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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-ka    -kab    -kad    -kak₁    -kaŋ₁    -kaŋ₂    -kaŋ₃    -kap    -kaq₁    -kaq₂    -kas₁    -kas₂    -kas₃    -kaw    -keb₁    -keb₂    -keC    -ked    -kek    -kel    -kem₁    -kem₂    -keŋ₁    -keŋ₂    -keŋ₃    -keŋ₄    -kep₁    -kep₂    -kes    -ket    -kik    -kiŋ    -kiq    -kis₁    -kis₂    -kit₁    -kit₂    -kub₁    -kub₂    -kud    -kug₁    -kug₂    -kuk₁    -kuk₂    -kul₁    -kul₂    -kum    -kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?)    -kuŋ₂    -kup    -ku(q)    -kur    -kus    -kut    


*-ka split

PMP *bekasplit, crack open
PWMP *bikapotsherd
Karo Batak takasplit, cleave
Paiwan velakaa split in wood


*-kab open, uncover

PWMP *e(ŋ)kabopen, uncover
PWMP *hu(ŋ)kabopen, uncover
PWMP *iŋkabto open, uncover
PWMP *lekabopen, uncover
PWMP *lukabturn up at the edge
PWMP *ruŋkábto force open
PMP *siŋkabopen, uncover
PMP *su(ŋ)kabto open, break open
PWMP *tu(ŋ)kabbreak open, force open
Bare'e bokaopen by loosening the binding
Kadazan Dusun haŋkabcome off, come loose (as skin, something pasted on)
Javanese liŋkabto open (mat, clothes)
Tagalog tiŋkábviolently opened or dislodged; forced open (Also Hiligaynon tikafb 'open one's mouth')

Also Kadazan Dusun hiŋkib 'open slightly', Aklanon tukifb 'open up a little (as a window)'. Tagalog hikafb next to higafb 'yawn' may show contamination from *-kab.


*-kad prop, support

PMP *tu(ŋ)kadprop, support; staff
Kambera hiŋgaprop, support
Hawu njukaprop, support
Rotinese sakaprop up with something
Ilokano saroŋkádto prop, too plant the feet firmly against the ground
Malagasy sefhatrathe rest or support for a gun in being fired
Ilokano sekkádprop; plant the feet firmly against the ground


*-kak₁ cackle, laugh loudly

PMP *akakcackling laughter
PWMP *dekakshriek, as of laughter
PMP *kaksound of a cackle, loud laughter, etc.
PAN *kakakcackle
PWMP *pekakcackle
PWMP *tekakcackle
PPh *tukákkind of loud frog
Bikol agakákclucking sound; to cluck
Javanese bekak-beki:kshriek repeatedly
Karo Batak cekakchoke, as when swallowing
Javanese eŋkakvariety of small crow (Also Sasak eŋkak 'gasp for breath')
Rotinese hikalaugh loudly
Sawai hikamorning bird, named from its cry
Malay iŋkakchuckle, guffaw
Kelabit kak kaksound of cackling
Yami (Iranomilek) lekakcackling with laughter
Manggarai ŋkehakgag of one about to vomit
Manggarai ŋkéhakcough repeatedly
Kankanaey pakákcackle
Mongondow pékakfrog
Balinese sukakcough, clear the throat, cough up something stuck in the throat
Amis ʔanikakcrow


*-kaŋ₁ spread apart, as the legs

PWMP *akaŋstep over
PAN *bakaŋbowlegged
PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋunbent (as a fishhook)
PMP *eŋkaŋwalk with legs wide apart
PWMP *iŋkaŋwalk with legs wide apart
PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₁spread the legs wide
PWMP *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋspread the legs
PMP *pekaŋstretch open or apart
PWMP *pukaŋcrotch
PWMP *rekaŋwide apart (as the legs)
PMP *sakaŋbowlegged
PMP *sekaŋcrossbar, strut, something to hold things apart
PWMP *sikaŋwide apart, of the legs
PPh *tákaŋspread wide open
PWMP *ti(ŋ)kaŋspread the legs
PWMP *u(ŋ)kaŋspread open, as the legs
Ifugaw akdáŋ(<M) make a big step over something that lies across the way
Hanunóo balakáŋspace between one's legs
Cebuano bikaŋkáŋspread one's legs apart
Toba Batak biŋkaŋsplit, crack open, of a fruit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bivikaŋsquat with knees wide apart
Malay boŋkaŋprone; astretch (in contrast to lying huddled up)
Malay boŋkaŋ-baŋkiŋlying about in all sorts of attitudes (of bodies after a battle)
Tagalog bukaŋkáŋopen (forced) at one end
Sasak cakaŋwith fingers spread open
Balinese ceŋkaŋspan (tip of the first finger to thumb)
Malay cukaŋto split bamboos against a wedge
Madurese dharakkaŋsit with legs wide apart
Balinese duŋkaŋstep, stride, step over, take a big step
Malay jaŋkaŋgeneric for a number of trees with stilt roots
Malay jéŋkaŋextension of a leg; as when a mother draws out a child's leg to clean it
Iban lekaŋwide open, gaping (door, legs)
Kelabit pekakaŋspread apart, stretched (of forceps that have been forced apart)
Iban perekaŋwide apart, wide open; sit sprawling
Sika pikaŋfork, pitchfork
Javanese pleŋkaŋinadvertently do a split
Javanese raŋkaŋ(of people) moving on all fours; creep, crawl
Yami (Iranomilek) rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs)
Iban rikaŋrolling, swaggering; walk with feet apart
Tiruray sebekaŋv-shaped
Balinese selaŋkaŋstand astride of
Bare'e seŋkaspread wide, of the legs
Kayan sepakaŋplace a child or hold something between one's legs
Kenyah tapikaŋa v-shaped piece of wood used in the construction of the platform on which a corpse is laid out
Madurese tekkaŋstraddling wide
Malay ter-jaŋkaŋwide astretch, of the limbs
Balinese tuŋkaŋstride, straddle
Bontok wákaŋstride, walk with large steps


