st
Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*m   

ma    me    mi    

PMc   *ma   and, with

Trukese·and, with
Mortlockeseme, mé·and, with
Puluwateseme, mé·and, with
Saipan Carolinianme·and, with
Satawaleseme·and, with
Woleaianme·and, with
Pulo-Annanma·and, with
Proto-Chuukic*me·and, with
Marshalleseyem, yim·and, with (metathesis) 
Kiribatimawith, and others 
Kusaieanmaand others 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma·and, with
Bugotumaand 
Arosimaand, but 
Kwaiomaand, but 

— Cf. —

Yapesemathen, and, but 

PMc   *ma-   stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being

Trukesema-, má-, mó-, me-, mé-, mo-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Mortlockesema-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Puluwatesema-, má-, mó-, me-, mé-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Saipan Carolinianma-, má-, mó-, me-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Satawalesema-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Woleaianma-, me-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Pulo-Annanma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Proto-Chuukic*ma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Ponapeianma-, mε-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
PingilapesemV-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being (vowel varies) 
Marshallesema-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Kiribatima-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
KusaieanmV-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being (vowel varies) 
Proto-Oceanic*ma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Proto-Polynesian*ma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Fijianma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Sa’ama-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Bugotuma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Lauma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Arosima-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Kwaioma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being
Proto-Kimbe*ma-·stative prefix indicating that what is described is an appearance or condition of being

PMc   *maa, maa-ki   ashamed

Trukesemabe ashamed 
 (a)-maa-(y)make him ashamed 
Saipan Carolinianmabe embarassed 
Woleaianmaabe or feel ashamed 
 (ge)-maa-(ye)make him ashamed 
Pulo-Annanmma [sic]be ashamed 
Proto-Chuukic*maa·ashamed
Ponapeianmaa-kreserved, containing ones feelings for fear of self-embarrassment or embarrassing others, deference 
Mokilesemee-kashamed, embarrassed, bashful, shy 
Kiribatimaamaaashamed, abashed 
Kusaieanmʷe-ki-(n)ashamed, shy, bashful 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maqa·ashamed
Proto-Polynesian*maaashamed 
Fijianmaa-[duaa]·ashamed
Sa’amasashy, ashamed 
Arosimasa·ashamed

— See also —

West Nakanaimahelabe ashamed 

PMc   *maanu   adrift, drift

Trukesemaan, mammaanbe becalmed, adrift, to drift 
 maanú-(nó)drift away 
 (a)-maanúcast him adrift 
 (a)-mmaanflotsam 
Mortlockesemaanto float 
 maani-(to)float hither 
Puluwatesemaanto drift 
 maane-(ló)drift away 
Saipan Carolinianmaalto drift 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmaanto drift 
Satawalesemaandrift, float 
 maane-(to)drift hither 
Woleaianmaalúto drift, be adrift 
 (ge)-maalú-(ú)let it drift away 
 (ge)-mmaalúcause something to drift away 
Pulo-Annanmaanúto float, drift 
Proto-Chuukic*maanú·adrift, drift
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maqanu·adrift, drift
Proto-Polynesian*maqanuadrift, float 
Sa’amánuto float 
Proto-Austronesian*ma-qa(nN)u(dj)·adrift, drift (Blust 1978:8)
Proto-Austronesian*qaNuj·adrift, drift (Wolff 1993)

PMc   *maaru   out of breath

Puluwatesemoorbe winded, out of breath; thirsty 
Saipan Carolinianmʷoorbe out of breath, breathe hard 
Kusaieanmælbreathless, impatient, intolerant 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanmalʌbreathless; thirsty 
Trukesemoorhead cold, chest cold, have a cold, have a cough 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *marewu ‘thirsty’.

PCMc   *[mmʷ]a-asaasa   low sound

Trukesemʷa-ataatrustling (of leaves), rubbing or splashing noise 
Kiribatimaraara (sic, <*ma-araara?)low conversation at a little distance 

PMc   *maaso, masoso   to sit

Trukesemóót, mómmóótsit, be seated 
 mót-(tiw), #móót-(tiw)sit down 
 (ó)-móótaplace it, set it 
Mortlockesemóót·to sit
Puluwatesemóótto sit 
 mó-tiw [sic]sit down 
Saipan Carolinianmóótto sit 
 móóte-(tiw), móót-(tiw)sit down 
Satawalesemóótsit 
 móóto-(tiw)sit down 
Woleaianmattosit, squat down 
 (ge)-matto-(o)set it down, seat him 
Pulo-Annanmato [sic]to sit 
 mato-(ŋa)buttocks 
Sonsorolesemaato·to sit
Proto-Chuukic*maado, maddo·to sit
Ponapeianmʷoodsit 
 mʷoon-(di)sit down 
Mokilesemʷin-(di)sit 
Kusaieanmʌta (in aset)non-native sitting posture 
 mʌta (liplip)a sitting posture 

— Cf. —

Kiribatimʷarosink, founder, go down (as food) (Bingham) or.. 
 mʷaroosink, founder, go down (as food)  (Eastman)
 mʷaroroto subside, to lull 
Kusaieanmotsink with too much weight, subside 

— Cf. —

Proto-Chuukic(?) *mʷaút[iú]to sink 

Problems here.

PMc   *maata, maataata   cleared space

Saipan Carolinianmaat, maata-lfarm, his farm 
Satawalesemaat·cleared space
Woleaianmaatefarm, garden 
Pulo-Annanmaatagarden, lot, taro patch, property 
Proto-Chuukic*maa[dt]a·cleared space
Ponapeianmaasaascleared of vegetation 
Marshallesemahajcleared space, open field 
 mahajahaje-(y)to clear (land) 
Kiribatimaataataopen, cleared (as land), roomy, clear 
Kusaieanmʷesæsroomy, spacious, commodious 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianmʷaatclearing, field, plantation, garden 
 mʷetclear an area, cut or pull grass 
 mʷetmake a clearing, plantation, or garden 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *maada ‘a garden’. See also Marck (1994:321) Proto-Micronesian *maata and *maataata.

PMc   *maaTiaTi   treeless place

Trukesemaasiyestreeless place, field, open area without shade 
Kusaieanmʷesisa desert 
 (æk)-mʷesisyeclean, cultivate, clear (land) 

PMc   *maawa   a fish

Ponapeianmaawany blue parrotfish 
Marshallesemahwewparrotfish (Scarus jonesi/sordidus), wrasse (Cheilinus sp.) 
Kiribatimaawaa goatfish (Purupeneus trifasciatus
 (te-ika)-maawaparrotfish (Scarus pectoralis
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maqawa·a fish
Fijianmayawaspecies of fish 
Tonganma’awaa kind of fish 

— Cf. —

Marshallesemehwrasse 
West Nakanaimaokind of fish 

PMc   *maawunu   war, fighting

Trukesemóówun, móówunu-·war, fighting
Puluwatesemawon [sic]·war, fighting
Saipan Carolinianmóówulwar 
 #móówulato attack (an enemy) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmóówunwar 
 #móówulato attack (an enemy) 
Satawalesemóówun·war, fighting
Woleaianmaaulu·war, fighting
Ulithianmaaulu·war, fighting
Pulo-Annanmaunu [sic]·war, fighting
Proto-Chuukic*maawunu·war, fighting
Ponapeianmaawin·war, fighting
Mokilesemaawin·war, fighting
Pingilapesemaawin·war, fighting
Marshallesemawinmagic to make fighters brave 
Kusaieanmʷeunwar, fight 

— Cf. —

Kiribatiunbe angry, fight and ka-unuun continue to provoke anger 
 ka-unuuncontinue to provoke anger 
Proto-Oceanic*punuqstrike, slay  (Ross 1988)
Sa’ahunukill or cut up an animal 
Arosihunu, hunu-’ito kill, exterpate 
Kwaiofunuto fight, cut 
 funu-ŋawarfare 
Uraustronesisch*bunuq·war, fighting

— Cf. also —

Yapesemaelwar, battle 

Marshallese shortening unexplained.

