st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   

*r   

ra    re    ri    ro    ru    

PMc   *raani   day

Chuukeseráán, rááni-·day
Mortlockeseráán, rááni-·day
Puluwateseráán·day
Saipan Carolinianráál, rááli-·day
Saipan Carolinian·Tráán·day
Satawaleseráán·day
Woleaianraali·day
Pulo-Annanlaani·day
Proto-Chuukic*raani·day
Pohnpeianraan·day
Mokilesereen·day
Pingilapeseraan·day
Marshalleserahan, rahani-·day
Kosraeanlʷen·day
Proto-Oceanic*raqani, nraqani·day
Ulawandánibe day, be daylight 
Bugotudani·day
Kwaiogani·day
Proto-Austronesian*daqaNi·day (Blust 1980:61)

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rangilight, shine  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’adáŋibe day, be daylight 
Bugoturaŋito shine [of the sun] 
Arosidaŋi, daŋi-siday, shine on 
Kwaiodaŋiday 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *raani.

PMc   *rae   branch

Chuukeseráá, ráá-nbranch with leaves, branch of 
 rááráhave many branches 
Puluwateseráá, ráá-n·branch
Saipan Carolinianráá-, ráá-lbranch 
 ráárábe full of branches 
Woleaianraabranch of a tree, bough 
 raaraabe branchy 
Ulithianraa-branch, twig 
Pulo-Annanlaabranch 
 laalaabe branchy 
Sonsoroleselaabranch 
Proto-Chuukic*raae, rae-·branch
Pohnpeianraabranch, tentacle 
Mokilesera, raa, raa-(n)branch, its branch, branch of 
Marshalleserahbranch 
Gilbertese(te)-aedriftwood 
Kosraeanlæ, lʷebranch, twig, limb 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*LaaLaasmall branch 
Kwaiolaaleaf used to wrap pudding in for cooking 
 laalaaCalamus vine 
Proto-Oceanic*raqan·branch (Ross 1988)
Proto-Austronesian*daqan·branch (Ross 1988)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*daŋkaq, daŋkeqbranch  (Blust 1986:33)

See also Proto-Chuukic *irae ‘tree, stick, timber, log’.

PCMc   *raki   season of southerly winds

Chuukeseráás, resi-(n)season of southwesterly winds, breadfruit season, year, season of 
Mortlockeseráák, rékú-(n)season, year, season of 
Puluwateseráák, ráki-nmain breadfruit season, season of southwesterly winds 
Saipan Carolinianráágh, rághi-year 
Saipan Carolinian·Tráágyear 
Satawaleseráákyear 
Woleaianraagi, ragi-year, summer season 
Old Mapian(mje)-rakseason 
Proto-Chuukic*raki·season of southerly winds
Pohnpeianraakseason of plenty, breadfruit season 
Mokileserɔkbreadfruit season 
Pingilapeserεkbreadfruit season 
Marshalleseraksouth, summer 
Gilberteseaiakisouth (showing reduplication with loss of consonant in some roots with aCi

— Cf. —

Fijiandrakiweather 

See also Marck (1994:312) Proto-Micronesian *raki.

PMc   *rak[ou]mʷu   crab

Chuukeserokumʷ, #rokumʷe-(n)·crab
Puluwateseróókum [sic]·crab
Saipan Carolinianróghumʷ·crab
Satawaleseróókumʷ [sic]·crab
Woleaianragumʷu·crab
Pulo-Annanlakumu [sic]·crab
Proto-Chuukic*rakumʷu·crab
Pohnpeianrokumʷ·crab
Mokileserokumʷ·crab
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*rakumʷu·crab
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rak[ou]mu·crab
Bugoturagomua crab 