*-kaŋ₂ bark, croak

PMP *kaŋanimal sound
PAN *kaŋkaŋ₂resounding sound
Malay deŋkaŋcroaking sound such as the note of the bullfrog
Malay doŋkaŋa frog, sp. unident.
Kankanaey kúkaŋcry out, scream, screech


*-kaŋ₃ stiff, rigid; cramps

PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃cramps, stiffening of the limbs
Toba Batak baŋkaŋ dagiŋstiff, rigid
Malay cekaŋtaut, astretch
Malay jeŋkaŋstark or stiff in death
Kambera kalikaŋunumb, stiff (as limbs)
Malagasy róhanasyphilitic rheumatism
Dairi-Pakpak Batak terkaŋstiff, inflexible

Malay cekaŋ, jeŋkaŋ may contain a reflex of *-keŋ 'cramps, stiffening of the limbs'. Jakartanese (Betawi) jeŋkaŋ 'prostrate; dead', however, unambiguously indicates *-kaŋ.


*-kap feel, grope

PAN *kapkapfeel in the dark; grope
Ilokano aríkapfeel with hand or finger; touch; fondle
Amis hakaptouch lightly, intending to find out the identity of an object
Hiligaynon híkaptouch with the hand, feel
Aklanon hulíkapto pet, feel around (the body)
Bontok kapúkapto feel one’s way, as a blind person
Mongondow kekapgrope with hands and feet (in the dark, as in seeking the way)
Mongondow kokapgrope, feel (as in the dark) (Also Gorontalo oʔapa)
Mongondow lekap, likapgrope with hands or feet, as a blind person, or someone in the dark
Ngadha ŋokafeel in the water for fish
Puyuma paLukapsensitive with the touch; to feel, finger something
Kavalan pRapkapto grope
Buruese raka-hgrope for, feel for
Tae' salaŋkaʔto grope for something, as a blind person
Maranao sikapsearch, find, examine, grope for
Kavalan sukapgrope for fish, shrimp or crabs under a stone in the water
Kelabit tekapsearch


*-kaq₁ open forcibly

PWMP *bukaqopen, undo
PMP *rakaqopen
Aklanon bæaŋkaʔtake apart, dismantle
Rotinese hukato open
Singhi Land Dayak kukaundo, unfasten
Maranao lekaʔopen
Tboli lemkaʔtake off, open forcibly
Rembong léŋkaʔto open (a door); opened
Tiruray luŋkaʔloosen slightly, as a bandage
Ilokano pekkábreak, shatter; open forcibly (someone's fist)
Arosi ragaopen with unfolding motion
Sa'a rokato open, set open wide
Rotinese sikaopen something wide, hold something open
Sasak toŋkaʔto open (door)
Tiruray ʔuŋkaʔopen something


*-kaq₂ split

PMP *bakaqsplit
PMP *bekaqsplit
PMP *bikaq₂split
PWMP *buŋkaqsplit apart; piece split off
PMP *kakaqsplit
PMP *laŋkaqstride
PSS *po(ŋ)kasplit, break apart
Bikol bikaʔkáʔhaving the legs spread apart
Javanese caŋkahforked branch
Malay cekahrift, split; split open by pressure
Dairi-Pakpak Batak daŋkahfork, branch
Buruese geka-hto split, as by heat
Bare'e jekasplit open by itself, as a ripe fruit
Malay lekahsplitting; to crack
Tae' lukato split, cleave
Kenyah pekaʔsplit open
Javanese plekahcrack, split
Malay rekahsplit, show a crack
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) wakaʔrip or pull off the jaw; pull two halves of bamboo apart

Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak beka 'split in two', Karo Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak taka 'split, cleave' (both < *-ka).


*-kas₁ begin

Balinese aŋkasbe always just about to do something; be always prevented from doing what one intends
Maranao bekasintroduction, preface; begin activity
Maranao gekasbegin; opening remark, preface
Balinese lekasbegin, be going to do; beginning
Bare'e poŋkabeginning, introduction
Madurese poŋkasbeginning


*-kas₂ loosen, undo, untie

PMP *bakascome apart, come untied
PMP *beŋkasuntie, undo
PMP *biŋkasundo, untie, unspring a trap
PAN *bukasrelease, undo
PWMP *hukastake off, loosen, undo
PMP *kaskasloosen, untie
PMP *lekas₁open, undress, remove, release
PMP *lu(ŋ)kasremove, loosen, untie
PWMP *pukas₂release, loosen, untie
PMP *taŋkasloosen, untie
Manggarai babascome apart, come undone (Also Kambera wáŋga 'make an opening, take apart', Paulohi haka 'to open (intr.)'
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belukasset free
Maranao bokakasloosen, uncoil
Fijian cekauntie a bundle
Hawu dekapeel off husk of areca nut
Wolio doŋkaget loose, slip, break away, coming off (e.g. a button)
Tontemboan eŋkasunfold, undo, loosen, untie
Tagalog himúkasremoval of small fish stuck in net
Tagalog igkásbeing set off or freed or let go, as a spring suddenly let loose or a trigger discharged
Iban iŋkasremove, undo, unpick (stitches)
Sangir kokaseʔremove the bandages and wrappings of something
Manggarai léŋkasto open, undo
Cebuano libkásfor a trap to spring, for something held back to be released suddenly
Maranao mokastrigger, spring
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pekasslip something off, as a loop off a peg, a button out of a button-hole; force off someone's grip on something
Wolio piŋkabecome dislodged, become detached, get out of position
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pulkasopen; broken, of a dam
Ilokano rekkásloosen, undo, untie, unfasten
Malay roŋkastaking to pieces; dismantling; pulling down
Wolio sokaunfasten, undo, untie, break off
Dairi-Pakpak Batak talkasfree, of a person who was previously detained; loosened, of clothes that are removed
Cebuano tikásraise something which covers something else into the air (as a storm lifts off a roof) (Also Mongondow sikat 'lift up, as a mat')
Pazeh tilikattrap, snare in general
Maranao toŋkasseparate, put apart
Manggarai waŋkasbreak open; dig up with the roots
Ngadha xakaloosen, remove, detach, peel off
Bontok ʔabkasto spring, release or set off, of a spring release bird or animal trap


