st
Updated: 3/19/2012
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

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*T   

Te    Ti    To    Tu    

PCMc   *-Te-i-, -Te-a   remove rough edges

Chuukese(e)-si-i-(y)remove or strip off (barbed edges of pandanus leaf) 
Gilbertesete-a, tete-ato smooth (something) off, remove roughness from (something), trim 

PMc   *Teka or *Tika   penis

Chuukesesee·penis
Puluwatesehee·penis
Pohnpeiansiikpenis (of an infant) 
Kosraeansæk, sʌka-(n)stick, tree, stick of, pole of, bar of 
 sʌka-(l)his penis 

PCMc   *Tepʷu   to drip

Chuukese#suupʷ, supʷu-ndripping, drip of 
 ssupʷdrip, drip down (as rain) 
 ssupʷi-itisprinkle or drip onto (someone) 
Saipan Carolinianssubʷdrop (of liquid), drip down 
Woleaianssobu, ssebuto drop, drip, trickle, pour, drizzle 
Pulo-Annandoopʷu, dopʷu-drop (of water) 
 dopʷuto drip 
Proto-Chuukic*Toopʷu, Topʷu-, Topʷu or *Teepʷu, Tepʷu-, Tepʷu·to drip
Pohnpeiansopʷbe saturated with pomade or hair lotion 
Gilbertesetebʷu-(ruru)to spatter (as heavy raindrops) 

— Cf. —

Fijiantobupool of water, bathing hole 

PWMc   *Ter[ae]   encounter by chance

Chuukeseserbe met accidentally 
 sere-nimeet (someone) accidentally, chance upon 
Puluwateseheri-ŋi-(y)encounter, chance upon, meet 
Woleaiansereto hit, approach, go aground 
Proto-Chuukic*Tere, Tere-ŋi-·encounter by chance
Pohnpeiansεrrun aground 
Marshallesejerah-(tah)misfortune, bad luck 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyarto beach canoe or vessel 

PCMc   *Ti-   we (inclusive, as subject marker)

Chuukesesi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Mortlockesesi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Puluwatesehi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Saipan Caroliniansi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Saipan Carolinian·Thi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Satawalesesi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Woleaiansi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Ulithiansi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Pulo-Annandi-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Proto-Chuukic*Ti-·we (inclusive, as subject marker)
Pohnpeianwe (excl.) 
Marshalleseje-(n)we (incl.) are to 
Gilberteseti-.·we (inclusive, as subject marker)

PMc   *Tika   penis

see Proto-Micronesian *Teka.

PMc   *Tiŋi   fart

Chuukesesin, sini-, siŋ, siŋi-·fart
Puluwatesehiŋ, hiŋi-·fart
Saipan Caroliniansiŋ, siŋisiŋ·fart
Satawalesesiŋ·fart
Woleaiansiŋi·fart
Ulithiansiŋ·fart
Sonsorolesediŋi·fart
Proto-Chuukic*Tiŋi·fart
Pohnpeiansiŋ, siŋi-dfart, fart at 
Mokilesejiŋ, jini-d·fart
Marshallesejiŋ·fart
Gilbertesetiŋ, tiŋi-·fart
Kosraeansəŋ·fart

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zi(k)ifart  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancii·fart
Sa’asii·fart
Arosisi’i·fart
Kwaiosi’i·fart

— Cf. also —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*ceŋisstench  (Blust 1980:51)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*jiRumake a hissing noise  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *Tiri   spurt, squirt

Chuukesesiir, siri-, sirurine, urinate 
Puluwatesehiri-(n), hirurine of, urinate 
Saipan Caroliniansiir, sirurine, urinate 
Satawalesesiir, sir·spurt, squirt
Proto-Chuukic*Tiri·spurt, squirt
Marshallese(?) jjirslippery, lubrication 
Gilbertesetiispurt, spout 
Uraustronesisch*cirit. Cf. Fij tiridrip, drop (of liquids) 

— Cf. —

Fijiantiridrip, drop (of liquids) 
Arosiiri, iri-sito pour 
Kwaiosiridrip through, leak through 
Uraustronesisch*miRmiR·spurt, squirt

Note that Gilbertese mim ‘urinate’ is either a loan from a Polynesian source or an inherited reflex of Proto-Oceanic *mimi (PPn *mimi, Fijian mii, mimi).

