st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*p   

pa    pe    pi    

PMc   *pa-   side

Chuukesepa-, pe-n, ppa-, ppe-(n)side, help, side of 
Kosraeanpeside, opposite side 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ba-, baba·side
Fijianbabaside of a thing, cheekbone 
Kwaiobaba·side

— Cf. —

Puluwateseppáán, ppááni-(n)side, along side of 

See also Proto-Micronesian *papa ‘board, plank’, Proto–Central Micronesian *paŋa, paŋaki‘crossways’, Proto–Western Micronesian *palia ‘side’, Proto-Micronesian *paiki ‘side’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *palúa₂ ‘opposite, answer’.

PMc   *paa, paapaa   to count, enumerate

Mortlockesepaa-ŋecount it, read it 
Puluwatesepaapato count 
 páá-ŋ, páá-ŋi-(y)to count 
 páápáto count 
 páá-ŋicount (something) 
Satawalesepaapa·to count, enumerate
Woleaianpaapaato count, number, calculate 
Proto-Chuukic*paapaa, paa-ŋi·to count, enumerate
Pohnpeianpaa-ŋto enumarate (something) 
Kosraeanpʷεpato discuss 
 discuss (something) 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebénbénarithmetic, count, audit, compute 

PMc   *paa₁   bait, worm

Chuukesepaabait 
 paapabe baited 
 paa-nito bait (a hook), put out (something) as bait 
Mortlockesepaa·bait, worm
Satawalesepaa·bait, worm
Woleaianpaa, paapaabait, worm 
 paa-li-(i)have it as bait 
Pulo-Annanpaabait, worm 
 paa-niuse it as bait 
 paapaause bait 
Sonsorolesepaa·bait, worm
Proto-Chuukic*paa, paapaa, paa-[ln]i·bait, worm
Pohnpeianpaa-(n)bait, lure 
Mokilesepee-(n)·bait, worm
Marshallesepaha-(ney)feed, give bait (archaic) 
Kosraeanpa·bait, worm
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bayaworm  (Geraghty 1983)
Rotumanpaa·bait, worm
Fijianbacaworm, bait 
Sa’apaa·bait, worm
Ulawanpasa·bait, worm
Arosibaa·bait, worm

— Cf. —

Marshallesehanhanbait, lure, to chum for fish 
 haneyto lure (a fish) 
Gilbertese(te)-abeafish bait 
Yapesewaalbait 

PMc   *paa₂   leaf and stalk, frond

Chuukesepaafrond, flower garland, something with a series of leaflets or petals on it 
 -papalm frond, garland, stalk with leaves (in counting) 
Mortlockesepáá-(le)leaf of coconut tree 
Puluwatese-pagarland, bead belt (in counting) 
Saipan Carolinian-paflower leis and compound leaves (in counting) 
Satawalesepáá-(ley)leaf of coconut tree 
 -pácounting classifier for coconut or taro leaves 
Woleaian-paapalm frond, lei, shell bead belt (in counting) 
Proto-Chuukic*paa·leaf and stalk, frond
Pohnpeianpaaleaf of any large leaved plant such as taro 
Mokilesepaa-(lɔ)midrib of coconut frond 
Gilbertese(te)-baamidrib or mainstem of a coconut frond 
Kosraeanstalk (of taro or banana), stem 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*baa·leaf and stalk, frond
Fijianbaastalk of taro leaves only 

— Cf. —

Marshallesepapcoconut frond, midrib of frond 

PMc   *paca, pacapaca   foot, flat

Chuukesepachapachfoot (of humans and animals) 
Woleaianpesha-(n-nime)hand (from wrist to fingertips) 
Pulo-Annanpasapasafoot 
Proto-Chuukic*paca-, pacapaca·foot, flat
Pohnpeianpatapatflat (of a surface) 
Mokilesepaspasflat, level 
Gilbertesebarara, barabaralow (in height) 
Marshallesepede-(n pay), ped (yin pay)a cloud formation (pay arm, hand, wing) 
Kosraeanpasrpasra plate, plain (a flat or level surface) 
 pʌsra-(n ne)top of the foot 
 tʌ-pasrpasrflat 

— Cf. —

PWMP*pa(n)tar, pantayflat, level  (Blust 1980:123, 1983–84:93)

See also Proto–Western Micronesian *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa ‘adhere’, Proto-Chuukic *paca ‘handle, tail (of fish)’, Proto-Chuukic *pecee ‘leg’.