PMc   *maca, mamaca   very ripe, rotten

Trukesemach, mmach, mammachvery ripe, rotten, stink 
 mmach, mmacha-(n)boil on the skin, his boil 
 mmache-(yiti)get ripe by (a certain time) 
 (a)-mmacharipen (something) 
Mortlockesemmashripe, overripe 
PuluwatesemmaRbe very ripe 
 mmaR, mmeRa-(n)boil, infected sore, his boil 
Saipan Carolinianmashstink, smell bad 
 mmashbe very ripe, soft, ready to eat (of a fruit) 
Saipan Carolinian·TmaRstink, smell bad 
 mmaRbe very ripe, etc. 
SatawalesemaRrotten, very ripe 
Woleaianmasherotten, spoiled, have a bad smell, stink 
 mashemashebecome rotten or spoiled 
 mmasheripe, fermented, soft, wet, have pus in a scratch or wound 
Pulo-Annanmmasabe fermented, ripe 
Proto-Chuukic*maca, mmaca·very ripe, rotten
Ponapeianmatripe, overripe, rotten, spoiled, decayed 
 maatpimple, acne 
Mokilesemasstink, smell bad 
 mɔsɔspoiled, rotten, putrid 
Marshallesemadripen 
 mmedvery ripe, overripe (of breadfruit only), phlegm, catarrh, sputum 
 (méyi)-medoverripe breadfruit 
Kiribatimarasoft (as an animal shedding its skin), wet, moist, bald 
Kusaieanmʷesrripe, mellow, pimple, flake of skin 
 mʷesrmʷesrpimply, flaky 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*manra·very ripe, rotten
Proto-Polynesian*marafermented 
Fijian(?) madraworn, old [of clothes] 
Bugotumadabe ripe [of fruit] 
 mada-[rua]be overripe 
Kwaiomadaripe, mature 

See also Proto-Micronesian *mara ‘preserved breadfruit’.

PMc   *ma-cai   slimy

Trukeseme-cheyicheybe slimy, mucous-like 
Saipan Carolinianma-sheishey, me-sheisheyslimy, slippery substance such as mucus 
Ponapeianmε-tεytεy·slimy
Marshalleseme-dahyé-(kyék)phlegm, pus, lymph, slime from slugs and fish 
Kiribatima-raikernel of coconut in its soft state, white of an egg, having a soft kernel 
Kusaieanmi-sre, mʌ-sreslide, slip, skid 
 mi-sresreslimy, slippery, slithery 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-daRi·slimy
Bugotuma-dalislippery 

— Cf. —

Fijianma-draiFijian bread buried in the ground for months 

See also Proto-Chuukic *ma-calú ‘slimy, slippery’. Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *mʷacaya ‘physical deformity’.

PMc   (?)   *ma-caucau   soft

Kiribatima-raurau·soft
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[mmʷ]a-ntauntau·soft
Sa’amʷa-daube easy, possible, soft, pliable 

— Cf. —

Kwaioma-ga’usoft 
 wa-da’ueasy 
 wa-la’ueasy, soft, overripe 

— and cf. —

Bugotuma-daruaoverripe 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *caúcaú ‘to massage (after a fall or bruise)’.

PMc   *maci, macici   be cold

Marshallesemédcooled off (of food once hot) 
Kiribatimaririfeel cold, be cold 
 mariricold, coldness 
Kusaieanmisrisrcold, chilly, cool, goose bumps 
Proto-Oceanic*madidi·be cold
Rotumanmatitibe cold 

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimaigibe cold 
 magigito shake (as in epilepsy) 
 makarigicold, to be cold 
Proto-Kimbe*maqi(dg)i·be cold
Proto-Austronesian*ma(ŋ)-(dD)iŋ(dD)iŋ·be cold (Blust 1970:133)

PMc   *mai₁   breadfruit

Trukesemááy, meyi-, -mey·breadfruit
Puluwatesemááy·breadfruit
Saipan Carolinianmááy·breadfruit
Satawalesemááy·breadfruit
Woleaianmaai, mai-·breadfruit
Pulo-Annanmaai, mai-·breadfruit
Sonsorolesemaay·breadfruit
Proto-Chuukic*mai·breadfruit
Ponapeianmaay·breadfruit
Mokilesemɔy·breadfruit
Pingilapesemεy·breadfruit
Marshallesemay·breadfruit
Kiribatimaai, (te)-mai·breadfruit
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maRi·breadfruit (Geraghty 1990)
Tonganmei·breadfruit

Note: Kusaiean mos does not appear to be cognate.

PMc   *mai₂   from

Trukeseme, mé·from
Puluwateseme, mé·from
Saipan Carolinianme·from
Satawaleseme·from
Woleaianme·from
Pulo-Annanma·from
Proto-Chuukic*me·from
Kiribatimai·from

— Cf. —

Sa’amáihither, from 
Bugotumaihither 
Arosimaihither 
Kwaiomaihither 
Proto-Kimbe*mai·from

PCMc   *maia   from where?

Trukese(ke-náá) meeyyou come from where? 
Kiribati(ko nako) maiayou come from where? 

PCMc   *ma[iu]ŋi   left handed

Trukese-mééŋ, -mmééŋleft handed, left side 
Puluwatese(húyi)-mééyúŋ, (yii)-mééyúŋbe on the left side 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *maúŋú·left handed
Ponapeianmεyŋ-(tɔl)be left handed 
Mokilesemeyŋleft 
Marshallese(han)-miyiŋleft hand, left half of human body 
Kiribatimaiŋleft handed 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma[iu]Rileft hand  (Geraghty 1990)
Sa’amáuli, máumeuli·left handed
Laumouli·left handed
Kwaiomoolidifferently, in a wrong direction, [after vt.] left handed 
Proto-Kimbe*mauLileft handed 

PMc   *maki   worn with age

Trukesemesbe worn out (of household goods and clothes), be fragile with age 
 (ine)-mesname of a goddess associated with love magic (lit. mother age-worn) 
Puluwatesemáhbe worn out 
 máhi-(n)worn out thing of 
Woleaianmagibecome wilted, grow weak 
 (ge)-magi-(i)make it lose color 
Proto-Chuukic*maki·worn with age
Ponapeianmεkdented 
Mokilesemetired 
Kiribatimakishriveled and dried up (as a leaf), barely burning, nearly extinguished (of a fire) 
Kusaieanold, worn, frayed 

Note the h in Puluwatese and Ø in Mokilese and Kusaiean where we would expect k. In the Puluwatese case the h suggests the word is a loan from Trukese. Saipan Carolinian ile-más, ili-mes, li-más and Saipan Carolinian·T ine-mes ‘love medicine’ appear to be loans from Trukese.

PCMc   *makua   regurgitate

Trukesemékúto belch 
Saipan Carolinianmaghúto burp up milk after feeding (of a baby) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmagúto burp up milk after feeding (of a baby) 
Pulo-Annanmakúato be nauseating 
Proto-Chuukic*makúa·regurgitate
Ponapeianmakiakito sob 
Kiribatimakuaa full spring tide 
 makuabe a full spring tide 

— Cf. —

Woleaianmmééto have nausea, vomit 

PMc   *malala   area without vegetation

Trukesemannaangrassland (treeless, open) 
Satawalesemelaalcleared ground 
Ponapeianmalla natural clearing in the forest, unfertile area, an area with little topsoil 
Mokilesemalbarren field 
Marshallesemeḷaḷplayground for demons, not habitable by people 
Proto-Oceanic*malala·area without vegetation
Bugotumathathegarden 
Proto-Kimbemalalaground cleared of vegetation 

— Cf. —

Kiribatimaneworn out, worn thin 
Kusaieanmahnbarren, empty, fruitless, sterile 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *malle, malemale, (ka)-malemale-(a), male-di- ‘ground cleared of vegetation, swidden field’. And cf. Marck (1994:322) Proto-Micronesian *mala and *malala.

