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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


Because many reconstructed morphemes contain smaller submorphemic sound-meaning associations of the type that Brandstetter (1916) called ‘roots’ (Wurzeln), I felt that a module collecting these elements into one place would be useful. The ‘Roots’ module of the ACD thus amounts to a continuation of the data set presented in Blust 1988.

 b    c    C    d    g    h    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    r    R    s    t    w    z   


-bag    -baj    -bak₁    -bak₂    -bak₃    -ban    -baŋ₁    -baŋ₂    -baw₁    -baw₂    -bej    -bek₁    -bek₂    -beŋ₁    -beŋ₂    -beŋ₃    -bid    -bik    -bir    -bis    -bit₁    -bit₂    -bu (or *-buH?)    -buC    -buk₁    -buk₂    -bun (or *-bequn?)    -buŋ    -buq    -buR₁    -buR₂    -buR₃    -bus    -but₁    -but₂    


*-bag sound of a heavy smack

Mongondow bobaghit with something long (as a stick)


*-baj unravel, untie

PWMP *bajbajunravel, untie; to clear forest
Buruese hafa-hundo, take off
Aklanon húbadunravel, untie, unwind
Buruese hufa-hundo, untie, take off
Arosi ihaunwrap, as food cooked in leaves
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kimbaŋopen a book, open a letter
Buruese lafa-hremove (a covering), open (a book)
Buruese lufa-htake off, slip off (clothing); loosen; release

Isneg ubād 'untie, unbind, let loose' (expected **ubag) suggests that Aklanon húbad may not contain the root *-baj.


*-bak₁ peeling skin

Kapampangan bakbákscar, scab, peeling skin
Javanese bebakpeel the husk or skin from (as the first step in processing rice, coffee)


*-bak₂ sound of a heavy smack

PWMP *bakpop! smack!
PAN *bakbak₂smacking sound
PAN *Cebaksmack against
PWMP *debakpound, thud
PMP *kebakpalpitation
PMP *labaksound of a heavy slap
PWMP *lebakpound, thud
PCEMP *sambakslapping sound
PSS *tamba(k)hit, pound
PWMP *ti(m)bakclap, make a clapping sound
Yamdena ambakpound into the ground; stamp with the feet
Ngaju Dayak bikbakgo "plop" (of fruits, etc. falling on soft ground)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak émbakwork the soil with a hoe
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gebak-gebaksound of wings flapping
Kankanaey kibbákto clap, clash (as parts of banana stems against each other)
Singhi Land Dayak pabakhammer
Mandar rimbaʔbeat the wings
Maranao robakto hammer; sledge hammer
Kambera tumbakustrike, knock against (as a buffalo butting with its horns against a fence)


*-bak₃ split off, separate

PMP *bakbak₁peel off, remove bark
PMP *ibakbreak or split off
Toba Batak silbaksplinter; splintered
Cebuano úbakto separate layers of the banana trunk


*-ban group, company

PMP *babangroup, collection, swarm
PWMP *kabangroup, flock, herd
Ilokano arbánflock, herd, drove
Hiligaynon gubángroup, brigade, caravan
Cebuano ubáncompanion, someone together with someone else


*-baŋ₁ broad

Iban bambaŋlarge, broad
Kayan labaŋbroad
Bikol lakbáŋbreadth, width
Balinese lumbaŋbroad, wide
Sasak rembaŋbroad shouldered


*-baŋ₂ to fly

Mongondow bombaŋfly up, rise up together, as a swarm of flies, a flock of chickens
Malay terbaŋto fly


*-baw₁ high; top

PMP *babawupper surface
PMP *ha(m)bawhigh, up, on top
PWMP *ti(m)bawheight, be high
Singhi Land Dayak de somuupon
Maranao gambaotop of; overlap
Cebuano igbáwat the top of something
Bikol labáwprotruding above, extending above, exceeding in height (Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lavew 'highest; great; exceed someone in rank')
Singhi Land Dayak omuhigh
Isneg rabáwtop, peak of a mountain
Aklanon támbawbe over one another, overlapping
Maranao tebaostand out in a crowd due to height
Bontok təŋbawremove the top part of the contents of a container
Cebuano tugbáwlofty, high up
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) umbewgrow taller than someone
Cebuano usbáwrise in degree or quantity

Bontok teŋbaw, Maranao tebao may belong to a single cognate set.


