st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*ŋ   

ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

PMc   *ŋaa, ŋau   I; 1st person singular pronoun

Chuukeseŋaaŋ, ŋaŋa·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Mortlockeseŋaaŋ·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Puluwateseŋaaŋ, ŋa·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Saipan Carolinianŋaaŋ, #ghaaŋ·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Satawaleseŋaaŋ·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Woleaiangaaŋú·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Pulo-Annanŋaŋú·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Proto-Chuukic*ŋaaŋú·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Pohnpeianŋεεy·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Marshalleseŋah·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Gilberteseŋai·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Kosraeanŋa·I; 1st person singular pronoun

— Cf. —

Fijianau·I; 1st person singular pronoun
Lakalai(e)-iau, (e)-au·I; 1st person singular pronoun

PMc   *ŋaaŋaa   sea bird, duck

Saipan Carolinianŋaaŋa·sea bird, duck
Satawaleseŋaaŋa·sea bird, duck
Woleaianŋaaŋaaa duck 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋaaŋaa·sea bird, duck
Marshalleseŋahŋahred-footed booby 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ŋaRa·sea bird, duck (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*ŋaRa·sea bird, duck
Fijiangaathe grey duck 
Rovianaŋarawild duck 

— Cf. —

Chuukeseŋaaŋaa kind of turtle in the special cryptic argot used by itaŋ 

PCMc   *ŋace   lower jaw

Chuukeseŋáách, ŋáchi-(n)lower jaw, jaw, his jaw 
 ŋácháŋáchuse or wear dentures 
 (ite)-ŋachlean on elbows with hand under chin 
Mortlockeseŋashε-(n)his lower jaw 
PuluwateseŋaaRjaw 
Saipan Carolinianŋáásh, ŋáshe-(l)lips, mouth, his lower jaw 
SatawaleseŋaaRlower jaw 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋace·lower jaw
Gilberteseŋarelaugh 
 ŋare-aki-nilaugh at 

Pohnpeian ŋara-aki ‘laugh heartily’ is an apparent loan from Gilbertese. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ŋaco ‘palate, gums’, Proto–Western Micronesian *ŋace ‘edge’.

PWMc   *ŋace   edge

Chuukese(wini)-ŋáchperiod just before daybreak or dawn 
Saipan Carolinianŋashe-(l)side, edge, border of 
Woleaianŋaashe, ŋashe-(l)edge, brink, edge of 
 ŋashe-e-(ye)make the edge of it 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋace·edge
Marshalleseŋadŋaddesign edges of boats 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ŋaco‘palate, gums’; Proto–Central Micronesian *ŋace ‘lower jaw’.

PMc   *ŋaco   palate, gums

Puluwatese(pi)-ŋor, -ŋore-(y) [sic]hard palate, my hard palate 
Saipan Carolinian(po)-ŋóóshhard palate, roof of the mouth 
Woleaian(faali-pi)-ŋaashogum, hard palate 
 (pii)-ŋaachchopalate, gum, alveolar ridge 
Proto-Chuukic*-ŋaaco·palate, gums
Pohnpeianŋεtεŋεtεroof of his mouth 
Mokileseŋɔsŋɔsroof of the mouth 
Marshalleseŋadgums (cf. Marshallese ŋat palate, Proto-Micronesian *ŋasa hole) 
Gilbertese(te)-ŋarothe gum 
 ŋaroŋarotoothless 
Kosraeanŋɒ srmouth, lip 
 ŋɒ sro-(n)lip, brim, edge of 

— Cf. —

Arosiŋada-(na)his gums 

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *ŋace ‘lower jaw’, Proto–Western Micronesian *ŋace ‘edge’.