*-kas₃ swift, agile, strong, energetic

PMP *bakasstrong, energetic
PWMP *bekas₂swift, fast
PWMP *lekas₂quick, quickly
PMP *rikasquick, fast
PMP *ta(ŋ)kasquick, agile
PMP *ti(ŋ)kasquick, agile
Malay akasdexterous; neat or quick in action (Also Old Javanese aŋkas 'hasty, hurried, tempestuous; do one's utmost')
Iban be-teleŋkasmoving quickly (travelling light)
Ilokano bíkasstrong, vigorous, robust (persons and animals)
Iban caŋkasfit, proper, strong, young
Lauje iŋkasquick, fast
Bikol káskásquick, speedy, rapid, fast
Sangir liŋkaseʔenergetic; a quick and strong man (Also Mongondow likat 'quick, fast')
Ngaju Dayak mantekasquick, speedy, vehement
Madurese rekasquick


*-kaw high, tall

PMP *laŋkawhigh, tall
Kayan (Uma Juman) boŋkoupper part, upper surface
Ilokano daŋkáwlong-legged (Also Tagalog daŋkáw 'long-necked')
Ilokano kawákawvery tall, much taller than the generality of his companions
Miri kewtall
Tiruray saŋkawjump up to grasp
Cebuano tukáwtower over
Tiruray ʔakawakawa pair of stilts; to walk on stilts

-ka    -kab    -kad    -kak₁    -kaŋ₁    -kaŋ₂    -kaŋ₃    -kap    -kaq₁    -kaq₂    -kas₁    -kas₂    -kas₃    -kaw    -keb₁    -keb₂    -keC    -ked    -kek    -kel    -kem₁    -kem₂    -keŋ₁    -keŋ₂    -keŋ₃    -keŋ₄    -kep₁    -kep₂    -kes    -ket    -kik    -kiŋ    -kiq    -kis₁    -kis₂    -kit₁    -kit₂    -kub₁    -kub₂    -kud    -kug₁    -kug₂    -kuk₁    -kuk₂    -kul₁    -kul₂    -kum    -kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?)    -kuŋ₂    -kup    -ku(q)    -kur    -kus    -kut    



*-keb₁ cover

PWMP *aŋkebcovering, lid
PMP *e(ŋ)keba cover, to cover
PMP *kebkebto enclose, shut in
PWMP *lekebpatch, cover
PWMP *lu(ŋ)kebcover, shelter
PMP *Ruŋkebcover over
PWMP *se(ŋ)kebcover
PWMP *si(ŋ)kebcover
PWMP *ta(ŋ)kebcover, overlapping part
Javanese dekebcatch by covering with the hands (as a bird)
Maranao gikebwalled tightly
Kadazan Dusun hikobto fold
Tiruray laŋkebcage trap
Sundanese riŋkebclosed
Karo Batak saŋkemearthenware lid of a copper cooking pot
Tboli tikebgate, door
Paiwan tsukevcover


*-keb₂ face downward

PWMP *la(ŋ)keblie face down
Maranao galekebface side down, tails in coin
Balinese kakeblie forward, slope forward, fall forward
Tiruray leŋkeblaid face down
Ngaju Dayak mahiŋkeplie on the stomach
Kavalan qebqebfall on one's face
Javanese ruŋkebfall face down
Casiguran Dumagat sakəblie face down
Hanunóo súkubfacing down, pronation
Maranao talekeblie face down
Tagalog taŋkábfall, hurting one's lip or chin
Pangasinan tikléb(<M) be upside-down, lie on one's stomach
Balinese tiŋkebspill; fall face downwards (Also Iban tiŋkap 'prostrate, prone; fall face down')
Gorontalo toŋgobuoverturned
Kayan tukemfacing downwards
Javanese uŋkeblie face down


*-keC adhesive, sticky

PMP *ca(ŋ)ketsticky, stick to
PMP *da(ŋ)ketstick, adhere
PAN *dekeCadhere, stick to
PMP *diketsticky, adhesive
PWMP *laketsticky, viscous
PWMP *leketstick, adhere
PMP *liketsticky, adhesive
PMP *n-aŋketsticky, adhesive
PMP *peketviscous
PWMP *piketbird lime
PMP *raketsticky, adhesive
PWMP *reketstick, adhere
PMP *riketsticky
PMP *si(ŋ)ketstick, adhere to
Manggarai akettie tightly between two objects, pinch between
Dairi-Pakpak Batak alketviscous
Pangasinan ansakkétsticky rice
Sundanese b+ŋk+twhat is bound together; bundle
Javanese buketthick (of liquids)
Kankanaey busíketclay; the thick, gluey black earth of rice fields
Maranao daliketclose relationship or kinship
Dairi-Pakpak Batak darketbe parasitic on
Ifugaw dayakótgeneral term used for any variety of sticky rice
Balinese eŋketbird-lime, sticky stuff, the sap of trees
Cebuano hagkútsticky
Ngaju Dayak hiketclose together
Ngaju Dayak jiŋketfit snugly (clothes)
Tiruray kaket(of rust) to adhere to a rusted object
Tagalog lagkítstickiness
Javanese luketclose, intimate
Sasak maketstick fast
Palauan merekerékedsticky
Teluti miketsticky
Kankanaey níketresin
Palauan omerékedpaste, glue
Kankanaey paŋkétsticking, adhering, cleaving
Ilokano pigkétthe glutinous substance exuded by several trees; gluey, glutinous, sticky
Bontok pukə́tstick, adhere to
Ifugaw punikótstickiness
Palauan rekerékedsucker fish
Li'o rikétie together
Javanese ruketstay close to
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rumiketsticky (as honey, mud)
Tiruray sareketglue, to glue
Amis siketattached to, joined to
Kadazan Dusun sokotpasting, gumming, sticking
Sasak taŋketcompanion
Rejang tik+ttree with milky sap used for bird lime
Pangasinan yakétsap
Sika ʔaketto stick, remain somewhere


