st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*pʷ   

pʷa    pʷe    pʷi    pʷo    pʷu    

PCMc   *pʷ[ae]   because

Chuukesepʷe, pʷé, wo, wé·because
Puluwatesepʷe·because
Saipan Carolinianbʷe·because
Satawalesepʷe·because
Woleaianbe·because
Pulo-Annanpʷa·because
Proto-Chuukic*pʷ[ae]·because
Pohnpeianpʷε·because
Marshallesebʷey·because
Gilbertesebʷa·because

— Cf. —

Kosraeanke·because

— Cf. also —

Fijianmai·because

Jackson (1986:229 fn. 4) gives Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷa. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷ[ae] ‘future aspect marker’.

PMc   *pʷ[ae]   future aspect marker

Chuukese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Mortlockese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Puluwatese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Saipan Carolinian-bʷe·future aspect marker
Satawalese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Woleaian-be·future aspect marker
Pulo-Annan-pʷe·future aspect marker
Proto-Chuukic*-pʷe·future aspect marker
Kosraean·future aspect marker

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ba·future aspect marker (Ross 1988)

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷ[ae] ‘because’. Jackson (1986:229 fn. 4) gives Proto-Micronesian *pʷa.

PMc   *pʷaa   to say

Pohnpeianpʷa·to say
Mokilesepʷasay 
 pʷee-ŋsay to, tell (someone) 
Marshallesebʷah·to say
Kosraeanfæ-ksay, tell, announce 
 fwæ-kbe said 

— Cf. —

Fijiankaya, kʷaya·to say (Geraghty 1983)

PCMc   *pʷaca₁   loose

Chuukesepʷpʷach, pʷachapʷachloose, slack,wrinkled 
PuluwatesepʷaaR·loose
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷashbe old and wrinkled 
Woleaian(?) bʷashebe crooked (of bow legs) 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaca·loose
Marshallese(bʷ)bʷadey(dey)rough (of skin) 
Gilbertesebʷaraloose, untied 

PCMc   *pʷaca₂   kind of round basket

Saipan Carolinianbʷaash·kind of round basket
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷaaR·kind of round basket
Woleaianbaashe, bashe-·kind of round basket
Pulo-Annanpʷaasa, pʷasa-·kind of round basket
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaca·kind of round basket
Gilbertese(te)-bʷaraa cap-like basket made of coconut leaf (but cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷasau basket) 

PCMc   *pʷai   object of value

Pohnpeianpʷεypʷεybe bought, be paid, cost money 
 pʷay-nto buy, pay, hire (something) 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷaithing, object 
 bʷai-nato make use of, posssess (something) 
 bʷaibʷaito have property 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷaRi·object of value
Bugotubalithing by which, thing for the purpose of 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *mau, mau-ni ‘be traded, acquire in trade’.

PMc   *pʷai, pʷai-ti   pull up, take up

Chuukesepʷeepʷe, pʷee-(wu), pʷee-yipull up from the sea, pull up fishtraps, pull it up 
Puluwatesepʷee-(wu), pʷee-y·pull up, take up
Woleaianbeebee, bee-ye-(tage)take up, take it up 
 bee-tagibe taken up 
Pulo-Annanpʷepʷe, pʷe-(yow), pʷe-ŋi [sic]take up from under ground, fish trap, take it up 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeepʷee, pʷee-, pʷee-ti·pull up, take up
Kosraeanfai, fai-spull or draw out 

— Cf. —

Fijianyavi·pull up, take up

PWMc   *pʷaipʷai   silly, stupid

Satawalesepʷayipʷaybe silly, disrespectful 
Pohnpeianpʷeypʷeystupid, silly, idiotic, simple, dumb 
Mokilesepʷeypʷeystupid 
Marshallesebʷéybʷéycrazy, silly, foolish 

— Cf. —

Arosipʷai-, pʷei-prefix of derogation 

— Cf. also —

Gilbertesebabafoolish 

This cannot be cognate with Proto–Eastern Oceanic *buRa ‘foolish’ (Geraghty 1990).

PWMc   *pʷaku   open (as bud or blossom)

Puluwatesepʷakopen a bit (as a bud) 
Pohnpeianmpʷεkflower bud 
Marshallese(hal)-bʷékʷflower bud 
 (te)-bak, (kab)-békmale flower of breadfruit 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pʷakú, pwpʷakú ‘be awake at night’.

PMc   *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki   to split something open

Mortlockesepʷele-ŋeto force (something) open, to rape (someone) 
Pohnpeianpʷalbe slit, cut open, operated on, divided 
 pʷala-ŋto slit (something), cut (something open), etc. 
Mokilesepʷalbroken, split, operated on 
 pʷala-ŋto break or split (something) 
Pingilapesepʷεla-ŋekto split a coconut 
Marshallesebʷel-(kek), bʷél-(kék)cracks in skin of soles of feet 
 bʷel-ŋakbe split open, spread legs wide open 
Gilbertesebʷena-adivide (something) in two parts, split (something) 
Kosraeanfalfalto split, saw lengthwise 
 fʌlʌchasm, cleft, crevasse, canyon 
 fʌlʌ-ŋto split (something) 

PCMc   *pʷalili   encircling or covering a whole

Chuukese#pʷeen, pʷenni-, -pʷáánenvirons, go in a circuit around something 
 pʷenni-i-(y)go all the way around it 
Puluwatesepʷalli-i-(y)go around it, surround it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷálto walk around 
 bʷáli-i-(y), bʷeli-i-(y)to surround (something or someone), to go all the way around (something) 
Woleaianbaanni, banniinspect, go around 
Pulo-Annanpʷaanniinspect, go around inspecting 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalli·encircling or covering a whole
Marshallesebʷalli-(n)covering of, clothing of 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷaninthe whole, entire thing 
 bʷaninbe whole or entire 

PMc   *pʷalu   cover, lid

Chuukese(é)-pʷpʷén, -pʷpʷénú-(n)cover or lid, cover of 
 pʷénú-ú-wcover it 
 pʷénúpʷéncover, lid, cover with a lid 
 (é)-pʷpʷénúmake it covered 
Mortlockesepʷalúto cover (something) 
Puluwatese(ya)-pʷpʷal, -pʷpʷale-(n)cover, lid, cover of 
Saipan Carolinianbʷalabʷalcover, lid 
 bʷalú-wto cover (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷalúto cover (something) 
Woleaianbalúbelúcovering, to cover 
 balú-ú-(we)cover it 
Pulo-Annanpʷonúpʷonúa cover, to cover 
 pʷonú [sic]cover it 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalú·cover, lid
Pohnpeian(ko)-mpʷal, (ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves 
 (koduu)-pʷalto cover up 
 (koduu)-pʷεlbe covered up 
Mokilese(ko)-mpʷalcover an earth oven with leaves 
Pingilapese(ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves 
Marshallesebʷalcovered over 
 (kʷe)-bʷalcover an earth oven with leaves 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷalu·cover, lid
Arosipʷaru, bʷaru, pʷaru-si, bʷaru-sito shut, cork, put the lid on 
 pʷanu, pʷanu-sito cork, shut, close an opening 
 bʷarulid 

— Cf. —

Gilbertesebʷono-tato cover, shut, close 
Arosipʷono, pʷono-sito stop up, block, choke, cork 

Kosraean kafa, kafa-i ‘cover, put a lid on’ are evident loans from English.