PMc   *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku   forget

Mortlockesemallúkεforget (something) 
Puluwatesemalleki-(y), malleka-(a-ló)to forget 
Saipan Carolinianmalléghbe forgetful 
 mallégú-(ú-w)forget (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmallegbe forgetful 
 mallegi-(i-y)forget (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*malekú, mallekú·forget
Ponapeianmanokε-(ε-la), makonε-(ε-la)to forget (something) 
 manokonoko-(la)forget, be forgetful 
Mokilesemoluklukbe forgetful 
 mɔlkɔ, mɔlkɔɔ-(la)to forget (something) 
Marshallesemeḷakʷḷakʷto forget, be oblivious 
Kusaieanmʌlki-nto forget, be forgetful of, lose (something) 

The reflex n instead of l in the Pohnpeian forms is unexpected. The Marshallese form reflects *malakolako; use of -ló/-la directional with Puluwatese, Ponapeian, and Mokilese forms suggests that this is contamination of earlier *maleku-lako (see Proto-Micronesian *lako, laa ‘go, proceed, [as directional] away’). See also Proto–Central Micronesian *maluoki, maluoka ‘forget’, Proto-Micronesian *ma-lie ‘forget’.

PMc   *malemʷu   to drown

Puluwatesemólomʷ·to drown
Woleaianmalemʷu·to drown
Proto-Chuukic*malemʷu·to drown
Marshallesemaḷeŋʷ·to drown
Kusaieanwalom·to drown

Marshallese substitutes ŋʷ for expected ṃʷ, possibly in dissimilation from initial m (an ŋʷ/ṃʷ alternation is not uncommon);also, heavy is unexpected.

PMc   *ma-lie   forget

Ponapeianmε-liε-(ε-la)to forget (honorific) 
Marshallesemma-léyléyabsent minded, forgetful, oblivious 
Kusaieanmʌ-lye-(la)forgetful, unmindful, absent minded 

See also Proto-Micronesian *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku ‘forget’, Proto–Central Micronesian *maluoki, maluoka ‘forget’.

PCMc   *maluoki, maluoka   forget

Trukeseménnúúki, ménnúúka-(a-nó)forget it, leave it behind 
Satawalesemalúweki-(y)forget it 
Woleaianmalúweki-(li-i)forget it, have it slip ones mind 
Pulo-Annanmanúekibe forgotten, to forget, forgive 
Proto-Chuukic*malúeki·forget
Kiribatimanuokato forget (something) 

See also Proto-Micronesian *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku ‘forget’, Proto-Micronesian *ma-lie ‘forget’.

PMc   *mamata   stand watch, stay awake

Trukesemmasstand watch 
 mmasa, mammasawatch over it, guard it 
Mortlockesemmasguard 
 (a)-mmasá-(á-tá)wake him up 
Puluwatesemahaa [sic]watch over (something) 
Saipan Carolinianmmasto watch, wait and look, be awake 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmmahto watch, wait and look, be awake 
Saipan Carolinianmaha-(a-tá)wake up 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmaha-(ló)wake up 
Satawalesemmasawake 
Woleaianmmaseto watch, look at something, guard, peer at something 
 mmesa-(a)watch him, guard him, peep at him 
 mmateopen ones eyes, arise, awake 
Pulo-Annanmmatabe awake, arise, open ones eyes 
Proto-Chuukic*mmata·stand watch, stay awake
Marshallesemméjbe awake, stay up 
Proto-Oceanic*mamata·stand watch, stay awake
Rotumanmamafato awake from sleep 
West Nakanaimamatabe awake 

— Cf. —

Kwaiomamawait for 

See Proto-Micronesian *mata ‘eye, face’.

PMc   *mam[ei]   a large fish

Trukesemáámlarge sp. of wrasse fish 
Puluwatesemám [sic]a kind of large fish (perhaps a wrasse) 
Saipan Carolinianmáámspecies of wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus
Proto-Chuukic(?) *mam[ei]·a large fish
Marshallesemam, (jew)-mamany large fish 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*maminwrasse  (Blust 1986:63)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *mami ‘sweet’.

PMc   *mami   sweet

Mortlockesemémtaste of chewing coconuts 
Puluwatesemem, memmem·sweet
Saipan Carolinianmám, mem·sweet
Satawalesemámm, memmemm·sweet
Woleaianmamisweet 
 (ge)-mami-(i)make it sweet 
Proto-Chuukic*mami·sweet
Ponapeianmεm·sweet
Marshallesemame-t (<*mami-ta?)sweet, fresh water 
Kiribatimamfresh water 
Kusaiean(e)-mʷemsweet 
 (e)-mʷemito sweeten (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mamisweet 
Fijianmamia kind of banana 
Tonganmamia kind of banana 
Sa’amámito taste something 
Bugotumamisweet 
Arosimamisweetened, fresh water 
Kwaiomaminormal tasting, brackish water 
Uraustronesisch*mamis·sweet

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimalamasweet 

PMc   *mana, manamana   be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power

Trukeseman, manaman·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Mortlockesemanaman·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Puluwatesemanaman·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Satawalesemalaman·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Woleaian(kke)-male·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Proto-Chuukic*mana, manamana·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Ponapeianmanbe effective 
 manamanmagical, mysterious, magic, spiritual power 
Mokilesemanmanspiritually powerful, able to do magic 
Marshallesemaṇmaṇhaunted, having supernatural power 
Kusaieanmʷenmʷenmiracle, magic 
 mʷenmʷeniperform magic 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mana·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Proto-Polynesian*mana·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Fijianmana·be efficacious, have spiritual power, efficacy, spiritual power
Sa’ananamabe powerful 
Bugotumanaspiritual power 
Kwaionanamaconfer supernatural power 

PMc   *ma-[nñ]awa   life, alive

Trukesema-nawlife, health, be alive 
 (a)-ma-nawagive him life 
Mortlockesema-nawa-(n)his life 
Puluwatesemá-naw, (ya)-ma-nawa·life, alive
Saipan Carolinianma-law, (a)-ma-lawa·life, alive
Saipan Carolinian·Tma-naw, (a)-ma-nawa·life, alive
Satawalesemá-nawa-(n)his life, existence 
Woleaianme-lawebe alive 
Proto-Chuukic*ma-nawa·life, alive
Marshallesemenewa-heart, breath 
 me-newnewto breathe 
Kiribatima-nawapit of the stomach 
Proto-Oceanic*ma-ñawabreath  (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*ma-nawabreath 
Arosima-nawabreath 
Uraustronesisch*ñawasoul 

— Cf. —

Mokilesemooŋto breathe 
Kusaieanmɔŋɔ-(l)his breath, sigh 

PMc   *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi   thin, flimsy

Saipan Carolinianmá-lifilifthin 
Satawalesema-lifilif·thin, flimsy
Woleaianma-lifi, ma-lifilifibe thin, lack thickness 
Pulo-Annanma-nidibe thin (of flat objects) 
 ma-nidinidia slice, cut piece of cloth 
Sonsorolesema-rifi·thin, flimsy
Proto-Chuukic*ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi·thin, flimsy
Ponapeianmε-nipinipthin (of flat objects such as paper) 
Mokilesemi-nipinip·thin, flimsy
Marshallesema-niythin, flimsy 
Kiribatimma-nii·thin, flimsy
Kusaiean(se)-mi-nininot thin 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-nipi·thin, flimsy
Proto-Polynesian*ma-nifi·thin, flimsy
Arosima-nihi·thin, flimsy
Kwaioma-nifitiny ocean fish 
Uraustronesisch*nipis·thin, flimsy

PCMc   *mano   waterproof, not leaky

Trukesemón·waterproof, not leaky
Puluwatesemón·waterproof, not leaky
Woleaianmalo·waterproof, not leaky
Proto-Chuukic*mano·waterproof, not leaky
Kiribatimano·waterproof, not leaky

— Cf. —

Fijianmalu·waterproof, not leaky

PMc   *manu   living creature of land or air

Trukesemaan, ménú-(n), (e)-ménliving creature, living creature of, one living creature 
Mortlockesemaan, manú-(n)·living creature of land or air
Puluwatesemaan, manú-(n)·living creature of land or air
Saipan Carolinianmaal, malú-(l)·living creature of land or air
Saipan Carolinian·Tmaan·living creature of land or air
Satawalesemaan, manú-(n), (e)-mal·living creature of land or air
Woleaianmaalú, man-(ni)·living creature of land or air
Pulo-Annanmaanú, manú-(ni), (de)-manú·living creature of land or air
Proto-Chuukic*manú, (te)-manú·living creature of land or air
Ponapeianmaan, mεni-(n)animal, insect 
Mokilesemaan·living creature of land or air
Marshallesemani-(ddik)a small insect 
 man-(ni-miwij)white sea gull 
Kiribatimananimal, bird 
 mani-(nn-ara)mosquito 
 man-(ni-kiba)bird 
Kusaieanmæn, meni-(n)aninal, insect 
Proto-Oceanic*manuk·living creature of land or air (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*manuanimal, bird 
Fijianmanumanubird 
Sa’amánubird, insect 
Bugotumanubird 
Kwaiomanubird 
Laumanubird 
Proto-Kimbe*manubird 
Uraustronesisch*manukchicken, bird 

Note that Puluwatese malúk ‘chicken’; Saipan Carolinian malúgh ‘chicken’; Woleaian malúge ‘chicken, hen’, and Ponapeian malεk ‘chicken’ are loans, more likely from Palauan malk than from Chamorro mannok.

