st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*l   

la    le    li    lo    lu    

PWMc   *laka   star(s) in Pegasus

Chuukesenaaa star in Pegasus, a sidereal month 
Puluwatesela [sic]star in Pegasus, a sidereal month 
Satawaleselaa, naa·star(s) in Pegasus
Woleaianlaage·star(s) in Pegasus
Pulo-Annannnakaa sidereal month equated with July 
Proto-Chuukic*laka·star(s) in Pegasus
Marshalleseḷaka constellation comprising beta, mu, and lambda Pegasus 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesenakarathe star Regulus (Bender et al. 1984

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *lake ‘bracelet’.

PMc   *lakalaka   appearance

Chuukesenaŋa-, naka-, naŋanaŋappearance, shape 
 naŋa-(ttam), naka-(ttam)length, height, long, tall 
Puluwateselaŋe-tástand, rise above, be higher, rise up (of airplane) 
Woleaiannnageturn out, appear, come to view 
Proto-Chuukic*la[kŋ]a·appearance
Marshalleseḷakḷakswagger, strut 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lakastep  (Geraghty 1983)
Tonganlalakato walk, step along 
 laka-sito pass, go beyond 
 lakalakato walk quickly, hurry on ahead 
Samoanla’ato step, march 
 la’asi-ato step over, go beyond 
Sa’ala’aup 
Kwaiola’ago up, climb 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *lako, laa ‘go, proceed, (as directional) away’, Proto-Chuukic *nna ‘appear’.

PMc   *lako, laa   go, proceed, (as directional) away

Chuukesenó, -nó, -nóó-, ná, -náá-, -naa-go, proceed away from place of reference 
 (a)-naa-(noŋ)spear-throwing stick (lit. cause going in) 
 (ché)-naa-(n)his companion, buddy 
 (ke)-náá meyyou come from where? 
Mortlockeselago 
Puluwateseló, la·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Woleaianlago, -lago, la [sic]·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Pulo-Annannako, -nako, na [sic]·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Proto-Chuukic*lako, *laa·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Pohnpeian-laaway from me and you 
Mokileseinlago away 
 -laaway from you and me 
Marshalleseḷakʷdirectional postposition, toward a third party, neither speaker nor hearer 
 (pey)-ḷakʷdrift away 
Gilbertesenako·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Kosraeanonward 
 away from a place 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lako·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Fijianlako·go, proceed, (as directional) away
Sa’ala’oapproach, steer or go toward 
Laulalaoto run 
Proto-Willaumez*laxoto walk 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*laku·go, proceed, (as directional) away

PMc   *lalo₁   deep

Chuukese(i)-nónunderwater 
 nónnóón,(ó)-nón, (ó)-nónnóónbe deep (underwater), far down 
 (ó)-nóna,(ó)-nónnóónadeepen it 
Mortlockese(i)-lólunderwater 
Puluwateseléllólbe deep (as the sea), a deep place 
Saipan Carolinianlóllóólbe deep, very deep 
Satawalese(i)-lólunderwater 
Woleaianlalodeep 
 (i)-laloocean bottom, underwater 
Proto-Chuukic*lalo·deep
Pohnpeianlɔl·deep
Mokileselɔl·deep
Marshalleselaḷbelow, bottom; down, downward 
 (mʷi)laḷdeep, profound 
Gilbertesenano·deep
Kosraeanlɒ l·deep

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*Dalemdepth, inside 

Marshallese initial expected. See also Proto-Micronesian *lalo₂ ‘inside’.

PMc   *lalo₂   inside

Chuukesennó-(n), #nóó-(n)inside of it 
Mortlockeselló-(n)·inside
Puluwateselló-(n); ‘i. of it’·inside
Saipan Carolinianlló-(l)inside of it 
Saipan Carolinian·Tnnó-(n)inside of it 
Satawalesennó-(n)·inside
Woleaianlalo·inside
Pulo-Annannano-in, inside 
Proto-Chuukic*lalo·inside
Pohnpeianlɔlεinside of him/her/it 
Gilbertese(i)-nano-(na)in it, inside of it 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lalo·inside
Sa’a[i]-laloinside 

— Cf. —

Proto-Austronesian*lem·inside (Blust 1970:132)

— Note also —

Marshallese(i)-lew, (i)-lewahin, inside 
Kosraeanloεinside 
 lu-(n)inside of 
Laulaoin 
Lakalaiiloinside, interior, underside 

See also Proto-Micronesian *lalo₁ deep.

PMc   *laloua   disgusted

Chuukesennoowbe disgusted or repelled by 
 nnoowe-esi-ni, nnoowá-ási-nibe disgusted or repelled by (something) 
 (ó)-nnoowbe disgusting, repellent, repugnant, a disgusting thing 
 nnoowu-(pʷpʷún)athletes foot 
Puluwatesellow [sic]be revolted, disgusted 
 (yó)-llowfeces (polite), to defecate 
Saipan Carolinianlloowbe revolted, disgusted 
 (a)-lloowfeces, excrement, to defecate 
Woleaiannnou [sic]feel like vomiting 
Proto-Chuukic*lloow[ao]·disgusted
Pohnpeianlɔlooheartsick (of a man who has lost his wife) 
Gilbertesenanouahomesick 
Kosraeanlalodepressed, downhearted, heavy hearted 
 lalo-ido not like the thought of, shudder at the thought of (something) 

— Cf. —

Marshallesellahwewbe seasick, disgusted 
Mokileselóleidbe lonely, homesick 

PMc   *lama-   shape, appearance

Chuukesenamanamcharacter, quality, morals, behavior, deportment 
Puluwateselamalamcharacter, condition 
Saipan Carolinianlamalamgood deeds 
Pulo-Annannama-(takúnú)to be round (lit. egg shaped) 
 nama-(takúnni)circle 
Proto-Chuukic*lama-·shape, appearance
Marshalleseḷam, ḷema-shape 
Kosraeanlʌma-(n)shape of 
 lʌmæ-(l)his appearance, behavior 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *ñama ‘in control, responsible’, Proto-Micronesian *lama₁ ‘thought, be in mind.