PCMc   *pʷalu   taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp

Chuukesepʷéén, pʷénútaro swamp 
Woleaianbéélú, belú-taro swamp 
Pulo-Annanpʷaanú-soil 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalú·taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp
Pohnpeianpʷeel, pʷeli-taro swamp 
Mokilesepʷeltaro swamp 
Marshallesebʷéltaro patch 
Gilbertesebʷon-(ro)dark, rich soil, suitable for the cultivation of bwabai (ro dark, bwabai plant … resembling taro) 

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *pʷalu ‘taro swamp’ (Jackson 1986:229 fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316). Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu ‘dirt, soil’.

PCMc   *pʷaŋa   hole

Chuukesepʷaaŋ, pʷaŋa-(n), -pʷaŋhole or cavity, its hole, her vagina, hole (in counting) 
 -pʷpʷaŋemptily 
Puluwatese-pʷaŋhole (in counting) 
Woleaianbbaŋecrevice, have holes 
Pulo-Annanpʷaaŋa, pʷaŋa-vagina 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaŋa, pʷpʷaŋa·hole
Gilbertese(te)-bʷaŋafish trap 
 bʷaŋahide in a hole 

— Cf. —

Fijianmagavagina 

See also Marck (1994:319) Proto–Central Micronesian *p’aŋa.

PCMc   *pʷapʷu   toothless shark

Mortlockesepʷóópʷ·toothless shark
Puluwatesepʷóópʷ, pʷópʷu-(n)kind of shark, shark of  (Bender et al. 1984)
Satawalesepʷóópʷspecies of shark 
Woleaianpaabua kind of shark 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷapʷu·toothless shark
Mokilesepʷɔɔpʷa white shark 
Marshallesebʷabʷ·toothless shark
Gilbertese(te)-bʷabʷua shark with flat snout  (Bender et al. 1984)

PCMc   *pʷara   rocky ledge

Pohnpeianpʷarapʷarridge cap 
Marshallesebʷarrock 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷaacontinuous hard coral rock or ledge 

— Cf. —

Woleaianporoubeach rock 
Kwaiowaloreef 

PCMc   *pʷaro   curved, bent

Chuukesepʷór, pʷpʷórcurved, bent 
 pʷóre-e-(y)bend it, curve it 
 (ó)-pʷóramake it curved 
 (eyii)-pʷóró-pʷórbe curved, make a curving course 
Puluwatesepʷpʷór·curved, bent
Saipan Carolinianbʷór, bʷar·curved, bent
Woleaianbaro, bbaro·curved, bent
Pulo-Annanpʷalo·curved, bent
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaro·curved, bent
Gilbertesebʷaocrooked 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanfor, furo-ktwist, spin 

PMc   *pʷaro   box, hole

Chuukesepʷóór, pʷóru-(n)·box, hole
Puluwatesepʷóór, pʷóro-(n)·box, hole
Saipan Carolinianbʷóór, bʷóro-(l)·box, hole
Woleaianbaaro, baro-·box, hole
Pulo-Annanpʷaalo, pʷalo-·box, hole
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaro·box, hole
Pohnpeianpʷɔɔrhole, cave 
Mokilesepʷɔrhole 
 pʷɔrpʷɔrfull of holes 
Kosraeanfærcavity, hole, pit 
 færfærfull of cavities 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-baroprovision box, overflow hole, hollow where water stays 

See also Marck (1994:319) Proto-Micronesian *p’aro.

PWMc   *pʷasa   late

Pohnpeianpʷandlate, slow 
Marshallesebʷbʷatlate, too late for something 

Kosraean pæt ‘late, delayed’, instead of expected *fæt, is presumably a loan from Marshallese.

PMc   *pʷasau   basket

Chuukesepʷótow, pʷótowu-·basket
Mortlockesepʷotaw·basket
Puluwatesepótóówo [sic]·basket
Saipan Carolinianbʷutów·basket
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷutow·basket
Satawalesepʷotaaw [sic]·basket
Woleaianbetau·basket
Pulo-Annanpʷatao [sic]·basket
Proto-Chuukic*pʷadau·basket
Marshallesebʷejawbasket of fine weave 
 pocket, pouch’·basket
Gilbertesebʷarai-(too)a small hat (but cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷaca₂ kind of round basket) 
Kosraeanfɔtɔ·basket

— Cf. —

Fijiankatobasket, box 

Note Marshallese j instead of expected t, which suggests that it is a loan, but from what source is not clear.

PCMc   *pʷata   dried out, withered

Chuukesepʷas, pʷpʷasdry, dried out, light in weight 
Puluwatesepʷahdry, withered 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷas. pʷpʷasa-(ló)be dried up 
Woleaianbbase, bbatebe dry, dead, thin skinny 
 pʷatepʷatebe thirsty 
Pulo-Annanpʷpʷatabe dry 
 pʷatapʷatabe completely dry, withered 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷata, pʷpʷata·dried out, withered
Gilbertesebʷatablack, dark colored, sunburnt 

PMc   *pʷau   to pound food

Chuukesepʷpʷo, pʷpʷoo-breadfruit pounder 
 pʷpʷoo-nipound it (breadfruit) 
Mortlockesepʷpʷopound 
Puluwatesepʷopound (breadfruit) 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷopestle for pounding, to pound with a pestle 
 pʷpʷoo-lito pound (food) with a mortar and pestle 
Woleaianbbooto pound (breadfruit), pounding stone 
 bboo-li-(i)pound it 
Pulo-Annanppao [sic]·to pound food
Proto-Chuukic*pʷpʷoo, pʷpʷau·to pound food
Pohnpeianpʷaywooden implement for splitting breadfruit 
Kosraeanfæfækind of poi (mashed food) 

PCMc   *pʷaua   a snapper fish

Chuukesepóów, pówu-(n)species of snapper, snapper of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tpʷpʷówspecies of snapper 
Pohnpeianpʷeewsnapper (Lutjanus semicinctus
Gilbertese(te)-bʷauaa fish 

