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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-paD    -pag    -pak₂    -pap    -paq    -pas    -pak₁ (or *-paqak?)    -peg    -pek (or *-peqek?)    -pel    -peŋ    -pes    -pet    -pi    -pid    -pik (or *-piqik?)    -pil    -pi(q)    -pis₁    -pis₂    -pit    -puk₁    -puk₂    -puk₃    -pul    -pun    -puŋ₁    -puŋ₂    -puq    -pus₁    -pus₂    -put    


*-paD flat, level

PMP *da(m)paDflat, level
PWMP *sapaDflat, of things that are expected to be more rounded
Aklanon lapádsmall flat-sided bottle; hit with the broad side of a bolo
Malay paparflat, smooth, blunt; back of blade (in contrast to edge) (Also Madurese parpar 'to flatten' (Nothofer 1975:200))


*-pag strike, beat

PWMP *pagpágbeat to remove dust
Ifugaw hípagblow in general, but not with a weapon (e.g. a stick); mostly used of blows with one's fist
Balinese lempagstrike, hit with something
Ilokano pampágbeat, strike repeatedly (rugs, etc.) either with the hand or with an instrument
Kelabit pepagslap
Isneg rappágto slap, to buffet
Ifugaw tolpághit somebody or something accidentally

Also Balinese sepeg 'chop violently at, hew'.


*-pak₂ break, crack, split

PWMP *cepakcrack, split, break
PWMP *empaksplit, break off
PWMP *ipaksplit
PWMP *lu(m)pakbreak, split off
PMP *sa(m)pakcrack, split, break
PWMP *si(m)paksplit
Balinese empakbreak, break off of itself (e.g. a branch)
Karo Batak gupaklarge cleaver with a blunt end
Chamorro hamafakfragile, brittle, easily broken
Kadazan Dusun hapakcrack, split
Kadazan Dusun himpakto split (intr.)
Cebuano hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact (Also Tiruray ufak 'split lengthwise')
Cebuano ipáksplit, break a piece of something hard
Ilokano leppákseparate at the joints (bones, roasted chickens, palm spines, etc.)
Cebuano lipákcut bamboo into slats
Ngaju Dayak rapakwhat is broken or torn off (branches of trees, etc.)
Bontok təmpáksplit a section off, of wood or stone, as in order to lighten a load
Maranao tipakbreak or chip off
Ifugaw tumpákbreaking of anything that can be broken and can no longer be used
Toba Batak ulpakhit, hew, chop
Bontok ʔapáksplit or divided, as a forked stick or a tree with a divided trunk


*-pap flattened

PWMP *lepapflattened
Balinese apaplevel, flat, even
Ilokano duŋpápflattened, crushed, as a hat
Ilokano lugpápflat, flattened
Ilokano pappápshort, flat (said of the nose)
Malay tempapbringing down the flat of the hand on anything; hand's breadth
Ilokano tumpápflat end, e.g. the bottom of a glass


*-paq chew

PAN *paqpaqchew
PWMP *sepaqchew
PWMP *sipaqchew
Javanese kepaha chewed piece of sugarcane
Kayan pachew
Maranao papaʔbite, chew
Bikol upaʔthe pulpy residue remaining after chewing something to remove the juices


*-pas tear or rip off

PWMP *kupascome off in thin layers, desquamate
PWMP *lepascome loose, free
PCEMP *lupasloosen, remove, untie
PWMP *paspasremove, take off
PWMP *Ra(m)pastear off
PWMP *ta(m)pascut or strip off
Buruese hufa-htake off, remove, untie, release
Arosi ihato unwrap, as food cooked in leaves
Wolio lapaescape, get away, get loose, be acquitted
Kadazan Dusun upasto peel betel nut