PWMc   *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa   adhere

Chuukesepachattached, pasted, joined 
 ppachsticky 
 pacha-ŋsmeared condition, be smeared with sticky substance 
 pache-ricling to, adhere to (something) 
 pache-ri, pacheri-ya-(n)kinsman, relative, his kinsman 
 pache-(yiti)stick to, fasten on to (something) 
 (a)-pachbe fastened, be stuck or glued together 
 (a)-pachaattach, join, paste, glue (something), add it (in arithmetic) 
Mortlockesepashapashsticky 
PuluwatesepaRa-(ló)to adhere, stick 
 paRe-(eti-y)adhere to (something) 
 (ya)-paR, -paRato add or join, adhere or join it 
Saipan Carolinianpashadhere, stick 
Saipan Carolinian·TpaRadhere, stick 
Saipan Carolinianppashbe joined together, stuck 
Saipan Carolinian·TppaRbe joined together, stuck 
Saipan Carolinianpashapashbe sticky 
Saipan Carolinian·TpaRapaRbe sticky 
SatawaleseppaRsticky 
 (ya)-paRgum, glue 
Woleaianppasheto stick, hold to something firmly 
 pesha-ŋi-(i)stick to it 
 (ge)-pashepasheto figure out, compute, calculate 
Proto-Chuukic*paca, ppaca·adhere
Pohnpeianpatbe together 
Mokilesepasto fit tight, cling 
Marshalleseddap, dedapcling to, stick to, adhere, sticky 

See also Proto-Chuukic *paca ‘handle, tail (of fish)’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *paca, pacapaca ‘foot, flat’.

PMc   *paiki   side

Chuukesepeek, peeki-nside, side of 
 -peekside (in counting) 
Puluwatesepeeki-(i-láŋ)compass direction (side of heaven), sky 
Saipan Carolinianpeigh, peighi-side, half, direction 
 -peighhalf (in counting) 
Woleaianpeigiside, flank 
 -peigiside (in counting) 
 peegiyegilean on one side 
Pulo-Annanpeikiside beam of a house 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *peeki or *p[ae]iki·side
Kosraeanpεikside (of a mountain or slope) 

— Note also —

Pohnpeianpεεkiεkto be summoned to the presence of a high chief 
Marshallesepékplace (in place names) 

See also Proto-Micronesian *pa- ‘side’.

PWMc   *pa-i-laŋi   horizon (lit. edge of heaven)

Chuukeseppe-yi-nen, (óro)-ppe-yi-nen·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)
Mortlockesepa-yi-léŋ·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)
Puluwatese(yóro)-ppá-á-laŋ·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)
Satawaleseppa-yi-leŋ·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)
Proto-Chuukic*ppa-yi-laŋi·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)
Pohnpeianpεεlεŋplace name 
Marshallesepa-yi-léŋ·horizon (lit. edge of heaven)

See Proto-Micronesian *laŋi ‘sky, heaven, storm’, Proto-Micronesian *pa- ‘side’. See also Marck (1994:314) Proto–Western Micronesian *pailaŋi.

PMc   *pakewa   shark

Chuukesepókó, pókóó-·shark
Puluwatesepááwo [sic], pááwa-·shark
Saipan Carolinianpááw·shark
Satawalesepááw·shark
Woleaianpagowe·shark
Pulo-Annanpakoa·shark
Sonsorolesepakowa·shark
Proto-Chuukic*pakewa·shark
Pohnpeianpako, pɔkε·shark
Mokilesepako·shark
Pingilapesepakɔ·shark
Marshallesepakew·shark
Gilbertese(te)-pakoa·shark
Kosraeanpæko·shark
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bakewa·shark
Sa’apa’ewa·shark
Kwaioba’ekʷa·shark

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*bakiwa·shark (Ross 1988)
Fijianqio·shark
Proto-Nakanai*pokio·shark
Uraustronesisch*qiyu, kiyu·shark

Note that the Chuukese form with its unexpected k could be a loan from another Chuukese dialect.

PMc   *paku   be cut, chopped

Chuukesepéék, pékú-(n)chip, chip of 
 -pékchip (in counting) 
 pékbe chopped, hewn 
 pékúpékdo chopping 
 pékú-ú-(w)chop it, cut it 
Mortlockesepakúto cut, split 
 pakú-ú-(téw)cut it down 
Puluwatesepakúpakdo cutting 
 pakú-(w)cut it, fell it 
Saipan Carolinianpaghbe cut, split 
 paghú-(w)cut it 
Satawalesepakú-ú-(w)cut it 
 pakú-ú-(tiw)cut it down 
Woleaianpagúbe cut, split, cut off 
 pagúpegúcut, split 
Proto-Chuukic*pakú·be cut, chopped
Pohnpeianpakbe smashed (as of a fallen ripe fruit) 
Marshallesepaktaro residue for replanting after edible portion has been cut off 
Gilbertese(te)-bakutop part of taro cut close to root for replanting 
 baku-acut the neck of, behead (something)  (Bender et al. 1984)
Kosraeanpakpʌkchop, cut, paki chop, cut, hew (something) 

PMc   *palapala   a fish

Pohnpeianpalapalrabbit fish 
Kosraeanpælpæla kind of fish 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pali ‘a fish’.