PMc   *pʷauSu   nose

Chuukesepʷéét, pʷéétú-·nose
Mortlockesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Puluwatesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Saipan Carolinianbʷoot, bʷootú-·nose
Satawalesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Woleaianbooti·nose
Pulo-Annanpʷaútú·nose
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaútú·nose
Mokilese(sɔ)-pʷɔɔd, -pʷɔɔdi-·nose
Marshallesebʷawat(iy)·nose
Gilbertesebʷairi·nose
Kosraeanfwε·nose
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷaRu[sz]u·nose (Geraghty 1983)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷaRucu·nose (Geraghty 1990)
Sa’aqálusu·nose

— Note —

Yapesep’eeth-(ŋuun)his nose 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*isunose 
Proto-Polynesian*isu·nose
Fijianucu·nose
Bugotuihu·nose
Arosiisuisunose ornament 
ak[ma]-isu·nose
Proto-Kimbe*isu·nose
Uraustronesisch*ijuñ·nose

PMc   *pʷawu   fishing pole

Chuukesepʷoow, pʷowu-, pʷóów, pʷówu-fishing pole 
 pʷowto fish with a pole 
Mortlockesepʷóów, pʷówo-·fishing pole
Puluwatesepʷówo [sic]·fishing pole
Saipan Carolinianpʷóów, pʷów·fishing pole
Satawalesepʷaaw·fishing pole
Woleaianbaau, bau-·fishing pole
Pulo-Annanpʷaau, pʷau-·fishing pole
Proto-Chuukic*pʷau·fishing pole
Pohnpeianpʷow·fishing pole
Mokilesepʷo·fishing pole
Marshallesebʷay·fishing pole
Kosraeanfo·fishing pole

— Cf. —

Yapesebaawfishing pole 
Kosraeanpʷe (ŋ-i)fish for with a pole (at night) 

PMc   *pʷax[ae]   come to view, reveal

Chuukesepʷá, pʷáá-come to view 
 pʷáá-rishow 
 (á)-pʷápick or gather breadfruit 
Mortlockesepʷáá-reannounce 
Puluwatesepʷá, pʷáá-appear 
 pʷáá-ri-(y)show 
Saipan Carolinianbʷábe or become visible, to appear 
 pʷpʷáappear suddenly 
Woleaianbaa, bbaaemerge to view, come from behind 
 (ga)-baadig it up 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷae, pʷae-ri-·come to view, reveal
Pohnpeianpʷarappear 
Mokilesepʷaremerge, come to view 
Pingilapesepʷarto appear, rise (of sun) 
Kosraeanfæksay, tell, announce 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷaka, pʷaŋka·come to view, reveal
Sa’aqa’ato rise [of heavenly bodies] 
 qa’a-[qito]to sprout, spring up [of plants] 
Arosipʷaato rise 

See also Proto-Chuukic *pʷaya ‘swarm of fish’, Proto-Micronesian *pʷere ‘to sprout, blossom’. Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷera ‘go or come through’.

PMc   *pʷece, pʷecepʷece   white, powdered lime

Chuukesepʷech, pʷechepʷechbe white, be a light color 
 pʷeech, pʷecha-, pʷeche-powdered lime 
Mortlockesepʷeshepʷesh, pʷeesh·white, powdered lime
PuluwatesepʷeR, pʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·white, powdered lime
Saipan Carolinianbʷesh, bʷeshebʷeshwhite, have lime on it 
 bʷeeshcoral lime 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷeR·white, powdered lime
SatawalesepʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·white, powdered lime
Woleaianbeshe, bbeshe, beshebeshe, beeshe, beshe-·white, powdered lime
Pulo-Annanpʷesepʷese, pʷeese, pʷese-·white, powdered lime
Proto-Chuukic*pʷece, pʷecepʷece·white, powdered lime
Pohnpeianpʷεtεpʷεt, pʷεεt·white, powdered lime
Mokilesepʷɔslimestone 
Kosraeanfasrfasr, fasr·white, powdered lime

— Cf. —

Yapeseweachlime, white 
PWMP*budeqwhite  (Blust 1980:56)

— Cf. —

Bugotupura·white, powdered lime

Cf. Jackson (1986: 229: fn. 4) Proto-Micronesian *pʷace ‘coral lime’. See also Marck’s (1994:317) Proto-Micronesian *p’[ae]t’e.

PMc   *pʷeci   hot

Chuukesepʷich, pʷichi-kkar, e-pʷichihot, burning hot, heat it 
PuluwatesepʷeR, pʷeRi-kkar, ya-pʷeri-(y)·hot
Saipan Carolinianbʷeshi-kkar, a-bʷeshi·hot
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷeRi-kkar, a-bʷeRi·hot
SatawalesepʷeRi-kkar·hot
Woleaianbeshi, beshi-kkare, ga-beshi-i·hot
Pulo-Annanpʷesi, pʷesi-kkala·hot
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeci, pʷeci-kkara, ka-pʷeci-i-·hot
Mokilesepʷespʷes·hot
Kosraeanfʌsrfʌsr, fisrʌ-k, fisrʌ-k·hot

PWMc   *pʷee   knot divination

Chuukesepʷeedivination by numbers (with knots in four coconut leaves, counting each by fours and using remainder numbers in their permutations) 
 pʷee-(y)divine for 
Puluwatesepʷe [sic], pʷee-(ni)·knot divination
Saipan Carolinianbʷee, bʷee-(li), bʷee-(y)·knot divination
Woleaianbee·knot divination
Proto-Chuukic*pʷee·knot divination
Marshallesebʷeyleft over, result of divination 
 bʷéyknot in divination 

PMc   *pʷeka   kind of bat

Chuukese(ninnu)-pʷesmall species of fruitbat 
Pohnpeianpʷεεk·kind of bat
Mokilesepʷeek·kind of bat
Kosraeanfak·kind of bat
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷekafruitbat  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianbeka, bekʷabat  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*pekabat 

PMc   (?)   *pʷeki   carry, take

Mortlockesepʷeketo lift, carry (something) 
Puluwatesepʷekto carry (on the shoulders or in the hand) 
 pʷeki-(y)to carry (something) 
Saipan Carolinianbʷeibʷogh, bʷoobʷoghto bring, take, carry 
 bʷughi, bʷoghito carry, get, take, bring, transport (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷogobʷogto bring, take, carry 
Satawalesepʷikito bring (something) 
Woleaianbegito take 
 begi-(i)to take (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeki·carry, take
Pohnpeianpʷεkto lift, adopt (something) 
Mokilesepʷɔkpʷɔkto lift 
 pʷɔkto lift (something) 
Marshallesebʷbʷekto take, carry 
 bekto take, carry, receive, get, capture (something) 
Kosraeanfʌkto steal (something), commit adultery with (someone) 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanpʷe, pʷeŋito take (something) up from underground 