PCMc   *manu   a bright star

Trukesemaanthe star Sirius or Procyon, name of a sidereal month 
Puluwatesemaana scattered group of stars, Canopus, Sirius, Procyon, name of a sidereal month 
Saipan Carolinianmaanthe star Sirius, month in the sidereal calendar 
Saipan Carolinian·Tmaanthe star Sirius, month in the sidereal calendar 
SatawalesemaanProcyon, Sirius, Canopus 
Woleaianmaalúthe star Sirius 
Pulo-Annanmaanúa sidereal month equated with September 
Proto-Chuukic*maanú·a bright star
Kiribatiman [sic]Canopus (Bender et al. 1984

See also Proto-Micronesian *manu ‘living creature of land or air’.

PCMc   *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari   rough

Trukeseme-ŋer, me-ŋeriŋerbe hoarse, speak huskily 
Puluwateseme-ŋeriŋerbe rough (as bark, beard, or skin of filefish) 
Woleaianme-ŋariŋeribe coarse, rough (as of skin) 
Proto-Chuukic*me-ŋari, me-ŋariŋari·rough
Kiribatima-ŋaiŋaibe ragged (as an old garment) 

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *ŋani ‘to, toward’, Proto-Micronesian *ŋere, ŋereŋere ‘be chafed, rasping’.

PMc   *maŋi   have in mind, think, remember

Trukesemeŋi-i-(y), méŋú-ú-(w)admire it 
Mortlockesemaŋimaŋεthink about it 
Puluwatesemáŋimáŋthought, to think 
 máŋi-(i-y)remember it 
Saipan Carolinianmáŋimáŋbe thinking, thought, idea 
 máŋi-i-(y)remember, recall, reminisce or think about (something) 
 máŋ-(ŋáli)remind (one) of (something) 
Satawalesemáŋremember 
 máŋimáŋthink 
Woleaianmaŋimeŋito think, remember, consider, ponder, expect 
 maŋi-i-(ye)think about it, expect it, remember it 
 maŋi-(togo)be recalled, occur to ones mind 
Pulo-Annanmeŋithink about it, remember it 
 meŋimeŋito think 
 (ka)-meŋi-(ŋani)remind him 
Proto-Chuukic*maŋi, maŋimaŋi·have in mind, think, remember
Ponapeianmεŋi-(lɔl)talk to oneself 
Marshallesemaŋknow better, learn not to 
Kusaiean(æk)-mʌŋmʌŋ-yedisregard, ignore (something) 

— Cf. —

Kusaieansee, think 

PCMc   *maŋiŋi   poison

Trukesemenin, menini-poison, be poisonous (of food only) 
Kiribatimaŋiŋintoxicated 
 maŋiŋi-(a)treat as intoxicated 

See also Loans: Mokilese maŋiŋ.

PMc   *maŋo   top of head, fontanel

Trukesemóóŋ, móŋu-, móŋo-. móŋó-head 
Puluwatesemóóŋ·top of head, fontanel
Saipan Carolinian#mʷóóŋ, móóŋ, #mʷóŋo-, móŋo-forehead 
Woleaianmaaŋo, maŋo-forehead 
Pulo-Annanmaaŋo, maŋo-forehead 
Proto-Chuukic*maŋo·top of head, fontanel
Ponapeianmɔɔŋ, mɔŋε-, mɔŋa-head 
Mokilesemɔŋ, mɔŋehead, his head 
Marshallesemaŋʷ·top of head, fontanel
Kiribatimaŋofontanel 
Kusaieanmæŋo-(n)head of, ridge of, crown of 
Proto-Oceanic*maŋo·top of head, fontanel
Sa’amaŋoto breathe 
Kwaiomaŋobreathe, pause for breath 
West Nakanaimago-[la-kuvo]brain [kuvo skull] 

PMc   *maŋu   pandanus leaf

Trukese#mééŋ, méŋú-cured pandanus leaf 
 méŋ, méŋú-soft, supple 
Puluwatesemaaŋ, maŋi-·pandanus leaf
Woleaianmaaŋu, maŋu-·pandanus leaf
Pulo-Annanmaaŋú, maŋú-dry pandanus leaf 
Proto-Chuukic*maŋú·pandanus leaf
Marshallesemahaŋ·pandanus leaf
Kiribatimaŋu, maŋumaŋuglossy and smooth (as oiled hair) 
Kusaieanmʷeŋpandanus 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*(ma)-Rog[ou]withered  (Geraghty 1990)

— Note also —

Ponapeianmεŋwithered, dry, dead vegetation 
Mokilesemeŋ, meŋmeŋdried up, dead (of leaves), brown (of dried vegetation) and mɔŋ, mɔŋe, mɔŋɔ-(n) pandanus key, his pandanus k., pandanus k. of. Mrs length unexplained 
 mɔŋ, mɔŋe, mɔŋɔ-(n)pandanus key, his pandanus key, pandanus key of 

Marshallese length unexplained.

PCMc   *maoko   a fish

Ponapeianmɔɔk·a fish
Kiribatimaoko·a fish

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimaoa fish 

PMc   *mara   preserved breadfruit

Trukesemaar, mare-(n)preserved breadfruit, preserved breadfruit of (some kind or place) 
 mara-(a-n), márá-(á-n)his preserved breadfruit, preserved breadfruit of (someone) 
Mortlockesemaar·preserved breadfruit
Puluwatesemaar, merá-(n)·preserved breadfruit
Saipan Carolinianmaarpreserved breadfruit 
 marbe rotten, decayed, moldy (of fruits and vegetables), smell rotten 
Satawalesemaar·preserved breadfruit
Woleaianmaare, mera-(li)preserved breadfruit, preserved breadfruit of, to make preserved breadfruit 
Pulo-Annanmaala, mala-wrapped preserved breadfruit 
Proto-Chuukic*mara·preserved breadfruit
Ponapeianmaar·preserved breadfruit
Mokilesemar·preserved breadfruit
Kusaieanmærcore of preserved breadfruit 
Proto-Oceanic*mara·preserved breadfruit
Proto-Polynesian*marafermented 
Fijianmarahollow ground, such as a groove 
West Nakanai[la-ulu e]-malaripe breadfruit 

See also Proto-Micronesian *maca, mamaca ‘very ripe, rotten’.

PMc   *maraa   light in weight

Trukese(a)-mara, -maraa-(n)canoe sail, sail of 
Mortlockese(a)-mmarasail 
Puluwatese(ya)-maracanoe sail 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-maracanoe sail 
Satawalese(a)-maracanoe sail 
Woleaianmmaraabe fast, swift, speedy 
 (ga)-mmeraa-li-(i)make it fast, speed it 
Proto-Chuukic*mmaraa, maraa·light in weight
Ponapeianmaraarafast, swift (of a moving object), light (in weight) 
Mokilesemaraaralight in weight 
Marshallesemerahlight in weight, bland, delicate, mild, subtle 
Kusaieanmʌlælælight in weight, skinny, slim 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maRaqalightweight  (Geraghty 1990)

The East Chuukic words for ‘sail’ appear to be a locally innovated causative construction (cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *yuwe ‘a sail’).

PMc   *ma-rama   moon

See Proto-Micronesian *rama, ma-rama ‘bright, luminous’.