PWMc   *pale   light, of weight

Chuukeseppán·light, of weight
Mortlockeseppal·light, of weight
Puluwateseppel·light, of weight
Saipan Carolinianppel·light, of weight
Satawaleseppan·light, of weight
Woleaianppale·light, of weight
Pulo-Annanppana·light, of weight
Sonsoroleseppare·light, of weight
Proto-Chuukic*ppale·light, of weight
Marshallese(yak)-péllighten ship 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianpala-ŋto dry, to expose objects to the sun in order to dry them 
 pele-ŋbe dried, be exposed to the sun 
Marshallesebʷeḷaḷlight in weight 
Kosraeanmʌlælælight, slim, skinny 
Bugotumaamathalight, not heavy 

PWMc   *pali   a fish

Chuukesepaan, páána kind of trigger fish 
Woleaianpaalia kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*pa[ln]i·a fish
Marshallesepélboxfish 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *palapala ‘a fish’.

PWMc   *palia   side

Chuukesepeniya-, peniye-side, helper 
Mortlockesepaliye-(n)side of 
Puluwatesepeliy, peliye-·side
Saipan Carolinianand Crn paliya-·side
Satawalesepaniye-(n)side of 
Woleaianpaliye·side
Proto-Chuukic*palia·side
Pohnpeianpalipart, side, division, section 
Pingilapesepali-side 
Marshallesepaleye-spouse 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanpɔlɔ-(n)part, piece, cutting, segment of 

See also Proto-Micronesian *pa- ‘side’, Proto-Micronesian *paiki‘side’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *palúa₂ ‘opposite, answer’.

PCMc   *panipani   sea cucumber

Chuukesepenipensea cucumber 
Puluwatesepenipen·sea cucumber
Saipan Carolinianpelipeltrepang 
Satawalesepenipen·sea cucumber
Woleaianpelipeli·sea cucumber
Proto-Chuukic*panipani·sea cucumber
Pohnpeianpenipensea cucumber 
Marshallese(ji)-pénpénsea cucumber 
Gilbertese(nta)-banibani, (ta)-banibanisea slug 

— Cf. —

Rotumanpeni, penseacucumber 

— Cf. also —

Mokilesejipenpenseacucumber 
Kosraeansea cucumber (which does not show expected initial p or reduplication) 
Proto-Pohnpeic*payipayisea urchin 
Pohnpeianpεypεysmall black species. of sea urchin 
Mokilesepɔypɔy).·sea cucumber

PCMc   *paŋa, paŋaki   crossways

Chuukesepeŋes, peŋesi-athwart, perpendicular, across 
Puluwatesepeŋák·crossways
Woleaianpeŋagi·crossways
Pulo-Annanpaŋakito cross over 
Proto-Chuukic*paŋaki·crossways
Pohnpeianpaŋbe tilted, crooked, cockeyed 
 paŋapaŋlie crossways 
Marshallesepeŋakbay 
Gilbertesebaŋakicrossed at right angles 
 (te)-baŋindistinct or side sight of a person passing by, baŋ pass without being distinctly seen 

Possibly related is Mokilese paŋpaŋ ‘side, beside, horizontal’. See also Proto-Micronesian *pa- ‘side’. Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pala ‘tilted’.

PMc   *papa   board, plank

Chuukesepaap, pape-n, pappe-nboard or plank, board of (one), board of (more than one) 
Mortlockese#paapa-(n)board or plank of 
Puluwatesepaap, pápá-(n)board, plank 
 páppá-(n faaló)warp beam 
Saipan Carolinianpaap, papa-(l)·board, plank
Saipan Carolinian·Tpaap, papa-(n)·board, plank
Satawalesepaap·board, plank
Woleaianpaapeplank, strake 
Pulo-Annanpaapa·board, plank
Proto-Chuukic*papa·board, plank
Mokilesepɔpthin board or sheet of lumber 
Marshallesepapcoconut frond, midrib of frond 
Gilbertese(te-kaira)-babaa board used as temporary platform or seat in a canoe 
 (ra)-bababroad 
Kosraeanpæpraised sides of canoe (i.e., strakes) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanicpapa, pavaboard, plank  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*baba, paba, bapa·board, plank
Fijianbavawashstrake or upper side of a canoe 
Proto-Polynesian*papaflat, hard surface 
Sa’ahapaplank, thwart of canoe 
Bugotupavaplank 
Arosibabaslab, board 
Uraustronesisch*papanboard, plank 

See also Proto-Micronesian *pa- ‘side’.

PMc   *para   red

Chuukesepar, paraparred 
 (a)-paracause it to be red 
 pare-eyapply red to it 
 paar, pare-(n)tree with red flowers (Erythrina variegata), tree of 
Puluwatesepar, parapar; par, pappar, parapar·red
Satawaleseparapar·red
Woleaianpaaretree with red flowers 
Proto-Chuukic*para·red
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*baRalight in color  (Geraghty 1990)
PWMP*baRaqred  (Blust 1989:127)

PMc   (?)   *para, parara   thunder

Chuukesepaach·thunder
Puluwatesepachch, pachchi-(n)thunder, thunder of 
Saipan Carolinianpachch, pachchú-(l)·thunder
Satawaleseppachch·thunder
Woleaianpachche·thunder
Ulithianparr·thunder (Bender et al. 1984)
Pulo-Annanpaala, pala-·thunder
Proto-Chuukic(?) *parra·thunder
Mokilesepalar·thunder
Gilbertese(te)-baa·thunder
Kosraeanpʌlæl·thunder

See also Marck (1994:311) Proto-Micronesian *parara.