PMc   *lama₁   thought, be in mind

Chuukesenam, nembe in mind, be on ones mind 
 name-nithink about (something), have (something) on ones mind 
 neme-(feefin)have women on ones mind 
 neme-(seni)be forgotten 
 namanamreligion, doctrine, philosophy, ideology 
Puluwateselamalamreligion, thought 
Saipan Carolinianlamalambeliefs, morals, ethics, religion 
Proto-Chuukic*lama, lamalama·thought, be in mind
Pohnpeianlamalamthought, idea, opinion, common sense, religious belief 
Mokileselamlam. lemlemthought, to think 
 lemethink (something) 
 lemee-(da)remember (something) 
Kosraeanlʌmathink it, picture (something) in ones mind 

— Cf. —

Yapeseleamthought, feeling 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *ñama ‘in control, responsible’, Proto-Micronesian *lama- ‘shape, appearance’.

PMc   *lama₂   lagoon, lake

Mokileselamlagoon 
Marshalleseḷambay 
Gilbertese(te)-namalagoon, lake 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lama·lagoon, lake
Sa’alamalake 
Arosiramawater between reef and shore 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annannamanamahole, cave 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *namʷo ‘lagoon, harbor’.

PMc   *laŋi   sky, heaven, storm

Chuukesenáán, neni-spirit place, heaven or sky (in construction) 
 nááŋ, neŋi-heaven, sky (loan from other dialect) 
Mortlockeselááŋ, láŋi-(n)sky, heaven 
Puluwateselááŋ, láŋi-sky, rain 
Saipan Carolinianlááŋheaven 
Saipan Carolinian·Tlááŋheaven, have bad weather 
Saipan Carolinianláŋiláŋ and Crn leŋileŋhave bad weather 
Satawaleselááŋsky, heaven 
Woleaianlaaŋi, laŋi-sky, typhoon, rainstorm, wind 
Pulo-Annannaaŋi, naŋi-sky, heaven 
Proto-Chuukic*laŋi·sky, heaven, storm
Pohnpeianlaaŋsky, heaven 
 laŋi-(n)bad weather 
Mokileselɔŋsky 
 laŋi-(n)omen of, sudden rain shower taken to be a presage of 
Pingilapeselεŋsky, heaven 
Marshalleselaŋsky, weather, heaven 
 #ḷaŋstorm, typhoon 
 #ḷaŋi-(n), ḷaŋe-(n) yirewejrain storm that is the sign of a chief coming (archaic) 
Gilbertese(te)-naŋcloud 
 naŋinaŋbe cloudy 
Kosraeanləŋsky, heaven 
Proto-Oceanic*laŋit·sky, heaven, storm
Proto-Polynesian*laŋi·sky, heaven, storm
Fijianlagi·sky, heaven, storm
Sa’aláŋiraised up 
 (i)-laŋisky, heaven 
Laulaŋi·sky, heaven, storm
Kwaiolaŋihigh, great, up 
Proto-Nakanai*laŋi·sky, heaven, storm
Uraustronesisch*laŋit·sky, heaven, storm

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *laŋi. In some languages (e.g., Saipan Carolinian, Pohnpeian, and Marshallese), ‘bad weather’ meanings are to be found primarily in derived forms. Note that Marshallese ḷaŋi-(n) has contrastive heavy where light l would be expected, with i in next syllable, whereas heavy is to be expected in the ḷaŋe-(n) of a popular saying. Why the second vowel of this latter form is lowered in not understood, but it provides an explanation for the heavy s in the Marshallese ‘bad weather’ forms.

PMc   *laŋo₁   fly (insect)

Chuukesenóóŋ, nnóŋ, nóŋu-(n)fly, fly of 
Mortlockeselóóŋ, lóŋo-(n)·fly (insect)
Puluwateselóóŋ, lóóŋo-(n) [sic]·fly (insect)
Saipan Carolinianlóóŋhousefly 
 llóŋbe swarming with flies 
Satawalesellóŋinfested with flies 
Woleaianlaaŋo, laŋo-·fly (insect)
Pulo-Annannaaŋo, naŋo-·fly (insect)
Sonsoroleseraaŋo·fly (insect)
Proto-Chuukic*laŋo·fly (insect)
Pohnpeianlɔɔŋ·fly (insect)
Mokileseand Png lɔŋ·fly (insect)
Marshalleseḷaŋʷ, ḷwaŋʷfly 
Gilbertesenaaŋo, (te)-naŋo·fly (insect)
Kosraeanlɒ ŋ·fly (insect)
Proto-Oceanic*laŋo·fly (insect)
Proto-Polynesian*lango·fly (insect)
Fijianlago·fly (insect)
Sa’alaŋo·fly (insect)
Bugotuthaŋo·fly (insect)
Kwaiolaŋolarge fly 
Proto-Nakanai*raŋolarge fly 
Uraustronesisch*laŋaw·fly (insect)

— Cf. —

Yapeselaalfly 

PMc   *laŋo₂   prop

Chuukesenóŋ, nóŋó-nóŋbe propped up 
 nóŋu-niprop it up 
Mortlockeselóóŋcanoe roller 
Puluwateselóóŋ, lóŋo-(n)prop, prop of 
 lóŋe-(e-y)elevate it, prop it up 
Saipan Carolinianlóóŋ, lóŋo-(l)prop, brace, support, platform 
Woleaianlaaŋo, laŋo-canoe roller, fulcrum 
 laŋobe raised with supporters, be rolled 
Pulo-Annannaaŋo, naŋo-cross beam under floor of house 
Proto-Chuukic*laŋo·prop
Pohnpeianlɔŋbe placed across another thing 
 lɔŋεplace (something) across another thing 
Mokileselɔŋsupport beam running parallel to the ground, prop 
 lɔŋlɔŋto raise with a prop 
 lɔŋeraise (something) with a prop 
 (dɔu)-lɔŋcanoe rollers 
Pingilapese(daa)-lɔŋcanoe rollers 
Marshalleseḷaŋʷ, ḷwaŋʷroller for launching a canoe 
Gilbertese(te)-naŋo-(a)something put under as a protection or rest, a base 
 naŋo-(a)to place a rest or protection under (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*laŋo·prop
Fijianlago, lago-naplace rollers under a canoe 
Tonganlaŋoprop up or support by placing something underneath 

PMc   *laŋua   skipjack, Carangid fish

Puluwateselaŋa kind of fish (perhaps a crevally) caught by trolling 
Saipan Carolinianlaŋúthird of five growth stages of the skipjack 
Woleaianlaŋúwea kind of fish 
Ulithianlaŋúykind of fish 
Sonsoroleseraŋúyaa kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*laŋúa·skipjack, Carangid fish
Marshalleseḷaŋéyskipjack (Carangid lessonii
Kosraeanloŋkind of fish 

Loss of second vowel in Puluwatese and Kosraean forms is a problem. Marshallese rounded ŋʷ expected.