PMc   *ŋafa   fathom

Chuukeseŋaaf, ŋafa-n, -ŋaffathom, fathom of it, fathom in counting 
Mortlockese-ŋaf·fathom
Puluwateseŋaaf, ŋafá-n·fathom
Saipan Carolinianŋaaf, -ŋaf·fathom
Satawalese-ŋaf·fathom
Woleaianŋaafa, ŋefa-lfathom, fathom of it 
Pulo-Annanŋaada, ŋada-na·fathom
Proto-Chuukic*ŋafa·fathom
Pohnpeianŋaap·fathom
Mokileseŋaap·fathom
Marshalleseŋéyŋéy·fathom
Gilbertesete-ŋaafathom 
 ŋae-ameasure (something) by fathoms 
Proto-Oceanic*ŋapa·fathom
Tonganŋafa·fathom
Samoangafa·fathom
Sa’a[ta]-haŋa·fathom
Bugotu[ha]-ŋava·fathom
Arosi[ta]-ŋaahands breadth 
Kwaio[ta]-faŋa·fathom

PWMc   *ŋani   to, toward

Chuukeseŋenitoward it, give him 
Puluwateseŋaniygive him 
Saipan Carolinianŋáli·to, toward
Saipan Carolinian·Tŋeni·to, toward
Woleaianŋali-(i)to it 
Pulo-Annanŋanito, toward 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋani-·to, toward
Marshalleseŋanto 
 ŋan-eyto him/her/it 
 ŋan-iyto them 

PMc   *-ŋa-ratu   thousand (numeral classifier)

Chuukese-ŋé-réw·thousand (numeral classifier)
Mortlockese-ŋé-réw·thousand (numeral classifier)
Puluwatese-ŋe-ray·thousand (numeral classifier)
Saipan Carolinian-ŋé-réw, -ŋa-ras·thousand (numeral classifier)
Saipan Carolinian·T-ŋé-réw, -ŋa-ras·thousand (numeral classifier)
Satawalese-ŋa-ras·thousand (numeral classifier)
Woleaian-ŋe-rai, -ŋe-raú, ŋe-rasi·thousand (numeral classifier)
Pulo-Annan-ŋa-ladi·thousand (numeral classifier)
Proto-Chuukic*-ŋa-rati, -ŋa-ratú·thousand (numeral classifier)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-ŋa-Ratu·thousand (numeral classifier)
Sa’a[ta]-ŋa-lauone hundred 
 [ta]-ŋa-lai [mʷane]one hundred men 
Bugotu[ha]-thaŋatu <*[ha]-ŋa-thatuone thousand 
Arosi[ha]-ŋa-rauone hundred, of men only 
Proto-Oceanic*-Ratu·thousand (numeral classifier)
Proto-Lakalai*latuone hundred 
Uraustronesisch*Ratushundred 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese-ŋaathousand 

Note the reflex here of Uraustronesisch *R in Proto-Chuukic as *r rather than as the more common reflex *Ø, and in Bugotu as th rather than as the more common reflex l.

PMc   *ŋari, ŋari-ti   nibble, gnaw, crunch

Chuukeseŋeriŋerbe nibbling, gnawing 
 ŋeri-i-(y)nibble or gnaw it 
Puluwateseŋeriŋergnaw 
 ŋeri-i-(y)gnaw it 
Saipan Carolinianŋárto have been gnawed or nibbled 
 ŋári-i-(y), ŋeri-i-(y)to gnaw or nibble on (something hard) 
Woleaianŋaribe scratched, abraided 
 ŋariŋerichew, crunch, gnaw 
 ŋari-si-(i)gnaw it 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋari, ŋariŋari, ŋari-ti·nibble, gnaw, crunch
Marshalleseŋarŋarbite the dust, feed off a surface (as fish feeding off a reef surface) 
 ŋari-jeat something in this manner 
Gilbertese(mʷa)-ŋaiŋaicontend noisely with words 
Kosraeanŋalŋʌlbite, nip 
 ŋali-sbite or nip (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*ŋari·nibble, gnaw, crunch
Tonganŋalinibble, chew, gnaw 
Samoangalignaw 
Lakalaigari (la-mavo)bite (into the taro) 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseŋauŋaueat voraciously 
Sa’aŋeroto chew, nibble (of rats) 
Kwaioŋalemasticate with the gums 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *li-ŋaŋari ‘tiny louse’; and cf. Proto-Micronesian *kari ‘to scratch’, Proto–Central Micronesian *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari ‘rough’.