PMc   *parapara   a fish

Puluwateseparapara flattish reef fish with vertical stripes 
Saipan Carolinianparaparspecies of edible fish found outside the reef 
Woleaianpareparea kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*parapara·a fish
Pohnpeianparaparfish species 
 paraparε-(n lik)fish species 
Gilbertese(te)-baabaasurgeon fish (Acanthurus guttatus
Kosraeanpælpælkind of fish 

PWMc   *pasa   depressed and flooded area

Chuukesepaat, #paate-(n), -pattidal inlet, offshore gully in the shallows, gully of 
Puluwatesepaat, petá-(n)swamp, swamp of 
Saipan Carolinianpaatrunning water, stream, flowing water 
Saipan Carolinian·Tpaatpond, puddle 
Woleaianpaate, peta-(li)gap, space between two things 
Proto-Chuukic*pada·depressed and flooded area
Pohnpeianpaaddent, depression, puddle, pad dented 
 paddented 
Mokilesepaddepression 
 padi-(n pil)puddle 
Marshallesepatswamp 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanpathole, perforation, aperture 

Cf. also Marck (1994:314) Proto-Micronesian *pasa ‘swamp’.

PWMc   *pasiu or *pasui   a fish

Chuukesepétú, pétúú-big-eyed scad fish 
Saipan Carolinian·Tpatúpompano 
Woleaianpatiiakule (a kind of fish) 
Proto-Chuukic*padúú·a fish
Marshallesepaytiygoggle-eyed scad fish 

— Cf. —

Mokilesepódiidimackerel 

PMc   *pata   drift

Chuukesepasdrift (as a canoe) 
 pasa-(nó)drift away 
 pase-ridrift to 
Mortlockesepas, pasa-(to)drift, drift hither 
Puluwatesepahdrift 
 paha-(ló)drift away 
Saipan Carolinianpassdrift in the water 
 passe-(ló)drift away 
Satawalesepas, pasa-(ló)drift, drift away 
Woleaianpatland after drifting 
 peta-ŋi-(i)come to land at (after drifting) 
Proto-Chuukic*pata·drift
Pohnpeianpasarrive by sea, return from fishing 
Mokilesepajto arrive (of people) 
Kosraeanpætdrift, push, pull 
 pætpætfloat, drift 

PWMc   *pati, pati-a   placenta, afterbirth

Chuukesepeey, peyiya-(n)placenta, her placenta 
Marshallesepéj, piji-(n)·placenta, afterbirth

PMc   *patiki   long-winded in diving

Chuukeseppeyis, #ppeyisa-(n)fortitude, ability to endure pain, ability to hold ones breath or stay under water for a long time, his fortitude 
Puluwatesepeeyik [sic]to dive deep, hold the breath long 
Saipan Carolinianppeighto be able to hold ones breath under water for a long time, to have endurance 
 peighi-(má)to be in a life-or-death situation, be close to death 
Proto-Chuukic*paiki, ppayiki·long-winded in diving
Pohnpeianpεykskillful, of a diver able to go deep or hold his breath for a long time 
Mokilesepɔykable to hold breath 
Marshallesepakij, ppakij (showing metathesis)long-winded in diving, able to stay under water long 
Kosraeanpætokhold breath for a long time, dive, long-winded 

There are problems with the Kosraean form.

PMc   *pau   hand, arm, wing

Chuukesepaaw, péwú-(n)·hand, arm, wing
MortlockesepaaW, paWú-(n)·hand, arm, wing
Puluwatesepaaw, pawú-n·hand, arm, wing
Saipan Carolinianpaay, payú-(l)·hand, arm, wing
Satawalesepaay, payú-(n)·hand, arm, wing
Woleaianpaaú, paú-(l)·hand, arm, wing
Pulo-Annanpaaú, paú-(na)·hand, arm, wing
Proto-Chuukic*paú·hand, arm, wing
Pohnpeianpεεhis arm 
Mokilesepɔɔits forelimb 
Marshallesepay, peyi-·hand, arm, wing
Gilbertese(te)-bai, bai-(na)·hand, arm, wing
Kosraeanpo, pæo-(l)·hand, arm, wing
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*baRu·hand, arm, wing (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Yapesepaaqhis hand or arm 

See also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *paúdi ‘abandon, let drop’.

