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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-daŋ₁    -daŋ₂    -daR    -dek₁ (or *-deqek?)    -dek₂    -dem₁    -dem₂    -deR    -det    -duk    -duŋ    -dut    


*-daŋ₁ dazzle, shine

Bikol saldáŋthe sun; to shine (sun)
Maranao siraŋdazzle
Toba Batak sondaŋlight, lustre
Karo Batak tendaŋcoconut-leaf torch, lamp; to illuminate


*-daŋ₂ to warm by a fire

PAN *daŋdaŋwarm by a fire
Saisiyat paparaŋroast over a fire


*-daR lean on, recline

PWMP *sandaRlean on
Bare'e hondarack or railing on which something is supported or leans
Maranao indag, iragrecline, tilt
Banggai kandalrailing, place to lean
Palauan olsírslean against, lean
Bare'e ondarack or railing on which something is supported or leans
Maranao sindag, siraglean against
Palauan skorscane, crutches, walking stick

-daŋ₁    -daŋ₂    -daR    -dek₁ (or *-deqek?)    -dek₂    -dem₁    -dem₂    -deR    -det    -duk    -duŋ    -dut    



*-dek₁ (or *-deqek?) hiccough, sob

PSan *Rindukto hiccup
PWMP *si(n)deksob, inhale suddenly
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gedeksound of a galloping horse
Kayan herekswallowing accidentally; gulping down
Tagalog hindíkcontinuous and agonizing hard breathing
Kayan pidekto sob
Kankanaey saindékto sob
Casiguran Dumagat ududəkto grunt, of a pig
Cebuano yadʔúkswallow down a liquid
Bontok ʔalindadəkhiccough


*-dek₂ pulverized, pounded fine

PMP *dekdekpound; pulverized rice
PWMP *lidekcrush rice
Sasak ladekfine (of meal, flour)
Sasak ledekfine (of meal, flour)
Sasak padekbeat with a stick
Tiruray ʔedekto pound, as rice with a pestle


*-dem₁ dark; overcast

PMP *demdemdark
PAN *dudemobscured by clouds
PWMP *li(n)demdark
PWMP *ludemcloudy, obscure
PWMP *qi(n)demdark, black
PAN *qudemdim, obscure, dark
PWMP *sedemdark
PWMP *sidemobscure, dusky
PMP *tidemdark
Tausug andumcloud (dark)
Javanese burem(of the moon) hazy, clouded over
Karo Batak endemovercast; misted over, of the sun or moon
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gondemovercast weather, sign of approaching rain
Javanese jarembruised, black and blue
TYPE kendemdark place, darkness
Ilokano kiddémto tarnish, become dull
Hawaiian kilofirst night of the new moon
Nggela kurobecome dim, be dimmed, darken
Nggela londodark (in phrases only)
Melanau (Mukah) memademovercast
LgL meremnight; dark
Palauan mireméremdark (at night)
Bare'e mudoovercast, clouded over
Pangasinan ŋáremafternoon
Melanau Dalat pademdark
Sangir peduŋdark (of wrath)
Yami (Iranomilek) redamdark red, maroon
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rusiremdark
Balinese suremobscure, dim
Kavalan tedemdark; dark place
Puyuma uDeDemblack
Isneg xídamevening, from about 5 P.M. until darkness sets in

Also Ilokano derrém 'to dim, of the sun, the light of a candle, etc.'.


*-dem₂ think, ponder, brood; remember

PAN *demdemthink, ponder, consider
PWMP *hidemsilent; secret
PWMP *qe(n)demthink, brood, remember
PWMP *ta(n)demremember
PSan *taRəndummemory; remember, think of
Javanese aŋremsit brooding (Also Sasak arem 'to brood')
Bare'e endoreminiscing upon what is gone
Hiligaynon hándumwish, desire, ambition
Tboli hendemthink, ponder
Maranao lemdemhatch -- hen or bird
Ilokano seddémoppressed, weighed down, overburdened (with grief, pain, work, etc.)
Javanese siḍemquiet, silent, withdrawn
Lau tagoto think
Tiruray tedemto remember
Arosi ʔadothink

Also Casiguran Dumagat ilemlem 'of a chicken, to sit on its eggs', Kayan selem 'to think within oneself'.