PMc   *raku, rakuraku   be scraped out, scooped up

Chuukeserék, rékúrékbe scooped out 
 rékú-úwscoop it out 
Mortlockeserékúrékscrape out, dig out 
 rékú-(w)scraped (something) out 
Satawaleserakúrakscrape out 
 rékú-(w)scraped (something) out 
Woleaianregúregútake a handful, eat clumsily 
 regú-ú-(we)take a handful of it, eat it clumsily 
Proto-Chuukic*rakú, rakú-ú-·be scraped out, scooped up
Pohnpeianrεkirεkto scratch with the fingernails, to claw 
 rεki-iscratch or claw (something) 
Mokileserɔkto work at serving, dish out (food), scrape with the hands 
 rɔkito dish (something) out, scrape (something) with the hands 
Marshalleserakʷrékʷscoop up, scratch 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*raku·be scraped out, scooped up
Sa’aráuscrape up, gather with the hands 
Arosira’u, ra’u-ha’itake a handful 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*ra(ŋ)kupgather in the cupped hands  (Blust 1983–84:100)

— Cf. —

Proto-Austronesian*dakuCsnatch, grab  (Blust 1986:54)

PMc   *rama, ma-rama   bright, luminous

Chuukeseram, ramarambe orange red, saffron colored, bright colored 
 (a)-ramacolor it a bright color (as with turmeric) 
 ma-rammoon, month 
 sa-ramlight (as of the sun), be bright, full of light 
Mortlockesema-rammoon 
Puluwatesema-rammoon, month 
 ha-ramlight, daylight, be light 
Saipan Carolinianma-rammoon, month 
 sa-rambrightness, light, illumination, be bright 
Saipan Carolinian·Tma-rammoon 
 ha-rambrightness 
Satawaleseme-rammoon 
Woleaianme-ramemoon, month 
 te-ramelight, be lit, brightened 
 (ge)-ta-rema-(a)brighten it 
Pulo-Annanma-lamamoon, month 
Sonsorolesema-lamamoon 
Old Mapianma-rammoon 
Proto-Chuukic*rama, ma-rama, ta-rama·bright, luminous
Pohnpeianma-rammoon 
Marshalleseme-rambright, light, flash, glow, luminous 
Gilbertesema-amamoonlight, be moonlight 
 (ka)-amathe constellation Southern Cross 
Kosraeanmæ-lʷemmoon, month 
 (kæ)-lʷemclear, bright 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rama·bright, luminous
Proto-Polynesian*ramatorch, fishing with torches 
Uraustronesisch*damaRtorch, light 

— Cf. —

Bugotumararalight 
Kwaiolalalight 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *marama ‘moonlight, moon’.

PMc   *raŋi, raŋiraŋi   be warmed

Mortlockeseréŋúréŋwarm oneself by the fire 
Puluwateseráŋi-i-(y)warm (oneself) as by a fire 
Saipan Carolinianraŋi-(y)warm (oneself) 
Satawaleseraŋi-(y)warm (oneself) 
Pohnpeianrεŋirεŋwarm oneself by a fire 
 rεŋdried (as of copra or tobacco) 
Mokileserɔŋrɔŋwarm oneself 
Pingilapese(kε)-raŋheat on a fire 
Marshalleseraŋraŋwarm oneself by the fire 
Gilbertesewarm 
Kosraeanlaŋlʌŋwarm up, heat up, dry up 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*raŋi·be warmed
Bugoturaŋito shine [of sun] 
 raraŋiheat 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*garaŋbe hot 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *reŋa ‘turmeric color’, Proto-Chuukic *caŋi ‘to warm oneself’. Marshallese raŋréŋ (showing vowel alternation) expected.