PMc   (?)   *pau, paupau   blow (of the wind)

Chuukesepéé-niblow upon it 
 péé-niblow upon it 
Satawalese(uru)-péto fan 
Woleaianpéépééblow gently (as a breeze) 
Ulithian(rú)-péúto fan 
Pulo-Annan(úlú)-paúto fan 
Proto-Chuukic*paú, paúpaú·blow (of the wind)
Kosraeanpæpæblow, fan 
 pæ-(lʌ)fan (it), blow on (it) 

— Cf. —

Mokileseparparwaving 
Marshallesepal(formant in place names) blow 
 ppalpalwave (of a flag), flutter 

— Cf. also —

Chuukeseá-áni-péfan (lit. make wind blowing) 
 á-áni-péé-(w)fan him, beckon to her 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *iri, iri-pi- ‘to fan’, and cf. Proto-Micronesian *paLu ‘blow (of wind)’ posited by Goodenough (1995:77).

PCMc   *pawo   platform

Chuukesepóó, póó-nplatform, sleeping platform, copra drying rack, platform of 
Puluwatesepóóraised sleeping platform 
Saipan Carolinianpóófloor 
Woleaianpóófloor, wooden floor, floor board, veranda 
Pulo-Annanpaado, pado-floor, flooring board 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *pawo·platform
Marshallesepewshelf, upper story (of house), loft 
Gilbertese(te)-baohouse with raised floor, platform, dais 

Note that the Pulo-Annan form is unexpected here, where we would expect *pawo.

PCMc   *pei   stone structure

Chuukese(sópʷu-nu)-piname of a chiefly clan (lit. stone structure district) 
Woleaianpeey, #peeyi-raised platform made of rocks (for meeting places or houses) 
Proto-Chuukic*peyi·stone structure
Pohnpeianpeeyaltar, any ancient structure of stones, a pile 
 pey-(ni-kid)pile of debris, dump 
Marshalleseppéya platform of rocks, build a pile of rocks 
Gilbertese(te)-beia pile of stones on a flat (collected to trap fish) 

— Cf. —

Mokilesepeycemetery 
Kosraeanpotpile of stones, stone wall 
 potibuild (something with stones) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *peyiya or *payiya ‘a grave’.

PMc   *peka   excrement

Chuukesepáá, páá-·excrement
Puluwatesepaa·excrement
Saipan Carolinianpaa, páá·excrement
Woleaianpaage, page-, pega-·excrement
Pulo-Annanpaaka, paka-·excrement
Proto-Chuukic*peka·excrement
Pohnpeianpεkdefecate 
Mokilesepɔkto defecate 
 paka-dto defecate on 
Marshallesepeksemen, sperm 
 pek-(tahan)habitually defecate on the ground (sic, but see tahan urinate) 
Gilbertesebekadefecate 
 (te)-bekaexcrement 
Proto-Oceanic*bekas·excrement (Ross 1988)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*pekaseparate, disconnect  (Blust 1980:125)

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*veka-zdefecate, excrement  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianveka, veka-ca·excrement
Sa’ahe’a, he’a-si·excrement
Bugotuvevega·excrement
Arosihe’a, he’a-si·excrement
Kwaiofe’a·excrement
Fijianbekakind of bat 
Proto-Polynesian*pekaflying fox 

Note that Kosraean fɔk, foko-(n) ‘feces, dung, feces of’ appears to be a loan from Mokilese or Marshallese. Note also Lakalai (la)-beka-(la) ‘its rear end (of flying fox)’.

PCMc   *pekopeko or *kopekope   cough, to cough

Pohnpeiankopokop·cough, to cough
Mokilesekopkop·cough, to cough
Marshallesepekʷpekʷ·cough, to cough
Gilbertesebekobeko·cough, to cough

— Cf. —

Rotumankohocough 

— Cf. also —

Fijianvuu·cough, to cough
Sa’ahu’u·cough, to cough
Kwaiofu’u·cough, to cough

Note that Kosraean kɔf, kɔfkɔf is an apparent loan from English. Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *fakafaka, fafaka ‘coughing, to cough’.

PCMc   *pe[ln]e-awa   a fish

Chuukesepene-yaw, -yawe-(n)kind of bass fish, fish of 
Saipan Carolinianpele-yawspecies of edible freshwater fish 
Woleaianpale-yawea kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*p[ae][ln]e-yawa·a fish
Gilbertese(te)-bane-awaa fish (Chanos chanos, formerly Mugil chanos), cultivated in fish pondsof canoe) 

— Note also —

Gilbertesebane-rikia kind of fish 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pa-ni-waa ‘a fish’ (lit. ‘side of canoe’).