*-deR stand on

Karo Batak cinderstand, stand erect
Pazeh kizexstep up on (a rock, table, etc.)


*-det packed in, compressed

PAN *detdetcrowded, crammed, dense
PWMP *padetsqueezed in; compact
PWMP *sa(n)detpacked tightly
PWMP *sedettightness, congestion
Bikol badátfull and unable to eat any more
Kankanaey edétthick, close, closely set, crowded
Bikol gadótcompact, compressed
Manggarai perettight (of clothes)
Manggarai pirettoo tight (of clothes)
Ilokano sidétdense, thick, close, compact, crowded (of plants, writing, etc.)
Sundanese t+nd+tram, ram down, batter, pound (as the ground, or as to reduce unevenness)
Bontok ʔidə́tpack mud on dykes of pondfield

Bikol badát should be **badot. I assume that it shows assimilation of the last vowel to the first. The variant budát 'full and unable to eat any more' is assumed to show metathesis of the vowels.

-daŋ₁    -daŋ₂    -daR    -dek₁ (or *-deqek?)    -dek₂    -dem₁    -dem₂    -deR    -det    -duk    -duŋ    -dut    



*-duk ladle, spoon

PMP *ci(n)dukladle; scoop up
PWMP *sandukspoon, ladle
PWMP *sendukspoon
PMP *sudukspoon, ladle
Tetun kanedokladle, spoon
LgL tarokspoon

Also Ujir huluk 'spoon, ladle'.


*-duŋ shelter, protect; shade, shadow

PMP *duŋduŋsheltered, as from weather
PMJ *kuduŋwear over one's head
PAN *laduŋshelter; shade
PWMP *linduŋshelter, protect
PWMP *siduŋto shelter
PMP *teduŋtake shelter, cover the head
PMP *tuduŋhead cover
Toba Batak bahuduŋfield but
Tae' buruŋrain cape made of bamboo or pandanus leaves, worn on the back with a cowl covering the head
Sangir galinduŋto protect, screen, shelter
Ifugaw halídoŋlarge circular hat suited for wear in the rain
Malagasy híndonatake shelter from the rain or sun
Kankanaey ídu.ŋto shelter
Javanese kroḍoŋprotective covering
Kavalan lazuŋshade; take shelter from the rain
Ngadha ludu, ludhuto cover, screen, protect, veil
Tae' mentireruŋto shelter
Bikol pandóŋa hood
Maranao podoŋnative hat; top of hat
Fijian pu(u)rucover, shelter from wind and rain (Geraghty 1983:118)
Tiruray rinduŋtake cover temporarily
Mandar runduŋshelter
Malagasy salondonathe act of covering the head
Malay selindoŋveiling oneself; hiding behind a veil of any sort
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sereruŋmake a temporary shelter
Sasak sunduŋleaf covering wrapped around fruits to protect them from bats
Ifugaw taddóŋlarge circular hat used as an umbrella by women working in the rice fields or in a sweet potato swidden
Manggarai tiduŋto guard, protect (animals, children)
Bikol údoŋa hunter's shelter or but
Gorontalo woluŋoshelter (< *-luŋ?)

Maranao podoŋ and Fijian pu(u)ru may belong to a single cognate set.


*-dut uproot, pluck, pull out

PWMP *badutuproot, pull out
PMP *dutdutpluck, pull out
PMP *Ra(n)dutpluck, pull out
Pangasinan ákdotremove, pluck out
Maranao andotpull out
Maranao daiodotpull out, evacuate
Banggai idutremove clothes
Tboli kedutpull out
Cebuano larútpull up by the roots
Ngadha veduto pluck (fruits); tear out or pull up with the fingers

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)