st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

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*n   

na    ne    ni    no    nu    

PCMc   *n[ae]i-   feminine prefix (with personal names of women)

Chuukeseneyi-·feminine prefix (with personal names of women)
Puluwatesenáyi-·feminine prefix (with personal names of women)
Proto-Chuukic*nai-·feminine prefix (with personal names of women)
Marshalleseneyi-·feminine prefix (with personal names of women)
Gilbertesenei-.·feminine prefix (with personal names of women)

PMc   *namʷo   lagoon, harbor

Chuukesenóómʷ, nómʷu-(n)lagoon, archipelago, sea around an island, lagoon of 
Mortlockesenóómʷ·lagoon, harbor
Puluwatesenóómʷ, nómʷo-(n)·lagoon, harbor
Saipan Carolinianlóómʷ, (lee)-lómʷ·lagoon, harbor
Saipan Carolinian·Tnóómʷ·lagoon, harbor
Satawalesenóómʷ·lagoon, harbor
Woleaianlaamʷo, lamʷo-(li)·lagoon, harbor
Pulo-Annannaamʷo, namʷo-(ni)·lagoon, harbor
Proto-Chuukic*namʷo·lagoon, harbor
Pohnpeiannaamʷ, (nεε)-namʷ·lagoon, harbor
Marshallesenamʷsecondary lagoon 
Gilbertese(te)-namʷo·lagoon, harbor
Kosraeannwemdeep area in a lagoon 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*namo·lagoon, harbor
Tongannamosea near land 
Sa’anamolandlocked harbor 
Launamoinner harbor 
Kwaionamolake, pool, deep place in a river 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*namawcove, harbor, lagoon  (Blust 1980:114)

— Cf. —

Mokileselamlagoon 

Marshallese heavy expected. Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *lama₂ ‘lagoon, lake’. See also Marck (1994:314) Proto-Micronesian *nam’o.

PMc   *nana   pus

Puluwatesenaan, náná-(y)pus, my pus 
Saipan Carolinianlaalpus or smegma 
 lalhave pus 
Woleaianlaalepus, have pus 
Pulo-Annannaana, nana-·pus
Proto-Chuukic*nana·pus
Pohnpeiannaan·pus
Marshalleseṇaṇsmegma 
Kosraean(usawε)-nwen·pus
Proto-Oceanic*nanaq·pus (Ross 1988)
Fijiannana·pus
Kwaionana·pus
Uraustronesisch*nanaq·pus

PWMc   *nanasu   half flower (Scaevola)

Chuukesennét, nnétú-nhalf flower, half flower of 
Mortlockesennεt·half flower (Scaevola)
Puluwatesennat, nnatú-n·half flower (Scaevola)
Saipan Carolinianllat·half flower (Scaevola)
Saipan Carolinian·Tnnat·half flower (Scaevola)
Satawalesennat·half flower (Scaevola)
Woleaiannnatú·half flower (Scaevola)
Proto-Chuukic*nnadú·half flower (Scaevola)
Marshallese(ké)-ṇṇat·half flower (Scaevola)

PMc   *natu   child; classifier for cherished possessions

Chuukesenaaw, néwú-n, néwúnéwchild or children in general, kinsman of junior generation, political subject, domestic animal, small object intimately associated with the person, his child;, be parental or bear a child 
MtknaaW, naWú-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Puluwatesenawú-n, nawúnaw, náyi-náy·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Satawalesenayú-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Saipan Carolinianlayú-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Saipan Carolinian·Tnayú-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Woleaianlaaú, laú-le, laúleú·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Ulithianléé-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Pulo-Annannaaú, naú-·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Old Mapiannaha, nahey-naichild;, my child; 
Proto-Chuukic*naaú, naú-na, naúnaú·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Pohnpeiannaay, nεy-, naachild; possessive classifier for children, pets, toys 
Mokilesenɔynɔyhave many children 
Marshallesenaji-, néji-child; of, possessive classifier for children, pets, money, watches, or ones Bible 
Gilbertesenaati, nati-na, natinati·child; classifier for cherished possessions
Kosraeannætʌ-(l)his child; 
Proto-Oceanic*natu·child; classifier for cherished possessions (Ross 1988)
Proto-Kimbe*natu·child; classifier for cherished possessions

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ñatu(q)ovary, egg, baby bird  (Blust 1973:59)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*nati·child; classifier for cherished possessions (Blust 1980:115)

Note: Jackson (1983:190) reconstructs Proto-Chuukic *na(t)ú.