— Cf. also —

Sa’aqá’ito lever, prize 

PCMc   *pʷelu   break

Satawalesepʷel, pʷelúpʷelto break 
Woleaianbelibelsnap off, break off 
 beli-ŋi-(i)snap it off, break it off 
 beli-ŋegibe snapped off, broken off 
Mokileseki-pʷele-kbend something with a movement of the wrist, twist something off, break something with a snap 
 ki-pʷelbend (something) with a movement of the wrist, twist (something) off, break (something) with a snap 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷelubend  (Geraghty 1983:123)

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷilakʷbreak, crease, fracture (something) 
Gilbertesebʷenabʷenato split 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷúllú, pʷpʷúlúbreak 

— See also —

Kosraeanfokbreak, smash (of brittle objects) 
 fokfokbroken, smashed 
 fuku-lbreak or smash (something) 

PCMc   *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu   dirt, soil

Chuukesepʷpʷún, pʷpʷúnú-soil 
Puluwatesepʷpʷél, pʷpʷéli-soil 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷel, pʷpʷelú-, pʷpʷél, pʷpʷélú-dirt, soil, be dirty, soiled 
Woleaianbbelúsoil 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷelú, pʷpʷelú·dirt, soil
Pohnpeianpʷeli-pʷeldirty 
Marshallesebʷil-(téwénwén)filthy, dirty (ttéwén dirty, corrupt, nasty, obscene, vulgar, gross) 
Gilbertesete-bʷon, bʷoni-black soil, loam which has been sifted 

— Cf. —

Woleaianboole, bola-(li)center (of an island), center of 
Kosraeanfolfolblue, indigo, dark blue 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[bp]welamud  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*peladirty, decayed 
Arosibʷeraa swamp 
 bʷerabʷerabe in flood 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷelu ‘dirt, soil, dirty’ (Jackson 1986:229, fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316). Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷalu ‘taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷenu   cause, beginning, basis

Chuukesepʷún, pʷúnú-(tá)be begun, originated 
 pʷúnú-(n)cause of, reason for, because 
 pʷúnú-ú-(w)begin it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷelbegin 
 bʷelú-(w)to start (something) 
 bʷele-(táá-)beginning (of something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷene-(táá-)beginning (of something) 
Woleaianbéélú, belú-cause, reason 
 belú-ú-(we)originate it, begin it 
 bon-nebecause 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷenú·cause, beginning, basis
Kosraeanfono-, fɔnɔ-buttocks, hip, (? bottom) 

— Cf. —

Marshallesewin, wini-(n)base, basis, root, cause, reason 
Fijianvuu-(na)·cause, beginning, basis
Proto-Kimbe*vuhu, vuutrunk, basis, reason, cause 
Uraustronesisch*puqun·cause, beginning, basis

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku ‘base, tail’.

PCMc   (?)   *pʷepʷe   butterfly

Marshallesebʷabʷbʷibʷ·butterfly
Gilbertese(te)-bʷebʷe·butterfly

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*bebe·butterfly
Samoanpepebutterfly 
Fijianbeebeebutterfly 
Sa’apepebutterfly, moth 
Laubebebutterfly, moth 
Kwaiobebebutterfly, moth 
Proto-Kimbe*bebeflutter 

The Gilbertese form may be a loan from Samoan, and the Marshallese a loan from Gilbertese. If so, this would be the same root as in Proto-Micronesian *pepe, pepepe ‘to skip along, flit’.

PMc   *pʷera   go or come through, pass

Chuukesepʷer, pʷere-come, go 
Saipan Carolinianbʷár, bʷerto go all the way through, pierce something through 
Woleaianbbereget something through a hole 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷer[ae]·go or come through, pass
Pohnpeianpʷarappear, pass in a race 
Mokilesepʷarto be through, penetrated, emerge or come to view 
Marshallesebʷeyrah-(dik)begin going 
Kosraeanfærpass, go, come (a loan?) 

— Cf. —

Kosraeanfæsrpass, go, come 
Gilbertesebaakigone ashore (as a boat on the beach) 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷawu ‘fishing pole’, Proto-Micronesian *pʷax[ae] ‘come to view’.

PMc   *pʷere   to sprout, blossom

Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷár, pʷpʷerto emerge, sprout 
Pohnpeianpʷεrappear, blossom (of fruit and flowers) 
Gilbertesebʷebʷe [sic]sprouting, budding 
Kosraeanfiliarrive 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷel, bʷbʷelbloom 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷawu ‘fishing pole’, Proto-Chuukic *pʷuku or *pwúkú ‘sprout’ (of a seed)’.

PMc   *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe   twins

Chuukese(ni)-pʷpʷe, (ni)-pʷpʷee-twin (of siblings) 
Mortlockese(li)-pʷpʷe·twins
Saipan Carolinian(li)-pʷpʷeytwins of the same sex 
 (li)-pʷpʷeya-(alú)twins of opposite sex 
Saipan Carolinian·T(li)-pʷ-pʷeya-(anú)twins of opposite sex 
Woleaian(li)-bbeye·twins
Proto-Chuukic*(li)-pʷpʷeye·twins
Pohnpeianmpʷεr·twins
Mokileseumʷpʷɔr·twins
Marshallesebʷew·twins (eastern dialect) 
Gilbertesebʷebʷee·twins
Kosraeanfak·twins

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annan(ni)-pʷutwins 

Cf. also the reconstruction *pʷexa by Jackson (1983:384;1986:229 fn. 4).

PMc   *pʷili   to slip off, put aside

Chuukesepʷin, pʷinipʷin, pʷini-tislipped on or off (of clothing), thing taken off and given to someone one meets on a path, slip it on or off 
Puluwatesepʷil·to slip off, put aside
Saipan Carolinianbʷili-ti, bʷúli-tú, bʷúli-ti·to slip off, put aside
Woleaianbilibili, bili-ti·to slip off, put aside
Proto-Chuukic*pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-di·to slip off, put aside
Pohnpeianpʷilto put down or put aside (as ones beliefs) 
Kosraeanfil, filiplace or put aside or away 

PMc   *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta   sap, gum, resin, gummy