*-ked prop, support; staff

PMP *tekedsupport, prop
PAN *tu(ŋ)kedwalking stick; prop up
Madurese duŋketstaff, walking stick
Tiruray fakerbrace, support
Ilokano sarikedkédfoundation, basis, fortification, prop, support
Isneg síkādstand up; put one's foot against some support (for exertion)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sugkedwalking stick; use a walking stick for support
Ilokano talkédlean, rest for support


*-kek shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle

PCEMP *gekeksnort, gasp
PMP *kekshriek, screech
PWMP *tekekclucking or gasping sound
Ilokano ekkékto laugh with subdued laughter
Ilokano kekkéksound of a hen when calling her chicks
Ifugaw pakókcackling sound
Kadazan Dusun sikoksob
Ilokano tikékkind of house lizard


*-kel bend, curl

PWMP *bukelcurve, wave, billow
PMP *ikelcurled, coiled
PCEMP *pikelbend, curve
PAN *tikelbend
Banggai bokolwave, billow
Amis ckelbow the head
Balinese diŋkelcrooked, bent over (Also Old Javanese riŋkel 'curled up (falling, lying)')
Fijian oqoto walk stooping; crouch
Fijian rokobe in a bowing or stooping position, a sign of reverence
Bare'e seŋkobent, bowed
Balinese takeldoubled, folded
Bare'e teŋkobent, twisted
Javanese ukel(in the shape of) a coil


*-kem₁ enclose, cover; grasp

PWMP *ca(ŋ)kemgrasp, hold
PWMP *takemtightly closed
Chamorro akihomclench, grip
Tontemboan aŋkemtake in the hand
Javanese bekemclutch in the hand (Also Sundanese bekem 'cover someone's mouth')
Balinese buŋkemfirmly closed (lips) (Also Sundanese buŋkem 'blindfold, bind the mouth')
Balinese dekemhold firmly, hold fast to
Manggarai eŋkemembrace, seize, grasp
Kadazan Dusun gakomcatch, capture, seize, arrest
Ifugaw gokómfist, clenched hand
Hiligaynon hugakúmclasp in the fist
Javanese iŋkemclose one's mouth
Kadazan Dusun kakomgrasp
Maranao kekemhandful, gather in the hand
Malay lekamgrasp in the hollow between the forefinger and thumb
Pazeh mohakemembrace
Manggarai reŋkemembrace, wrestle with
Maranao sikemsnatching with the hand
Javanese tekemhandful
Sundanese tiŋkembamboo or rattan basket that can be fastened shut with four overlapping straps


*-kem₂ lie face downward

Manggarai eŋkemoverturn
Manggarai mekemprone, face-downwards
Old Javanese suŋkembend forward, lie face-down
Manggarai toŋkemfall forward prone; overturned

Perhaps also Karo Batak laŋkem 'lie on the stomach', Kayan tukem 'facing downwards', both of which are presently assigned to *-keb₂.


*-keŋ₁ cramps, stiffening of limbs

PMP *keŋstiff, as a corpse
PMP *keŋkeŋcramps, stiffening of limbs
PWMP *pekeŋkeŋstiff, of the body
Javanese bekeŋkeŋunyielding
Javanese beŋkeŋ(of muscles) stiff and sore
Javanese cekeŋkeŋstiffening, becoming rigid, e.g. during a paralytic stroke
Malay chekaŋtaut, stretch
Javanese dandan bekeŋkeŋto dress in stiffly ironed clothes
Malay jeŋkaŋstark or stiff in death
LgS kukeŋmuscle cramp
Toba Batak oŋkoŋstiff, rheumatic; arthritic
Javanese reŋkeŋ(to get up) with difficulty, e.g. because of a debilitating illness, or sore muscles
Fijian suluwagoclocramp from cold, pain or fear
Malagasy vónkinacontracted, drawn up (as the limbs)


*-keŋ₂ curl, curve

Mongondow buloŋkoŋcurly, of head hair


*-keŋ₃ hollow, resounding sound

PMP *eŋkeŋmoan, hum, howl
PMP *keŋhollow, resounding sound
PAN *keŋkeŋhollow, resounding sound
Malay belaŋkaŋto ring (of metal falling on stone)
Ifugaw bíkoŋlover's harp; flat, thin metal plaque, the inner, loose part of which can vibrate and produce harplike sounds if someone holds it to the lips and, so to say, speaks through it ... During the evening hours, boys coming to a girls' dormitory use it to express their love of one or another girl. The girl who is addressed answers through her own bíkoŋ
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dekeŋsound made by the rusa deer (Cervus equinus)


*-keŋ₄ shrink, shrivel

PMP *keŋkeŋshrink
Sangir heŋkiŋwrinkle, shrink
Malagasy onkinashrink, be shrivelled
Fijian saqoqoshrivelled, as a leaf; shrunk, as a cloth
Malagasy vonkinacontract, shrivel, shrink


*-kep₁ cover; fold over

PWMP *sa(ŋ)kepclose, shut
PWMP *takepfold over
PWMP *tekepcover, covering
Balinese aŋkepdouble, fold double
Balinese cakepenclose, shut in tightly
Malay chekapto cover
Manggarai ekepbrood, sit on eggs (< *-keb?)
Kadazan Dusun hokopto cover
Maranao kakepsurround, encircle, close
Maranao laŋkeppatch, thin metal strip
Sasak luŋkepto cover, cover up
Singhi Land Dayak ŋ-ukopto sit (of a hen)
Iban reŋkapcover, put over (< *-keb?)
Ilokano riképshutter, window sash, door
Balinese sekepkeep secret, hide, cover up
Samoan siʔofenced, enclosed; surround, encircle (< *-keb?)