PCMc   *Toa or *Towa   edge, side

Chuukesesoo-(nó)far side 
 soosoo-(ŋeni)be near, be on the side toward 
Puluwatesehoo-(ló), hoohoo-(ló)be or move a short distance away 
Woleaiansoowe,sowa-(li)edge, outside, backside, yonder, edge of 
Proto-Chuukic*Towa·edge, side
Gilbertesetoatoahaving four sides 

PMc   *Toka   settle, alight

Chuukeseso, soo-(tiw)precipitate out (as starch derived from washing grated arrowroot or manioc), alight, come to rest, land (of flying things) 
Mortlockesesóó [sic]to land (of flying things) 
Puluwatesehoo [sic]to land (as a plane) 
 hoo-ni-(y)to lower it to the bottom (as a fish trap) 
Saipan Caroliniansóó-(tiw)alight, land (of flying things) 
 soosoto place a fish trap in the water 
Saipan Carolinian·Thóó-(tiw)alight, land (of flying things) 
Satawalesesó, sóó-(tiw)to land, alight 
Woleaiansogoto remain on the bottom (as dregs) 
Proto-Chuukic*Toka·settle, alight
Pohnpeiansokto land (of something that flies), to touch bottom with ones feet in water 
Mokilesejokto swoop 
 jok-(di)to land (of bird or airplane) 
Marshallesejekʷto settle (of liquids), alight, to land 
Proto-Oceanic*toka·settle, alight
Fijiantokabe placed, situated, take a boat 
Proto-Polynesian*tokaset, settle, coagulate 
Samoanto’abe still, settle down [of a liquid], run aground 
Sa’a’o’ato settle [of birds] 
Arosio’ato settle [of birds], stay, dwell 
Lakalaitoato stamp down 
 [e]-toaplace where a jumper lands 

Gilbertese toka ‘be placed upon, take passage, get on’ is clearly a loan from a Polynesian source.

PMc   *Toko   collect, pile up

Puluwatesehoyo-ni-(féŋanni-y)to collect it 
Pohnpeian(kɔ)-sokto pile up 
 (kɔ)-sokεto pile (things) up 
Marshallese(?) jéwkaypile of coconuts 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*coko, cogo·collect, pile up
Fijiansoqo, soqo-na, soqo-niassemble 
Bugotuhogo-nito store up 
Kwaioto’o [fana]gather, assemble 

See also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *uxo ‘assembled, gathered’.

PWMc   *Toŋo   to try

Chuukese(éé)-ssoŋreach for something that is not within reach, reach out and fall short of ones goal, try and fail 
 (éé)-ssoŋe-e-(y)reach for and fall short of 
Pohnpeiansoŋto try, attempt, taste (something) 
 soŋosoŋtemptation 
Mokilesejoŋjoŋto try, taste, joŋ 
 joŋtry or taste (something) 
Pingilapesesɔŋto try 
Marshallese(yidah)-jeŋʷjeŋʷto try, examine, inspect 

— Cf. —

Fijiansagato try hard to do or get something 

PCMc   (?)   *Too   at rest

Chuukesebe quieted (of fear, emotion, pain, wind), calmed, at rest, set (of sun) 
 (a)-séésérest, vacation, be resting (from work) 
Puluwatesehéé [sic]be rested, quieted 
 (ya)-hééhéto rest 
 (ma)-héé-(ló)to quiet down (as wind, sea, or anger), be cured (as sickness) 
Saipan Carolinianséé-(ló)be resting, calm, relaxed 
 (a)-sééséto rest, take it easy 
 (a)-séé-(w)(reflexive) to rest oneself, take it easy, relax 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a)-hééhébe resting, calm, relaxed 
 (a)-héé-(y)to rest oneself 
Woleaian(ga)-séésééto rest, relax 
Pulo-Annandééto rest 
Proto-Chuukic*Téé·at rest
Marshallesejewcalm spell (of weather) 
Gilbertesetoolazy 

