st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

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*ñ   

ña    ño    

PMc   *-ña   his, her, its

Chuukese-n·his, her, its
Mortlockese-n·his, her, its
Puluwatese-n·his, her, its
Saipan Carolinian-l·his, her, its
Saipan Carolinian·T-n·his, her, its
Satawalese-l, -n·his, her, its
Woleaian-le·his, her, its
Pulo-Annan-na·his, her, its
Old Mapian-Ø·his, her, its
Proto-Chuukic*-ña·his, her, its
Pohnpeian-Ø·his, her, its
Mokilese-Ø·his, her, its
Marshallese-n·his, her, its
Gilbertese-na·his, her, its
Kosraean-Ø·his, her, its (Jackson 1983:334, 443fn.)
Proto-Oceanic*-ña·his, her, its (Ross 1988)
Fijian-na·his, her, its
Sa’a-na·his, her, its
Bugotu-gna·his, her, its
Lakalai-la·his, her, its
Proto-Kimbe*-na·his, her, its

PMc   *ñai-Sa, ŋai-Sa   when?

Chuukese(i)-nee-t·when?
Mortlockese(i)-ŋee-t·when?
Puluwatese(yi)-nee-t, (yi)-ŋe-t [sic]·when?
Saipan Carolinian(i)-lee-t, (i)-lee-ta·when?
Saipan Carolinian·T(i)-nee-ta; (i)-lee-t·when?
Woleaian(i)-lee-te·when?
Pulo-Annan(i)-ŋae-tawhen? (past) 
 (wa)-ŋae-tawhen? (future) 
Proto-Chuukic*(i)-nai-da, (i)-ŋai-da·when?
Pohnpeian(y)-aa-d·when?
Mokileseŋee-d·when?
Marshalleseŋaya-t·when?
Gilbertese(ni)-ŋai,(ni)-ŋai-ra 
Kosraeanŋε·when?
Proto-Oceanic*ñai-za, ŋai-za·when?
Fijian(ni)-nai-(ca)·when?
Lakalai(a)-lai-(sa)when? (past) 
 gai-(sa)when? (future) 
 gaisoon, presently, in the near future 

— See also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ŋizawhen  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianŋica·when?
Bugotuŋiha·when?
Proto-Oceanic*ŋicawhen?  (Ross 1988:225, 461)

— Note also —

Sa’a(i)-ŋanitewhen? 

These forms are not irregular but preserve one or another of the two forms of Proto-Micronesian and Proto-Oceanic, as the two Lakalai forms, one for past and one for future testify.

PMc   *ñama   taste

Marshallesenam, namnamtaste, smell, flavor 
Gilbertesenanamato taste or test the flavor of (something) (but see Proto-Micronesian *ñaña, ñañaña taste, flavor) 
Kosraeanemto taste 
 emataste (something) 
PWMP*ñamantasty, delicious  (Blust 1989:153)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*NamNam·taste (Blust 1989:154)
Proto-Austronesian*NamNamdelicious  (Wolff 1993)

— Note —

Pohnpeiannεminεmto eat, taste (used derogatorily) 
 namanamtaste 
 nameat or taste (something) 
 namits taste, flavor  (nεmε)
Mokilesenamnamhave taste 
 namto taste (something)
which we presume to be loans from Marshallese

— Cf. —

Ulawanname, name-lito taste 
Arosiname, name-ri, nami, nami-rito taste, lick 
Kwaionamegobble up 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ñaña, ñañaña ‘taste, flavor’.

PCMc   *ñama   make a noose or snare

Woleaianlema-si-(i)make knots in (rope) without pulling it tight 
Pohnpeianaamslipnoose or snare for catching animals 
Gilbertesenamato enter a snare noose (as a bird) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *llema, lema-ti- ‘tie’.

PMc   *ñamʷu   mosquito

Chuukese(towu)-nómʷ, -nómʷu-(n)mosquito net 
Mortlockesenamʷu-(kkék)mosquito 
Puluwatesenóómʷmosquito 
 (tówu)-nómʷmosquito net 
Saipan Carolinianlóómʷ, lómʷo-(l)mosquito, mosquito of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tnóómʷ·mosquito
Satawalesenóómʷ·mosquito
Woleaianlaamʷu, lamʷu-mosquito 
 (tau)-lomʷumosquito net 
Pulo-Annannaamʷu, namʷu-·mosquito
Sonsoroleseraamʷu·mosquito
Proto-Chuukic*namʷu·mosquito
Pohnpeianamʷi-(sε)mosquito 
Mokileseamʷ-(je)mosquito 
Marshalleseṇamʷ·mosquito
Gilbertese(te-tai)-namʷomosquito net 
Kosraeanem-(syε)·mosquito
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ñamu·mosquito (Geraghty 1983:155, 295)
Proto-Oceanic*ñamuk·mosquito (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*namu·mosquito
Fijiannamu·mosquito
Bugotugnamu·mosquito
Kwaionamusmall flying insect 
Proto-Kimbe*namo·mosquito
Uraustronesisch*ñamuk·mosquito
Proto-Austronesian*Namuk·mosquito (Wolff 1993)

— Cf. —

Yapeseneeŋmosquito 

Marshallese light n expected. Note that the words for ‘mosquito net’ show problems and appear to be more recent loans, at least in some cases.