*-kep₂ seize, grasp, embrace

PMP *cikepcatch with the hands
PMP *dakepseize, arrest
PAN *dekepembrace
PWMP *ha(ŋ)kepgrasp, embrace
PWMP *kepkepgrasp, hold
PWMP *rakepseize, grasp, catch
PWMP *sikephawk sp.; seize, grasp
PWMP *ta(ŋ)kepcatch, trap
Old Javanese dikepcatch with the flat of the hand
Motu dogo-aseize, take hold of; restrain
Sasak dukepcatch, grasp with fingers or claws
Tboli le-m-kefhug, embrace
Fijian mokoembrace, clasp in the arms
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rakepwrestle with someone
Puyuma rekepfalcon, hawk
Kayan sakepa trap (e.g. a mouse trap)
Kenyah sekepscoop net
Balinese sidakepfolding the arms on the chest
Javanese tikepto grip, grasp
Amis tkepkind of trap
Sasak tukepseize, grasp, catch (as people catch insects)
Tiruray ʔekefembrace, cling


*-kes encircle, wrap firmly around

PAN *ba(R)kesbelt
PMP *beRkesbundle
PMP *i(ŋ)kesbound firmly
PWMP *keskeswrap tightly around
PMP *lekesroll, curl up
PMP *likeswind around
PWMP *tekesbind firmly
PWMP *ti(ŋ)keswind around, encircle
Maranao akesentangle by boa constrictor; embrace, hug (Also Bikol hagkós 'belt', Hanunóo hákus 'to hug, embrace')
Kankanaey balíkeskind of woven belt
Tiruray baŋkestie things into a bundle
Maranao beke-bekesbind well and strongly; band-like
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bekes-anpython
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) berakesencircle a number of objects by the arm and hand or by the thumb and fingers
Karo Batak biŋkesa package of salt
Maranao gakesembrace, hug
Singhi Land Dayak mokusto tie
Puyuma rekestie together (sheaves, bundles, packages)
Balinese riŋkeswrap up, tie together, roll up (in cloth)
Kadazan Dusun taagkosband, girdle
Amis takecembrace
Hiligaynon wágkusbelt, sash, waist band (<*-kus?)


*-ket bite

Kadazan Dusun kokotto bite

-ka    -kab    -kad    -kak₁    -kaŋ₁    -kaŋ₂    -kaŋ₃    -kap    -kaq₁    -kaq₂    -kas₁    -kas₂    -kas₃    -kaw    -keb₁    -keb₂    -keC    -ked    -kek    -kel    -kem₁    -kem₂    -keŋ₁    -keŋ₂    -keŋ₃    -keŋ₄    -kep₁    -kep₂    -kes    -ket    -kik    -kiŋ    -kiq    -kis₁    -kis₂    -kit₁    -kit₂    -kub₁    -kub₂    -kud    -kug₁    -kug₂    -kuk₁    -kuk₂    -kul₁    -kul₂    -kum    -kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?)    -kuŋ₂    -kup    -ku(q)    -kur    -kus    -kut    



*-kik shrill throaty sound

PWMP *ce(ŋ)kikchoke
PMP *kikpeep, squeak, giggle
PMP *kikikgiggle
PWMP *re(ŋ)kikhave a squeaky voice
PWMP *tekikhigh-pitched sound
Old Javanese aŋkikpanting, gasping
Javanese bekak-beki:kshriek repeatedly
Malay belekéksnipe
Karo Batak beŋkikfruit bat, flying fox
Ilokano bukíkasthma
Balinese eŋkiksound sad
Balinese eŋkik eŋkirsp. of bird which has a mournful cry
Javanese lékékto laugh in high-pitched tones
Iban lekikgiggle
Old Javanese ŋikikshouting with jeering laughter (demons.)
Ilokano okíkcry of the fruit bat, or flying fox
Malay pekékshrill cry, shriek of pain
Kankanaey pikíkto chirp, as some birds do
Sundanese rakékcry of yound and small animals (as puppies)
Kambera rékikucough, clear one's throat
Malay riŋkékneigh of a horse
Maranao tarkiklaugh heartily or vigorously
Malay toʔkékgecko


*-kiŋ clear ringing sound

PMP *kiŋringing sound
PAN *kiŋkiŋringing sound
Malay ceŋkiŋyelp (of dog); scream (of deer)
Malay deŋkiŋsharp high-pitched bark (of dog or barking deer); yelp
Maranao gariŋkiŋring, tinkle
Manggarai ŋkiŋring, sound of a bell
Ngaju Dayak sakiŋkiŋcontinuous barking
Karo Batak selkiŋshout loudly in the ear of a deaf person
Nggela tiŋgiring a bell


*-kiq high-pitched vocal sound

PWMP *leŋkiqscream
PAN *tekiqsharp sound
Balinese biŋkihgasp, pant, sigh
Maranao seŋkiʔsob, cry
Bahasa Indonesia ter-kikihgiggle


*-kis₁ scratch, grate, scrape

PAN *kiskisscratch, grate
Ngaju Dayak ikisscrape, grate
Rembong rakisscratch with the nails
Kankanaey uákisto line, mark, groove


*-kis₂ tie, bind, wrap around

PWMP *balíkisbind, wrap around firmly
PWMP *beRkisbind up; bundle
PWMP *bi(ŋ)kisbind, tie together
Tiruray berikistie all over so that the one tied cannot move
Aklanon bígkissash (piece of cloth wrapped around the waist)
Manggarai ikistether, tie, bind
PGor *liŋkisobracelet
Balinese lukislump of rice-porridge wrapped in a leaf (for a journey)


*-kit₁ to bite

PMP *a(ŋ)kitto bite
PWMP *kitkitto bite
Ngaju Dayak paŋkitto bite
Malay saŋkitchatter, of the teeth
Kelabit uʔitupper incisors
Kambera wiŋgituto bite

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ki?it 'bite off something with the front teeth' suggests a root *-kigit.