PMc   *ma-rawa   green, blue

Marshallesemahrewrew, -mahrewgreen, blue 
Kiribatimawawa(probably *ma-awaawa) green 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-rawa·green, blue
Sa’ama-rawabe blackish or purplish [of nuts before ripening] 
Arosima-rawagreen, blue 
Kwaioma-lakʷagreen, fresh, unripe 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic (?) *karawa, karawarawa ‘blue, green’, Proto-Chuukic *ma-arawa ‘be green (of fruit), unripe’.

PMc   *marewu   thirsty

Mokilesemarew·thirsty
Marshallesemaréw·thirsty
Kusaieanmalʌ·thirsty
Proto-Oceanic*marequ·thirsty
Sa’amarouthirst 
Arosimareubecome withered 
West Nakanaimalehuthirsty 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*qa(q)usthirst 

— Cf. also —

Saipan Carolinianmʷórbe dry, dried up 
Kiribatimʷaaudry 
 mʷaau·thirsty

And cf. Proto-Chuukic *maaro ‘thirsty’, Proto-Micronesian *maaru ‘out of breath’.

PMc   *masa, mamasa   be low tide, dry

Trukesemmatbe low tide 
 (a)-mmatbe soaked up (as water), a sponge 
 (a)-mmatasoak or sponge it up 
Mortlockesemmat·be low tide, dry
Puluwatesemmat·be low tide, dry
Saipan Carolinianmmatbe dry, low (of water), be low tide 
 (a)-mmatbailer 
 (a)-mmatato bail (a canoe) 
Satawalesemmat·be low tide, dry
Woleaianmmatelow tide, be low tide, be bailed 
Pulo-Annanmmatalow tide, be dry, shallow, bailed 
Proto-Chuukic*mmada·be low tide, dry
Ponapeianmad, mmadbe dry 
Mokilesemadportion of reef exposed a low tide 
 mad-(da)to dry up (of reef) 
Marshallesemmatemerge from water, come into view after having been hidden 
 matmatsponge 
Kiribatimarabald 
Kusaieanmʷesshallow place in reef 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mazadry, low tide  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*ma[hs]adry 
Fijianmacaempty [of liquids], dry 
West Nakanaimamara-[ti]damned up, dried up [of water in the hollow of a tree] 
Uraustronesisch*majadry 
Proto-Austronesian*maja, mamaja·be low tide, dry (Blust 1978:98)

— Note also —

Marshallesemahatempty, no more, all gone, exhausted 

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimasagadry 

See also Marck (1994:314) Proto-Micronesian *masa.

PMc   *masaki   be painful, hurt

Trukesemetek, meteki-·be painful, hurt
Puluwatesemeták·be painful, hurt
Saipan Carolinianmetágh·be painful, hurt
Saipan Carolinian·Tmeteg·be painful, hurt
Satawalesemetakú [sic]·be painful, hurt
Woleaianmetagi·be painful, hurt
Pulo-Annanmataki·be painful, hurt
Sonsorolese(ka)-mataki·be painful, hurt
Proto-Chuukic*madaki·be painful, hurt
Ponapeianmεdεk·be painful, hurt
Mokilesemɔdɔk·be painful, hurt
Marshallesemetak·be painful, hurt
Kiribatimaraki·be painful, hurt
Kusaieanatək·be painful, hurt
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-saki·be painful, hurt
Proto-Polynesian*masaki·be painful, hurt
Sa’amata’ihave an attack of malarial fever 
Arosimata’ihave fever 
Kwaiomata’ifever 
Uraustronesisch*sakit·be painful, hurt

PMc   *ma-[sS]ali   smooth

Mortlockesemetel·smooth
Ponapeian(ka)-madalto smooth out (something) 
 mεdεndεlsmooth and flat 
Mokilesemɔdɔndɔl·smooth
Pingilapesemɔtɔntɔl·smooth
Marshallesemetal(metaltél, distributive form) smooth, sleek, slick 
Kiribatimaranstraight (as the hair) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*(ma)-[sz]ali, (ma)-n[sz]ali·smooth
Rotumanmararismooth 
Sa’amadali, mamadaligreasy, slippery 
Bugotudadalismooth 
 madalislippery 
Arosimadariwet and slippery 

— Cf. —

Arosimʷadirismooth, slippery 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ma-[sS]aLu, ma-[sS]aLu[sS]aLu ‘smooth (of surface)’ posited by Goodenough (1995:77).

PMc   *ma[sS]o   cooked

Trukesemoot, mʷootcooked 
 mʷooto-(kkáy)be cooked quickly 
Mortlockesemʷoot, (ya)-mmoot·cooked
Puluwatesemʷootcooked 
 (ya)-mʷoot, (yó)-mʷootto cook 
 (ya)-mʷootacook it 
 (yó)-mʷotá- [sic]food cooked (by someone) 
Saipan Carolinianmʷootbe cooked 
 (a)-mʷootato cook (something) 
Satawalese(a)-mmootcook 
Woleaianmettecooked 
 (ga)-met, (ga)-mettcook, prepare food 
 (ga)-meta-(a), (ga)-metta-(a)cook it 
Ulithian(gé)-madcooked 
Pulo-Annanmété, méttécooked 
 (ka)-métécook it 
Sonsorolesemééta·cooked
Proto-Chuukic(?) *mado, maddo·cooked
Marshallesemat·cooked
Kiribatimaro-(a)food, refreshment 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*m[ao]so·cooked
Proto-Polynesian*mosocooked 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanmol, molmolcooked, boiled (possibly a loan from Kiribati

— Cf. also —

Sa’amadoocooked 
Bugotumamohacooked 

PMc   *masu   sated (with food or drink)

Trukesemétbe sated 
 (é)-métúcause him to be sated 
Mortlockesemεt·sated (with food or drink)
Puluwatesemat·sated (with food or drink)
Saipan Carolinianmat, (a)-matú-(w)·sated (with food or drink)
Satawalesemat·sated (with food or drink)
Woleaianmatú, (ge)-matú-(ú)·sated (with food or drink)
Pulo-Annanmatú·sated (with food or drink)
Proto-Chuukic*madú·sated (with food or drink)
Ponapeianmεd·sated (with food or drink)
Mokilesemɔd·sated (with food or drink)
Marshallesemat·sated (with food or drink)
Kiribatimariabundant, plentious (as fruit) 
Kusaieanmʌtfull, swelling, plenty, abundant 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mazu·sated (with food or drink) (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*mazu·sated (with food or drink)
Fijianmacu·sated (with food or drink)
Tonganmahuproductive [of land and soil], have plenty of food 
Arosimasuhave had enough, be full, replete 
Bugotumahureplete with food, satisfied 
Proto-Kimbe*mazufull [of stomach only] 

PMc   *ma-Sawa   deep sea, open sea

Trukesema-taw·deep sea, open sea
Mortlockesema-taw·deep sea, open sea
Puluwateseme-taw·deep sea, open sea
Saipan Carolinianme-taw, ma-taw·deep sea, open sea
Satawalesemetaw·deep sea, open sea
Woleaianme-tawe·deep sea, open sea
Pulo-Annanma-tawa·deep sea, open sea
Proto-Chuukic*ma-dawa·deep sea, open sea
Ponapeianma-daw·deep sea, open sea
Mokilesema-daw·deep sea, open sea
Pingilapesemε-daw·deep sea, open sea
Marshalleseme-tew·deep sea, open sea
Kiribatima-rawa·deep sea, open sea
Kusaieanme-ɔaocean 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-sawa·deep sea, open sea
Sa’ama-tawa·deep sea, open sea
Kwaioma-takʷa·deep sea, open sea

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*wasaopen sea 
Proto-Polynesian*waainterval of space or time 
Fijianwasa, wasawasasea, ocean 
 maa-cawaa space or interval 
Bugotumahadeep (of sea), deep sea 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *mazawa.