*-baw₂ shallow

PMP *bawbawshallow
Tagalog dábawfording or wading place (across a river, narrow lake, etc.)
Itbayaten havavawshallowness
Maloh imbawshallow
Kenyah lebawshallow
Kenyah libawa ford; shallow
Cebuano mabáwshallow
Aklanon nábawbecome shallow(er)
Tiruray tembawshallow

Palawan Batak lubaʔo 'shallow' suggests *-baqu.

-bag    -baj    -bak₁    -bak₂    -bak₃    -ban    -baŋ₁    -baŋ₂    -baw₁    -baw₂    -bej    -bek₁    -bek₂    -beŋ₁    -beŋ₂    -beŋ₃    -bid    -bik    -bir    -bis    -bit₁    -bit₂    -bu (or *-buH?)    -buC    -buk₁    -buk₂    -bun (or *-bequn?)    -buŋ    -buq    -buR₁    -buR₂    -buR₃    -bus    -but₁    -but₂    



*-bej wind around repeatedly

PMP *bejbejwind around
PWMP *kabejtie, wrap up
PWMP *libejwind around
PWMP *qambejwind around
PWMP *ta(m)bejtie up, wind around
Maranao babedband, bandage, tie, belt
Cebuano balíbudwind something around something
Balinese bedwind round, tie round (Also ebed 'wrapped up, wrapped about')
Tagalog bilíbidtwine, cord or the like, tied around several times
Aklanon bolímbodto tie up (by running the string around many times)
Balinese embedband or ring which firmly encloses something
Hanunóo gabúd, yabúdtangle; entwining, climbing up and up (something), as of vines
Tagalog habídentangling obstacle
Ifugaw hibódact of encircling (a post, rod, etc.) with a rope, string, or thread
Maranao kibedto wind
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kulambedof a vine, to climb or creep by entwining itself on other plants or trees (Also Tiruray kulambed 'tie by winding around')
Tiruray lambedwind around
Maranao lobedwrestle
Hiligaynon sámbudwind, bind, roll
Javanese ubedwrapped, swathed


*-bek₁ dull, muffled sound

PWMP *bambekmuffled sound
PWMP *beksound of hacking or chopping
PAN *bekbeksound of breaking, etc.
PMP *embekdull sound of thud or sob
PWMP *lebekpound in a mortar
PAN *Nabekbreakers, surf, waves
PMP *rabekhit, strike, break
Kankanaey abebékthump, bump (of something heavy that strikes the water)
Fijian coboclap the hands crosswise so as to make a hollow sound
Motu dabo-aa breeze flapping a cloth or flag
Sasak gubekbeat rapidly on a drum
Tagalog hibíksob
Ifugaw imbókbeating of gongs while the people dance
Kayan kubekwhisper, undertone, talking to oneself; babbling
Maranao lobektrample, pound (as rice)
Sasak obekhit with the open hand
Sasak rebekto hit, strike
Manggarai sebekdull sound, as of fruit falling to the ground
Kankanaey sibékto sob (mostly broken sobs, after crying)
Kayan tebeksound of the heart thumping

PWMP *lebek fits equally well under *-bek₂. Ifugaw imbók may be cognate with Tagalog hibík.


*-bek₂ rotten, crumbling, pulverized

PMP *bekbekdust of decaying wood
Itbayaten (ma)-axbekdusty
Kankanaey gebékrotten; with rotten haulm, stalk, culm
Itbayaten kuxbekdust
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) luvekpound something in a mortar until it is like powder
Kankanaey talbékbeaten, etc. to pieces, pulverized
Amis tifekto mill grain


*-beŋ₁ banging noise

Kadazan Dusun koboŋmake a banging noise


*-beŋ₂ block, stop, dam

PWMP *beŋbeŋblock, prevent passage
PWMP *tambeŋobstruct, block, impede
Tboli beŋwall
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) haveŋblock an opening or a path so that nothing can pass; a constructed barrier
Kenyah mbeŋa dam
Bikol simbóŋstopper of leaves; plug the mouth of a container with a stopper of leaves
Balinese tabeŋstopper, cork
Madurese tebbeŋclosed off with a wall (of an entrance)
Tetun titianclogged up, blocked up, obstructed
Selaru tubanclose, shut
Kayan ubeŋfish trap in a dam wall
Arosi ʔabofirm, tight, as a cork in a bottle


*-beŋ₃ dull resounding sound

PAN *beŋbeŋbuzz, hum
Tontemboan embeŋdroning of bees
Malay kumbaŋcarpenter-bee; bumblebee
Itbayaten mabeŋlow-pitched resounding tone
Arosi tohogroan in sickness
Kayan tubeŋlong drum made from a hollowed log