Mortlockesepʷele-ssap 
 (a)-pʷili-saget sap 
Puluwatesepʷilbring down toddy from a tree 
Woleaianbili-segum, sap, glue, be glued 
 bili-sa-(a)glue it 
Pulo-Annanpʷuunú, pʷunú-gum, sap, glue 
 pʷunúpʷunúbe sticky 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷili, pʷili-ta·sap, gum, resin, gummy
Pohnpeianpʷiil, pʷili-gum 
Mokilesepʷil, pʷili-gum, sap 
Marshallesebʷilsap 
 bʷilbʷilgummy, resin 
Kosraeanfulbreadfruit sap, gum 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*bulut·sap, gum, resin, gummy
Fijianbulubulu-tibe sticky 
Proto-Polynesian*pulugum, resin 
Sa’apulupitch, resin 
Arosiburugum of buru (Parinarium) tree used to caulk canoes, to stick 
Lakalaibulujuice, sap 
Uraustronesisch*pulutglue, paste 

PMc   *pʷ[iu]Sowa   sweat

Pohnpeianpʷudo, pʷudaw, pʷudowεsweat, perspiration, his sweat 
 pʷudowadosweaty 
Mokilesepʷudoto sweat 
 pʷudoo-nhis sweat, sweat of 
 pʷudoo-dito have sweated 
Kosraeanfiyɔsweat, perspiration, to perspire 

PWMc   *pʷiti   group

Chuukesepʷii-, pʷiipʷigroup, sibling of same sex, be siblings of same sex 
Mortlockesepʷii, pʷiipʷi·group
Puluwatesepʷi-, pʷiipʷiy [sic]·group
Saipan Carolinianbʷii, bʷiibʷi·group
Satawalesepʷii, pʷiipʷi·group
Woleaianbisi-, bisibisi·group
Pulo-Annanpʷiidi, pʷidi-, pʷidisibling of same sex, befriend 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷiiti, pʷpʷiti-, pʷitipʷiti·group
Pohnpeianpʷii-(n)group, team 
Marshallesebʷiji-(n)flock or crowd of 

— Cf. —

Gilbertese-bʷiiunit of ten in counting 

PMc   *pʷoca   turtle shell

Chuukesepʷooch, pʷocha-(n)armor plating of a turtles shell or crocodiles back, its armor plating 
Mortlockesepʷoosh, pʷosha-(n)·turtle shell
PuluwatesepʷooR, pʷoRe-(y)·turtle shell
Saipan Carolinianbʷoosh·turtle shell
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷooR·turtle shell
SatawalesepʷooR·turtle shell
Woleaianbooshe, bosha-(li)·turtle shell
Pulo-Annanpʷoosa, pʷosa-·turtle shell
Proto-Chuukic*pʷoca·turtle shell
Pohnpeianpʷεεt·turtle shell
Marshallesebʷed·turtle shell
Gilbertese(te)-bʷora·turtle shell
Kosraeanfisrε-piece of turtle shell 

PMc   (?)   *pʷoi, pʷoa   odor, smell

Chuukesepʷoo-·odor, smell
MortlockesepʷéW, pʷéwú-(n), pʷowu-(n)·odor, smell
Puluwatesepʷo, pʷowú-(n)·odor, smell
Saipan Carolinianbʷoo-·odor, smell
Satawalesepʷoo-·odor, smell
Woleaianboo, boo-·odor, smell
Pulo-Annanpʷoo·odor, smell
Sonsorolesebʷoú·odor, smell
Proto-Chuukic(?) *pʷoo, pʷowe-·odor, smell
Pohnpeianpʷoo, pʷowεsmell, odor, aroma, its smell 
Mokilesepʷo, pʷɔɔsmell, its smell 
Marshallesebʷiyi-, bʷi-·odor, smell
Gilbertese(te)-bʷoiscent, odor, smell 
 bʷoito smell, have odor 
Kosraeanfoto smell, have odor 
 fɔlɔ-(l), foli-(n)its smell, smell of 
Proto-Oceanic(?) *bo-i, bo-ato smell, have odor, a smell or odor 
Proto-Polynesian*poafish odor 
Fijianboi, boi-ca·odor, smell
 bonastink because rotten 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*bahu·odor, smell
Proto-Austronesian*baSu·odor, smell

There are problems here, especially the Kosraean l.

PMc   *pʷon[ao]   whole, complete

Woleaianbonemature 
Pohnpeianpʷonwhole, entire 
 pʷonopʷonround, circular, a circle 
Mokilesepʷonwhole (quantity) 
Kosraeanfɔnwhole, complete, entire 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bono·whole, complete
Arosibonoto spread over (as grass or weeds) 

— Cf. —

Saipan Carolinianbʷéllbe completely planted (of a field) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷonnbe completely planted (of a field) 
Gilbertesebʷonreally, truly, indeed 

See also Proto-Micronesian *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta ‘be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close’.

PMc   *pʷono   promise

Chuukesepʷpʷon, pʷpʷone-(n)a promise, agreement, vow, pledge, oath, promise of (something), to promise, make a contract, take an oath 
 pʷpʷono-(ffeŋen)make an agreement, contract, or covenenant 
Mortlockesepʷpʷonagree, promise 
Puluwatesepʷonto promise, agree 
Satawalesepʷpʷonagree, promise 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷpʷono·promise
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bono·promise
Proto-Polynesian*ponotruth, correctness 

— Cf. —

Sa’aqoŋito promise 
Ulawanpoŋito promise 
Lau(dau) boŋitake hold of (dau take, hold) 

PMc   *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta   be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close

Chuukesepʷonbe enough 
Mortlockesepʷonfilled up 
Puluwatesepʷono-(ló)be crowded, packed, filled 
 Crl: bʷol and Crn bʷonhave something in the eye 
Satawalesepʷonbe crowded, have no more room 
Woleaianbonebe thick, bushy 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷon[ao]·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close
Pohnpeianponstuffed up, clogged 
Mokileseponblocked 
Marshallesebʷeṇʷblock, clogged, obstructed, constipated, stymied 
Gilbertesebʷonoshut, closed, stopped, obstructed 
 bʷono-tato cover, shut, close (something) 
 (te)-bʷonosea wall 
Kosraeanfɔnfɔnjammed, block 
 fɔno-sto block, blockade, jam, check, obstruct, stop (something) with a cork 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pono-t·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close (Geraghty 1990)
Fijianbono, bono-tato block, dam up 
Proto-Polynesian*ponoclose, block up 
Sa’aponoto close, mend 
 pono-sito stuff up 
Bugotuponobe closed up, stuffed up 
Laubonoto close a hole 
Arosibono, bono-sito close, stuff up, dam 
 pʷono, pʷono-sito stop, block, choke 
 bono, bono-sito close, stuff up 
Kwaiobonoclosed, shut, constipated 
 bono-tastopper, plug 
 bono-si-[a]to block 
Uraustronesisch*pened·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close

Note that the Pohnpeian and Mokilese initial stops are not the expected reflexes. See Proto-Micronesian *pʷon[ao] ‘whole, complete’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷalu ‘cover, lid’.

