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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-gak₁    -gak₂    -gaŋ    -gek    -gem    -geŋ    -ger    -get    -gik (or *-giqik?)    -git    -guk    -guŋ (or *-guquŋ?)    -gur    -gut₁    -gut₂    


*-gak₁ proud, boast

Malay bégakfoppish, dressed up
Aklanon búgʔakproud, haughty, boastful
Aklanon hágakbragging, boastful, proud, over-exaggerating
Minangkabau lagaktalk big, boast (Also Balinese laŋgak 'proud, vain, conceited')
Minangkabau paŋgakpride oneself on anything; swagger
Malay ségakshowily dressed or got up. Of women, dressing up; of a man, showing off his strength
Manggarai sehakproud, haughty, arrogant
Minangkabau soŋgakhandsome, showy
Tagalog ugákfoolish, stupid


*-gak₂ raucous throaty sound

PMP *gakgakto caw (crows), cackle
PWMP *hagakraucous throaty sound
Yami (Iranomilek) beseregakspeaking together, all talking at once
Bikol bulák-bugákgurgle, gush out
Ngaju Dayak gakthud (as of a fist striking an object, something falling)
Sundanese gokgakin a blatant tone, as in scolding someone
Kankanaey ígakbreak out into laughter
Bikol lagák-lagáksound made when swallowing liquids
Sundanese pagakrebuke, scold, run someone down (Also Iban paŋgak 'frog').
Maranao raŋgaksound made by difficult breathing, as in asthma, or when dying
Sundanese seŋgakshout, exult
Toba Batak sigakcrow (si gak?)
Kankanaey tagákcackle
Kapampangan tugákfrog
Kankanaey uágakto low, moo
Kankanaey uyágakcry, shout, scream; to low, moo (for pain)


*-gaŋ dry near a fire

PWMP *egaŋdry
PWMP *gaŋgaŋheat or dry something near a fire
PWMP *paŋgaŋroast
PWMP *tegaŋdry, dehydrated
Yami (Iranomilek) agaŋdry branches and twigs of fallen tree
Sika begaŋburned, very dry
Bikol igáŋreferring to dried salt
Tiruray lagaŋdry over a fire
Kankanaey lokgáŋdry; empty; drained
Mongondow rogaŋ, yogaŋthirst
Bikol tigáŋalmost dry (as a stream or a river bed with either very low water, or only patches of water)

-gak₁    -gak₂    -gaŋ    -gek    -gem    -geŋ    -ger    -get    -gik (or *-giqik?)    -git    -guk    -guŋ (or *-guquŋ?)    -gur    -gut₁    -gut₂    



*-gek dull throaty sound

PWMP *geksound of a thud
PMP *gekgekanimal sound
Ifugaw boŋgókto snore while sleeping
Kankanaey buŋgéksnore
Kankanaey daŋgékhoarse; to sound harshly, as the throat when one coughs
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dergekgulp, swallow
Kankanaey duŋgéksnore
Ifugaw igókgurgling sound produced by someone who drinks water
Kayan kigeknoisy laughter
Sasak legeka gulp (of water); to swallow
Manggarai reŋgekto drone (of speech, etc.)
Kankanaey segékto obstruct one's throat, as when something enters the windpipe or larynx
Karo Batak siŋgekchoke on something
Kadazan Dusun togokto cluck (as a hen) (Also Kayan tegek 'knock, tap, bump', manukṭ 'woodpecker')


*-gem grasp in the fist

PWMP *agemhold, grip
PMP *gemhold in the fist
PAN *gemgemmake a fist
Bare'e gaŋgograsp with the hand, a when seeking fish in the mud
Kayan hegemclenched fist
Ilokano iggémhold; have or keep in the grasp of the hand
Kenyah keregemclench the fist
Cebuano kugúmhold on to something with the fingernails or claws (as a hawk clutching a chick)
Gorontalo oŋgomoclenched in the fist
Sasak ragemhold in the clenched fist
Cebuano sakgúmhold something in both hands
Javanese taŋgemsteel vise


*-geŋ hum, buzz

PWMP *eNgeŋmoan, hum
PMP *geŋdull resounding sound
PMP *regeŋresonance
Manggarai ceŋgeŋbuzz (of a bee)
Maranao rigeŋroar
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) yegeŋhum a tune


*-ger shake, shiver, tremble

PAN *gergershake, shiver, tremble
PSan *kəkiRshiver, tremble
Sika begermove; shudder, tremble, shake
Dairi-Pakpak Batak degerto shake (as a tree, to make its fruit fall)
Kayan genshaking or vibration
Kayan tegento shake, shaking; to vibrate, vibrating


*-get angry

Manggarai jegetangry
Bontok ligətangry
Hiligaynon págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep
Ilokano supagétto show or manifest anger (said of persons and animals)
Aklanon ugótbe angry; get peeved
Manggarai wegetstubborn; (W.MGG) spiteful, malicious, peevish; hate, hateful

Also Balinese ceket 'sensitive, short-tempered'.