-bag    -baj    -bak₁    -bak₂    -bak₃    -ban    -baŋ₁    -baŋ₂    -baw₁    -baw₂    -bej    -bek₁    -bek₂    -beŋ₁    -beŋ₂    -beŋ₃    -bid    -bik    -bir    -bis    -bit₁    -bit₂    -bu (or *-buH?)    -buC    -buk₁    -buk₂    -bun (or *-bequn?)    -buŋ    -buq    -buR₁    -buR₂    -buR₃    -bus    -but₁    -but₂    



*-bid twist, twine together

PGor *lubidotwist or twine (as fibers into rope)
Sangir lambideʔpart of the fishline made of two or three intertwined wires
Maranao sobidstrengthen rope by twining it with additional twine
Cebuano tabídbraid the hair; hamper woven from bamboo strips
Kankanaey túbidplait, braid, twist


*-bik slap, pat

PWMP *bikbiksound of slapping, bubbling, etc.


*-bir rim, edge

PMP *birbirrim, edge, border
PWMP *su(m)birrim, border
PWMP *ta(m)birrim
PMin *tembiredge, side, bank (Also Maranao tebir 'sew, esp. the seam')
Dairi-Pakpak Batak abirto edge away, move aside
Ngadha kebikebhi/ rim, edge, border
Javanese mbiredge, side of
Iban pelebirplaced to hang over an edge
Ngadha rubirim, edge, border, crest of mountains
Madurese sembiredge, border, outskirts

PAn *bi(R)biR, Kavalan tu:bíl 'lip' probably do not contain *-bir (cf. Blust 1980:53ff). Also cp. Balinese simpir 'edge, margin, rim'.


*-bis drip

Bikol b-ar-isbísto flow or run, referring only to rain water which runs from the roof b-ar-isbis-an eaves
Sundanese biribis-biribisdrizzle, rain lightly


*-bit₁ hook, clasp; grasp with fingers

PWMP *bitbithold by the fingertips
PWMP *cibithook, pinch, clasp
PAN *kabithook or tie together
PPh *kebithook (with finger)
PMP *sa(m)bitclasp, hook on
PSS *ti(bw)i(C)carry
Kadazan Dusun ambittake with the hand (Also Tiruray abit 'beckon')
Iban beribitcarry by a fold (as in a bag or cloth held by one hand), (of crabs) carry in the claws
Old Javanese bibitfishhook a-mibit to fish (with a hook)
Malay cubitpinching, pressure between finger and thumb
Bahasa Indonesia gubitsummon by waving (fingers motioning downward and inward)
Kadazan Dusun haŋkavitclaw, talon
Kadazan Dusun hoŋkivitpull down with the hand
Kayan ivittouch, grasp by hand, hold
Malay jimbitlifting (anything) off the ground with hand or finger
Tagalog kalabíttouching with the tip of the fingers; strumming of a stringed instrument
Kadazan Dusun kibitbear or carry a baby in one's arm
Amis kofitbutton
Cebuano kulumbábithang or cling onto something
Kadazan Dusun ovitcarry, convey, bear, bring, take along
Malagasy rávitramade to hold together, as the leaves of a book, a chaplet, etc.
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button


*-bit₂ whip, to whip

Maranao ambitwhip, entangle
Palauan chelébedwhip; club; bat; anything to hit with
Kayan hivithit, whip
Maranao lambitwhip, beat
Puyuma -lvit-to whip
Javanese sambitstrike with a whip or missile

-bag    -baj    -bak₁    -bak₂    -bak₃    -ban    -baŋ₁    -baŋ₂    -baw₁    -baw₂    -bej    -bek₁    -bek₂    -beŋ₁    -beŋ₂    -beŋ₃    -bid    -bik    -bir    -bis    -bit₁    -bit₂    -bu (or *-buH?)    -buC    -buk₁    -buk₂    -bun (or *-bequn?)    -buŋ    -buq    -buR₁    -buR₂    -buR₃    -bus    -but₁    -but₂    



*-bu (or *-buH?) dust

PMP *debudust
PAN *qabuashes
Arosi agohudirt, dust (<*-puk₂?)
Amis alafohdust blown by the wind
Manobo (Ata) alibudust
Samoan efuefudust, powder (< *-puk₂?)
Fijian kuvudust, spray, smoke, steam (<*-puk₂?)
Malay lebudust
Wolio ombusmoke, steam, mist
Samoan pefudust (<*-puk₂?)
Old Javanese rabudust, dried mud
Bikol talbódust