PMc   *maSeru   hiccough

Puluwatesematér·hiccough
Satawalesematér·hiccough
Woleaianmaterú·hiccough
Ulithianmútherbelch 
Pulo-Annanmatalú·hiccough
Proto-Chuukic*madarú·hiccough
Kiribatimarei·hiccough
Kusaieanmælbecome breathless 
 mæl-(fweyε)gobble, swallow, gulp 

— Note also —

Ponapeianmarεrhiccough 
Mokilesemalerhiccough 

— Cf. —

Yapesemáthoer, mathowhiccough 

PMc   *mata   eye, face

Trukesemaas, masa-(n), mese-(n)eye, face, his eye, eye of 
Mortlockesemaas, mεsa-(n)·eye, face
Puluwatesemaah, meha-(n), mehá-(n)·eye, face
Saipan Carolinianmaas, mesa-(l)·eye, face
Saipan Carolinian·Tmaah, maha-(n)·eye, face
Woleaianmaate, meta-(le), meta-(li)·eye, face
Pulo-Annanmaata, mata-·eye, face
Sonsorolesemaata·eye, face
Proto-Chuukic*mata·eye, face
Ponapeianmaas, mεsεface, his face 
Mokilesemaj, mijɔ, miije-(n)·eye, face
Marshallesemaj, meja-·eye, face
Kiribatimaata, (te)-mata, mata-(na), mata-(ni)·eye, face
Kusaieanmʌta-·eye, face
Proto-Oceanic*mata·eye, face (Ross 1988)
Fijianmata·eye, face
Proto-Polynesian*mata·eye, face
Bugotumata·eye, face
Sa’amaa·eye, face
Laumaa·eye, face
Kwaiomaa·eye, face
Proto-Kimbe*mata·eye, face
Uraustronesisch*mata·eye, face

See also Proto-Micronesian *mamata ‘stand watch, stay awake’.

PMc   *mata, ara-mata   person, people

Trukeseara-mas, ara-mase-(n)person, person of 
Mortlockeseara-mes·person, people
Puluwateseyere-mah·person, people
Saipan Carolinianara-mas, are-mas·person, people
Saipan Carolinian·Tara-mah·person, people
Satawaleseyare-mas·person, people
Woleaianyare-mate·person, people
Pulo-Annanyalemata·person, people
Old Mapianyarmat·person, people
Proto-Chuukic*ar[ae]-mata·person, people
Ponapeianara-mas·person, people
Mokilesear-maj·person, people
Marshalleseharméj·person, people
Kiribatiao-mata·person, people
Kusaieanmʷet·person, people
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mata·person, people
Fijianmataa company of person following a particular occupation 

Kiribati o unexplained.

PCMc   *mata-aro   lagoon side (of an island)

Trukesemósó-ór, mósó-óru-(n)proximate, inner, or inhabited side, lagoon side, lagoon side of 
Woleaianmeta-arothe seaside, the beach side 
Proto-Chuukic*mata-aro·lagoon side (of an island)
Kiribatimata-aothe nearer side 

See Proto-Micronesian *mata ‘eye, face’, Proto–Central Micronesian *aro- ‘shore, beach’.

PMc   *ma-taku   to fear, be afraid

Trukesemé-sékbe afraid 
 (é)-mé-sékúmake him afraid 
 mé-séki-(iti)fear him, be terrified by him 
Mortlockeseme-sεk·to fear, be afraid
Puluwateseme-hakbe afraid 
 me-hakú-(w)fear him 
Saipan Carolinianme-sagh, ma-sagh, me-ságh and Crn me-hag, ma-hag·to fear, be afraid
Satawaleseme-sak·to fear, be afraid
Woleaianme-tagú-(ú)be scared of it, be afraid of it 
Pulo-Annanma-takú·to fear, be afraid
Proto-Chuukic*ma-takú·to fear, be afraid
Ponapeianma-sakbe afraid of or fear (someone) 
Mokilesemi-jikafraid, scared 
 (ka)-mi-jikifrighten (someone) 
Marshallesemi-jakfear, horror, afraid 
Kiribatima-akuafraid (with loss of *t before *k
 ma-akafear (someone) 
Kusaieanmo-tokfeel unwelcome, ill at ease, awkward 
Proto-Oceanic*ma-taku(t)·to fear, be afraid (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*ma-taku·to fear, be afraid
Sa’am-á’u·to fear, be afraid
Ulawanma-a’u·to fear, be afraid
Bugotuma-tagu·to fear, be afraid
Laumou, momou·to fear, be afraid
Kwaiom-a’uafraid, shy 
West Nakanaima-tao·to fear, be afraid
Uraustronesisch*[tT]akutbe afraid 

PWMc   *matamata   a fish

Trukesemasamasspecies of porgy fish (with big eyes) 
Puluwatesemahamahsnapper (Monotaxis grandoculis
Saipan Carolinianmasamas and Crn mahamahspecies of edible red fish 
Proto-Chuukic*matamata·a fish
Marshalleseméjméjsnapper (fish) 

See Proto-Micronesian *mata ‘eye, face’.

PMc   *mata-ni-susu   nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)

Mortlockesemésa-n túút·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)
Satawalesemese-n túút·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)
Woleaianmeta-li ttú·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)
Proto-Chuukic*mata-ni ddú, mata-ni dúddú·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mata-ni suzu·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)
Fijianmata-ni sucu·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)

— See also —

Yapesemite-e-thuuth·nipple (lit. point of breast or nursing)

— Cf. —

Trukesemese-n owupʷnipple 

See Proto-Micronesian *mata ‘eye, face’, Proto-Micronesian *sulu ‘torch’.

PMc   *mate   die, lose consciousness

Trukesemá, máá-·die, lose consciousness
Puluwatese·die, lose consciousness
Saipan Caroliniandie 
 máádeath 
Satawalesemá, máá-·die, lose consciousness
Woleaianmase·die, lose consciousness
Ulithianmás·die, lose consciousness
Pulo-Annanmade·die, lose consciousness
Sonsorolesemade·die, lose consciousness
Old Mapianmaa·die, lose consciousness
Proto-Chuukic*mate·die, lose consciousness
Ponapeianmεε-(la)·die, lose consciousness
Mokilesemεε-·die, lose consciousness
Marshalleseméj·die, lose consciousness
Kiribatimate·die, lose consciousness
Kusaieanmʷetto die 
 misεdeath, to die 
Proto-Oceanic*mate·die, lose consciousness
Proto-Polynesian*mate·die, lose consciousness
Fijianmate·die, lose consciousness
Sa’amae·die, lose consciousness
Proto-Kimbe*mate·die, lose consciousness
Uraustronesisch*matay·die, lose consciousness

PCMc   *mati-ciki   a star

Trukesemáá-chika star, name of a sidereal month 
Saipan Carolinianmáái-shigha sidereal month 
Pulo-Annanmadi-sikia sidereal month (equated with April) 
Proto-Chuukic*maati-ciki·a star
Marshallese(ḷe)-mej-dik-dika star in Scorpio (prefix indicates a mans name) 
Kiribatimati-rikia star 

— Cf. —

Marshallesemajet-dikdika constellation comprising alpha, beta, gamma, and delta Sagitarii 

The Trukese form (instead of expected *mááyi-chik ) appears to be a loan.

PCMc   *mati-lapa   Altair, constellation in Aquila

Trukesemáá-napthe star Altair (alpha Aquilae) and constellation comprising alpha, beta, and gamma Aquilae, a sidereal month 
Puluwatesemááy-lap [sic]Altair, sidereal month 
Saipan Carolinianmáái-lap·Altair, constellation in Aquila
Satawalesemaai-napAltair 
Woleaianmaai-lape [sic]Altair 
Pulo-Annanmadi-napayear, age, a month equated with May 
Proto-Chuukic*maati-lapa·Altair, constellation in Aquila
Marshallesemaj-lepAltair, constellation comprising alpha, beta, and gamma Aquilae 
Kiribatimati-nabathree stars in a line in Capricorn (Bender et al. 1984

The Trukese form (instead of expected *mááyi-nap) could result from an old loan from Marshallese.