PMc   *rara   to heat, be warm

Chuukeserar, rarrarbe warm 
Marshalleserarto bleach pandanus leaves over a fire, to dry leaves by fire 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rara·to heat, be warm
Fijianrarato warm oneself at a fire 
Proto-Polynesian*rarato heat 
Sa’ararahot, pungent, be shriveled up, withered, parched 
Bugoturara-ŋeto warm oneself at a fire 
Laurarabe withered, ripe 
Kwaiolalawarm 
Lakalailalato hold over a fire 

PMc   *rato   whale

Chuukeseraaw, rawe-(n)whale, whale of 
Puluwateserawa-(fanú)·whale
Saipan Carolinianraaw, róós, #róóso-l·whale
Satawaleseraaw·whale
Woleaianraaso, raso-·whale
Pulo-Annanlaado, lado-·whale
Proto-Chuukic*rato·whale
Pohnpeianrɔɔs·whale
Mokileseroj·whale
Marshalleseraj·whale
Gilbertese(te)-ato, ato-(ni-marawa)·whale
Kosraeanlɒ t·whale

PMc   *ra[wØ]u   pull out with the hands from inside something

Chuukeseré, réérégrope, reach with the hands where one cannot see 
 réé-yigrope for, reach into and under for (something 
 réé-(féw)method of fishing at night by reaching into holes in rock piles with the hands 
Puluwateseréé, réé-yito catch fish with the hands 
Gilberteseauauto engage in drawing forth 
 (te)-auaufishing by drawing out fish from holes in the rocks 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rau·pull out with the hands from inside something
Sa’aráuto scrape up, to gather up with the hands 
Arosirauto snatch, seize 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*laqupinch, pull up 
Kwaiolafutake off, lift, pull up 
Proto-Kimbe*laputo pull 
Uraustronesisch*ra[hØ]utto tear off, split 

PMc   *ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u, ka-ra[wØ]u-si   scraped, to scrape

Chuukeseé-réé-ti, a-réé-tiscrape it, sand it, make it smooth 
 kké-ré, kka-réébe scraped 
 kké-réé-tsand or scrape smooth, be sanded or scraped 
Saipan Carolinianghé-réé-tiscrape (the skin off a breadfruit) 
 kké-réto scrape 
Woleaianrééto scrape off, to rub against 
 rééréébe scraped off, be rubbed against 
 kke-réébe scraped, swept 
 ge-réé-ti-(i)scrape it, sweep it 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *raú, ka-raú, ka-raú-di·scraped, to scrape
Pohnpeianko-royroyscrape meat out of a coconut 
 ko-rεε-dscrape (it) out 
Mokilesekɔ-rɔɔ-dscrape with a hard object 
Kosraeankʌ-lalʌto scratch, claw, tear 
 kʌ-lau-sscratch, claw, tear (something) 
Uraustronesisch*ra(m)bustear away 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *kara, kara-si, kara-sa ‘to scrape’, Proto-Micronesian *kari ‘to scratch’.

PMc   (?)   *raya₁   inland

see Proto-Micronesian *rea₁ or *raya₁.

PMc   (?)   *raya₂   girl

see Proto-Micronesian *rea₂ or *raya₂.

PMc   *re-, ra-   they (3pl subject marker)

Mortlockesere-·they (3pl subject marker)
Chuukesere-, ra-, ró-·they (3pl subject marker)
Puluwatesere-, ra-·they (3pl subject marker)
Saipan Carolinianre-, ra-·they (3pl subject marker)
Satawalesere-·they (3pl subject marker)
Woleaianre-·they (3pl subject marker)
Pulo-Annanle-·they (3pl subject marker)
Proto-Chuukic*re-, *ra-·they (3pl subject marker)
Pohnpeian·they (3pl subject marker)
Marshalleseyer, re-·they (3pl subject marker)
Gilbertesea·they (3pl subject marker)
Kosraeanel-(tæl)·they (3pl subject marker)

— Cf. —

Bugotu-rathem 

PCMc   *re-, ri-   person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)

Chuukesere-, ree-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Mortlockesere-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Puluwateseree-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Saipan Carolinianre-, ree-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Satawalesere-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Woleaianre-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Ulithianre-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Proto-Chuukic*re-, ree-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Marshalleseri-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)
Gilbertesei-·person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanlei-actor or agent 