PMc   *nawo   waves

Chuukesenóó, nóó-·waves
Puluwatesenóó·waves
Saipan Carolinianlóó·waves
Saipan Carolinian·Tnóó·waves
Satawalesenóó·waves
Woleaianlóó, lóó-·waves
Pulo-Annannaawo, nawo-·waves
Proto-Chuukic*nawo·waves
Mokileseno·waves
Marshalleseṇew·waves
Gilbertese(te)-nao·waves
Kosraeannɒɒ·waves
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[nñ]afo·waves
Sa’anaho·waves
Arosinaho·waves
Kwaionafo·waves
Proto-Austronesian*Nabek·waves (Blust 1984–85)

PMc   *ney[ae]   leg

Pohnpeiannεεhis leg 
Marshalleseney, neye-(n)leg, leg of 
Kosraeanniyε-(l), niye-(n)his leg, leg of 

PMc   *-ni   of, pertaining to

Chuukese-n·of, pertaining to
Mortlockese-n·of, pertaining to
Puluwatese-n·of, pertaining to
Saipan Carolinian-l·of, pertaining to
Saipan Carolinian·T-n·of, pertaining to
Satawalese-n·of, pertaining to
Woleaian-li·of, pertaining to
Pulo-Annan-ni·of, pertaining to
Proto-Chuukic*-ni·of, pertaining to
Pohnpeian-n·of, pertaining to
Mokilese-n·of, pertaining to
Marshallese-n·of, pertaining to
Gilbertese-ni·of, pertaining to
Kosraean-n·of, pertaining to
Proto-Oceanic*ni·of, pertaining to
Fijianni·of, pertaining to
Sa’ani·of, pertaining to
Bugotuni·of, pertaining to
Uraustronesisch*ni·of, pertaining to

Often referred to as “the construct suffix”.

PCMc   *-ni, -na   verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership

Chuukese-ni·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Puluwatese-ni-(y)·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Saipan Carolinian-li·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Saipan Carolinian·T-ni·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Woleaian-li-(i)·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Proto-Chuukic*-ni·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership
Gilbertese-na·verb suffix indicating acquisition or ownership

— Cf. —

Pohnpeian-ni-(ki)derive trans. verb from inalienable noun: sapwe-ni-ki to own (of land), (sapwe- land) 

PMc   *ni[ae]   place

Chuukesene-e-ni, ne-e-niya-(n)place of, place, place where something or someone stays, its place 
Puluwatesene-e-niy, ne-e-niya-(n)·place
Saipan Carolinianle-e-liy, le-e-liyá-(l), la-liyá-(l)·place
Woleaianla-i-, la-n-niye, la-n-niya-(le)·place
Pulo-Annanna-n-niya-(na)·place
Proto-Chuukic*na-i-ni[ae], na-n-ni[ae]·place
Pohnpeiannεε-(namʷ)lagoon, harbor 
Marshalleseninecontainer, use as a container, sheath 
 niye-(n)container of 
Gilbertesenne-place for 
Kosraeanniye-(n)place of 

PMc   *nima-   drinkable object

See Proto-Micronesian *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma ‘drink’. Cf. Jackson 1986:208.