PMc   *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru   to crunch

Mortlockesesú-ŋérúŋérto crunch while eating (as in chewing bones) 
Chuukesesu-ŋérúŋér(Bender et al. 1984
Puluwatesehi-ŋéréŋérto crunch (as burned breadfruit seeds being eaten) 
Saipan Carolinian(sa)-ŋuruŋurbe crunchy 
 (assa)-ŋúrto crunch with the teeth 
Saipan Carolinian·T(assa)-ŋérto crunch with the teeth 
Satawalesesi-ŋérúŋérto crunch (as chewing on bones) 
Woleaiansú-ŋerúŋerúto crunch, be crunchy, chew with a noisy, crackling sound, to press, grind, tread, etcrunch, with a noisy sound 
Proto-Chuukic*Tú-ŋarúŋarú, -ŋerú, -ŋerúŋerú·to crunch
Mokileseŋorŋorcrunchy 
Marshalleseŋŋirʷŋirʷto crunch (as in eating) 
 (ka)-ŋʷirŋʷirto grind with the teeth noisily, crunch, munch 
Gilberteseŋauŋauto eat voraciously 
Kosraeanŋʌrŋʌrcrushing, crunching, cracking, or crackling sound 
 (niyε)-ŋorŋormeat of young coconut, crunching, crushing 

— Cf. —

Kwaioŋalusnap at, bite at (of angry dog) 
 golu-ato crunch 
Tonganŋuu, ŋuŋubite with the teeth, munch, crunch (as bones), eat with a crunching or munching sound 
Lauŋutuŋutucrunch the teeth 

— Cf. also —

Fijianquru, quru-tato crunch 

PMc   *ŋasa   hole

Chuukeseŋaat, ŋate-nhole, hole of 
 ŋate-nipierce it 
 -ŋát, ŋáti-nhollow or concave object (in counting) 
Puluwateseŋaat, ŋatá-nhole, hole of, ŋat be punctured 
 ŋatbe punctured 
Saipan Carolinianŋaat, ŋata-lhole, its hole 
 ŋataŋatmake holes 
 ŋatá-li, ŋate-limake a hole in it 
Satawaleseŋataŋatdrill a hole 
Woleaianŋaate, ŋateŋat, ŋeta-liihole, make holes, pierce it 
Pulo-Annanŋaata, ŋata-hole 
Sonsoroleseŋaatahole 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋada·hole
Marshalleseŋatpalate of mouth (cf. Marshallese ŋad gums, Proto-Micronesian *ŋaco palate, gums) 
Kosraeanŋʷetlook, open (eyes) 

— Cf. —

Fijiangasaa thing that will cause laughter, a joke 

PWMc   *ŋasa   unable to endure further

Pohnpeianŋata-be bored or tired of something repetitious 
Marshalleseŋatŋatunable to stomach something, unable to endure 
 ŋateyunable to stomach or endure (something) 

Pohnpeian d expected; problematic.

PMc   *ŋata   fragrant

Chuukeseŋaas, ŋase-na perfumed oil, perfumed oil of 
 a-ŋasaannoint her with perfumed oil 
 pʷoo-ŋasfragrant smell 
Puluwateseŋahbe fragrant 
 ya-ŋahfragrance 
Saipan Carolinianŋaasaroma, scent 
 bʷoo-ŋashave a fragrant oder 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷoo-ŋahhave a fragrant odor 
Woleaianŋasesmell good, be fragrant 
 boo-ŋasegood smell 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋata·fragrant
Marshalleseŋajfragrant smell 
Kosraeanŋæs, ŋiyεsexpression when a foul smell is sensed 
Fijiangasagasasavory, tasty (of food) 

PMc   *-ŋawulu   unit of ten (in counting)

Chuukese(e)-ŋoon, -ŋoonu-·unit of ten (in counting)
Puluwatese-ŋool·unit of ten (in counting)
Woleaian-ŋaulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Proto-Chuukic*-ŋawulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Pohnpeian-ŋowl·unit of ten (in counting)
Marshallese(je)-ŋʷéwilten 
 (jil)-ŋiwilthirty 
Gilbertese-ŋaun·unit of ten (in counting)
Kosraean-ŋʌul, -ŋoul·unit of ten (in counting)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-nga-fulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Fijian[sa]-ga-vuluten 
Sa’a[ta]-ŋa-hulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Bugotu[ha]-ŋa-vulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Kwaio[ta]-ŋa-fulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Proto-Oceanic*-puluq·unit of ten (in counting)
Proto-Kimbe*vulu·unit of ten (in counting)
Uraustronesisch*puluq·unit of ten (in counting)

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *-ik[ae] ‘counter for tens’, Proto–Central Micronesian *-itaki ‘counter for tens’.