PMc   (?)   *rea₁ or *raya₁   inland

Chuukese(éwú)-rá, -ráá-river, stream (lit. inland current) 
Uraustronesisch*Dayainland 

PMc   (?)   *rea₂ or *raya₂   girl

Chuukese(niye)-rá, -ráá-girl, young woman 
 (imʷe)-rámenstrual hut (lit. girls house) 
Uraustronesisch*dayaŋgirl 

PMc   *reŋa   turmeric color

Chuukesereŋ, reŋereŋbe yellow green, saffron colored (associated with turmeric) 
Mortlockeseraŋaraŋyellow, orange 
Puluwateseraaŋturmeric 
Saipan Carolinianraaŋyellow ginger 
 raŋaraŋbe orange, yellow 
Satawaleseraaŋturmeric, yellow powder 
 raŋaraŋyellow 
Woleaianraaŋeturmeric 
 raŋeraŋebe yellow 
 (péé)-raŋea kind of yellow flower 
Pulo-Annanlaaŋa, laŋa-turmeric 
 laŋabe yellow 
Proto-Chuukic*reeŋa, reŋa, reŋareŋa·turmeric color
Pohnpeianrεŋε-ddark (of colors) 
Mokileserɔŋrɔŋyellow 
Gilbertese(te)-eŋavariety of coral on flats that emits much color 
Kosraeanraŋraŋyellow 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*reŋa·turmeric color
Samoanlegaturmeric 
Arosireŋabe white, glistening, splendid 

Note that Gilbertese (te)-reŋa ‘red cloth’, reŋareŋa ‘to paint (something) red’ are loans from Samoan lega ‘turmeric’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *aŋo ‘curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow’, Proto-Micronesian *raŋi, raŋiraŋi ‘be warmed’, Proto-Chuukic *yalle-pʷuta ‘a tree (Pittosporum)’.

PMc   *rere   tremble (with fear)

Chuukeserer·tremble (with fear)
Pohnpeianrεr·tremble (with fear)
Kosraeanrarrar·tremble (with fear)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rere·tremble (with fear)
Fijianrerefear 
Arosirere-[bʷeru]run away [bweru run] 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *cece, cecece ‘shake, tremble’.

PMc   *ria   sibling

Pohnpeianriεpossessive classifier for siblings 
Mokileseriaribe siblings 
Marshalleseriy-(liki-)cross cousin (liki- outside) 
Kosraeanlili, lʷe-(l), li-(n)brother, male sibling, his brother, brother of 

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *rii ‘tied, joined’.

PCMc   *riea   miserable, wretched

Chuukeseriyábe miserable, in torment, in anguish 
Mortlockeseriyáenvy of someone doing something when one feels one can do it better 
Saipan Carolinianriyábe frustrated, have a skin rash as an object of bad gossip 
Satawaleseriyásin, feel sinful 
Woleaianriyaaget in trouble, suffer the consequences (of wrongdoing) 
Proto-Chuukic*riae or *riea·miserable, wretched
Pohnpeianriaa-(la)be cursed (resulting in misfortune) 
Mokileseriato sin 
Marshalleseriwe-fault, sin 
 réwangry, jealous, disappointed 
Gilberteseiee-ato deceive, mislead (someone) 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanlia [sic]holiness, sacred object, taboo, be holy, sacred, forbidden 

PWMc   *rii   tied, joined

Chuukeseribe bound, tied up 
 riirisomething tied on, band, ribbon, bandage, lashing, bonds, fetters 
 rii-(y)tie, lash, wind, bind (of thread, rope, etc.) 
Woleaianriiriimarriage, wedding, marry, be united, wed 
Ulithianriirito marry 
Pulo-Annanliiliito marry 
 lii-nimarry him 
Proto-Chuukic*rii, riirii·tied, joined
Marshalleseriyi-spouse 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseieinbe married 
 (te)-ieinmarriage, married state 
PWMP*ri(ŋ)kit, Diŋkittouching or joined along the length  (Blust 1983–84:103)

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *ria ‘sibling’.