PMc   *lapa   big, main

Chuukesenap, nnap, napanapbig, large, great, principal, main 
 napa-(n)his older brother, her older sister 
Mortlockeselap·big, main
Puluwateselap·big, main
Saipan Carolinianlap; llape-·big, main
Saipan Carolinian·Tlap; llape-·big, main
Satawaleselap·big, main
Woleaianlape, nnap, lapelap·big, main
Pulo-Annannapa·big, main
Proto-Chuukic*lapa, lalapa, lapalapa·big, main
Pohnpeianlap, lapalap·big, main
Mokileselap·big, main
Marshalleseḷap, ḷapḷap, ḷḷapbig, great, large, plenty 
 (ha)-ḷaplineage head, maternal uncle, old man 
Gilbertesenabaalso, too, in addition 
 (rii)-nabaspine, backbone (lit. main bone) 
Kosraeanlʌlæpbig, large, huge 
 læpelder brother or sister, high tide 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*laba, lafa·big, main
Sa’alahabig 
 [a]-lahaa chief 
Bugotuthaba·big, main
Uraustronesisch*laba·big, main

See also Proto-Chuukic *lúkú-lapa ‘ocean side (of an island or reef)’ (lit. ‘great outside’).

PMc   (?)   *lape   red clay

Puluwateseláp, lápi-(n) [sic]red dye made from earth (used on canoes), red dye of 
Satawaleselááp, lápe-(l), lápe-(y)red clay (used for caulking), red clay of, apply red clay to 
Woleaianlaape, lepa-(li)red clay (used as a pigment), red clay of (said to be a loan from Ulithian
Proto-Chuukic*lape, lape-yi·red clay
Kosraeanlapa kind of clay 
 lapito paint (something) with red clay 

See also Marck (1994:316) Proto-Micronesian *lape.

PCMc   *lapʷ[ou]so   moray eel

Chuukesenopʷut, nnopʷut, nopʷute-(n)eel, eel of 
Mortlockeselópʷotmoray eel 
Woleaianlabutoeel, snake, worm 
Pulo-Annannapʷutomoray eel, sea snake 
Sonsoroleserabʷutomoray eel 
Proto-Chuukic*lapʷudo·moray eel
Pohnpeianlapʷεd, lapʷεdε-(n)saltwater eel 
Mokileselapʷedkind of eel 
Gilbertese(te)-rabʷono(with metathesis of r and n) eel 

— Cf. —

Fijianlabo, (vaka)-labo-cajump out and attack suddenly 

PMc   (?)   *laSa   coconut shell, skull

Pohnpeiandaalcoconut cup, dish, plate 
Mokilesedalcoconut shell(metathesis in Pohnpeic) 
Marshalleseḷatskull, coconut shell 
Kosraean(æ)-lʌbowl, skull, husk, shell 

— Cf. —

Yapeseleqcoconut shell, cup 
 lóqskull, coconut shell 

PMc   *lau   pool, have liquid

Chuukesebe liquified, melted 
 néépool, pond, flooded place, nééné liquid contents, have liquid contents, be flooded 
 néénéliquid contents, have liquid contents, be flooded 
Mortlockeselééléflooded area, be flooded 
Puluwateseléélébe full of liquid 
Saipan Carolinianléélépuddle, lake, pond 
Satawaleseléépool, pond 
Woleaianléédugout well on seaside of an island (used for bathing) 
 lééléébe filled with water or liquid 
Proto-Chuukic*léé or laú·pool, have liquid
Pohnpeianlεεpool, lake 
Mokileselebog, small taro patch 
Marshalleseḷwéysmall pool on reef at low tide or in interior of island 
Gilbertese(te)-nei, (te)-neineia fresh water pool or pond 
 neineibe liquid, fluid 
Kosraeanlʌlʌpond, shallow lagoon, having little water 
Proto-Oceanic*laursea  (Ross 1988)
Fijianlauwaterhole in a reef 
Bugotulaubeach, seashore, seaward, south 
Proto-Nakanai*-lauseaward 
Uraustronesisch*laudopen sea 

See also Proto-Micronesian *tokolau‘northerly, from the north’. See Marck (1994:313) Proto-Micronesian *lau.

PMc   (?)   *l[ao]u   cool

Pohnpeianlowcool, cooled off 
Mokilese(mʷo)-lowcold (of things) 
Marshallese(mʷé)-ḷéw·cool
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lau·cool
Kwaiolau-fi-[a]make or keep [something] cool 

— Cf. —

Bugotuma-thahoto feel cold 

The Mokilese form could be a loan from Marshallese.

PMc   *l[au]tuu   tomorrow

Chuukesenéwú·tomorrow
Puluwateselayú·tomorrow
Saipan Carolinianlaayú, laay·tomorrow
Woleaianlaúú·tomorrow
Proto-Chuukic*laúú·tomorrow
Marshallese(yi)-ljiw·tomorrow
Kosraeanlutu·tomorrow

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ñañoa ‘yesterday’. See also Marck (1994:312) Proto-Micronesian *l[au]tua.

PMc   *lawa   hibiscus

Pohnpeian(kε)-lεw, ko-lowHibiscus tiliaceus 
 (kε)-lεw-(n and)Hibiscus species (Kleinhovia hospita) (lit. hibiscus of Ant [an atoll]) 
Mokilese(ke)-lewsea hibiscus 
Pingilapese(ka)-lawsea hibiscus 
MarshalleseḷawHibiscus tiliaceus 
Kosraeanloyoung Hibiscus tiliaceus 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lawa·hibiscus
Fijianlawafishing net made from hibiscus fiber 
Sa’alawaspider web 
Arosirawaa small net, spider web, spider 
Kwaiolakʷalakʷaspider web, string of two or three lengths of shell money 
 lakʷa-[le’enia]to spread [a net] out in the sun) 
Uraustronesisch*lawaspider web 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-karaithread 

PCMc   *laxa   kind of coral

Pohnpeianraarfinger coral (with assimilation of initial *l to following r
Mokileselarbranching coral 
Marshalleseḷaygravel 
 ḷa-(jjidik)a coral (brown or white, several branches, smooth) 
Gilbertese(te)-naaloose rocks or stones on a flat 

— Cf. —

Fijianlaqeregravel below surface soil 

PMc   (?)   *laya   a sail

see Proto-Micronesian *lea or *laya.