*-kit₂ join along the length

PMP *dakitjoin along the length
PMP *de(ŋ)kittouching or joined along the length
PWMP *diŋkittouching or joined along the length
PWMP *liŋkitjoined along the length
PMP *pi(ŋ)kittied or attached to
PMP *Ra(ŋ)kittie together; raft
PWMP *ri(ŋ)kittouching or joined along the length
PSS *saŋki(C)to tie
PWMP *ziŋkittouching or joined along the length
Maranao beléŋkétadhering to one another, esp. of the eyelids
Tiruray biŋkitfence made of tied rails (Also Maranao bikit 'tie up, bind')
Fijian bukitie, fasten
Javanese cukitchopsticks; bamboo sticks used (in pairs) for mixing tobacco and opium for smoking
Ilokano dalákitraft
Cebuano ifkitclose together, usually people
Cebuano iŋkítfingers which are joined congenitally together
Sundanese jéŋkétstick together
Javanese kékeftstick tight, hold together firmly
Cebuano laŋgifkittie or attach things together or side by side
Bare'e raŋkiwhat one puts next to, or takes together with something else
Tiruray sarikita double-thumb deformity
Cebuano siŋkíttie two coconuts together by their husks partly stripped off

-ka    -kab    -kad    -kak₁    -kaŋ₁    -kaŋ₂    -kaŋ₃    -kap    -kaq₁    -kaq₂    -kas₁    -kas₂    -kas₃    -kaw    -keb₁    -keb₂    -keC    -ked    -kek    -kel    -kem₁    -kem₂    -keŋ₁    -keŋ₂    -keŋ₃    -keŋ₄    -kep₁    -kep₂    -kes    -ket    -kik    -kiŋ    -kiq    -kis₁    -kis₂    -kit₁    -kit₂    -kub₁    -kub₂    -kud    -kug₁    -kug₂    -kuk₁    -kuk₂    -kul₁    -kul₂    -kum    -kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?)    -kuŋ₂    -kup    -ku(q)    -kur    -kus    -kut    



*-kub₁ cover

PMP *aŋkubcover
PWMP *cu(ŋ)kubcover with a hollow container
PWMP *kubkub₂cover
PWMP *Raŋkubcover
PMP *ru(ŋ)kubprotection
PWMP *salukuba cover; to cover
PWMP *su(ŋ)kubcover with a hollow container
PMP *ta(ŋ)kubcover over with, cover, lid
PWMP *tekubcover, shut
PWMP *tu(ŋ)kubcover
Maranao lokoblid, cover
Ifugaw lokufbpatch used to cover a hole
Kavalan nukubto cover
Pangasinan sakóblid, cover (Also Kankanaey sakkúb 'to cover with one's blanket, so as to have one blanket for two persons')
Banggai sokuto cover
Ilokano talákubreglets used to cover joints between boards
SB uhubcover with a blanket
Bare'e uŋkub-ilid of a pot or pan


*-kub₂ surround, encircle

PPh *kubkub₁to surround, lay siege to
PWMP *lakubencircle, surround, enclose
PWMP *li(ŋ)kubsurround, encircle
Ilokano íkubenclosure for freshly reaped palay (rice)
Kankanaey salikubkúbsurround, encircle, inclose
Kankanaey sókubto sit, etc. in a ring
Kankanaey tikúbhedge in, fence in, encircle, inclose
Kadazan Dusun tuŋkakubtrap for birds


*-kud cane, staff, walking stick

PRuk *okoDostick, pole
PAN *su(ŋ)kudcane, staff, walking stick
PWMP *tukudcane; prop, support
Ilokano sarukódwalking stick, staff, cane
Kenyah sekotwalking stick, staff (Also Kayan hekun 'walking stick')
Kankanaey sokúdlean upon (a staff, cane or support)
Bontok sul-sulkudstick or reed used as a walking stick, or to help support a heavy shoulder load
Bontok tulkudhouse post


*-kug₁ curl, curve

PMP *bekugcurved, bent
PWMP *biŋkugcurved, bent
PWMP *buŋkugbent over, hunchbacked
PWMP *li(ŋ)kugcurl, curve
PWMP *tikugbend
Bare'e aŋkubent forward, as someone carrying a heavy load
Kankanaey bakúghunchbacked
Cebuano baliskúgbecome curled up, rolled
Kankanaey batikúgcurved; bent; bowed; inclined
Cebuano kugkúgcurl up stiff and hard
Ilokano pilkógdoubled, bent, curved, crooked, turned (nails, edges of knives, etc.)
Cebuano siŋkuglame, cripple
Maranao tekogcurve, bend
Kankanaey yákughunchbacked


*-kug₂ hit, beat on

Mongondow boŋkughit, beat, play on (musical instrument)