PWMc   *riku or *ruki   gather from the ground

Pulo-Annanlúkúto pick up 
Pohnpeianrikgather objects from the ground 
Marshalleserikʷ-(bʷéw)gather missiles for throwing 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *rata ‘cleared land’.

PMc   *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi   shattered, broken into pieces

Chuukeserup, rupurup, me-rip, má-rip, #me-riperipbe shattered, broken into pieces 
 ripi-i-(y), rupi-i-(y)shatter it, break it to pieces 
 #(e)-me-ripa, (e)-me-ripishatter it 
Mortlockeseripiripbreak things 
 ripi-i-(y)break it 
 ma-ripbreak, crack 
 ma-ripiripsmall broken pieces 
Puluwateseripto shatter 
 ripi-i-(y)break it, shatter it 
 ripi-ya-(n) [sic]object shattered by him 
Saipan Carolinianripbe cracked, broken 
 ripiripbe shattering things, be breaking into pieces 
 ripi-i-(y)shattered it, break it 
 ripi-(ŋagh)be shattered, broken 
 ripi-(sagh)piece of shattered object, be shattered 
 má-ripbreak into pieces 
 má-ripiripbe broken into pieces 
Satawaleseripi-i-(y)break it in half 
 má-ripbreak, crack 
 ma-ripiripshattered pieces 
 ma-ripi-i-(y)break it into many pieces 
Woleaianripiripto break, destroy, crush, smash 
 ripi-i-(ye)break it, destroy it 
 ripi-(ŋegi)be broken, destroyed, crushed, smashed 
 ma-ripibreak, be shattered, broken 
 ma-ripiripishattered in many pieces 
 (ge)-ma-ripi-(i)break it 
Pulo-Annanma-lippi [sic]be cracked 
Proto-Chuukic*ripi, ripiripi, ripi-i-, ma-ripi·shattered, broken into pieces
Marshalleserʷipbroken 
 rʷiprʷipbreak, tear down, demolish 
Gilbertese(ma)-ibibroken (as something brittle) 
 (te)-ma-ibibroken piece 
 (ka)-ma-ibacause (something) to be broken 
Kosraeanlip, liplipsplit, sprain 
 mi-lipshatter, smash 
 mi-lpicut out in small bits 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseibeibeengage in breaking up or open 
 ibe-ato break (something) open (as a coconut) 

— and cf. —

Pohnpeianma-ropbe smashed, broken 
Mokileserepbroken 
 rep-(la)broken through 
 repi-ŋbreak something 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Polynesian*lipicutting instrument 
Fijianribiribi-athe sharp edge of some things (as a yam cut into small pieces) 
Sa’ama-ri’iri’ibroken into slivers 

The Marshallese form and the Chuukese variants with u are puzzling; if their rounding is attributed to the labial consonant, it may be of some significance that the consonant remains unvelarized.

PMc   *roco   be dark

Chuukeseroch, rochorochbe dark 
 roche-(n)darkness of 
 rocho-(nó)get dark 
 (ó)-rochto wait for dark, fight under cover of darkness 
 (ó)-rochato darken (something) 
PuluwateserooR [sic]to be dark 
 roRa-(ppúŋ)to be dark, to be ignorant 
Mortlockeseroshdark 
 rosho-(la)darken, become dark 
Saipan Carolinianroshto be dark 
 rosho-(pʷpʷuŋ)be very dark 
Saipan Carolinian·TroR·be dark
SatawaleseroR·be dark
Woleaianroosho, rosho-night, darkness 
 (ga)-rosho-(o)make it dark 
Pulo-Annanlooso, loso-darkness 
 losolosoto be black 
Proto-Chuukic*roco, rocoroco·be dark
Pohnpeianrootarkness 
 rotdark 
 rota-(la)become dark 
 rotorotpagan, uncivilized 
Mokileserosdarkness 
 rosrospagan 
Pingilapeserɔsdark 
Marshallese(ma)-rekʷdark, darkness (r and d do not cooccur) 
Gilberteseroobe dark (showing metathesis) 
Kosraeanlɔsrdark, pitch black, unilluminated 
Proto-Oceanic*rodo·be dark
Sa’arodonight 
 rorodobe lowering, of clouds 
Bugoturodonight 
Laurodonight 
Arosirododark, black, night 
Kwaiologodarkness, night 
Proto-Kimbe*Lodonight 