PMc   (?)   *laZe   kind of coral

Kosraeanlæsa kind of coral 
 læslæscovered with coral 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lajecoral  (Geraghty 1983)
PSS*lade·kind of coral
Rotumanlaje·kind of coral
Fijianlase·kind of coral
Proto-Polynesian*lase·kind of coral

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *ale ‘kind of coral’, Proto–Central Micronesian *laxa ‘kind of coral’. See also Marck (1994:313) Proto-Micronesian *laje.

PMc   *le, lee   polite term of address

Chuukesene, neesir, madam 
Marshalleseleymaam 
 #ḷeysir 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*le, lee·polite term of address
Fijianle, leepolite term in kava ceremony 

PMc   (?)   *lea or *laya   a sail

Marshallese(wéj)-ḷay, (wij)-ḷaya sail 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*layasail  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianlaca·a sail
Proto-Polynesian*laa·a sail
Rotumanlae·a sail
Uraustronesisch*layaR·a sail
Yapeselaaya sail 
Chamorrolay’ak, layaka sail 
Palauanearsa sail 

— Cf. —

Kosraeannesa sail 

Note that Gilbertese (te)-raa ‘one width of a mat sail’ is an apparent loan from Samoan laa. See also Proto-Micronesian *[sS]aku-laara ‘swordfish, marlin’.

PWMc   (?)   *lee-, law-   at, in (with a noun base)

Chuukesene-, nee-at 
 nee-(set)sea, at sea 
 nee-(mataw)on the open sea 
 nee-(nómʷ)in the lagoon 
 nee-(pʷin)at night 
 nee -(fasaŋ)torso 
 nee-(wúŋ)chest (of body) 
Puluwatesele-, lee-, lo-at 
 le-(het)sea, in the sea 
 lee-(pʷoŋ)at night 
 lo-(pʷoŋ ewe)last night 
 lee-(hapan)cheek 
Saipan Carolinianlee-at 
 lee-(set)at the ocean or sea 
 lee-(bʷoŋ)night-time 
 lee-(bʷel)taro patch 
Saipan Carolinian·Tle-at 
 le-(het)at the ocean or sea 
Woleaianle-at (with doubling of following consonant) 
 le-(tteti)sea, in the sea 
 le-(nnamʷoin the lagoon 
Pulo-Annanna-(ni)in, at 
 na-(ni imʷa)at home 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *le-, lee-·at, in (with a noun base)
Marshalleselaw-, lew-at; prefix in place names and body parts 
 law-(jét)ocean, sea 
 law-(metew)ocean, sea 
 law-(jé), law-(jiye-)stomach 

See also Proto-Micronesian *ni[ae]‘place’. Kosraean in- has much the same distribution: place names, topographic features, body parts (but also forms personal names, as does ni-).

PCMc   *lele   perfect

Pohnpeianlεl, lεl-(tii)perfect, just right (slang) 
 (kasε)-lεlprecious, beautiful, perfect, fine 
Mokileselelbeautiful (of people), fit (of clothes) 
Marshallese(pew)-lelcomplete, satisfy, perfect 
Gilbertesenenefirm, immovable, fixed, steady (of wind) 

— Cf. —

Bugotuthethe-(ŋgura)to bear plentifully 

Gilbertese rerei ‘good, excellent’ is a loan from Samoan lelei ‘be good’.

PWMc   *leleki   a fish

Chuukesennisa reef fish 
Puluwatesellek,lleki-nyoung stage of a reef fish 
Saipan Carolinianlleghan edible fish with poisonous spines 
Woleaiannnegia fish 
Proto-Chuukic*lleki·a fish
Mokileselikfish sp., kind of spinefoot 
Marshalleseyéllékrabbit fish 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanlʌlʌka fish 
Pohnpeianilekfish species (loan from Marshallese?) 
Marshallesemʷa-ḷékʷḷékʷa stingray 

PCMc   *lelesa   true, real

Chuukesennet, nnete-n, nneti-nbe true, truth of 
 e-nnetbe honest, truthful 
 á-nnetadetermine the truth of it 
Puluwateselletright, correct, true 
 yá-lletaassert it as true 
Saipan Carolinianand Crn (e)-lletbe correct, true, honest 
Woleaiannnetabe true, sure, real 
Proto-Chuukic*lled[ae]·true, real
Gilbertesenenerainquire carefully (about something), search out (something) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *nne- or *lle- ‘look’.

PCMc   *l[eo]ŋu   ant

Chuukesenúúŋant 
 nnúŋinfested with ants 
Puluwateselééŋ, léŋi-(n)ant, ant of 
Saipan Carolinianlééŋ·ant
Woleaianlééŋú, leŋú-·ant
Proto-Chuukic*leŋú·ant
Marshalleselʷéŋʷant 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesekinoŋoant 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*loRoant  (Geraghty 1983, 1990)
Fijianlolosmall ant 
Tonganlooant 
Sa’alolored ants 
Bugotuthothored ant 
Kwaiololoant 
Lakalailololarge red ant 

— but —

Proto-Kimbe*noLo·ant

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *liŋoliŋo ‘cricket’.

PMc   *lewe   tongue

Chuukesenewenew, newenewa-(n)pronunciation, accent, his pronunciation 
Mortlockeseléwa-(n)his tongue 
 léwaléwaccent 
Satawaleselewe-(l)his tongue 
Woleaianleewe, lewe-(mʷu)tongue, your tongue 
 lewelewelick, eat 
 lewe-gi-(i)lick or eat it 
Pulo-Annanneewe, newe-·tongue
Proto-Chuukic*lewe·tongue
Pohnpeianlaaw, lootongue 
 lεwεhis tongue 
Mokileselaw, lɔwɔ, lɔwɔ-(n)tongue, his tongue, tongue of 
Marshalleselew, lewe-·tongue
Gilbertese(te)-newetongue 
 newe-ato lick (something) with the tongue 
Kosraeanlɔ, lɔɔ-(l)tongue, his tongue 

— Cf. —

Bugotuthapitongue 

PCMc   *li-   agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)

Chuukeseni-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Puluwateseli-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Woleaianli-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Pulo-Annanni-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Proto-Chuukic*li-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Pohnpeianli-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Mokileseli-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)
Gilberteseni-·agentive prefix indicating “one who (does, is given to doing”) (like English suffix -er)