*-pak₁ (or *-paqak?) slap, clap

PMP *ca(m)paksmack
PMP *da(R)paksound of clapping or slapping
PMP *depakclip-clop, as of horse's hooves
PWMP *dupakstamp, trample
PMP *kapakbeat the wings
PWMP *kipakflap the wings
PWMP *la(R)paksound of clapping or slapping
PWMP *lepakthud
PWMP *pakcrack, clap!
PAN *pakpakclap the hands, beat the wings
PWMP *ripakloud clap
PMP *rumpakthud, strike against
PAN *tampakslap
PMP *tepakslap or beat with the hand
PWMP *tipakslap; sound of slapping or clapping
Manggarai dumpakrun aground, collide with
Bontok duspakslap someone's face with the open palm
Javanese grapaka branch snapping
Cebuano gúpakapplause; croaking of frogs, flapping of wings, clacking of wooden slippers
Cebuano hagpákslam with a loud bang
Hanunóo hampákhit, strike; beating (Also Hiligaynon hámpak 'beat, whip, whack')
Old Javanese ipakto lap, splash, wash (waves)
Bare'e japasound of loud chewing or smacking of the lips
Bare'e jipaclack the tongue as a sign of recalcitrance or reluctance
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kurpakclap the hands
Bikol lagapáksound of a dull smack, a slamming door (Also Cebuano lugápak 'slapping, cracking sound')
Kankanaey lipáakclash, clang, crash (Also Pangasinan lipák 'sound produced when the hands are clapped', Ilokano lipák 'sound of spittle falling, of a slap with the hand, etc.')
Maranao lopakclub, whip, hit, knock
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pukpaksound of many knives cutting at once
Karo Batak sépakkick with the sole of the foot
Kankanaey sudpákslap in the face; box the ears
Bontok tadpakto slap
Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Ilokano tupáksound of soft object falling
Bikol upákto applaud, clap for

-paD    -pag    -pak₂    -pap    -paq    -pas    -pak₁ (or *-paqak?)    -peg    -pek (or *-peqek?)    -pel    -peŋ    -pes    -pet    -pi    -pid    -pik (or *-piqik?)    -pil    -pi(q)    -pis₁    -pis₂    -pit    -puk₁    -puk₂    -puk₃    -pul    -pun    -puŋ₁    -puŋ₂    -puq    -pus₁    -pus₂    -put    



*-peg hit, beat

PWMP *pegpegto box, give a blow
Maranao parpeghit, beat
Javanese pegsound of a hard blow on the side of the head, as when one's ears are boxed
Balinese sepegchop violently at, hew
Javanese tampegslap in the face


*-pek (or *-peqek?) decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder

PAN *pekpekbeat, hit
PMP *repekbrittle, friable; to crumble
PWMP *upekcrumble; piece broken off
Amis apekpowder, flour
Nggela gapo-gapospread the wings; flap, flutter
Maranao gopekbreak, crush
Old Javanese keḍepekthudding or bumping noise
Ngaju Dayak kepekflap the wings
Old Javanese kerepeksound of cracking
Kankanaey kippéksnap, clack (as a cane that breaks)
Kankanaey lipéekcrack, snap (Also Casiguran Dumagat lipək-lipək 'sound of rain hitting the ground, feet of galloping horse')
Maranao lopapekdust
Manggarai ŋgapeksound of the mouth while eating
Karo Batak rampekcrisp, easily breakable
Old Javanese rimpekbroken, broken up; out of joint, smashed
Dairi-Pakpak Batak sempekbreak off (sugarcane, etc.) close to the ground so as to produce the sound n/pek/u
Toba Batak silpokbroken up, shattered
Nggela taposlap, clap
Balinese tepekslap with the flat hand
Toba Batak tilpokbreak up, shatter
Ilokano topékcrush, reduce to fine particles


*-pel plug, stopper; to cram

PWMP *pelpelto fill, cram full
PWMP *sumpelstopper, plug
PMP *tampelto patch, plaster over
Sundanese dumpelplug (a hole), fill up with something
Balinese empeldam a stream, make a fishpond
Ilokano ispélobstructed by food; experiencing difficulty in getting the food down the throat
Toba Batak sompolto cork, plug up
Javanese umpelsticking close to each other; jammed together, as passengers in a bus


*-peŋ plug up, dam; cover

PMP *e(m)peŋplug up, dam
Maranao ampeŋcover, protect
Maranao dapeŋcover
Malay impaŋfish-weir or dammed fish-pond
Sika lepeŋclose
Maranao sampeŋcover, lid
Maranao sapeŋcover
Malagasy tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Maloh umpaŋdam, barrage


*-pes empty, deflated

PMP *i(m)pesdeflate; subside (of a swelling)
PWMP *ke(m)pesdeflate
PMP *ki(m)pesshrunken, shrink
PMP *pessound of escaping air, etc.
PWMP *pespessqueeze, press out
Ilokano eppésempty (ears of grain, words, etc.); reduce, subside, unswell
Manggarai gimpessunken (cheeks), shrunken
Manggarai gipesshrunken (because of crushing pressure)
Kambera kapíhuflatus; break wind
Puyuma mutpesdeflated (balloon, belly of dead animal)