PCMc   *-ŋ[ei]a   ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)

Chuukeseee-ŋi, ee-ŋii-(n), ee-ŋiye-(n)Pemphis tree or shrub, Pemphis tree of 
Puluwateseyee-ŋiy, yee-ŋiyá-(n)·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Saipan Carolinianee-ŋi·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Woleaiangai-ŋiye·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Proto-Chuukic*kai-ŋiya·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Pohnpeianŋii·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Marshalleseké-ŋéy·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)
Gilbertese(te)-ŋea·ironwood tree (Pemphis acidula)

— Cf. —

Palauanŋisa tree (Pemphis acidula
ChamorronigasPemphis acidula 
Fijiangigiaa tree (Suriana maritima

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *ŋŋaú ‘a tree’.

PMc   *ŋenu   soul, spirit

Chuukese#ŋúún, ŋúnú-(n)soul, his soul 
Mortlockeseŋéén, ŋénúŋénú-(n)shadow, ghost, spirit 
Puluwatese#ŋúún, ŋúnú-n·soul, spirit
Saipan Carolinianŋéél, ŋélú-(l)·soul, spirit
Saipan Carolinian·Tŋéén, ŋénú-(n)·soul, spirit
Satawaleseŋéén, ŋénú-(n)·soul, spirit
Woleaianŋéél, ŋelú-(l)ghost 
Pulo-Annanŋaanú, ŋanú-na·soul, spirit
Proto-Chuukic*ŋenú·soul, spirit
Pohnpeianŋeen, ŋeni·soul, spirit
Mokileseŋen, ŋeni-soul spirit 
Kosraeanŋʌnspirit 

See also Marck (1994:325) Proto-Micronesian *ŋenu.

PMc   *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru   to crunch

see Proto-Micronesian *ŋaruŋaru or *ŋ[eo]ru, ŋ[eo]ruŋ[eo]ru.

PMc   *ŋere, ŋereŋere   be chafed, rasping

Chuukeseŋer, ŋereŋerbe chafed or scratched (of skin), be rough, hoarse, rasping (of voice) 
 ŋere-e-(y)saw it, cut it by chafing 
 ŋereŋera saw 
Puluwateseŋereŋercrackle, scrape, creak, a saw 
 ŋere-e-(y)saw it 
 (makúre-mʷa)-ŋereŋerhave kinky hair 
Saipan Carolinianŋereŋerbe rough, raspy 
 (mʷe)-ŋereŋer, (mʷo)-ŋereŋer, (mʷo)-ŋaraŋarhave a rough surface, be very rough or raspy 
Woleaian(me)-ŋareŋarehave a sore feeling in the throat, have a dry throat 
 (ga)-ŋereto clear ones throat 
 (mʷa)-ŋereŋerebe curly, kinky (of hair) 
Pulo-Annan(ka)-ŋeleŋeleto clear the throat 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋere, ŋereŋere·be chafed, rasping
Gilberteseŋeeŋeescraped 
Proto-Oceanic*ŋere·be chafed, rasping
Fijian[va]-geregere-[taka]to twist or shake the voice, sing tremolo 
Lakalai[e]-gerea cricket that calls at night 
 [la]-gereplant with seed pods used as rattles 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *ma-ŋari, ma-ŋariŋari ‘rough’, Proto-Micronesian *ŋari, ŋari-ti ‘nibble, gnaw, crunch’, with which there has been some confusion.