PCMc   *peni   meat of coconut

Chuukese(é)-ppún, -ppúnú-(n)soft meat of drinking coconut, white of an egg, its soft meat 
Woleaianpeeli, peli-white coconut meat 
Pohnpeianpeendrinking coconut (honorific) 
Marshallesepéngrated coconut 
Gilbertese(te)-ben, beni-general term for a ripe coconut 
 benibenabounding in ripe coconuts 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanelcoconut oil for poi 
 elelcoconut milk 

— Cf. also —

Mortlockesepénúúnúegg white 

PMc   *peo   brush aside

Chuukesebe parried or warded off 
 péé-niparry (it) with the open hand 
Mortlockesepoo-neto sweep 
Puluwatesepéé-nito slap 
 péépéto sweep (as with a coconut branch) 
Saipan Carolinianppé and Crn péto bounce a ball 
Woleaianpééhit (as a ball), strike 
 péépéésweep with a broom 
 péé-li-ihit it, sweep it 
Proto-Chuukic*péé, péépéé·brush aside
Mokilesepoo-kto wipe, sweep (something) 
Marshallesepewpewsweep, brush off 
 pewe-kto sweep, brush off (something) 
Kosraeanpo-kclear, sweep (something) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *péé, péé-n[iu] ‘empty (as a container)’.

PMc   *pepe, pepepe   to skip along, flit

Chuukeseppepskip (as a stone thrown on the water), bounce on the surface (as a fish or landing seaplane) 
 peppepskip or bounce along 
 (á-tere)-pepto skip stones 
 (á-tere)-ppepacause (something) to skip (as a stone) 
 (kuru)-ppepto bounce along (as a motorboat) 
Mortlockesepep, pépto skip (as a stone on the water) 
Gilbertesebebeto stagger 
Proto-Oceanic*bebeflutter 
Proto-Polynesian*pepebutterfly 
Rotumanpepebutterfly 
Sa’apepebutterfly, moth 
Bugotupepepeto stammer 
 pepe-[riki]be startled, jump when startled 
Laubebemoth, butterfly 
Arosibebebutterfly 
Kwaiobebebutterfly, moth 
Proto-Kimbebebeflutter 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesebee-ito skim along (as a plate when thrown) 
Fijianbeebeebutterfly 
Uraustronesisch*ambayflutter, move to and fro 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian (?) *pʷepʷe ‘butterfly’.

PMc   *peti   trash, rubbish

Chuukesepii, piipi·trash, rubbish
Mortlockesepei [sic]·trash, rubbish
Puluwatesepeey, peyipey·trash, rubbish
Saipan Carolinianpeey, peipey·trash, rubbish
Woleaianbeesi, besi-·trash, rubbish
Pulo-Annanpeedi, pedi-·trash, rubbish
Proto-Chuukic*peti·trash, rubbish
Mokilesepejpandanus cud 
Marshallesepéj, piji-ndiscarded pandanus key, placenta 
 (jakʷ)-péjtrash, rubbish 
 (kʷé)-péjpéjthrow away trash 
Gilbertese(te)-betisection of the pandanus fruit from which the pulp has been removed by chewing (i.e., the discarded part) 
Kosraeanpʌstrash, garbage 

PMc   *peti, pepeti, pe(tØ)ipeti   to float

Chuukesepi, pii-pi or ppi, ppii- (< *pipii)·to float
Puluwateseppey·to float
Saipan Carolinianpeipeyflotsam 
Satawaleseppey·to float
Woleaianppesi·to float
Pulo-Annanppedi·to float
Proto-Chuukic*peti, ppeti·to float
Pohnpeianpeyfloat 
 mpeybouyant 
Mokilesepey·to float
Marshalleseppéj·to float
Gilbertesebeti,beibeti·to float
Kosraeanpʌs·to float

— Cf. —

Lakalaipati, pai-pati·to float

PMc   *peyata   ashes

Mortlockesepeyásashes (of fireplace) 
Puluwatesepeyah, peyaha-(n), peyiha-(n)ashes, ashes of 
Woleaianpeyaseashes (archaic) 
Proto-Chuukic*peyata·ashes
Pohnpeianand Ngk pεεs·ashes
Mokilesepɔɔjhearth, cooking area 
Pingilapesepææs·ashes
Marshallesepahajsmall oven or stove, chief's land for making food 
 (wi)-pahajfireplace, ashes 
Kosraean(a)-pεt·ashes

See also Marck (1994:325) Proto-Micronesian *peata.

PMc   *pia   vagina

Pohnpeianpiεher vagina 
 piipivagina 
Mokilesepi, piɔ, pie-(n)vagina, her vagina, vagina of 
Marshallesepiypiyvagina 
Gilbertese(te)-biaspawn, tumor, wen, gland, knob, excrescence, fish ovaries 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*biRa·vagina
Samoan*piaarrowroot starch, smegma 
Sa’apilefish roe 
Arosibiraroe, egg yolk, dregs, starch, sediment 
Kwaiobila-[na]roe 

— Cf. —

Fijianbebevagina 

PMc   *pia, pipia, piapia   sand, beach

Chuukeseppi, ppiye-nsand, sand of 
 piyepilow lying sandy islet 
Mortlockesepiya-(n)·sand, beach
Puluwateseppi, ppiyá-n·sand, beach
Saipan Carolinianppi·sand, beach
Satawalesepii, piya-(n)·sand, beach
Woleaianppiye·sand, beach
Pulo-Annanpiia·sand, beach
Proto-Chuukic*pi[ae], ppi[ae]·sand, beach
Marshalleseppéy, piyépéysandbank 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bia, biabia (Fij biabiasediment 
Arosi[hau]-biawhite limestone rock, a cliff of crumbly white limestone 
Kwaio[fou]-biaa growing deposit of limestone in running water 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*piaarrowroot, starch 
Proto-Polynesian*piapiagum, sap, discharge (as from eyes), exudation 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pike ‘sand islet’. Cf. Marck’s (1994:316) *pika.