PWMc   *lia-   female person

Chuukeseniye-, niya-female person, woman (with demonstrative suffixes) 
 niye-(rá)girl 
Mortlockeseliya-·female person
Puluwateseliye-·female person
Saipan Carolinianliye-, liya-·female person
Proto-Chuukic(?) *liya-·female person
Pohnpeianlii, liε-woman 
Mokileseliwoman 
Marshalleseliye-female, woman (with demonstrative suffixes) 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesenei-female, woman (with demonstrative suffixes) 

PMc   (?)   *lici   feel a loss

Chuukesenich, núchbe disappointed 
PuluwateseliiR [sic], liRi-grieve (as over a death), regret (as stolen objects) 
Saipan Carolinianlish, lúshmiss or long for someone or something 
Woleaianlishito miss someone or something very much 
Proto-Chuukic*lici·feel a loss
Proto-Oceanic*lidi·feel a loss
Proto-Kimbe*lidithrob, hurt, be painful 

PMc   *liki, likiliki, liki-Si   to strain, sift

Mokileseliki-d, liki-dekto strain (something) 
Pingilapeseliki-d, liki-dekto make flour out of wheat, develop film 
Marshalleseliklikto sift, strain, filter, digest 
 liklikiyto sift, etc. (something) 
Kosraeanlilikto sift, screen, sieve, separate 
 liklikito sift, etc. (something) 

This could be the same root as Proto-Micronesian *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si ‘discarded, discard’.

PMc   *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si   discarded, discard

Chuukesenikbe discarded, rejected, disliked 
 niki-t, niki-ta-(n)left-over, its leftovers 
 niki-tileave it behind, discard it 
Mortlockeseliki-tεleave it alone 
Puluwateseliki-ti-(y)leave it 
Saipan Carolinianlighi-ti and Crn ligi-tileave (something) behind, stop using (something), leave (something) for someone else 
Satawaleseliki-ti-(y)leave it behind 
Woleaianligiligito put things down, set aside, leave 
 ligi-ti-(i)leave it, let it be 
Pulo-Annannikinikito leave, throw, save (money), keep back 
 niki-tileave him, throw him 
Proto-Chuukic*liki, liki-di, liki-da·discarded, discard
Pohnpeianliki-d-(mεliεεla)to abandon, forget 
 liki-(di)to spit (honorific) 
Mokileselik, liki-dto lay eggs 
Marshalleselikto set (of hens), lay eggs 
 llik, liki-tleave, put, deposit 
Gilbertese(te)-niki-ra-(n-roro)unmarried woman (lit. left-over of a generation) 
 (te)-niki-rafood for guests (i.e., food that is given away) 
Kosraeanlikito leave, put down 

See also Proto-Micronesian *liki, likiliki, liki-Si ‘to strain, sift’.

PCMc   *liko   haul, pull, tow, troll

Chuukesenuk, nukunukhaul on a line, troll for small fish 
 nuke-yi, nuki-i-(y)haul it, pull it, tow it, bring it, take him along 
 nuke-e-(y)carry it 
 nukó-(már)pull on a line and back up at the same time 
 nuku-(mey)haul a breadfruit log from where it was felled to where it will be worked 
Puluwateseliik [sic], liko-to troll 
 liko-wii-y [sic]tow it 
Saipan Carolinianlughto troll for fish 
 lughe-e-(y), lughé-é-(y)to tow (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tlugto troll for fish 
Woleaianlugoto pull, tug, draw, drag, trail 
 lugo-si-(i)pull it up, tug on it 
Proto-Chuukic*liko, liko-ti·haul, pull, tow, troll
Pohnpeianlukto be invited, to be towed, to troll for fish 
 lukto invite, to tow 
Mokileseluk, luketo invite 
Gilbertese(te)-nikotrigger of a gun 

— Cf. —

Mokileseaikiekto tow 
 aikitow (something) 
Marshallesehayiktow, pull 
Lakalailuku-apull up a plant 

PMc   *liku   outside

Chuukesenúkú-(n)its exterior, outside, outside surface, outer edge, immediate environs, surface of skin 
 (i)-núkouter or ocean side 
Mortlockeselúkú-(n)outside of 
Puluwateselúkú-(n)its outside 
 lúkúlúkú-(n)cover of 
Saipan Carolinianlughu-(l), lúghú-(l)outside of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tlugu-(n)outside of 
Satawaleselúkú-(n)outside it 
Woleaianlúgú-(le)its outside or backside 
 lúgúlúgúcover the head and body with a sheet or cloth 
Pulo-Annannúkú-(na)·outside
Proto-Chuukic*lúkú-·outside
Pohnpeianlikioutside of something 
Mokileselik, liki-(n)outside, outside of 
Pingilapese(i)-likshore facing open sea 
Marshalleselikbehind, in back of, outside of, ocean side of 
 likiyocean side of 
Gilbertese(mai)-nikueast (i.e., ocean side) 
Kosraeanlik, liki-(n)outside, near the beach, outside of 
EOc*liku·outside
Tonganlikucliff-bound coast, at the back of an island 
Uraustronesisch*likudback, rear 
Uraustronesisch*li(ŋ)kupsurround, enclose 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *fa-liku, fa-liku-ri- ‘turn away, ignore the presence of others’, Proto-Chuukic *lúkú-lapa ‘ocean side (of an island or reef)’ (lit. ‘great outside’).

PWMc   *liku   be ready, prepared

Chuukesenúkbe ready, prepared 
 núkúnúké-(éch)be well prepared 
 núkúnúkú-(ŋŋaw)be ill prepared 
Woleaianlúgúlúgúexpect, anticipate, look to 
 lúgú-ú-(we)expect it, depend upon it 
 lúgúlúgú-(ŋŋawe)to neglect, be uncooperative 
Pulo-Annannúkúnúkúmake certain 
Proto-Chuukic*lúkú, lúkúlúkú, lúkú-ú-·be ready, prepared
Marshalleseléké-(k)be prepared for the task at hand 
 liké-(k)preparedness 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *l[iu]ku trust, believe, be confident.