PMc   *ma-toa, ma-toatoa   firm, hard, strong

Trukesema-aw, ma-awa-firm, hard, ready to pick but not yet fully ripe 
 (fátán) ma-awwalk strongly and heavily, tramp, walk restlessly in the presence of an important person 
 (maa)-ma-awhard place, shallow area studded with sharp coral (maa behavior, manner, habit) 
Puluwatesema-awo [sic]be ripe and ready for eating (as bananas or breadfruit) 
 (maa)-ma-awbe strong, healthy, vigorous 
Saipan Carolinianma-awbe ripe but not yet soft or sweet 
 (maa)-ma-awbe strong, powerful 
Satawalesemamma-awstrong 
Woleaianma-awebe strong, ready to eat, ripe, mature 
 (maa)-ma-awebe strong, powerful 
 ma-sowe, ma-sowasowebe strong, hard, be ripe or ready to be picked (as breadfruit) 
Pulo-Annanma-doabe hard, strong 
Proto-Chuukic*ma-toa·firm, hard, strong
Marshallesema-jewjewfirm, strong, solid 
Kiribatima-toa, ma-toatoafirm, hard 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*toRatree, Intsia bijuga  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Polynesian*toahardwood tree 
Fijiandoaheartwood of a tree [solid and dark] 
Bugotutolalarge canoe [made from hardwood tree?] 
Lauolalarge canoe 
Arosioraa species of tree from which best canoes are made 
Kwaioma-oakind of tree from which planks obtained for making canoes 
Proto-Kimbe*toLafirm 
Uraustronesisch*teRashard, hardwood 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianmaaripe 
Mokilesemaaripe, middle aged 

Note the doublets in Woleaian and the lack of expected l in the Kwaio form.

PMc   *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu   thick

Trukesema-anúúnbe thick (of flat objects) 
 (a)-ma-anúúnúthicken it, make it thicker 
Mortlockesema-alúwél·thick
Puluwatesema-aliyéél [sic]be thick (as paper), thickness 
Saipan Carolinianma-aliyél, má-áliyél, maaléél·thick
Saipan Carolinian·Tma-alúyel·thick
Satawalesema-alúwél·thick
Woleaianma-alúyelúto be thick, close packed, dense 
 (ge)-ma-alúyelú-(ú-we)make it thick 
Ulithianma-sosol·thick
Pulo-Annanma-danúbe thick, thickness 
Proto-Chuukic*ma-telú, ma-tetelú, ma-telútelú·thick
Ponapeianmosul·thick
Marshallesemi-jel, mi-jeljelthick, thickness 
Kiribatima-tenthick 
 ma-tententhickness 
Kusaieanmæ-tolthick, dense 
 mæ-toltolvery thick, numb 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ma-tolu·thick
Tonganma-toluthick [of board or paper] 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Kimbe*mata-tulusleepy 

PMc   *maturu   sleep

Trukeseméwúr, méwúrú-·sleep
Mortlockesemawúr·sleep
Puluwatesemawúr·sleep
Saipan Carolinianmayúr·sleep
Satawalesemawúr·sleep
Woleaianmasúrú·sleep
Pulo-Annanmadúlú·sleep
Proto-Chuukic*matúrú·sleep
Ponapeianmεyr·sleep
Mokilesemɔyr·sleep
Pingilapesemεyr·sleep
Marshallesemajirʷ·sleep
Kiribatimatuu·sleep
Kusaieanmutul·sleep
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*maturu·sleep
Ulawanma’uru·sleep

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*matiruR·sleep (Ross 1988:461)
Uraustronesisch*tiDuR, tuDuR·sleep

— Cf. also —

Proto-Kimbe*mata-tulusleepy 

PMc   *mau, mau-ni   be traded, acquire in trade

Trukesebe traded, sold, paid for 
 méé-nibuy it 
 (a)-mééméto sell (something) 
 (kka)-méto buy, be bought 
Mortlockese(kka)-mébuy 
Puluwateseméé-(n)its cost 
 méé-nipurchase (something) 
 (kka)-mébuy 
Saipan Carolinianméé-(l)its cost 
 méé-(ló)be sold out 
 méé-lito buy (something) 
 (a)-méé-(w), (a)-mééméé-(w)to buy (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tméé-nito buy (something) 
Satawalese(kka)-mébuy 
Woleaian(kka)-mééto buy 
 (kka)-méé-li-(i)buy it 
Proto-Chuukic*méé, méé-ni-·be traded, acquire in trade
Kusaieanmou-lto buy, save 
 mo-libuy (something) 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷai object of value.

PMc   *maura   a cold or cough, breathe hard

Trukesemoorhead cold, chest cold, have a cold or cough 
Puluwatesemor [sic]breathe hard, have a cold 
Saipan Carolinianmʷoorbe out of breath, breathing hard (as from exertion or asthma) 
Kiribatimauathe spouting hole or nostril of the sperm whale 
Kusaieanmælbecome breathless 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *mʷor[ae] ‘strong wind’.

PMc   *mauri   alive

Satawalesemawúrunopened bud (of plants) 
Woleaianmaúrúbe fresh, green, alive (as plants) 
 maúrúúrúbe very green 
Pulo-Annanmaúlúbe alive (of plants), green 
Proto-Chuukic*maúrú·alive
Ponapeianmowralive, raw 
Mokilesemowr be a., fresh, raw, life’·alive
Marshalleseméwirlive, life, existence, alive, cured 
Kiribatimaiulife (showing metathesis) 
 maiube alive, live, be in comfortable condition of mind or body 
Kusaieanmoulalive, live 
Proto-Oceanic*maquri(p)·alive (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*maqurilife, life principle, alive, soul 
Fijianmauri-[mu]your good health! 
Sa’amaurito live, be alive, recover health 
Laumouri, mori, momorito live 
Kwaiomaulialive 
West Nakanaimahulilife, good health 
Proto-Austronesian*qudipalive  (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*quDip·alive

Note that Kiribati mauri ‘be in good health’ is an apparent loan from Samoan mauli.

PMc   (?)   *mawa   yawn, be open mouthed

Trukesemmawto yawn, a yawn 
Mortlockesemaw·yawn, be open mouthed
Puluwatesemémméwóó-(n-atél)to yawn 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-móó-(l), móó-(l-atél)to yawn 
Woleaianmóó-(li-gatelú)to yawn, a yawn 
Pulo-Annanmaao·yawn, be open mouthed
Proto-Chuukic(?) *mmawa, mawa, maawo·yawn, be open mouthed
Ponapeianmaw-(dεl)·yawn, be open mouthed
Mokilesemaama·yawn, be open mouthed
Kiribatimawaout of breath through weariness 
Kusaiean·yawn, be open mouthed
Proto–Eastern Oceanic(?) *mawa, mawawa·yawn, be open mouthed
Fijian(?) [laa]-mawato yawn, gape 
Samoanmaavavato yawn 
Tonganmamao [? < *mamawa]to yawn 
Sa’a[áhi]-mawato yawn 
Bugotumaomaovato yawn, gape 
Uraustronesisch*wawaqopening, mouth 

— Cf. —

Puluwatesemmólbe tired, out of breath, exhausted 
Sa’amawato shout 
Arosimawato shout 

There are problems here.

PMc   *mawo   healed, obliterated

Trukesebe gotten rid of, erased, wiped out, finished off, cured 
 móóremains, scar, site or location of past activity 
 móó-(nu-pis)abandoned garden site 
 (ó)-móó-(y)get rid of, erase, obliterate 
Mortlockeseheal 
 móó-(la)be healed 
Puluwateseto disappear, be erased, healed 
 [sic], móó-(n)scar or trace of 
 (ó)-móó-(ye-ló)to erase it, heal it (as a wound) 
Saipan Carolinianto have healed 
Satawalesehealed 
 móó-(ló)healed up 
Woleaianmóóbe healed, cured, extinguished (of fire), erased 
 (ge)-móó-(we)erase it, extinguish it, heal it, cure it 
Proto-Chuukic*mawo, maawo, mawo-, (ka)-mawo-(a)·healed, obliterated
Ponapeianmoto heal 
 moo-(n oola)scar, mowε its scar, trace, ruins 
 mowεits scar, trace, ruins 
Mokilesemobe healed 
Marshallesemewto heal 
Kiribatimaohealed (as a wound)  (Eastman 1948:53)
Kusaieanheal 
 mæ (in pεlæŋ)scar, blotch, scab 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mafo·healed, obliterated
Fijianmavohealed [of a sore] 
Bugotumavoto heal up, be healed 
Laumafobe healed 
Kwaiomafo-[te’e-nia]forget about, allow to slip from the mind 

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimahavuhealed (of a sore) 

PMc   *mawolo   hollow, concavity

Trukesemóón, móónu-(n)hollow, concavity, hollow of 
 (nee)-móónhollow, concavity, hollow place, valley, inner side 
Mortlockesemólé-(n) [sic]hollow, depression, area of the armpit 
 (lee)-móólarea within elbow or armpit 
Puluwatesemóól, móóli-(n)empty shell, empty shell of 
Satawalese(lee)-móólo-area under arm or inside elbow 
Woleaianmóólochest 
Proto-Chuukic*maalo or *mawolo·hollow, concavity
Marshallesemawalperiod between series of large waves 
Sa’amaholospace, interval of time or distance 

— Cf. —

Kiribatimʷanoindented, having a hollow, depressed 
 mʷanonosmall depression or pit 

Cf. Marck (1994:318) Proto-Micronesian *malo ‘concaveness, depression, valley’ (open to question because of lack of fit of Kiribati forms).