PMc   *Too   soak, saturate

Chuukesesoososoak, immerse, lay a fishtrap 
 soo-nisoak it, immerse it 
Puluwatesehoo [sic]lower (as a fishtrap) 
 hoo-ni, hoo-naa-(ló)lower (as a fishtrap), soak (as clothes) 
Saipan Caroliniansoosoa fish trap, to lower a fishtrap in the water 
 soo-lito trap (a fish or small animal) 
Saipan Carolinian·Thoo-ni to trap(a fish or small animal) 
Satawalesesoo-nisoak it, immerse it in water 
Proto-Chuukic*Too, TooToo, Too-ni·soak, saturate
Pohnpeiansobe saturated 
 soo-nto soak (something) 
Marshallesejewjewsoak 
Kosraeantwεtwε, twetweto wash, dip 
 twe-nwash, soak 
Proto-Oceanic*coo·soak, saturate
Fijiantoofilled, saturated with liquid, saturated 
 [vaka]-too-racause to be saturated or filled 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*cemcemmoisten 
Sa’atoto, toto-hito soak into, be absorbed in (liquid) 
Ulawantoto-(qini)soak into, soak up) 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*celebsink, submerge  (Blust 1989:131)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*ceNebimmerse  (Blust 1986:29)

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na ‘to plant, bury’.

PMc   *TooToo   holder, fastener

Chuukesesooso, soosoo-holder, fastener 
Puluwatesehooholashings 
Saipan Caroliniansoosoline that secures the outrigger float to the outrigger boom 
Woleaiansoosoo, soo-(ti-i)stringer-float lashing on canoe, tie or bind it 
Proto-Chuukic*TooToo·holder, fastener
Marshallesejewjewties between spar and outrigger 
Gilbertese(te)-tootoothe perpendicular sticks on an outrigger (connecting float to boom) 

PWMc   *Toro-mi   suck up (something)

Puluwatesehoro-mi-(y)suck it in (as coffee), draw it in (as cigarette smoke) 
Saipan Caroliniansoro-mi and Crn horo-mito sip (liquid) through a straw, to siphon (liquid) 
Woleaiansossoroto suck, drink, sip 
 soro-mi-(i)drink it, sip it, suck it 
Pulo-Annandolo-misuck it, drink it with a straw 
Proto-Chuukic*Toro-mi-·suck up (something)
Marshallesejerʷe-mdrink up, suck up, absorb 
Gilbertesetoo-mato taste of, to sip (something) 

— Cf. —

Kosraeantɔlɔlto suck 
 tɔlɔ, tɔlɔlito suck (something) 
Sa’aomito suck (something) 
 omi-ŋesucking 
 ’ono, ’ono-mito swallow 
 tono, tono-hito drink 
Bugotusono, sono-viswallow 
Arosiono-miswallow 
 gono, gono-hidrink 
Kwaioodo-mi-(a), ono-mi-(a)swallow 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *woro- ‘swallow’.

PCMc   *Towa   edge, side

see Proto–Central Micronesian *Toa.

PWMc   *Towu   leave, depart

Chuukesesu, suu-(nó)set off (on a journey), leave, depart 
 (o)-suu-(w)see off (on a journey) 
Puluwatesehoow [sic]to cast off or sail 
Saipan Caroliniansuu-(ló)leave, depart, go 
Woleaiansoudepart, leave, set out, start out 
 (ga)-sou-(we)say goodbye to, see (him) off 
Proto-Chuukic*Towu·leave, depart
Pohnpeiansouto move, change residence 
Marshallesejiwé-(néy)see off on a voyage 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *Túú ‘to run away’.

PCMc   *Tuu-ki   be open

Chuukesessuu-kbe open, opened, to open 
 suu-kiopen it 
 (o)-ssuu-kucause it to be open 
Mortlockesesuu-keto open (a door) 
Puluwatesehuuhube open 
 huu-ki-(y)open it 
Saipan Caroliniansuusuto be opening 
 suu-ghto be open 
 suu-ghiopen (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Thuuhu, huu-g, huu-gi·be open
Satawalesesuu-kiopen it 
Woleaiansuu-gi-(i)open it 
Pulo-Annandu-ki [sic]open (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*Tuu, Tuu-ki-·be open
Gilberteseuu-kiopened 
 uu-kaopen (something) (showing loss of *t before *k

PWMc   (?)   *Tuuru   wade

Pohnpeiansuurto sink in mud, to wade in mud 
Marshallesejiwir, jjiwirstep on, set foot on, tread on, kick 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuRu·wade (Geraghty 1990)
Arosiuru·wade
Kwaioulu·wade
Lakalaitulu·wade

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