PWMc   *niŋi   small, little, tiny

Chuukese-ŋin, ŋiniŋiin, ŋiniŋin·small, little, tiny (showing metathesis) 
Pohnpeian(pʷi)-niŋiniŋ·small, little, tiny
Marshalleseniŋsmall, young, little, tiny, puny 
 (ji)-niŋ, -niŋniŋsmall, tiny 
 niŋniŋbaby, infant 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(ua)-ŋiiŋii, (bi)-ŋiiŋiivery small 

PMc   *niu   coconut

Chuukesenúú, núú-·coconut
Puluwatesenúú, núú-·coconut
Saipan Carolinianlúú·coconut
Saipan Carolinian·Tnúú·coconut
Satawaleselúú·coconut
Woleaianlúú, lúú-·coconut
Pulo-Annannúú·coconut
Sonsorolesenuu·coconut
Proto-Chuukic*núú·coconut
Pohnpeiannii·coconut
Mokileseni·coconut
Pingilapeseni·coconut
Marshalleseniy·coconut
Gilbertese(te)-nii, nii-·coconut
Kosraeannu·coconut
Proto-Oceanic*niuR·coconut
Proto-Polynesian*niu·coconut
Fijianniu·coconut
Sa’aniu·coconut
Bugotuniu·coconut
Kwaioniu·coconut
Proto-Kimbe*niu·coconut
Uraustronesisch*niuR·coconut

— Cf. —

Yapeseniiw·coconut

PMc   *noko   midrib of coconut frond or leaf

Pulo-Annannooko, noko-coconut frond 
Pohnpeiannookmain rib of the stem of a palm frond, any hard straw-like object 
Mokilesenokcoconut leaf midrib 
Marshalleseṇekʷmidrib of a coconut leaf 
Gilbertese(te)-nokomidrib of the smaller divisions of a coconut frond 
Kosraeannɒɒ kmidrib 

— Cf. —

Fijiannoko, noko-tato sharpen to a point 

PWMc   *noso   a kind of fish

Chuukesenootlarge species of lethrinid fish 
Puluwatesenoota kind of fish 
Saipan Carolinianlootsp. of edible fish 
Woleaianlooto, loto-a kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*nooto, noto-·a kind of fish
Marshalleseneta fish (Lethrinis variegatus

Marshallese ṇʷ expected.

PMc   *nowu   scorpion fish, stonefish

Chuukesenoow, nuu--(nu-pis) 
Mortlockeseneew·scorpion fish, stonefish
Puluwatesenoow·scorpion fish, stonefish
Saipan Carolinianloow, lowu-·scorpion fish, stonefish
Saipan Carolinian·Tnuunuu-(pi)·scorpion fish, stonefish
Satawaleseloow·scorpion fish, stonefish
Woleaianloou, lou-·scorpion fish, stonefish
Proto-Chuukic*nowu·scorpion fish, stonefish
Pohnpeianneewkind of frog fish 
Mokilesenew·scorpion fish, stonefish
Marshalleseṇéw·scorpion fish, stonefish
Gilbertese(te)-noua fish 
Proto-Oceanic*nopu·scorpion fish, stonefish (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*nofu·scorpion fish, stonefish

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ñopu(q)·scorpion fish, stonefish (Blust 1978:5)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*lepu or *lepuq·scorpion fish, stonefish (Blust 1983–84:76)

PMc   *nu[sS]o   squid

Chuukeseniit, #niiti-(n)squid, squid of 
Mortlockeseŋúút·squid
Puluwateseŋiit, ŋito-(n)·squid
Saipan Carolinianŋúút, ŋúti-(l)·squid
Saipan Carolinian·Tŋiit·squid
Satawaleseŋúút·squid
Woleaianŋiito, ŋito-(li)·squid
Pulo-Annanŋiito, ŋito-·squid
Proto-Chuukic*ŋido·squid
Pohnpeiannuud·squid
Mokilesenuud·squid
Marshallesenet, nét·squid
Proto-Oceanic*nus[ao]·squid (Ross 1988)
Sa’anuto·squid
Arosinuto·squid
Lakalai[e]-luso·squid

The Proto-Chuukic form appears to be an innovation.

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