PMc   *l[iu]ku-   somewhat, slightly

Chuukesenúkú-a little, a bit 
 núkú-(chéchchén)be moist, damp (lit. a bit wet) 
Puluwateselúkú-(cécaan), lúkú-(Récaan) [sic]be wet, humid, damp 
Woleaianlúgú-slightly, superficially 
 lúgú-(ffééú)be a bit chilly, cool 
Proto-Chuukic*lúkú-·somewhat, slightly
Kosraeanlʌkʌ-(n)almost, nearly 

PMc   *l[iu]ku   trust, believe, be confident

Chuukesenúúkfaith, belief 
 núkúnúkbe convinced 
 núkú-ú-(w)believe, have faith in 
Puluwateselúkúlúkhave faith, be confident, faith, confidence 
 lúkú-ú-(w)believe, have faith in 
Saipan Carolinianlúghúlúghto believe, think 
 lúghú-ú-(w)to believe or trust (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tlúgúlúgto believe, think 
 lúgúto believe or trust (someone) 
Satawaleselúkúlúkhave faith 
 lúkú-ú-(w)believe it 
Woleaianlúgúlúgúbe confident, feel secure 
 lúgú-ú-(we)expect it, depend on it 
Pulo-Annannúkúnúkúbe secure 
Proto-Chuukic*lúkúlúkú, lúkú-ú-(a)·trust, believe, be confident
Pohnpeianliki-liktrustworthy 
 liki-ito trust 
Marshallesellikconsider, construe 
Kosraeanlʌkʌ-(k)easy to convince, credulous, gullible 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *nekú, nekúnekú, Proto–Western Micronesian *liku ‘be ready, prepared’.

PMc   *[ln]ima   bailer

Chuukesenuum, nume-(n)bailer, bailer of 
 num, numo-numbe bailed, bail 
 nume-e-(y)bail it 
Mortlockesenúúm·bailer
Puluwateseniimbailer 
 nime-(y)to bail (a canoe) 
Satawaleseliim·bailer
Ulithianliim·bailer
Pulo-Annannúúma, núma-·bailer
Proto-Chuukic*nima·bailer
Pohnpeianliimbailer 
 lima-(k)to bail (a canoe) 
 limalimto bail, do bailing 
Mokileselimbailer, to bail 
 limebail (a canoe) 
Marshalleselém·bailer
Gilbertese(te-a)-nimabailer 
 (a)-nimato bail out (a canoe) 
Kosraean(a)-nɔmbailer 
 (i)-nimto dip out, scoop out, bail (loans from Gilbertese?) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[ln]ima·bailer
Fijiannima, nima-tato bail 
 [i]-nimabailer 
Uraustronesisch*limas·bailer

Yapese niim ‘bailer’ is an apparent loan from a Chuukic source.

PMc   *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-ŋawulu   five, five (general), five (animate), fifty

Chuukeseniim, nime-. nima-the number five 
 nimu-uwfive general 
 nim-ménfive animate 
 nime, nime-e-fifty 
Mortlockeselima-, limé-·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Puluwateseliim, lime-, limo-ow, lim-man, lime·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Saipan Carolinianliim, lima-, limo-uw, lim-mal, lime-igh·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Saipan Carolinian·Tliim, lima-, lomo-ow, lime-ig·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Satawaleselima-·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Woleaianliime, lima-, limo-uwe, lime-ige·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Pulo-Annannima-, nima-ow, nima-iki·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Proto-Chuukic*lima, lima-ua, lim-manú, lima-ike·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Pohnpeianlima-, lima-w, lim-mεn, limε-ysεk, limε-ŋowlfifty 
Mokilese(a)-lim, limɔ-w, lim-men, lime-yjek·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty
Marshallese(ḷa)-lém, lima-five 
 lém-ŋéwilfifty 
Gilbertesenima-, nima-ua, nii-manfive 
 nima-bʷii, nima-ŋaunfifty 
Kosraeanlʌm, lime-, lʌm-five 
 lʌm-ŋaulfifty 
Proto-Oceanic*lima·five, five (general), five (animate), fifty (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*limafive, hand 
Fijianlimafive 
 lima-saŋavulufifty 
Sa’alime and Ula limafive 
Bugotulimafive, hand 
Laulimafive 
Kwaionimafive 
Proto-Kimbe*limafive 
Proto-Kimbesavulu-limafifty 
 [la]-lima-[gu]my hand 
Uraustronesisch*limahand 

See Proto-Micronesian *-ua general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals).

PMc   *limʷu, lumʷu   seaweed, moss, algae, scum

Chuukesenuumʷ, numʷu-·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Mortlockeseluumʷ·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Puluwateseluumʷ, lumʷu-·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Saipan Carolinianluumʷ, lumʷu-·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Satawaleseluumʷ·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Woleaianluumʷu, lumʷu-·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Pulo-Annannuumʷu, numʷu-·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Proto-Chuukic*lumʷu·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Pohnpeianliimʷ, limʷi-limʷ·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Marshalleselimʷlimʷmoss 
 limʷmurky water; fine sand in sea; roiled, turbid 
Gilbertesenimʷ-(rona)covered with sea moss 
 nimʷnimʷsticky 
Kosraeanlumgreen algae 
 lumlummossy 
Proto-Oceanic*limut, lumut·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Proto-Polynesian*limu·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Fijianlumi [<*limu]·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Sa’alumu·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Lakalailumu·seaweed, moss, algae, scum
Uraustronesisch*limut, lumut·seaweed, moss, algae, scum

PMc   *l[iu]nuru   shade

Chuukesennúrshade 
 nnúrú-(n)her shadow 
 (é)-nnúrúgive shade to 
 (mʷé)-núnnúrdisguised, in code (of talk) 
Mortlockesenúr [sic]shade 
Puluwatesenéér, nérú-(n) [sic]shadow, shade 
Saipan Carolinianllur and Crn nnúrshaded, shady 
Woleaiannnúrushade, be shaded 
 núnnúrubecome shady 
 (ga)-nnúrúhat 
Pulo-Annannúlú [sic]shade, shelter, shadow 
 (ka)-núlúmake a shade 
Proto-Chuukic*nnúrú, núrú·shade
Pohnpeianrirdifficult to locate or understand, hidden, concealed, vague 
 riri-ito hide behind or conceal (something) 
Mokileserirshade, shaded 
 (ka)-rirto shade 
Marshallesellérʷ, (ha)llérʷ, (hayé)lérʷshade, shadow 
Gilbertesenuube shady 
 (te)-nuushade 
 (ka)-nua [sic]to overshadow or shade (something) 
Kosraeanlulshade, shadow 
 lulito overshadow 
 lullulshadowy 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*nunu·shade (Blust 1978:6)
Sa’anunushadow, reflection, likeness, soul 
Arosinunuimage, shape, reflection 
Kwaionunu-fi-[a]to shade [something] 
Proto-Nakanai*nunushadow, reflection 
Uraustronesisch*ali[nñ]u·shade

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*(ma)-luRshady  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Polynesian*[ma]-lu·shade
Sa’a[má]-luto shade 

The *nn in Proto-Chuukic, ll in Marshallese, l in Kosraean, and r in Pohnpeian and Mokilese suggest that Uraustronesisch *l, *n, and *r followed different patterns of assimilation in the several Micronesian languages. Cf. Marck (1994:325) Proto-Micronesian *luru.