*-pet plugged, stopped, closed off

PWMP *ampetcheck, stanch, stop the flow
PWMP *pampetstop flowing
PMP *petpetsealed, leak-proof
PMP *sepetobstructed, of the flow of water
PMP *simpetclose, plug, shut off
Javanese cumpetclosed firmly
Javanese ḍapettightly closed
Balinese empetclose off, pinch, stuff full, obstruct, shut, lock
Sasak impetclose, shut
Palauan káuddam; end of menstruation
Malay kelepatcaulking, closing a vessel's seams
Manggarai kepetbind a wound; to dam, block up water
Manggarai képetcover with the two hands (genitals, flowing water), block, close off
Isneg lappátstopper. Anything which stops, fills up, closes, shuts
Paiwan lʸupetjplug, stopper
Javanese pumpetclogged, stopped up
Javanese rapettightly closed up (as a bottle)
Sasak rempetblock, obstruct (as a path)
Sasak ripetclose; tight, "hermetically sealed"
Balinese sampetblock up (a hole), stop the flow of water
Balinese sumpetstopper, cork

-paD    -pag    -pak₂    -pap    -paq    -pas    -pak₁ (or *-paqak?)    -peg    -pek (or *-peqek?)    -pel    -peŋ    -pes    -pet    -pi    -pid    -pik (or *-piqik?)    -pil    -pi(q)    -pis₁    -pis₂    -pit    -puk₁    -puk₂    -puk₃    -pul    -pun    -puŋ₁    -puŋ₂    -puq    -pus₁    -pus₂    -put    



*-pi dream

PWMP *ipidream
PMP *nipidream
PWMP *nupidream
Wuvulu mefidream
Paiwan sepidream


*-pid braid, wind together

PAN *qapidbraid
PWMP *salapidbraid
Kelabit belipidintertwining
Kelabit epidbraid
Puyuma Hupizplait rattan or bamboo (Also Amis ʔopir 'braid of hair or rope')
Kankanaey ípidthatch wall
Maranao lampidentangle
Sundanese rampidwind thread around a spool (in spinning)
Cebuano sulápidbraid, plait


*-pik (or *-piqik?) pat, light slap

PWMP *ampikpat, clap
PMP *gepiksound of light smacking
PMP *lepiksnap, break off (twigs, etc.)
PWMP *pikclick
PAN *pikpikpat, tap
PWMP *Repikbreak to pieces (something brittle)
PMP *ta(m)pikslap, pat lightly
PWMP *tepiklight slap
Cebuano hagpíkslap someone fairly hard on the shoulders
Malay kelepékflip-flop; repeated flips
Sika kepikwing, fin
Kankanaey kippíkto snap, crack (as a breaking twig)
Maranao latpikcrackling sound
Kankanaey lipíikto crack
Kankanaey pikípikto drop, trickle, leak, drip, dribble
Fijian sabislap or hit with the open hand, not so strong as saba-ka
Tongan sipismack, slap, hit with the palm of the hand
Bontok tadpíkslap lightly, usually with the flat of the palm


*-pil attach, join

PMP *ha(m)pilgo together
PWMP *tampilattach, connect, join
Cebuano apílbe included
Malay dampiltouching one another (of contact, in contrast to mere proximity)
Karo Batak gumpilform a cluster; a swarm of bees, etc.
Karo Batak rumpilromp with one another
Cebuano tumpílpile something, usually neatly, on top of something else
Karo Batak umpildo something together, with concerted action


*-pi(q) fold

PWMP *gepi(q)fold, folded
PWMP *kepiqfold, folded
PMP *lepi(q)fold, hem
PWMP *repifold, turn back
Kadazan Dusun h-in-upihem .
Tagalog kupíʔfolded, doubled (< *-picii)
Tboli lafiʔfold up (< *-pi)
Kankanaey lokpífold, fold up
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lumpifold up something (< *-pi)
Balinese tampihfold, fold up, put in layers (< *-piq)
Fijian tibibend sharply, fold clothes; plait
Bontok tupíhem a dress, fold
Tagalog tupíʔfold, plait (< *-pici)
Amis ʔpihem (< *-pi)


*-pis₁ deflate; empty

PWMP *e(m)pisempty rice husk
PMP *ke(m)pisshrunken, deflated
PWMP *pishiss
Kankanaey apípislessen, reduce, diminish
Ngaju Dayak apishollow, empty grains (of rice)
Karo Batak gempisempty, flat
Maranao kimpisshrivel
Tagalog kumpísdeflated (reduced from swelling or bulge) (< *-pes?)
Isneg lappítempty heads of rice
Tagalog umpísdeflated (said of balloons and air-filled sacs) (< *-pes?)


