinguish 
 gulu-(u-we)extinguish it, destroy it 
Pulo-Annankunuto be extinguished, blotted out, destroyed 
 kunukunuto destroy, extinguish 
Proto-Chuukic*kunu, kunukunu·extinguished
Pohnpeiankunto be extinguished, to be turned off (of lights and motors) 
Marshallesekʷkʷinextinguish, go out (of a light), put out a fire, deflate 
Kosraeankunextinguished, blind, dead (as a fire) 
 kunito extinguish (something), put out, turn off, make blind 

— Cf. —

Kwaio’unuspoiled (of food) 

PMc   *kupʷe, kupʷe-li   be bent, to bend (something)

Pohnpeiankupʷε-lεkbe bent (of something rigid) 
 kupʷe-lto bend (something) 
Mokilesekipʷe-lekbe bent, twisted, break with a snap 
 kipʷe-lto bend, twist (something) 
Marshallesekʷébʷbent, curved, buckled, stooped 
 kʷkʷibe-lto bend (something) 
Kosraeankufa curve, bend 
 kʌfto curve 
 kifʌ-sto curve, bend, turn (something) 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cipʷa₁ ‘curve, bend inward’.

PWMc   *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta   pulled back, pull back (of foreskin or eyelid)

Chuukesekkurbe pulled back (of foreskin) 
 kúre-e-(y)pull it back (of the foreskin), circumcize 
Puluwatesekúre-e-(y)·pulled back, pull back (of foreskin or eyelid)
Saipan Caroliniankkúr, kkúrú-(ló)be pulled back (of the foreskin), be circumcized 
Woleaiankkúre, gúre-e-(ye)·pulled back, pull back (of foreskin or eyelid)
Pulo-Annankkulapenis 
Proto-Chuukic*kkúra, kúra-[tØ]i-(a)·pulled back, pull back (of foreskin or eyelid)
Pohnpeiankire-e-(di)peel off, pull down an eyelid, lip, or foreskin 
 kirε-s-(εk)penis (slang) 
Marshallesekʷira-jpull back the foreskin 

— Cf. —

Marshallesewéréypull back the foreskin 

PMc   (?)   *kurakura   to tickle

Marshallesekirkirto tickle 
 kirkireytickle (someone) 
Kosraean(wa)-korkortickling 

— Cf. —

Chuukesemʷe-kinikintickling 
Fijiankiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits 

PMc   *kurer[ae]   to belch

Puluwatesekúrér, kúrére-(y)a belch, to belch, belch of 
Woleaiangúrereto burp, belch 
Proto-Chuukic*kúrer[ae]·to belch
Pohnpeiankirεrto burp, belch 
Kosraeankirarto belch 

PMc   *kutu   louse

Chuukesekúú, kúú-(n), #kúúwe-(n)louse or flea, louse of 
Mortlockesekúú·louse
Puluwatesekúúw, #kúwá-(n)·louse
Saipan Carolinianghúúw·louse
Saipan Carolinian·Tgúú·louse
Satawalesekúúw·louse
Woleaiangúúsú, gúsú-louse, vermin 
Ulithiangus [sic](Bender et al. 1984
Pulo-Annankúúdú, kúdu-·louse
Proto-Chuukic*kútú·louse
Marshallesekijlouse, bacterium, bug, flea 
Gilbertese(te)-uti·louse
Kosraeankut·louse
Proto-Oceanic*kutu·louse
Proto-Polynesian*kutu·louse
Fijiankutu·louse
Bugotugutu·louse
Proto-Kimbe*qutu·louse
Proto-Austronesian*kuCu·louse (Ross 1988)

PCMc   *kuu   any of several kinds of fish

Chuukesekúú-(nú-féw)species of small bass fish 
Saipan Carolinian·Tgú-(nú-fey)species of grouper 
Proto-Chuukic*kuu-·any of several kinds of fish
Gilbertese(te)-kuu, (te)-kuu-(beibeti)any of several species of squirrel fish (Holocentrus

PMc   *kuyita   octopus

Chuukesekúús, kúúsa-·octopus
Puluwatesekúúh·octopus
Saipan Carolinianghúús·octopus
Saipan Carolinian·Tgúúh·octopus
Satawalesekúús·octopus
Woleaiangúúse, gúúsa-·octopus
Pulo-Annankiita·octopus
Sonsorolesekiita·octopus
Proto-Chuukic*kúyita·octopus
Pohnpeiankiis·octopus
Mokilesekiij·octopus
Pingilapesekiis·octopus
Marshallesekʷéyét·octopus
Gilbertese(te)-kiika·octopus
Kosraeankoet·octopus
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*kuRita·octopus (Geraghty 1990)
Fijiankuita·octopus
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*kuRita·octopus (Blust 1984–85)

Note Proto-Micronesian *t > Gilbertese k {kV(V)_}. Note Marshallese t for expected j.

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