PMc   *pʷoŋi   night

Chuukesepʷiin, pʷini-·night
Mortlockesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋú-·night
Puluwatesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·night
Saipan Carolinianbʷooŋ, bʷoŋi-·night
Satawalesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·night
Woleaianbooŋi, boŋi-·night
Pulo-Annanpʷooŋi, pʷoŋi-·night
Proto-Chuukic*pʷoŋi·night
Pohnpeianpʷooŋ·night
Mokileseand Png pʷoŋ·night
Marshallesebʷéŋʷ·night
Gilbertese(te)-boŋ, bʷoŋi-·night
Kosraeanfoŋ·night
Proto-Oceanic*boŋi·night
Fijianbogi·night
Rotumanpogi·night
Bugotuboŋi·night
Sa’apoŋi and Ula qoŋitime, season 
Uraustronesisch*beŋi·night
Proto-Austronesian*beRŋin·night (Blust 1980:51)

— Note —

Chuukesepon-(nóóon)day before yesterday 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *p’oŋi.

PCMc   *pʷoto   swelling

Chuukesepʷoo, pʷoo-swelling of any kind 
 pʷo, pʷoopʷobe swollen, be pregnant 
Mortlockesepʷoo·swelling
Puluwatesepʷo, pʷoopʷo·swelling
Saipan Carolinianbʷoo, bʷo, bʷoobʷo·swelling
Satawalesepʷoo·swelling
Woleaianboo, booboo·swelling
Pulo-Annanpʷoo·swelling
Proto-Chuukic*pʷoo, pʷoopʷoo·swelling
Pohnpeianmpʷosboil, swelling 
 mpʷosa-(da)to swell up, rise (as bread) 
Mokileseumpʷɔssickness, chicken pox 
Marshallesebʷbʷejswollen, swell, lump 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷotoa bulbous root 
 bʷotohaving a bulb 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷéj, bʷéji-swollen corpse 
Kosraeanfitibud, swelling 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*booboil, swelling  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianbooa boil 
Arosipʷoopʷooelephantiasis 

PMc   *pʷuasa   slingshot

Mokilesepʷuad·slingshot
Marshallesebʷiwat·slingshot
Kosraeanfʌtslingshot 
 #fʌtishoot (something) with a slingshot 

The Mokilese and Kosraean forms could be loans from Marshallese.

PCMc   *pʷuce   foolish, stupid, crazy

Chuukesepʷuch, pʷuchopʷuchcrazy 
 pʷuché-(ér)cry out in distress 
PuluwatesepʷuRcrazy 
 pʷupʷpʷuRé-(ér)scream 
Saipan Carolinianbʷushnaive, ignorant, foolish, senile 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷuRnaive, ignorant, foolish, senile 
Woleaianbushocrazy, stupid 
Pulo-Annanpʷuuse, pʷuse-a fool 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuce·foolish, stupid, crazy
Pohnpeianpʷutjoyous, lusty 
Marshallesebʷédmistake, error, wrong 
Gilbertesebʷureto err, blunder, do wrong 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern OceanicbuRefoolish  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *pʷuk[ao]   knot, node

Chuukesepʷukopʷuka knot, be knotted, tie in knots 
 pʷpʷuk, pʷuke-(n)a knot, knot of 
 pʷukopʷukbe knotted 
 pʷuke-e-(y)tie it 
Mortlockesepʷuuk, pʷukopʷuk, pʷuke-(y)·knot, node
Puluwatesepʷukopʷukknot (as in a tree) 
 pʷuko-(y)knot it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷughe-e-(y)tie (it) in a knot 
 bʷughobʷugha knot, tie knots 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuge-(y)knot it 
Satawalesepukʷopʷuk, pʷuko-(y)·knot, node
Woleaianbugobugoa knot, tie, bind, fasten 
 bugo-si-(i)tie it, connect it 
 bugo-tagibe tied, fastened 
Pulo-Annanpʷukopʷukoknots, tie knots, bind 
 pʷuko-ditie it together, knot it 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuk[ao], pʷuk[ao]pʷuk[ao], pʷuk[ao]-ti-·knot, node
Pohnpeianpʷukopʷuka knot, tie knots 
 pʷukε-(n)knot of 
 pʷukεto tie (something) 
Mokilesepʷukknot made to be temporary 
Kosraeanfokoknot, node 
 fuko-etie (it) in a knot 
Proto-Oceanic(?) *buk-athing tied 

— Cf. —

Fijianbuki, buki-atie, fasten 
 buku, buku-yatie a knot 
Bugotu(vari)-pukua knot, to tie together 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷiwbʷiwtie a knot; divination using knots 
 biwij-iytie something 

— Cf. also —

Pohnpeianpʷukεl, pʷukεlεknot, joint, node, its knot 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku, pʷukua ‘node, joint, knot, knee’.

PWMc   *pʷukari   sedge

Chuukesepʷuker, pʷukeri-(n)a sedge (Fimbristylis polymorpha and F. cymosa), a plant (Chrysopogon aciculatus
Puluwatesepukár [sic]Fimbristylis sedge 
Saipan Carolinianbʷugher, bʷughárF. cymosa 
 bʷughári-(ŋŋas)F. atollensis 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷugerF. cymosa 
Woleaianbugorigrasses of several types 
 bugori-(ŋase)a swamp plant with good smell 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷukari·sedge
Marshallesebʷikéra plant (Cyperus ferax

PMc   *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua   hundred

Chuukese(i)-pʷúkú, -pʷúkúú-·hundred
Mortlockese-pʷúkú·hundred
Puluwatese(ye)-pʷúkúw·hundred
Saipan Carolinian-bʷúghúw·hundred
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷúgú·hundred
Satawalese-pʷúkúw·hundred
Woleaian(se)-pʷúgúwe·hundred
Ulithian-buguy·hundred
Proto-Chuukic*-pʷúkúa·hundred
Pohnpeian(e)-pʷiki·hundred
Mokilese(e)-pʷki·hundred
Marshallese(ji)-bʷikʷiy·hundred
Gilbertese(te)-bʷubʷua·hundred
Kosraean-fok, -foko·hundred

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku, pʷukua ‘node, joint, knot, knee’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷuku   base, tail

Gilbertese(te)-bʷukibase, butt-end, buttocks, tail, reason, cause, motive 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buku, puku (Fij bukutail 
Lakalaivuubase, reason, cause 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*puŋku[rR]·base, tail

— Cf. —

Yapesebuuktail 
Proto-Kimbe*vuhubase, cause 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*puqun·base, tail

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷenu ‘cause, beginning, basis’, Proto-Micronesian *iku‘tail’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷuku, pʷukua   node, joint, knot, knee