PCMc   *ŋii   tooth

Chuukesenii, ŋii, nii-(n), ŋii-(n)tooth, his tooth 
 -ŋi, -ŋútooth (in some compounds) 
Mortlockeseŋii·tooth
Puluwateseŋii, ŋii-(n), -ŋi·tooth
Saipan Carolinianŋii, ŋii-(l)·tooth
Saipan Carolinian·Tŋii, ŋii-(n)·tooth
Satawaleseŋii·tooth
Woleaianŋii, ŋii-(le)·tooth
Pulo-Annanŋii·tooth
Sonsoroleseŋii·tooth
Proto-Chuukic*ŋii, -ŋi·tooth
Pohnpeianŋiihis tooth 
Mokileseŋi, ŋii-·tooth
Marshalleseŋiy·tooth
Gilberteseŋii(archaic, Bender et al. 1984

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ŋipo, nipo·tooth
Proto-Polynesian*nifo·tooth
Sa’aniho·tooth
Kwaionifo·tooth
Lakalai[la]-livo-[la]his tooth 
Uraustronesisch*ipen·tooth

— Note also —

Proto-Willaumez*ŋiŋiteeth 

PMc   *ŋii   buzz, hum, make sound, intonation

Chuukeseŋibuzz, hum, sound, sing 
 ŋiiŋitune, intonation, accent, voice 
 ŋii-(ri)sing it, hum it 
 (e)-ŋisoftly sung love song 
 (e)-ŋii-(y)give voice to it, begin it (of a song) 
Mortlockeseŋiiŋihummed note, dialect, intonation 
 ŋii-(re)give the tune for a song 
Puluwateseŋiiŋi-(n) [sic]accent, voice, tune, pronunciation, sound of 
Saipan Carolinianŋiiŋisound, pronunciation, dialect (cf. Saipan Carolinian ŋiŋŋi to cry out, squeal, of animals or machinery) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tŋiiŋisound, pronunciation, dialect 
Satawaleseŋiiŋi, ŋiiŋii-(n)intonation, squeeking sound, dialect, speech, his intonation 
Woleaianŋiiŋiihumming sound made with the mouth, voice to make sound, whine, make a low sound in the form of crying 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋii, ŋiiŋii·buzz, hum, make sound, intonation
Pohnpeianŋii-(n-wer)overly talkative, protesting too much, all talk and no action (lit. sound of loud talk: wer to shout, scream, howl, yell, holler at, vocalize loudly) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ŋiRiwhine, buzz, hum  (Geraghty 1990)

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *ŋúnúŋúnú, mʷa-ŋúnúŋúnú ‘whisper’, Proto-Micronesian *ŋiTi ‘chant, sing, be noisy, laugh’. Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ŋiLi ‘buzz, hum, make sound’ posited by Goodenough (1995:76).

PWMc   *ŋil[ai]   voice, sound

Pohnpeianŋiil, ŋilεvoice, tune, his voice 
Mokileseŋil, ŋilɔ, ŋile-(n)voice, sound, his, voice, voice of 
Pingilapeseŋilvoice, sound 
Marshalleseŋil, ŋilli-sound 

— Cf. —

Yapeseŋuulto buzz, hum, a bee, wasp 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *ŋúnúŋúnú, mʷa-ŋúnúŋúnú ‘whisper’, Proto-Micronesian *ŋiTi ‘chant, sing, be noisy, laugh’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ŋiLi ‘buzz, hum, make sound’ posited by Goodenough (1995:76).

PMc   *ŋiri, ŋiriŋiri, ŋiri-ti   growl, rumble

Pohnpeianŋiriŋir, ŋiriŋiri-igrowl, snarl, quarrel, growl at (something) 
 ŋiri-sekto resound 
Mokileseŋirŋirto rumble 
Marshalleseŋŋirgroan, moan, rumble, growl, grunt 
Kosraeanŋirroar, rumble 
 ŋirŋirnoisy, roaring, buzzing, rumbling, whirring 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ŋiRi, ŋiRiŋiRibuzz, hum  (Geraghty 1990)
Fijiangiisqueak, squeal, buzz 
Arosiŋiri, ŋiriŋirito whine, mew, hum, buzz 
 ŋiri-hawhining, humming, etc. 

— Cf. —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*ŋurutgrowl, whine  (Blust 1983-4:89)

PCMc   *ŋisa   groan

Puluwateseŋitgasp (as a dying man) 
Gilberteseŋiraŋirato groan (audibly or in spirit) 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*ŋisŋiswhisper 

— Note also —

Sa’a(’ala) ŋiŋiteclench the teeth 
Arosiŋiŋitato grind the teeth, show the teeth, snarl 

...but see Proto-Chuukic *ŋúdú, ŋŋúdú ‘strong, resistant’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ŋuse ‘moan, complain’.