PMc   *ñaña, ñañaña   taste, flavor

Chuukesennen, nenna-(n)taste, flavor, its taste 
 nne-ri, nne-nitaste it 
 nne-yartaste sweet 
Mortlockesenennantaste 
Puluwatesenénnántaste, to taste 
Saipan Carolinianllá-ritaste it 
Saipan Carolinian·Tnne-ritaste it 
Satawalesennantaste 
Woleaiannnanne (<*nanna)to taste 
 nna-riitaste it 
Pulo-Annannna-naits taste 
Proto-Chuukic*nna-, nanna-, nna-ri-·taste, flavor
Marshallesennanmusty taste, moldy taste 
Gilbertesenana-mato taste or test the taste of (food) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ña-m·taste, flavor
Bugotugna-mito nibble, bite, taste [something] 

— Cf. —

Puluwatesellafavorite food 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ñañau ‘delicious, taste good’, Proto-Micronesian *ñama ‘taste’.

PMc   *ñañau   delicious, taste good

Chuukesenné, (a)-nnédelicious, tasty 
Mortlockesenné·delicious, taste good
Puluwatesenné, nénné·delicious, taste good
Saipan Carolinian(a)-lléé-(w)make it taste better 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a)-nnéé-(w)make it taste better 
Woleaiannnéétaste good, sweet taste 
Pulo-Annannnaúgood taste, taste good 
Proto-Chuukic*nnaú·delicious, taste good
Pohnpeianyyowsweet, delicious 
Marshallesennaw·delicious, taste good
Gilbertesenanairelishable 
Kosraeanyʌ, yʌyʌ·delicious, taste good
Proto–Eastern Oceanic(?) *ñau·delicious, taste good
Bugotugnouto bite, taste 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ñapitaste, bite  (Blust 1978:59)

Jackson’s (1983:374) statement that this is to be derived from Proto-Oceanic *ñamu with inexplicable loss of intervocalic *m is open to some question. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ñaña, ñañaña ‘taste, flavor’. (See also Jackson 1983:334).

PMc   *ñañoa   yesterday

Chuukesenánew, #nánewi-(n)yesterday, yesterday of 
Mortlockesenanaw·yesterday
Puluwatesenánewú [sic]·yesterday
Saipan Carolinianlalew·yesterday
Saipan Carolinian·Tnanew·yesterday
Satawalesenánew·yesterday
Woleaianlalowe·yesterday
Ulithianlalaow·yesterday
Pulo-Annannanoa·yesterday
Proto-Chuukic*[nñ]añoa·yesterday
Pohnpeianayo·yesterday
Mokileseayo·yesterday
Pingilapeseaaiyɔ, aaiy ɔɔ-(wa)·yesterday
Marshallese(yi)-nney·yesterday
Gilbertese(ŋkoa)-nanoa·yesterday
Kosraean(len)-yɔday before yesterday 
 (ekʌ)-yɔevening before last evening 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*nañoRa·yesterday (Geraghty 1990)
Sa’anonola·yesterday
Bugotu[i]-gnotha·yesterday

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ñoRop·yesterday (Ross 1988)
Proto-Oceanic*ñoRa[qØ]·yesterday (Blust 1978:58)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*neRab·yesterday (Blust 1980:116)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *l[au]tuu ‘tomorrow’. Cf. Marck (1994:312) Proto-Micronesian *nanoa.

PMc   *ñoñ[iu]   Morinda citrifolia

Puluwateseneen·Morinda citrifolia
Saipan Carolinianleel, llel·Morinda citrifolia
Saipan Carolinian·Tneen·Morinda citrifolia
Woleaianleeli, leli-·Morinda citrifolia
Old Mapiannona tree or plant whose root was used as a brown dye (i.e., Morinda citrifolia, a possible loan from Gilbertese
Pohnpeianwey-(pʷul), we-(mpʷul)Morinda citrifolia (cf. pwul immature, of fruit) 
Mokileseweena tree 
 ween-(pʷul)a tree 
Marshallesenén·Morinda citrifolia
Gilbertese(te)-non·Morinda citrifolia
Kosraeanoia tree 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*NoNu·Morinda citrifolia (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ñonu·Morinda citrifolia (Ross 1988:208)

— Cf. also —

ChuukesenopʷurMorinda citrifolia (root used as yellow dye) 

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