*-kuk₁ bent, crooked

PMP *bekukcurved, bent
PMP *biŋkukbent, crooked
PMP *buŋkukbent, crooked
PMP *ci(ŋ)kukhave a stiff or bent arm
PMP *dekukbow, bend downward
PMP *duŋkukhunched over
PWMP *leŋkukbend, curve
PWMP *si(ŋ)kukbent
PMP *su(ŋ)kukhang one's head
PMP *tukukbent
PMP *zuŋkukbent, crooked
Tae' bakkukbent, curved
Malay beléŋkokcrooked; bent
Old Javanese huŋkukhunchbacked; crooked
Iban iŋkokcrooked
Kayan jelukukwalk with bent-over posture
Toba Batak laŋkukcrooked, bent (< *-kug?)
Iban lelukok(of old people) bent, stooped (< *-kug?)
Malay léŋkoka bend, curve or twist (< *-kug?)
Bisaya liŋkukbent
Wolio lukubow, submit, give in, be meek (< *-kug?)
Manggarai nikukcorner, bend of a road; crooked (< *-kug?)
Manggarai ŋgukukbent, bowed, humpbacked (< *-kug?)
Malay pekoktwisted or malformed (of a limb) (< *-kug?)
Sangir piŋkuʔbend, curve (as in a road)
Rotinese pukuhunched, bent, of the back (< *-kug?)
Javanese réŋkokzigzagging, twisting and turning
Iban rukokbent and shambling (as an elderly person)
Buruese seku-kbend into an angle (arm or knee)
Balinese tekukbent, crumpled
Manggarai tiŋkukconcavity (< *-kug?)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tuŋkukbent down, of the head
Amis ʔotkokto huddle, as when cold


*-kuk₂ sound of a sob, cackle, etc.

PMP *dekuksound of a sob, grunt, etc.
PMP *kuksound of a sob, croak, etc.
PWMP *kukukcackle, cluck
Sika bekukrustling; squeaking of mice
Malay belekoka bird, variously a pond heron (Ardeola speciosa) or a gallinule (Porphyrio polyocephalus)
Malay cekok-cekékgasping, as a choking or drowning man
Manggarai heŋkukincessantly coughing
Javanese klukukof an empty stomach, to rumble
Pangasinan okókcough; to cough
Manggarai raŋkoksound made by a hen; sound made by newly hatched chicks
Iban rikokcreak, squeal
Iban sekoksob
Iban sikoksob, choking sobs (Also Singhi Land Dayak n-.ikuk 'hiccup')
Maranao tekokemit a sound
Kavalan telaquqchicken
Puyuma teRukukchicken
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuŋkuktap on something lightly


*-kul₁ curl, bend

PSan *beŋkolbent, crooked
PWMP *deŋkulbend a limb
PWMP *diŋkulbend a limb
PWMP *duŋkulbend a limb
PWMP *iŋkulbent into a curve
PWMP *kulkulcurled up, doubled up
PWMP *pikulbend, turn
PMP *siŋkulbent, of the arm
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bakulbend
Malay boŋkolbump; hump; globular end of a drumstick; of rounded prominences on a horse's neck, spavins or splints
Amis fitokoldried and bent over, though still alive (trees)
Old Javanese pekulembrace, hug, throw the arms around
Javanese réŋkolfull of twistings and turnings
Bikol sukólbow the head
Balinese tékolbent; broken, but not separated (of living wood)
Pazeh tibukulcrooked, curved (*/l/ > /l/ regular?)
Balinese tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to
Rembong wikul(of women) sit with legs folded to the side


*-kul₂ snail

Bintulu bəkulsnail
Wolio bikusnail
Pangasinan bisokof1snail


*-kum close by folding

PMP *kumkumfold the arms; fold the wings (of a bird)
Tagalog ikómclosed (said of flowers and buds)
Iban siŋkum(of mouth, seed pods, etc.) closed, shut, tight
Manggarai teŋkumembrace
Hiligaynon tíkomclose the lips, mouth


*-kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?) bend, curve

PWMP *baŋkuŋcurved, crooked, bent
PMP *be(ŋ)kuŋcurved
PWMP *bi(ŋ)kuŋadze
PMP *ceŋkuŋdeeply curved
PMP *de(ŋ)kuŋbent, bowed
PAN *dukuŋbend, curve
PMP *le(ŋ)kuŋconcave
PWMP *li(ŋ)kuŋconcave
PWMP *lukuŋcurve
PMP *siŋkuquŋcurved, crooked
PWMP *su(ŋ)kuŋstooped, bent (as the back)
PMP *tikuŋcurl, bend, curve
PMP *zeŋkuŋcurved
Amis akuŋcrooked
Maranao boyokoŋhunchback
Sasak eŋkoŋcurved, wavy (of a kris)
Kayan ikuŋbent, flexed (of the arm or leg)
Manggarai joŋkuŋsit hunched over, crouch
Kankanaey kiŋíkoŋtortuous, winding
Ilokano lókoŋthe lower, or concave part of the instep
Old Javanese pelekuŋan arch
Kayan pikuŋbent at an angle
Toba Batak puhuŋclenched (hand); bent, curved
Old Javanese raŋkuŋhunched?
Cebuano sakúŋbent downwards more than it should be
Isneg tambilákoŋbent
Kenyah tekikoŋcorner, angle
Sika tekuŋlet the head hang
Kankanaey tibkúŋcause anything to bulge out; swell out (in the center)


*-kuŋ₂ deep resounding sound

PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋdeep resounding sound
PMP *kuŋanimal sound
PAN *qekuŋowl
PWMP *sakuŋresounding sound
Javanese baŋkoŋlarge old frog
Ifugaw (Batad) biʔuŋa Jew's harp made either of bamboo or from a flattened piece of brass wire
Malay ceŋkoŋgrowl; yell or deep bay (of dog)
Malay deŋkoŋsound of heavy hammering; deep bay of dog (Also Karo Batak dekuŋ 'make the sound of the domestic quail')
Tiruray keluŋkuŋowl
Malay leŋkoŋto boom out, as a gong
Iban paŋkoŋstrike, beat, hammer, usually with ringing sound
Iban reŋkoŋnoisily, loud sounding (as of someone beating on the buttress of a tree)
Malagasy róhonaa sound, as of thunder
Malay taŋkoŋa musical instrument of bamboo
Amis tkoŋto bang
Javanese ukuŋcooing of a turtledove (OJ uŋkuŋ 'sound of bells')