PMc   *ŋiTi   chant, sing, be noisy, laugh

Pohnpeianŋiisa chant 
 ŋisto chant, be boisterous 
Mokileseŋijchant in chorus, laugh out loud 
Marshalleseŋiji(r)chant while drawing up a canoe 
 ŋŋijgroan, moan, mumble 
Kosraeanŋis, ŋisŋislaugh, guffaw 

— Cf. —

Kwaioŋuusing, customary chanting 
 ŋuu-asing (something) 
 ŋuu-li-(a)sing (a particular song) 
Arosiŋuuto hum 

PCMc   *ŋixo   be tired

Chuukeseŋŋibe exhausted, played out, unable to continue 
 ŋŋiye-(n)exhaustion of (someone) 
Pohnpeianŋirbe tired (honorific) 
Gilberteseŋio, ŋioŋiobe dizzy 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanŋŋeito be uncomfortable 
Fijiangoogooweak, infirm, helpless 

PCMc   *ŋoro   to chant, intone

Chuukeseŋorto sing 
Mortlockeseŋoroŋorto chant 
Pohnpeianŋoor, ŋorεaccent, dialect, tune, tone, his accent 
Gilberteseŋooto murmur or complain in a low voice 
 (te)-ŋoosubdued complaint, murmuring 
 ŋooŋootalk sub voce 

This could be the same root as Proto-Micronesian *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro ‘to snore’.

PMc   *ŋoro, ŋoroŋoro, [sS]i-ŋoro   to snore

Satawalese(ti)-ŋor, (ti)-ŋoroŋor·to snore
Woleaian(ti)-ŋoroŋoro·to snore
Mokileseŋorŋor·to snore
Pingilapeseŋɔr·to snore
Marshalleseŋʷer-(tak)·to snore
Gilbertese(ri)-ŋooŋoo·to snore
Kosraeanŋɔr, ŋɔrŋɔr·to snore
Proto-Oceanic*ŋoro·to snore
Tonganŋolomake a rattling or rumbling noise when one breathes 
Rotumangogoromake a loud disturbing noise 
Proto-Kimbe*ŋo[rz]o·to snore

— Cf. —

Fijiangodrogrunt (as a pig), moan in pain (of a person) 
Sa’aŋorasnore 
Arosiŋorasnore 

— and cf. —

Chuukesetorto grunt, snore 
 ŋotto snore 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*ŋoRosnore  (Ross 1988)

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *ŋoro ‘to chant, intone’.

PMc   *ŋuse   moan, complain

Mokileseŋudto whisper, moan, hum 
Gilberteseŋureto complain, murmur 
 ŋureŋuremurmuring, complaining, subdued groaning 
Kosraeanŋut, ŋutŋutto growl, grunt 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseŋŋijgroan, moan, mumble 

— Note also —

Gilberteseŋirato groan, moan 

— Cf. —

Kwaioŋuluwhisper 
 (kʷai)-ŋudu-fiwhisper to one another, ŋuu murmur 
 ŋu’umurmur 
Lauŋudu, ŋuduŋuduto mumble, mew 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *ŋisa ‘groan’.

PMc   *ŋuu   groan, moan

Chuukeseŋúúŋúmoaning, groaning 
 ŋúúŋúú-resbe groaning or grunting repeatedly 
Mortlockeseŋúúŋúsound of a plane, drone, conversation at a distance 
Saipan Carolinianŋúúŋúmoan (of a person in pain), to sound (as a distant car or plane) 
 ŋŋúspeak loudly, be loud 
Satawaleseŋúúŋúmurmur, noise heard at a distance 
Woleaianŋúúŋúúmake a heavy sound, roar 
 ŋúú-regibe crying, cry out 
Pulo-Annanŋúúŋúúroar, moan 
Proto-Chuukic*ŋúúŋúú, ŋúú-raki·groan, moan
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ŋuu·groan, moan
Tonganŋuugrunt 
 ŋuuŋuuhum 
Rotumanŋuugrumble, complain, grunt 
Bugotuŋuuŋuumurmur, whisper, speak low 
’Āre’ārenuusing, hum, whistle, chirp 
Arosiŋuureply with the lips, hum 
Kwaioŋuusing, chant 

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