— Cf. —

Tonganloolooabsolutely dark, pitch dark 
Uraustronesisch*DeDembe dark 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *rot’o.

PMc   *roŋo   hear, listen

Chuukeseroŋ, roŋoroŋ, roŋe-(e-ya) (<*roŋo-yi-ya), (o)-roŋahear, listen, thing heard, cause to hear 
Mortlockeseroŋoroŋ·hear, listen
Puluwateseroŋ, roŋoroŋhear, listen, obey 
Saipan Carolinianroŋ, roŋoroŋ·hear, listen
Satawaleseroŋ, roŋoroŋ·hear, listen
Woleaianroŋoroŋ·hear, listen
Pulo-Annanloŋoloŋo·hear, listen
Sonsoroleseloŋoloŋo·hear, listen
Proto-Chuukicroŋo, roŋoroŋo·hear, listen
Pohnpeianroŋhear 
 rooŋnews 
Mokileseroŋ·hear, listen
Pingilapeserɔŋ·hear, listen
Marshallesereŋʷ·hear, listen
Gilberteseoŋohear, obey 
 (ka)-oŋo-ainform 
Kosraeanlɔŋhear, listen to (someone) 
Proto-Oceanic*roŋoR·hear, listen (Ross 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*roŋo·hear, listen
Fijianrogo, rogo-ca·hear, listen
Sa’aroŋo·hear, listen
Bugoturooroŋo·hear, listen
Arosiroŋo·hear, listen
Kwaioloŋo·hear, listen
Proto-Kimbe*loŋo·hear, listen
Uraustronesisch*DeŋeR·hear, listen

Gilbertese roŋoroŋo ‘news’ is presumed to be a loan from Samoan. See also Proto-Chuukic *roŋo ‘special knowledge of spells’.

PWMc   *rota   be finished, used up

Chuukeserosbe all gone, used up, finished, depleted, consumed 
 (ó)-rosbe exterminated, annihilated 
 (ó)-rosafinish up, use up, annihilate (something) 
Puluwateserohbe finished, used up, exhausted (as a supply) 
 (ya)-roha-a-(ló)finish it up, use it up 
Saipan Carolinianrosto be finished, used up, depleted 
 roso-(ló)be completely finished 
 (a)-rosato finish it, consume all of it, use it all up 
Woleaianretebe finished, completed, ended, concluded, consumed 
 (ga)reta-(a)finish it, complete it, accomplish it 
 (ga)-reta-(li)the last or end of 
Proto-Chuukic*rota·be finished, used up
Pohnpeianrosbe consumed, used up 
Mokileserojempty, run out, used up 
Marshalleserʷejebb tide 

— Cf. —

Gilberteseitiused up, consumed, all gone 

PMc   *rua   two

Chuukese(é)-rúúw, (é)-rúúthe number two, two (in serial counting) 
 rúwa-, rúwé-, ruwo-two (with classifiers) 
Mortlockeserúwa-·two
Puluwateserúúw, rúwa-·two
Saipan Carolinianrúúw, ruwa-, ruwo-, ruwe-·two
Satawaleseruwa-·two
Woleaianrúúwe, rúúwa, rúwa-, rúwe-·two
Pulo-Annanlie-·two
Proto-Chuukic*rúwa·two
Pohnpeian(a)-ri, (a)-re, ria-·two
Mokileseria-·two
Marshalleseriwe-·two
Gilberteseua-, uo-·two
Kosraeanlo-, lu-·two
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rua·two
Proto-Oceanic*rua·two (Ross 1988)
Fijianrua·two
Proto-Polynesian*rua·two
Sa’arue·two
Ulawanrua·two
Bugoturua·two
Arosirua·two
Kwaiolua·two
Proto-Kimbe*Lua·two
Uraustronesisch*Duwa(Dyen *Dewha
Proto-Austronesian*DuSa·two (Ross 1988)

See also Proto-Micronesian *ru[ao]-ua ‘two (general class of objects)’.