Chuukesepʷúkú, pʷúkúwa-, pʷúkúwe-node, joint, knot, knee 
Mortlockesepʷúkú, pʷúkúwa-·node, joint, knot, knee
Puluwatesepʷúkúwknee  (Bender et al. 1984)
Saipan Carolinianbʷughúwa-node, protruding joint, protuberance 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷugúya-node, protruding joint, protuberance 
Woleaianbúgúweoutside curved projection, knee 
Pulo-Annanpʷukúa·node, joint, knot, knee
Proto-Chuukic*pʷukúa·node, joint, knot, knee
Pohnpeianpʷukiεhis knee 
Mokilesepʷikiknee 
Marshallesebʷikʷéy, bʷikʷiyeyknee 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷubʷuaknee or elbow joint 
Kosraeanfuku-(n)joint of 
Proto-Oceanic*buku, bukua (Fij bukuanything knotted and humped 
Bugotupukuswelling, lump, knot, tumor 
 [vari]-pukua knot, to tie together 
Lakalaibukuaswollen, protruding) 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bukuknee or... 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bu(ŋ)kuqbend, bent  (Blust 1980:130)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷuk[ao] ‘knot, node’, Proto-Micronesian *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua ‘hundred’.

PMc   *pʷula, pʷupʷula   to flame, flare

Chuukesepʷpʷun, pʷpʷuna-(n)blaze, flash, flame, its blaze 
Mortlockesepʷpʷolflame 
 pʷpʷolá-(tá)flame up 
Puluwatesepʷúl [sic]burn (Bender et al. 1984: pwpwul burn, flame up) 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷulto burn, be burning 
 bʷupʷpʷulto be burning, in flames 
Satawalesepʷpʷunbe alight 
Woleaianbbuleburn, light up 
 bulobuloshiny, flaming 
 bbubbuleflame, light 
Pulo-Annanpuna [sic]glow, flame, blinking of lights 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷula, pʷpʷula·to flame, flare
Pohnpeianmpʷulflame 
Mokileseumpʷulflaming 
Marshallesebʷilburn, hot, fever 
Kosraeanfolhot, heated, sweaty 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bula·to flame, flare
Proto-Polynesian*puLashine, glow 
Rotumanpulabe alight, burn 

— Cf. —

Yapese(gu)-bulto flare up 

— Cf. also —

Bugotubeubethuto blaze, burn, a flame 

PWMc   *pʷulaka₁   a fish

Chuukesepʷunakind of unicorn fish 
Puluwatesepʷulaa common reef fish 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbulakind of surgeon fish 
Woleaianbulaga-(aleye)a kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷulaka·a fish
Pohnpeianpʷulakunicorn fish (Naso unicornis
Marshallesebʷilakunicorn fish 

— Cf. —

KwaiobulaPacific sea perch 

Marshallese heavy expected.

PMc   *pʷulaka₂   Cyrtosperma taro

Chuukesepʷuna, pʷunaa-·Cyrtosperma taro
Mortlockesepʷulá·Cyrtosperma taro
Puluwatesepʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Saipan Carolinianbʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Satawalesepʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Woleaianbulage·Cyrtosperma taro
Pulo-Annanpʷunaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Proto-Chuukic*pʷulaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bulaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Samoanpula’a·Cyrtosperma taro

— Cf. —

Marshalleseqiwbilkena variety of inedible taro 

— Cf. also —

LakalaiulaCyrtosperma taro 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buRaka·Cyrtosperma taro (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *pʷuli   shell

Chuukesepʷiin, pʷini-cowrie shell 
Mortlockesepʷiil·shell
Puluwatesepʷiil cowrie s. scraper’·shell
Saipan Carolinianbʷiilcowrie shell 
Satawalesepʷiin·shell
Woleaian(u)-bili·shell
Pulo-Annanpiini, pini- [sic]shellfish, mussel 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷili·shell
Pohnpeianpʷili [sic]cowrie shell 
Marshalleselibʷ-(bʷikʷey)any cowrie shell, any shell (showing metathesis) 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷuna bivalvular shellfish 
Kosraeanful, fuli-nshellfish, shell of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buli·shell
Fijianbuli·shell
Sa’apulicowrie shell 
Arosiburicowrie 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*buliq·shell (Blust 1980:56)

— Cf. —

Yapesewullarge cowrie 

Mokilese and Pingilapese pʷun ‘shell’ are apparent loans from Gilbertese.

PMc   *pʷuli, pʷulipʷuli, pʷulita   gum, sap, resin, gummy

see Proto-Micronesian *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta.

PWMc   (?)   *pʷulo, pʷul[ou]lo   heart

Puluwatesepʷull·heart
Saipan Carolinianbʷúll, bʷúllé-(l)heart, his heart 
Woleaianbunne, bunne-(i)heart, keel section of a canoe, my heart 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷull[ao]·heart
Marshallesebʷéḷwheart of tree, root of matter, core, pith 

PCMc   *pʷuŋ[iu]   descend, get lower

Woleaianbúŋú, buŋu-(tiwe)bend down, get lower, lower ones body 
 búŋú-(matto)to sit down 
Pulo-Annanpʷúŋú-(tio)to sit down 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷúŋú·descend, get lower
Pohnpeiankoro-pʷuŋsmall waterfall 
Marshallesebʷiŋʷfall down 
 biŋʷi-(t)fall down on someone or something 
Gilbertesebʷuŋgoing down, descending 
 bʷuŋibʷuŋbe long (of hair), flooding (after miscarriage), to set (of the sun) 

See also Proto-Chuukic *púŋú ‘to fall’. See also Marck (1994:319) Proto–Central Micronesian *p’uŋu.

PMc   *pʷuŋu   handle

Saipan Carolinianbʷúúŋ, bʷuuŋ, bʷúŋu-lhandle, its handle 
Satawalesepʷuuŋ·handle
Pulo-Annanpʷuuŋú, pʷuŋú-·handle
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuŋu·handle
Marshallesebʷiŋʷspear handle 
Kosraeanfuŋ.·handle

PMc   *pʷupʷu   trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross

Chuukesepʷuupʷ, pʷupʷu-trigger fish, Southern Cross 
 (táá-nu)-pʷrising of the Southern Cross 
Mortlockesepʷuupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Puluwatesepʷupʷ [sic]·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Saipan Carolinianbʷuubʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Satawalesepʷuupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Woleaianbuubu, #buubu-·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Proto-Chuukic*pʷupʷu, -pʷu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Pohnpeianpʷuupʷtrigger fish 
Mokilesepʷupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Marshallesebʷibʷtrigger fish 
 bʷibʷ, bʷibʷi-Southern Cross 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷubʷu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Kosraeanfifa kind of fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mpumpu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Sa’apupuSouthern Cross 
Arosibubuspecies of Baliates fish 
Kwaiobubureef trigger fish 

Note that the consetllation is named for the fish.