PWMc   *pici   loosened, released

Chuukesepichuntied, unfettered, released, pardoned 
 (ni)-pichunmarried person 
PuluwatesepiRi-(ló)be released (as from jail) 
Saipan Carolinianppishi-(ló)become unfastened (as a shirt) 
Woleaianppishislip out, be disconnected, be strained 
Proto-Chuukic*pici·loosened, released
Pohnpeianpit-to escape 
Mokilesepis-(la)get free (from work or confinement) 
Marshallesepid-(téwtéw), ppid-(téwtéw)loose (of clothing or rope), flabby (of skin), shabby, baggy, sag 

— Cf. —

Proto-Nakanai*pidito throw (something) away 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pici, pici-ki ‘snap, vibrate’.

PMc   *pici, pici-ki   snap, vibrate

Chuukesepichipichpulse, pulsate, vibrate, vibration 
 ppichbe snapped, bounced, vibrated, be a stabbing pain, a snap, bounce, vibration 
 (nike, nika, niko)-ppichbow and arrow, rubber sling and dart 
PuluwateseppiR, ppiRi-(ló)to snap (as fish spear or rat trap 
Saipan Carolinianppish, ppishi-(ló)to snap or break (like a string or rubber band), snap off (as button from a shirt), to snap or pop out of joint, to hurt (of a broken bone), throb (as pain) 
Woleaianppishislip out, be disconnected, strained 
Proto-Chuukic*pici, ppici·snap, vibrate
Pohnpeianpitto spring back 
 pitipitfast in the ability to perform actions 
Mokilesepisi-kto flick (a finger), to strum (a guitar) 
Gilbertesebirito run 
Kosraeanpisrto splinter, rupture, burst, a slingshot or bow and arrow 
 pisri-kshoot (something) with a slingshot 
 pisrto hiccup, have hiccups 
Proto-Oceanic*bidik·snap, vibrate
Bugotupidispring, rebound 
Proto-Nakanai*pidithrow, throw away 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*pi(n)Tikthrob, beat  (Blust 1980:128)

— Cf. —

Marshallesepirslip down out of position 
Kosraeanpira sequence of quick movements, to beat, jerk, twitch, squirm 

See also Proto-Micronesian *fici, fici-ki ‘snip, cut, snap, flick’, Proto–Western Micronesian *pici ‘loosened, released’.

PMc   *pike   sand islet

Chuukese#piis, pisi-nsand islet, sand islet of 
 pise-(meew), pisa-(n), pise-(ech), pisi-(niyap)names of islets and reefs in Chuuk 
Puluwatesepiikname of Pikelot Island 
Satawalesepiikname of small sandy islands 
Woleaianpiigeislet 
 pige-(eléé)name of an islet in Woleai 
Proto-Chuukic*pike·sand islet
Pohnpeianpiiksand 
 pikapiksandy 
Mokilesepik, pike-(n)sand 
Marshallesepike-n, piki-(n)flat land of, islet of (in many place names) 
Gilbertese(te)-bikewhite sand, sandy islet without vegetation 
Kosraeanpʌksand 
 pʌkpʌksandy 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pia, pipia, piapia ‘sand, beach’. Cf. Marck’s (1994:316) Proto-Micronesian *pika.

PMc   *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri-   clap the hands, slap (something)

Chuukesepisipisclap the hands 
 pisi-rislap (it) 
 ppisbe slapped with the hands 
Puluwatesepiki-ri-ytouch (it) hard with the hand 
Saipan Carolinianpighipighclap with the hands 
 pighi-rislap (it) with the hands 
Woleaianpigipigito slap, strike, hit, slam 
 pigi-ri-islap it, strike it, hit it, slam it 
Pulo-Annanpikipikiball 
 pilikislap it, beat it (showing metathesis) 
Proto-Chuukic*pikipiki, piki-ri-·clap the hands, slap (something)
Pohnpeianpikipik, piki-rto pat, slap affectionately 
Mokilesepikpikto pat, to drum 
 piki-rpat or drum (something) 
Marshallesepiki-rto brush off 
 pikpiki-rto shake out (as a mat) 
Kosraeanpikslap 
 piki-lbrush (it) off, dust (it) off 