PMc   *ru[ao]-ua   two (general class of objects)

Chuukeseruwuuw, ruuwu, ruu·two (general class of objects)
Puluwateseruwoow·two (general class of objects)
Saipan Carolinianruwoow, ruwouw·two (general class of objects)
Woleaianruwouwe·two (general class of objects)
Pulo-Annanlieow·two (general class of objects)
Proto-Chuukic*ruwouwa·two (general class of objects)
Pohnpeianriaw·two (general class of objects)
Marshalleseriwew·two (general class of objects)
Gilberteseuoua·two (general class of objects)
Kosraeanluo·two (general class of objects)

See Proto-Micronesian *rua ‘two’, Proto-Micronesian *-ua ‘general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)’.

PWMc   *ruki   gather from the ground

see Proto-Micronesian *riku or *ruki.

PMc   *ruku₁   tip, go under water

Chuukeserúk, rúkúrúktip, be unsteady, tip with the outrigger going down under water 
 rúkú-(nó)tip over 
Saipan Carolinianrúghgo under water (of outrigger) 
Woleaianrúgúrúgúbe deceptive, crooked, tricky 
Proto-Chuukic*rúkú·tip, go under water
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ruku·tip, go under water
Proto-Polynesian*rukuto dive 
Bugoturuguduck the head 
Arosiru’ugo underground, disappear 
Kwaiolu’uenter, pass through a door 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *riki ‘to turn quickly’.

PMc   *ruku₂   to stoop

Satawaleserúkenter with head down 
Woleaianrúgú-(tiw)to bend forward from the waist, bow 
Pohnpeian(pai)-ruk, (dai)-rukto bend forward from the waist 
Mokileserukto bow, bend 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*ruku·to stoop
Proto-Oceanic*ruku-s·to stoop
Sa’aru’uto draw back, retire 
 ruu-sito shrink, shrivel 
Lauruuto enter 
Bugoturuguto duck the head 
Arosiru’u-hito retire to 
Kwaiolu’uenter, pass through the door 
Lakalailuu, luluuto duck under 

— Cf. —

Marshallesedikʷalbow ones head, bend 
 badikto duck, lower the head, humble oneself, bow down 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *roko ‘bend, curve’, Proto-Micronesian *ruku₁ ‘tip, go under water’, Proto–Western Micronesian *riku or *ruki ‘gather from the ground’.

PMc   *rut[iu]   become aware, wake up, be surprised

Chuukeseaware (suddenly) 
 rúú-(ké)surprised, astounded, astonished 
Mortlockeserúú-(ké)surprised 
Puluwatesebe surprised, astonished, alarmed 
 (ya)-rú, (ya)-rú-(w)to startle, surprise, shock (someone) 
Saipan Carolinianbe startled, scared, frightened, shocked 
 rúúrúbe worried, anxious 
 (a)-rúú-(w)scare, shock, surprise (someone) 
Satawaleserrúsurprised 
Woleaianrúsúbe frightened, scared 
 (ga)-rúsú-(ú)frighten him, scare him 
Pulo-Annanlúdú-(aki-ni)be surprised at it, frightened by it 
Proto-Chuukic*rútú·become aware, wake up, be surprised
Marshalleserʷijwake up, awake, roused, conscious 
Gilberteseutito arise, awake 
Kosraeanlutbe surprised, startled, amazed 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*rutu·become aware, wake up, be surprised
Sa’aru’uto draw back, retire 

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