PMc   *pʷuro   collide, fall

Chuukesepʷurbe bumped, stubbed, trip 
 pʷuro-(ffeŋen)be bumped together, be in collision 
Puluwatesepʷuro-ti-(y)to hit, collide with, bump against 
Saipan Carolinianbʷurto fall forward on ones face 
Woleaianburobe off ones feet, fall, tumble down 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuro·collide, fall
Pohnpeianpʷuurto descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole) 
Kosraean(?) fʌlslip, drop, slide 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷuŋ[iu]‘descend, get lower’.

PCMc   *pʷurua   insides

Pohnpeianpʷuri, pʷuriyεstomach (of certain fish like tuna), core (as of breadfruit), hemorrhoid, its stomach 
Mokilesepʷiri, pʷurrɔ, pʷirii-(n), pʷurre-(n), pʷirii-(n)fish stomach, breadfruit core, its stomach, stomach of 
Marshallesebʷéréw, bʷiriwe-seat of the emotions, throat, heart, gills 
 bʷiriyuvula, esophagus 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷuuarumen, sack, pocket, bag, throat, mouth  (Sabatier 1971)

— Cf. —

Gilbertese(te)-buroothe heart (a Marshallese loan?) 

PMc   *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka   bad, improper

Chuukese-pʷutdisliked, bad 
 (o)-pʷut, (o)-pʷutato dislike 
 (chóó)-pʷutwoman 
 pʷuta-kbad, improper, unsuitable 
Puluwatese-pʷut, (yó)-pʷut, (Róó)-pʷut·bad, improper
Saipan Carolinian(a)-pʷuta, (ó)-bʷutato dislike or hate (someone) 
 (shóó)-bʷutwoman, female 
Saipan Carolinian·T(Róó)-bʷutwoman, female 
 bʷuuta-gbad, improper, rude, ugly 
Woleaian-buto, (paa)-butebe unfortunate, in bad condition 
 (shóó)-butowoman 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuda, *pʷudaka·bad, improper
Marshallesebʷét, bʷiteydisobedient, naughty, disobey someone 
Gilbertesebʷua-kawage war, be tempestuous, stormy 
 (te)-bʷua-kawar 
 bʷua-kakabad, objectionable (with loss of *s before *k?) 
Kosraeanfɔsmessy, confused, entangled 

— Cf. —

Fijianvucarotten 

PMc   *pʷu[sS]o   foam

Pohnpeianpʷudopʷudfoam, scum 
Gilbertesebʷuroto boil 
 bʷurobʷurofrothy, foamy, boiling 
 (te)-bʷurobʷurofoam, froth, bubbles 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buso, fuso·foam
Fijianvusoto effervesce, froth 
Sa’ahutohutofroth, foam 
Arosihuto, hutohutofroth, foam 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷiḷwiḷwḷwiḷwto boil (of water only) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pʷuro, pʷuropʷuro ‘bubble, foam’. Marck (1994:315) includes the forms in Proto-Chuukic *pʷuro, pʷuropʷuro ‘bubble, foam’ with these forms in his Proto-Micronesian *p’usop’uso ‘foam, froth’.

PCMc   *pʷuta[ei]   feces

Chuukesepʷise, pʷisee-·feces
Puluwatesepʷihe·feces
Saipan Carolinianbʷuse·feces
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuhe·feces
Proto-Chuukic*pʷutai·feces
Pohnpeianpʷisεfeces 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷutae·feces

— Cf. —

Marshallesedeydefecate from trees (of birds) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taqe-·feces (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*taqe·feces (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*taqe·feces
Proto-Kimbe*tahe·feces
Fijiandee-[na], daa [<*dae]·feces
Sa’a’ae·feces
Bugotutae·feces
Kwaioae·feces
Uraustronesisch*taqi·feces

PMc   *pʷuto   navel

Chuukesepʷuu, pʷuwa-(n)navel, his/her navel 
Mortlockesepʷuwa-(n)·navel
Woleaianpʷuuse, pʷusa-(l)·navel
Pulo-Annanpʷuuta, pʷuta-navel 
 pʷpʷuawaist, center 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷut[eo]·navel
Pohnpeianpʷuus, pʷusε·navel
Marshallesebʷije-·navel
Gilbertese(te)-bʷuto, bʷuto-(na)·navel
Kosraeanfʌt, fitε-(l)·navel

— Note also —

Puluwatesepʷuuknavel 
Saipan Carolinianbʷuugh·navel
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuug·navel

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*pito·navel
Samoanpute·navel
Fijianvicovico·navel
Bugotusope·navel
Sa’apoo·navel
Kwaioboo, bou-(na)·navel
Proto-Nakanai*buso·navel
Uraustronesisch*pusej·navel

PMc   *pʷutu   step, tread, apply ones foot

Chuukesepʷuplace ones foot 
 pʷuupʷustep, tread, to place ones foot on something, treadle, pedal 
 pʷuu-ristep on, tread on 
Puluwatesepuu-ri-(y) [sic]to stamp or tread on 
Saipan Carolinianbʷu, bʷuubʷuto step, stand on 
 bʷuubʷuto step on something, be standing on something 
 bʷuu-rito step, stomp, tread on (something) 
 bʷuu-rágh, bʷuu-reghto stomp the feet (as when throwing a tantrum) 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷu[tØ]u, pʷu[tØ]u-ri-·step, tread, apply ones foot
Marshallesebʷijbʷijkick, a dance 
 bʷij-(jik)to kick, be kicking 
 (je)-bʷijspur, cut with spurs, kick 
Gilbertese(te)-bʷutua small weapon with a single sharks tooth used by women 
Kosraeanfutfutkick 
 futu-ŋkick, stomp (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*butu·step, tread, apply ones foot
Fijianbutu, butu-kastamp or tread on 
Sa’apuuto tread, stamp, stand firm 
 puu-listrike with the talons [of birds] 
Bugotubuubutustamp the foot in dancing, tread hard 
 butu-lito trample, kick 
 butu-ŋagito withstand 
Kwaiobuutread, step 
 buu-li-[a]scrape with the foot 

— Cf. —

Pohnpeianpʷuur-descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole) (with directional suffix) 
Mokilesepʷuuj, pʷuujipush, shove (loan from English?) 
Gilbertesebutubututo crowd 
 butu-ato push or press against (something) (loan from Samoan putu, putuputu be crowded) 

PMc   (?)   *pʷuu   to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)

Chuukesepʷu, pʷuu-·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pupuu·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)
Tonganpupuu·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)

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