*-buC to weed, pluck, pull out

PMP *(r)ebutsnatch away
PMP *a(m)butpull out
PAN *buCbuCpluck, pull out
PMP *cabutpluck, pull out
PWMP *ebutpluck, pull out
PAN *Ra(m)buCto weed, pull out
PWMP *rabutpull out something rooted in soft matter
PAN *u(m)buCpluck, pull out
Iban babutroot up, pluck out, pull out, weed
Old Javanese dawutpulled out, uprooted
Asilulu hehupull out (hair, nails, etc.)
Ifugaw híbutact of weeding
Wolio hobut-ipull out (hair, feathers)
Bikol hulbótpull out, unsheathe, extract (Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hulavut 'draw a dagger')
Cebuano ibútpull out something rooted, stuck into something
Manggarai kebutpluck, pull out
Gorontalo pahutopull out, extract
Manggarai robutpluck (feathers) with the fingers
Cebuano sakbútsnatch, grab something from
Balinese sambutseize, grab (like a beast of prey)
Seimat sohut-ipluck, pull out


*-buk₁ decay, crumble; powder

PWMP *bukbukwood weevil
PMP *dabukdust, ashes
PMP *qa(R)bukdust
PWMP *Rabukdust, powder
Tagalog alikabókdust (rising and falling on surfaces)
Balinese ebukdust, powder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) havuk-havukwhite powdery scale which forms on exposed parts of the body when a person does not often bathe
Ifugaw ibukblack and rotten (teeth)
Bimanese kalub^udust, ashes
Manggarai kebokdust, ashes
Manggarai labukflour (of rice, corn, or tuber)
Gorontalo peyahuʔodust
Toba Batak sorbukpowder, dust (Also Malay serbok 'fine particles, powder (of wood)')
Balinese srabukpowder, dust
Arosi tahubore holes; species of wood-boring insect
Sasak tebukfinely ground coffee
Gorontalo tihuʔodust from pounding grains
Bugotu uvupowdery, friable, open (of soil), floury


*-buk₂ pound, thud, heavy splash

PMP *lambukhit, beat, pound
PWMP *lebukpound, thud
PAN *ti(m)bukpound, throb
PMP *tumbukknock, pound, hit
Puyuma alvukhit with a large stick
Javanese babukbutt with horns
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bukbukfrog (onom.) (Also Gorontalo huhuʔo 'struck with the palm of the hand')
Tagalog bulbókbubbling or gushing of liquids
Fijian cevuexplode, burst, as breadfruit when roasting
Malagasy dabókabeat, thump
Malay debokto go flop (Also debuk 'a thud')
Malay gebokstriking a heavy blow with a flat object
Ngadha ibuhit, beat; sound of hitting or beating
Rembong kembuksound of splashing about in the water
Aklanon límbokpounded rice
Manggarai lubukstrike with a stick or the hand so as to make a noise (Also Arosi rubu 'strike with fists, box')
Manggarai lumbukmix coarse and fine substances by pounding
Nggela povufall back into the water with a splash (Also Kambera póbuku 'hollow sound, as of a gourd when struck')
Malagasy rávokapound rice
Manggarai rembukpound again (of corn flour)
Bikol ribóknoise, clamor, din, hubbub
Sasak rubukto bubble (of water), snort (as of people in the water)
Yamdena sambukpound fine (of roasted maize)
Kayan sebuksound of fruit or stones falling into water
Kankanaey síbokto clack, clap
Bare'e tabusplash, plop; forcefully insert hands or feet
Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh
Old Javanese telebukwith a thud
Fijian wabubeat with a stick, strow down with violence


*-bun (or *-bequn?) heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble

PWMP *ambúnheap, pile
PMP *bunbun₁collect gather; heap over with dirt
PMP *ebunheap, pile
PWMP *hubun₂group, collection
PWMP *Rab(e)quncover with earth
PMP *tambunheap
PWMP *timbunheap
Makassarese balumbuŋheap up earth over something
Ngadha dabucollect, gather
Bikol gibónsmall mound of soil in which seeds are planted
Cebuano híbunfor a depression to get filled up or covered
Tetun hobungather, collect, as flies on a wound
Tetun kabungroup (of people), grove (of trees)
Kenyah kelimbunassemble
Hiligaynon kibúnsurround, besiege
Kenyah lembungathering, herd, throng
Hanunóo limbúndam
Buruese lubu-heap; in heaps or piles
Kenyah mbuna heap
Bimanese ŋgumbuheaped up
Lau ofupile up, amass; bunch, group of people (Also Nggela ovu 'crowd, heap, pile, flock')
Isneg tabbóngather, collect, come together, congregate
Kankanaey tubónhigh; heaped up; piled up; in a high pile
Cebuano ugbúnmound, esp. a heap of finely-textured things
Nggela uruvuassemble


*-buŋ ridge of the roof

PMP *buŋbuŋ-anroof ridge
Kenyah beluboŋthe house top
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tibuŋtop; a peak; a high vantage point (of hill, etc.)