PWMc   *li-ŋaŋari   tiny louse

Chuukeseni-ŋŋertiny species of louse, baby louse (lit. nibbler, constant eater) 
Puluwateseli-(kúú)-ŋera small louse (lit. back of head nibbler) 
Woleaianli-ŋŋeribaby louse (second stage of development) 
Proto-Chuukic*li-ŋŋari·tiny louse
Marshalleseli-ŋŋarnit. Cf. Kir ŋaŋau unable to restrain ones desire, eating without waiting for others 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseŋaŋauunable to restrain ones desire, eating without waiting for others 
Kosraeansi-ŋarsmall louse 

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *ŋani ‘to, toward’.

PMc   (?)   *liŋoliŋo   cricket

Gilbertese(te)-niŋoniŋoinsect that chirps at night (Bender et al. 1984
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*liŋoliŋo·cricket
Fijianligoligonight insect 
Tonganliŋoliŋocricket 

The n in the Gilbertese form indicates it is not a loan from a Polynesian source. Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *l[eo]ŋu ant.

PMc   *lipʷa   ditch, hole (in ground)

Chuukeseniipʷ, nipʷa-(n)soaking pit, his soaking pit 
 nipʷe-nipʷuse a soaking pit 
 nipʷe-niacquire it as a soaking pit 
Mortlockeseliipʷ, lipʷa-(n)grave, hole, his grave 
 lipʷa-neto bury (someone) 
Puluwateseliipʷ, lipʷa-(n)pool for soaking fibers, his pit 
Saipan Carolinianliibʷ, libʷa-(l)hole dug by man or animal 
Satawaleseliipʷpool where coconut fibers are soaked 
Woleaianliibe, libe-hole, opening, hollow place, burrow 
 libelibebury, be buried, have a funeral 
 libe-li-(i)bury it 
Pulo-Annanniipʷa, nipʷa-grave, hole 
 nipʷato bury (someone) 
Proto-Chuukic*lipʷa·ditch, hole (in ground)
Pohnpeianliipʷlarge hole in the ground 
Mokileselipʷhole, crater, scar 
Pingilapeselipʷhole 
Marshalleselébʷ, libʷi-, libʷe-grave, tomb 
Gilbertese(te)-nibʷapost hole, small pit or bed for Cyrtosperma 
Kosraeanlʌfhole 
 lʌflʌfhaving holes 
 lʌfimake ditches in 
Proto-Oceanic*libʷa·ditch, hole (in ground)
Sa’aliwecave 
Ulawanliwacave 
Lauliqacave, hole 
Arosiriwahole [of rat], cave 
Kwaiolikʷahole in tree 
Lakalailibagrave 
Uraustronesisch*lubañhole, pit 

See also Marck (1994:324) Proto-Micronesian *lip’a.

PMc   *loŋ[ao]   inward, inland, ashore

Chuukese-noŋinward, southward 
 (too)-noŋenter 
Puluwatese-loŋinside, into, inland, ashore 
Saipan Carolinian-loŋinward, eastward, inside 
Satawalese-loŋinland, into 
Woleaianloŋointo, to the inland, inward 
Pulo-Annan-naŋointo, inside 
Proto-Chuukic*loŋoinwards, inland, ashore 
Pohnpeian-loŋinwards, into 
Marshallese(te)ḷ weŋʷ, (te)ḷeŋʷ, (je)ḷeŋʷgo to the interior of an islet; penetrate 
Rotumanloŋatoward the interior (of an island) 
Fijian(ya)loŋainside 
Bugotu(i)-loŋalandwards 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseleŋʷneither high nor low, in between (archaic) 

PMc   *loo, loo-Si   to see, behold

Marshallesellewsee, detect, find 
 lew(ey)see something 
Gilbertesenooto look on, witness 
 noo-rato see (something) 
 noo-ri-(a)see it 
Kosraeanmindful, attentive, watchful 
 lɔito heed, watch for, pay attention to 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*loo, loo-si(Saa loo-si to see 
Sa’aloo-sito see 
Arosiroo, roo-hito look for 

— Cf. —

Fijianilo, ilo-vato look at (as a reflection) 
Sa’alioto look, see 
Bugotulio-hito look at 
Laulioto look or seem, appearance 
Arosirio, rio-silook, look at 
 iro, iro-hito look, look into or for 
Kwaiolio, lio-si-(a)look, see, look for 
 ilolook at 
 ilo-(nunu)a reflecting pool, mirror 
Lakalailiho, hiloto see, look at 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qilo, qilo-fi, liqo, liqo-[sz]i·to see, behold
Uraustronesisch*qilawreflection 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *nne- or *lle- ‘look’.

PMc   (?)   *loo[wØ]a, lo[wØ]a-   seat in a canoe

Pohnpeianloo·seat in a canoe
Mokilese·seat in a canoe
Kosraean·seat in a canoe

— Cf. —

Chuukesenóó-(pʷu)socket for mast or yard on a sailing canoe (pwu place ones foot or pwuu navel) 

PMc   *lo[sS]o-   masthead

Chuukesetoon, tone-(n)masthead, high point, pinnacle (showing metathesis) 
Puluwatesetool, tolo-(n)top section of mast on sailing canoe (showing metathesis) 
Mokileselodtop of canoes mast 
Marshalleseḷwettop of canoes mast (cf. teḷw hill, mountain) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*lo[sz]o·masthead
Fijianlocomiddle joint at the yard in a canoe 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *[sS]olo ‘fade from view’. See also Marck (1994:321) Proto-Micronesian *lozo.