-gak₁    -gak₂    -gaŋ    -gek    -gem    -geŋ    -ger    -get    -gik (or *-giqik?)    -git    -guk    -guŋ (or *-guquŋ?)    -gur    -gut₁    -gut₂    



*-gik (or *-giqik?) shrill throaty sound

PWMP *e(ŋ)gikhigh-pitched animal sound
PWMP *gigiksqueal, squawk
PMP *gikgiktitter, giggle
Cebuano agíikcreak, squeak
Ifugaw dagíknoise
Cebuano ígikfor pigs to squeal
Malay regikgulp, small mouthful
Casiguran Dumagat səgekto gag (swallow someting, choke on it, and cough it back up again)
Bikol úgiksqueal of a pig


*-git anger, resentment

Kankanaey gitgítresent; be offended; get angry
Tagalog iŋgítenvy, spite, grudge
Malagasy mohítradispute angrily
Kankanaey siŋgíttease, plague; trouble, vex
Manggarai wegétstubborn

-gak₁    -gak₂    -gaŋ    -gek    -gem    -geŋ    -ger    -get    -gik (or *-giqik?)    -git    -guk    -guŋ (or *-guquŋ?)    -gur    -gut₁    -gut₂    



*-guk deep throaty sound

PWMP *cegukhiccough
PWMP *de(ŋ)gukdeep throaty sound
PMP *e(ŋ)gukdeep muffled sound
PMP *gukgukanimal sound
PWMP *iŋgukthroaty sound
PWMP *leq(e)gukgulp, swallow
PWMP *ragukgulp
PWMP *se(ŋ)gukhiccough
PMP *tegukgulp
Manggarai beguksound of something falling; footfall
Dairi-Pakpak Batak belgukswallow
Cebuano búguktake a mouthful of liquid to gargle
Ifugaw daŋgóksnore while sleeping
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hagukbreathe loudly
Kambera haŋgukuindividual movement of swallowing
Hiligaynon huragúksnore
Ifugaw paŋgúkstifled, suffocated because of swallowing something the wrong way
Manggarai rugukcontinuous clatter
Kapampangan sigúkhiccough
Old Javanese telegukmaking the sound of gulping or swallowing (in craving for food or drink), with the mouth watering
Bontok ʔusgúkto grunt, of a pig


*-guŋ (or *-guquŋ?) deep resounding sound

PWMP *eguŋgong
PAN *guŋguŋdeep resounding sound
PWMP *leguŋbooming sound
Ngadha bhegubeat, drum, call to the dance
Bikol hukrágoŋsnore
Cebuano kagúŋmake a hollow sound when empty
Tiruray kereguŋthunder, thundering
Kankanaey kígooŋrattle, clash, bang, bounce
Kankanaey kíguŋclink, ring, clang, clank
Tboli loguŋdeep rumble of thunder
Pangasinan ógoŋto thunder (of any noise)
Old Javanese reguŋmake a loud noise, trumpet, bellow (usually of a furious elephant, but also of a bull or a demon, and of a hollow tree)
Maranao rogoŋthunder
Casiguran Dumagat tagúŋto howl, of a dog
Ifugaw tikgóŋbumping sound produced when something that is hard falls and collides
Paiwan tjeguŋmake noise


*-gur purr, rumble

PMP *gurpurring or grunting sound
PAN *gurgursound of boiling water, splashing rain, etc.
Malay degurdull reverberation
Sasak iŋgurrumble, roar
Sundanese jegursound of thunder, cannon (Also Toba Batak joŋgur 'thunder')
Rembong legurthunder
Toba Batak roŋgurthunder
Ngadha teguthunder, rumble of thunder


*-gut₁ gnaw

PWMP *gutgutnibble off
PWMP *pagutpeck, pick at
PWMP *regutbite, nibble
Balinese a(ŋ)gutsnatch at something with the mouth, bite at (dog)
Balinese cegutbite, gnaw
Cebuano ígutscrape something by rubbing a knife which has been fixed into something immovable up and down against it
Balinese puŋgutbite, bite off, put one's teeth into
Balinese segutbite, snap, nibble (men and animals)


*-gut₂ pull with a jerk

PWMP *raŋgutsnatch at, pull with a jerk
Ifugaw bagutpull out a piece of wood that is pressed between two other pieces of wood
Malay cagutto peck (of a fowl), pull (of fish at a bait)
Yami (Iranomilek) gugutpull out violently
Ngaju Dayak haŋgutwhat is pulled out (grass, post, person from the water, etc.) (Also Singhi Land Dayak aŋgut 'tweezers')
PGor *pagutopull out (as tubers from the ground)
Malay reŋgutsnatching at, tugging at; tearing at

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)