— Cf. —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*pikpiksound of patting or tapping  (Blust 1983–84:95)

PWMc   (?)   *piko, piko-si   dissarrange

Mokilesepukpukto mess up, disarrange 
 puko-dto mess (something) up 
Marshallesepékʷentangle, confuse, disorder, trouble, bedlam, messed up, baffled, jumbled, snarled 
 pékʷ-takbe stirred up, messed up, to stir, disturb 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianpiŋconfused, disordered, messy, piŋipiŋ confusion, disorder, mess 
 piŋipiŋconfusion, disorder, mess 
Gilbertesebeotangled, snarled 
Kosraeankupotangled with 
 fɔsmessy, confused, jumbled, crowded, mixed up, entangled 

PMc   *pili   water

Pohnpeianpiilwater, liquid 
 pil-(lap)river 
 pili-(tik)stream 
Mokilesepil, pilɔ, pile-(n)fresh water, his fresh water, fresh water of 
 pil-(lap)river 
Pingilapesepilwater 
Marshallesepildrop of liquid, dribble, trickle 
Kosraeanpulsplashing sound, dive with a splashing sound 

The vowel of the Kosraean form seems to pose a problem. See also Marck (1994:318) Proto-Micronesian *pili.

PMc   *pina, pina-ti-   be stopped up, stop (something) up

Chuukesepine-(nó)be stopped up, plugged up 
 pine-e-(y)plug (it) up (of a hole) 
 pinepinbe stopped up, corked, blocked 
Mortlockesepinapénstopper, stopped up 
 piná-á-(y)stop it up 
Puluwatesepiná-á-(y)prevent it, stop it 
 pinápinbottle cap, stopper (of hole in canoe) 
Saipan Carolinianpilapilstopper  (Bender et al. 1984)
 pile-e-(y)to close, cover up, put a lid on, turn off (of faucet) 
Satawalesepinápinstopper, stopped up 
 pine-e-(y)stop it up 
 pile-sagh, pile-sághbecome blocked or clogged 
Woleaianpilepilestopper, bung, cork, plug, be closed, corked, plugged 
 pile-si-(i)close it, shut it off 
 pile-ta-(a)patch it (a hole), plug it 
 pile-tagibe closed, shut 
Ulithianpilpilstopper 
Proto-Chuukic*pinapina, pina-ti-·be stopped up, stop (something) up
Pohnpeianpinapinto be patched, blocked, sealed 
 pinato patch, block, seal (it) 
Mokilesepin, pinecover or stopper, its cover or stopped 
Marshallesepiné-jhide, obstruct, cover, conceal, block 
Kosraeanpʌnto patch, mend 
 pini-sto patch or mend (something) 

— Cf. —

Woleaianpúnnúbe plugged up, constipated, stopped up 

PMc   *pini, pinipini   twisted, tangled

Chuukeseppin, pippinsnarled, tangled 
 pin-nitwist it (of a limb or muscle) 
Mortlockesepinipinbraided, woven 
 pine-e-(y)braid it 
Puluwateseppin·twisted, tangled
Saipan Carolinianppilbe tangled 
 pilito string (a garland or lei) 
Satawaleseppinbraided, tied, twisted (of hair or leis) 
Woleaianppilimake leis by tying flowers together 
 pilipilitie, twist, fold 
 pili-(i)twist it, fold it 
Pulo-Annanpini, pinipinito twist, rotate, turn 
Proto-Chuukic*pini, ppini, pinipini·twisted, tangled
Pohnpeianpinipinclosely twisted or curled 
Kosraeanpinto bind, tie (something) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *ffi, fiffi ‘tangled’.

PMc   *piŋipiŋi   a tree

Mokilesepiŋpiŋtree species 
Marshallesepiŋpiŋa tree (Hernandia nymphaeifolia
Gilbertese(te)-biŋibiŋThespasia tree 
Kosraeanpiŋpiŋkind of tree 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*biRibiRiHernandia tree  (Geraghty 1990)

PCMc   *piŋu, pʷuŋu   come into view, begin to take shape

Chuukesepúŋbegin to take form (as breadfruit) 
Marshallesebʷiŋʷappear or come into existence 
Gilbertesebʷuŋappear or come into existence, be born 

PMc   (?)   *piri   growth or lump under the skin, spongy core of mature coconut

Chuukesepiir, piri-(n)hard growth or lump under the skin, his growth 
 piri-(n taka)spore of the ripe coconut when beginning to form 
Puluwatesepir, piro [sic]growth or lump under the skin, coconut sponge beginning to form, to form a lump 
Mokilesepir, piri-(n)lymph nodes, lump nodes of 
Marshallesepérsmall, sprouted coconut, tumor, swelling, wen 
Kosraeanpilimumps, have mumps 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*biri·growth or lump under the skin, spongy core of mature coconut
Kwaiobiliskin eruption all over the body 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-biatumor, wen 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*puRaelephantiasis  (Geraghty 1990)

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