*-buq fall

PWMP *dabuqfall
PMP *labuqfall; cast anchor
PMP *nabuqfall
PMJ *rubbuhto fall
Arosi ahufall, come down
Yamdena fufufall from a height
Wolio sabujump down, drop


*-buR₁ rice gruel; rice porridge; to mix

PSan *bəbuRporridge
PAN *buRbuRporridge
PWMP *libuRmixture; gruel
Javanese bawurmixed (together)
Kiput bəlasauʔ(< *-bSuR) porridge
Mansaka bibogsoft-cooked rice
Maranao biobogporridge
Malay buburfood in pulpy or viscous form; generic for gruels, thick broths and porridges
Binukid bulbugto make rice or corn porridge
Ngadha kabhuto mix
Kambera kaŋaburumix
Bontok kíbulmix soil with water
Hanunóo lábugrice gruel
Tagalog libolrice soup
Bare'e lowujoin, mix
Kelabit menebhurrice gruel
Dairi-Pakpak Batak raburmix
Cebuano sambúgmix things together; add ingredient; mixture of rice and corn
Maranao sembogmix
Hiligaynon símbugto mix, dilute liquids
Tiruray ʔeborbroth; mix ebor with rice

Also Bintulu avud 'porridge of sago pearls boiled with coconut meat', Maranao kambor 'stir, mix', Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rembur 'to mix different kinds of seed together', Maranao sambor 'mix', Maranao sembor 'mix, mixture', Isneg tambúr 'mix shredded coconut meat with bási (rum)', with root candidate *-bur.


*-buR₂ strew, sow; sprinkle

PMP *sa(m)buRstrew
PWMP *Sa(m)buRstrew, spread
PMP *simbuRsprinkle, bespatter
PMP *tabuRstrew
Sundanese belaburstrew
Sika burstrew, scatter; sow rice and maize
Iban imburscatter or splash with the hands
Fijian kabusow or scatter small seeds
Palauan melúbssprinkle, spray, throw water on
Toba Batak raburscattered, strewn
Malay semburbespattering from the mouth; not spitting (cf. ludah), but taking water into the mouth and then ejecting it as is done (with magical simples) by witch-doctors on a diseased limb to cure it
Rotinese sofustrew, scatter (as powder)
Bare'e webusprinkle

Also Balinese burbur 'scatter, throw down in confusion'.


*-buR₃ turbid

PMP *kebuRto churn (of water agitated by fish)
PWMP *lebuRturbid, murky
PMP *libuRmurky, clouded, turbid
Javanese bawur(of vision) blurred, hazy
Nggela gagavudirty, of water
Karo Batak gembursomewhat turbid, of water, urine, etc.
Ifugaw kaníbulidea of being turbid, muddy, as the water of a river after a heavy rain
Samoan ŋæpu(of water) be cloudy, muddy
Tiruray rebur(of water) dirty, murky, unclear
Manggarai teburturbid (of water)
Fijian vuvumuddy, troubled, of water

Also Mongondow lobog 'turbid, murky'.


*-bus end, terminate, finish, use up

PWMP *ubusto finish
Ilokano búbusconsume, use up, exhaust, drain, wear out
Ilokano gíbusend, termination, limit, finish, cessation, completion, conclusion, close
Ilokano ibúsfinish, use up, exhaust
Banggai kabusgone, finished
Mongondow kobutdead (animals)
Madurese obusfinished

Marsh (1977:95) also cites "Proto-Favorlang-Pazeh-Saisiat" *t₂abus 'all', but the supporting evidence that he cites is open to question.


*-but₁ buttocks; bottom

Kayan avutbuttocks
Tiruray bubutbase; buttocks; euphemism for vulva
Melanau (Mukah) kabutbottom, posterior
Mb(T) lebutbuttocks
Kayan lekbutanus


*-but₂ husk, coarse hair or fiber

PWMP *rambuthairy
PWMP *sabutcoarse hair or fiber
Hanunóo gábutcoconut husk
Javanese jembutpubic hair

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)