PMc   (?)   *lowu-   cross-sibling

Kosraeanlou-(k), lɔ-(l), lou-(n)my sister (man speaking), his sister, sister of 
Proto-Oceanic*lopucross sibling  (Ross 1988)

PCMc   *lua   be whole

Puluwatesellúwbe all, entire 
Woleaiannnúwethe whole, entire thing 
Proto-Chuukic*llúw[ae]·be whole
Gilbertesenua-ibe satisfied, have eaten enough 

PCMc   *lukuma   fold, wrap

Pohnpeianlukomto wrap around (something) 
Mokileselikimto fold (something) 
Gilbertesenukumato fold or wrap up (something); a package 

— Cf. —

Marshalleselimékpackage; to fold, pack (possible metathesis) 
 lémlémfold, wrap, package 
 lim(iy)fold something 

— Cf. also —

Kosraeannukumclothe, wear, wrap (something) 
 nuknukclothes, cloth 
 nuknukicover with a cloth, measure the size of a piece of cloth 
Marshallesenikʷnikʷclothes, cloth; to dress up 
 ka-nikʷnikʷ-iyclothe someone 
Sa’anukuto kink, have corrugations, be shriveled or wrinkled 
 nuku-mito crease, fold (something) 

(These Kosraean and Marshallese forms probably stand in a borrowing relationship, possibly with Gilbertese). Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *Lukuma ‘bundle’ posited by Goodenough (1995:76) and Proto-Micronesian *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi ‘be wrapped, a package, to wrap (something)’.

PMc   *lulu   be furled (of a sail), rolled or folded up

Chuukesennú-(tiw)be furled, lowered (of a sail) 
 (é)-nnúfold up (a mat or sail), lower (a sail) 
 nnúún, núnnú-be lowered, furled (of a sail) 
Woleaiannnú-(tiwe)put down, lower (a sail) 
 nnúto break (as a wave), crush, split 
Proto-Chuukic*nnú or *llú·be furled (of a sail), rolled or folded up
Pohnpeianlilto lower sail 
Gilbertesenn-a (<*ni-a, *nni-a)to lower (something) 
 nini-raroll (something) up 
EOc*lulu·be furled (of a sail), rolled or folded up
Sa’alulu, lulu-ŋifold 
Kwaiolulubunch together, gather, push together 
Uraustronesisch*luluñroll up 

— Cf. —

Lakalailili-(a)roll it up 
Uraustronesisch*lilitwrap up, bind up 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *lumi ‘to fold’, Proto-Chuukic *llima ‘lower rim of a sail’.

PMc   *lumi   to fold

Chuukesennumbe creased, folded, bent, crumpled 
 numi, nnumibend it, fold it, crease it 
Puluwateselúmi, limi-(y)fold it (as a mat) 
Saipan Carolinianlimi, limi-i-(ló)to foldsomething, fold it up 
Woleaianlimilimifold, folding, cover 
 limi-(i)fold it, cover it 
Proto-Chuukic*lúmi, lúmúlúmú·to fold
Pohnpeianlimto fold (something) 
 limilim-(pεnε)be folded 
 lim-εkbe bent, smashed, mashed, dented 
Mokileselimto fold (something) 
 limlima fold, hem, cuff, to fold 
Marshalleselémlémfold, wrap 
 lim-ékfolded 
Gilbertesenumbe folded (of arms or wings) (Eastman 1948
Kosraeanlimto fold (something) 
 limlimto fold 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*lumiqto fold, hem  (Blust 1983–84:81)

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *lukuma ‘fold, wrap’:, Proto-Chuukic *llima ‘lower rim of a sail’.

PCMc   (?)   *[ln]usi-   tie up, wrap

Chuukesennutbe tied together by a twining process, tie things together by twining 
 nutito tie (something) by twining, the process of twining 
Gilbertesenira, ninirato roll (something) up 
 (te)-niniraa wrapper, loose garment worn over the shoulders 

— Cf. —

Fijianlusi, lusi-ato rub the skin off 

PMc   *luTu   to jump

Chuukesenus, nnusjump (from one point to another), be out of its socket or holder 
 (o)-nusuremove it from one place to another, take it out of its socket 
 (o)-nnusucause it to jump or hop 
 nusu-(mʷmʷet)bounce, jump, hop 
Puluwateselúh [sic]to jump, to slip (as a muscle), to be loosened (as copra from its shell) 
 (yó)-lúhá-(á-tá) [sic]loosen it (as copra from its shell) 
 (yó)-lúlúh [sic]to dislodge dried copra from its shell 
Saipan Carolinianllus, lullus and Crn lluhto jump 
Satawalesennusto jump 
Woleaianlútú, nnútújump, leap, spring up, start in surprise 
 (ga)-lútú-(ú), (ga)-nnútú-(ú)make it jump 
 lútú-(ŋi-i)jump or leap on it 
Pulo-Annannútúto jump, leap, spring 
 nútú-(ŋi)to jump or leap on it 
Proto-Chuukic*l[uú]T[uú]·to jump
Pohnpeianlusto jump 
 lusi-(da)to jump up, be surprised 
 lusu-(k)to jump on, to catch a ride with 
Kosraeanlutsurprised, startled, amazed 

— Cf. —

Proto-Austronesian*lecu[Ct]slip away, escape  (Blust 1970:131)

PCMc   *luuka   center, middle

Chuukesenuuk, nuuka-(n)center, middle, abdomen, stomach, belly, its center 
 nuuka-(nap)center, exact middle 
 nuuke-(ni-pʷin)midnight 
 nuuk, nuuke-(yi-nen)name of a god (lit. middle of heaven) 
Puluwateseluuk, luuka-(n)center, its center 
Saipan Carolinianluugh, luugha-(l)center, middle, its center 
 luugho-(lap)center, middle (of an object) 
 luughname of the chief traditional god 
Satawalesenuukcenter, middle 
Woleaianluugecenter, central point, be centered 
 luuga-(a)finish the central point by measurement 
 lugo-(li-bʷoŋi) [sic]midnight 
 luugo-(i-leŋi)name of a god 
Pulo-Annannuka [sic]center, middle 
Proto-Chuukic*luuka, luuka-(li-pʷoŋi), luuka-(i-laŋi)·center, middle
Pohnpeianluukname of the chief traditional god 
Marshalleselikʷe-middle of, waist 
 likʷe-(n-boŋ)midnight 
Gilbertese(te)-nuuka, nuuka-(na)middle, lower waist, its middle 

Short first syllable of Marshallese needs explanation.

PMc   *luuwa   remainder, remnant

Chuukesenuuwe-k, nuuwe-ki-(n)remainder, what is left, what remains, remnant of 
Pohnpeianluuwεits remains, remnant 
Mokileseluwɔits remains 
Pingilapeseluwεits remains 
Kosraeanluwε-(l)its remnant, leftover, surplus 

— Cf. —

Ulithianluutégu [sic]leftover (Bender et al. 1984

See also Proto-Chuukic ? *luTTu ‘remainder, leftovers’.

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