*-kup enclose, cover

PMP *a(ŋ)kupcup in the hands
PWMP *ca(ŋ)kupclose, enclose
PWMP *cukupclose, cover
PWMP *kupkupcover with a thin layer (possibly identical to Dempwolff's *kupkup 'grasp, hold')
PWMP *li(ŋ)kupencircle
PMP *ra(ŋ)kupgather in the cupped hands
PWMP *takupenclose, cover up
PWMP *tikupshut, close
PWMP *tu(ŋ)kupto cover
Ilokano arákupembrace
Malay cekupmaking a scoop of the hand and putting it down on anything; e.g. to catch a fly without killing it
Balinese cikupenclose, hold together
Javanese eŋkupto close up (umbrellas, etc.)
Hiligaynon hákuphandful, fistful
Javanese iŋkupclosed up, folded
Pazeh kaukupto brood eggs; to cover chicks with its wings (of a hen)
Paiwan lakupcovering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree)
Iban luŋkup(of boats, bowls, etc.) turn upside down
Maranao okopairtight; protect from evaporation, as perfume
Iban paŋkupsqueeze trap for squirrels and rats
Iban ruŋkupinvert, turn upside down on, cover completely
Balinese saŋkopscoop up water with a hand
Balinese selaŋkupsnare for catching jungle-fowl
Tiruray talikufencircle
Javanese tlakupcovering leaf of a flower or bud
Samoan ʔaʔuf-iaincluded, embraced, covered


*-ku(q) bend, curve

PMP *bakuqcurved, bent
PMP *beŋkuqbend, curve
PMP *bu(ŋ)kuqbend, bent
PMP *dekucrooked
PMP *lekuʔbend, fold; folding part of the body; curl up
PMP *li(ŋ)ku(q)bend, curve
PMP *pekuqbend, curve
PAN *pi(ŋ)ku(q)bent, crooked
PMin *rekoʔbent, curved; to bend
PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuqbowed, hunched over, as from age
PCEMP *seku(q)bent at an angle
PMP *sikuelbow
PMP *teku(q)bent, crooked
PWMP *tiku(q)bent, crooked
Maranao balikoʔzigzag, crooked
Kapampangan balikúkucurved
Malay belikusharp twist or bend in river
Tagalog bikóʔbent; to bend (as a pipe)
Malay bikuscallop or vandyke border
Kadazan Dusun biŋkucoil up
Maranao boreŋkoʔbent, crooked; bend
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bulegkuʔto bend something; to bend, as a trail bends
Bare'e burukubent, not upright in walking
Rotinese dikufold
Makassarese dukkubend over, duck down (<*-ku)
Bikol dukóʔbend over, stoop
Buruese fiku-helbow; hide in the crook of the arm
Cebuano gukúʔbent, bowed, crouched
Balinese jeŋkuknee, kneel (<*-ku)
Malay kikuturn of the road (<*-ku)
Maranao latkoʔbend
Tiruray lukuʔbend into shape of hook
Cebuano maŋkusomeone with an arm deformity characterized by being twisted at the elbow
Fijian nokubend two ends together; bend sharply, of the body (<*-kuk or *-kut?)
Bare'e pæ me-burukurice which bends over before the ear is full
Hiligaynon púŋkuʔsit down
Yami (Iranomilek) ruŋkupbent, bowed; curled up
Maranao talipkobend, curve, crooked (<*-ku)
Kelabit tekekuʔto squat
Kayan (Uma Juman) teŋkubent (<*-ku)
Tagalog ukóʔwith head bowed low in decrepitude


*-kur coo; turtledove

PWMP *bekurturtledove; coo
Javanese bekurto coo
Mandar bukkurturtledove
Malay deŋkursnore
Manggarai dukurturtledove
Kelabit kukurkind of pigeon or dove
Malay tekukurturtledove
Manggarai tekurturtledove (< tekukur by haplology?)
Dampelas uŋkurto grunt


*-kus wind around; bundle

PWMP *buŋkusbundle
PWMP *tuŋkusbundle
Maranao bakokosto wrap
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bakusbind or tie up a person or animal
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) burukuscoil up something, as a rope or a length of rattan
Maranao kokoscover, wrap
Kankanaey kusíkusroll up
Maranao likosband; around; bind
Ilokano rákusbind, make fast; tie or confine with a band, etc.
Sasak riŋkusbind, tie
Balinese uŋkuswrap in a cloth


*-kut hunched over, bent

PWMP *balikutkútbend, stoop, curl
PMP *bikuthunched over
PWMP *bukutbent, stooped
PMP *lekutbent, as a limb
POc *rukustoop, bow
PMP *sikutbent, of the arm
Tiruray bekuthunchbacked (Also TAGA bekut 'a bend or fold')
Ifugaw bikutkúthump in the back of old people
Mansaka boyokotdouble up the body
Manggarai dekutbow the head
Amis fickotto cramp, double up with pain; have a spasm, convulse
Teluti heŋkutroll up loosely
Tagalog hukótbent-backed
Ngaju Dayak jukotbent, hunched over (people, animals)
Kenyah lakutbent over
Yamdena likutbent, of arms and legs
Fordata lukutbending of arms, legs, pen-knife; folding of folding chair, etc.
Manggarai pekutcurved, of the penis
Manggarai pikutcurled up (as someone sleeping in a confined place)
Malay rekutcurled and twisted, as a man in convulsions
Tagalog súkotto cower, go away with head bowed in shame or humiliation
Amis ʔokothuddle, as when cold

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)