PCMc   *ma-wono   perspiration

Trukesemo-onoon, mo-onoone-(n),mo-onoonu-(n)perspiration, sweat, perspiration of 
Puluwatesemó-óniyón [sic], (<*mó-óno-yón?)·perspiration
Saipan Carolinian(bʷoo-l) mó-óliyól, mʷó-óliyól, mʷó-óliyal·perspiration
Pulo-Annanma-onanona (sic, <*ma-onaona?)·perspiration
Proto-Chuukic(?) *ma-wonoono·perspiration
Kiribatima-ono·perspiration

— Cf. —

Fijianbuno·perspiration

PMc   (?)   *ma[wØ]u[sS][au]   cooked

Trukesemoot, mʷoot, mʷooto-(mmaŋ)cooked, cooked slowly 
Puluwatesemʷoot, (yó)-mʷota-thing cooked 
Saipan Carolinianmʷoot, mʷoota-·cooked
Woleaianmette·cooked
Pulo-Annanmété·cooked
Proto-Chuukic(?) *maud[ao]·cooked
Marshallesemat·cooked
Proto-Oceanic*maus[ao]·cooked
Proto-Polynesian*moso·cooked
West Nakanaimausa·cooked

— Cf. —

Kiribatimʷai-raoi (? < *mʷaira-raoi)well cooked 

PMc   *mece-a   pointed thing

Trukesemáche-long pointed projection, spike, spine 
 máchá, mechá, máchá-á-(n)sharp pointed long projection, beak or bill (of fish), horn, spine, metal nail, metal, iron 
 máche-(w), máche-(wa-n)stingray tail, spear (with stingray spine attached), its sharp thing 
PuluwatesemeRe-(n)summit of, end of, top of, tip of 
 meRámetal, iron (presumably from iron nails) 
Saipan Carolinianmáásh, meshe-(l)tip, point, boundary, edge, point of land, small peninsula, thing of 
 meshesteel, iron, scrap metal 
 meshe-(ŋ), meshe-(ŋe-l)unopened top or head sprout of a tree, thing of 
Saipan Carolinian·TmeResteel, iron, scrap metal 
 meRe-(ŋ)unopened top or head sprout of a tree 
Woleaianmeeshe, meshe-upper end (of a pole) 
Pulo-Annanmeese, mese-end, hem 
Proto-Chuukic*meceend, tip, point 
Proto-Chuukic*mece-yapointed thing 
Ponapeianmεtεmetal, nail, badge, spear for a speargun 
Marshallesemedechisel 
Kusaieanosraspear, nail, metal 

The Ponapeian form is felt by some speakers to be a loan from English metal (Rehg and Sohl 1979:59). In Kusaiean, initial *m occasionally became labiovelar and is reflected by w or Ø — the latter especially when the following vowel develops as Kusaiean o.

PMc   *mee-Saa   what?

See Proto-Micronesian *-Saa, mee-Saa ‘interrogative suffix’.

PMc   *meña   thing

Trukesemeen, mine-(n)thing, thing of, man (not woman), relative, friend, polite term of address to a man to whose authority one is not subject 
 (ne)-minwoman, polite term of address to a woman 
Puluwatesemiinthe person or thing under discussion 
Saipan Carolinianmiil, mili- and Crn mini-person (known but not specified), thing, object 
Woleaianmelethis thing 
 mele-(we)that thing 
 mela-(i), min-(ni)thing, means, or tool for or of 
Pulo-Annanmenethis one 
Proto-Chuukic*meña·thing
Ponapeianmεε, mεε-(n)thing, one of, thing of 
Mokilesemii-(n)thing of 
Marshallesementhing, matter, object; a person, unnamed 
Kiribatimenathing 
Kusaieanmaone, thing (indefinite pronoun) 
 mʷe-thing 
 mee-(n)one of, thing of or for 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianmaiŋsir, madam 
Proto-Polynesian*meqathing 

See also Proto-Micronesian *meña-a ‘do (something)’.

PCMc   *meña   live, dwell, exist

Woleaianmilestay, live 
Pulo-Annanminestay, live 
Ponapeianmito exist (a locative verb), be (in a place) 
 miεexist (an existential verb) 
Kiribatimenaabide, dwell 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanmʌtalive,stay 
Trukesemeyi, mén, mménbe (in a condition) 
West Nakanaimoi, momoito dwell 

Mokilese mine ‘exist, be at a place, live , reside, there is or are’ looks like a loan.

PMc   *meña-a   do (something)

Trukeseminado something to (it), fix (it), take care of (it), disturb (it), harm (it), spoil (it) 
 mina-a-(ŋeni)do something to (it), mess with (it), fool with (it) 
Puluwatesemin, mina-(a)treat, attend to, fix 
Saipan Carolinianmilado something to correct (a problem) 
Kiribatimena-ato do (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*meña·do (something)
Sa’amena-(ŋa’ini)do a thing perfectly 

The raised first vowel in the Trukese and Saipan Carolinian forms in contrast with the Kiribati form attest to Proto-Micronesian . See also Proto-Micronesian *meña ‘thing’.

PMc   *mera, meera   stained yellow

Ponapeianmεrrusty, corroded 
Mokilesemeerstained from coconut husk or fruit 
Marshallesemayarstained, yellowish 
Kiribatimeameayellow 
 memeastained yellow by juice of green coconut husk 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*meRared  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Polynesian*meqa, meareddish 
Bugotumetha, melared 
Arosimeraa species of small red fish 
Kwaiomelabright red 

PMc   *metu   old times

Trukesemusu-(we)ancient times 
Saipan Carolinianmʷoi-(we), mʷei-(we)the past (at least two or three generations ago), in olden days 
Woleaianmʷoosu, mʷosu-, mʷosu-(wee)ancient times 
Ulithianmésu-(we)old days, long gone 
Pulo-Annanmoodu, modu-ancient times 
Proto-Chuukic*metu·old times
Mokilesemeejbefore, long ago 
Kusaieanmetbefore, a long time ago 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianmaasin the past, a long time ago 

Note: the of Saipan Carolinian and Woleaian is presumably a secondary formation. Note also that Trukese mʷúú, mʷúú-, mʷuu, mʷuu- ‘era, epoch’, Ponapeian mʷeey ‘reign, era’ could be from the same Proto-Micronesian root.

PMc   *misi   smack ones lips

Trukesemmit, mitimitsmack ones lips, make a loud kissing noise 
 (e)-mmitismack (the lips), cause it to smack 
 miti-rismack upon it, kiss or suck noisily on it 
Puluwatesemit [sic]sound made by pursing the lips 
 miti-i-(y)make a kiss-like sound with pursed lips, summon (someone) with this sound 
Saipan Carolinianmmitnoise made when smacking the lips or tongue to show dissatisfaction, to make such a noise 
Proto-Chuukic*mmidi, midimidi·smack ones lips
Kusaieanmitw-εkeat noisily, slurp 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*misisuck through teeth  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianmisi, misi-kato pick or nibble at [of bats] 
Proto-Polynesian*misisucking sound 

— Note also —

Ponapeianmeti-k, miti-kto kiss (someone) 
Mokilesemisi-kto kiss (someone, on cheek or hand) 
Proto-Polynesian*mitisuck, lick 
Laumidito taste 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*midi< Pre-POc *minsi as a prenasalized variant 

— See also —

Proto-Pohnpeic*mici-kito kiss, make a sucking sound 

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