*-pis₂ thin, of materials

PWMP *hiŋ(e)pisthin (of materials)
PWMP *la(m)pisflat layer
PAN *Nipisthin (of materials)
PWMP *pispispound fine
PWMP *Rampisthin, thin layer
PWMP *taRpisthinness, fineness of texture
Manggarai dempisthin and flat
Kadazan Dusun dipisthin
Kavalan impisthin
Amis kohpicthin (opp. thick)
Kelabit lipithin
Iban lupisslender, thin; make slender
Paiwan (Western) ƚusepitthin (as paper), thin, as person
Selaru mepisthin
Tetun mihisthin, slender
Bare'e sampibecome thin or narrow
Sangir sipiʔthin
Ivatan taripisthin (objects)
Hiligaynon yágpislanky, thin


*-pit press, squeeze together; narrow

PWMP *cupitnarrow
PWMP *diq(e)pitjoin, fasten together, probably lengthwise
PMP *ga(m)pithold together
PMP *gepitpinch, press together
PWMP *gu(m)pitpinch together
PWMP *he(m)pitpress between two surfaces
PWMP *higpítpinch or squeeze between two surfaces
PMP *ka(m)pitfasten thatch with slats; hold together
PAN *ke(m)pithold together, clamp
PWMP *ki(m)pitpress together
PAN *kupitpress together
PMP *le(m)pitfold
PMP *li(m)pitpress between two flat surfaces
PWMP *lupitpress between two flat surfaces
PMP *pitpitpinch
PMP *qi(m)pitjammed, wedged close together
PWMP *rupitnarrow
PAN *Sa(m)pithold together
PWMP *se(m)pittight, narrow
PPh *sigpíttongs, clips, pincers
PMP *sipitsqueeze, pinch, narrow
PWMP *su(m)pitnarrow; tongs
PWMP *zapitpinch, press
PMP *zumpitpinch, squeeze
Kankanaey agpítcarry under (one's arm, etc.)
Kankanaey alípitcarry under (one's arm, etc.)
Malay capitpincers
Ilokano daípitto crowd, throng; press, stick together
Malay dempitpressed together; in contact
Maranao gimpitpress, crush (also Tagalog gipít 'wanting or lacking in space')
Kambera haŋgápitutongs
Malay jepitto nip, catch between pincers
Javanese jimpita pinch
Kambera júmbitupinch
Ifugaw kuhípitnarrowness of things
Hiligaynon lágpitrat trap
Sasak lapitinsert between two other things
Malay men-cepitto nip
Kambera ŋápituto clip, pinch
Manggarai ŋgepitpincers; to nip, catch between pincers
Wolio opihold tightly, push to, clutch
Ilokano ópitcompress, compact, consolidate, harden, press
Malay pen-cepitpincers
KADAYAN pihitpinch
Bontok pipʔitbe crowded, have no room
Kambera ripitutake between the fingers, pinch, pluck
Javanese sapittongs, pincers
Casiguran Dumagat səlpetpincers, tongs, clothespin; to pinch (as finger in door)
Balinese sripitnarrow (road)
Hanunóo tipítclamps, holders, as used to fasten house walls down
Ifugaw ukpíthold by pressing something between the knees, between the elbow (or the upper arm) and the side of the body
Gorontalo wepitonarrow
Bikol yaʔpítnarrow (as a passage), tight (as clothes)
Amis ʔalapittweezers, chopsticks

-paD    -pag    -pak₂    -pap    -paq    -pas    -pak₁ (or *-paqak?)    -peg    -pek (or *-peqek?)    -pel    -peŋ    -pes    -pet    -pi    -pid    -pik (or *-piqik?)    -pil    -pi(q)    -pis₁    -pis₂    -pit    -puk₁    -puk₂    -puk₃    -pul    -pun    -puŋ₁    -puŋ₂    -puq    -pus₁    -pus₂    -put    



*-puk₁ throb, thud, clap, break

PMP *cepukdull sound
PMP *depuksnap, crack
PMP *gepukbeat, break to pieces
PMP *kepukbeat, crunch, break
PWMP *lepukfall with a thud
PWMP *lipuksnap, crack
PWMP *pukbang!
PAN *pukpukbeat (with a hammer, etc.)
PMP *rupuksound of breaking, cracking
PWMP *sa(m)pukcollide, bump into
PWMP *sempukbump into
PWMP *ta(m)pukclap, thud
PMP *te(m)puksound of clapping, cracking, breaking
PWMP *ti(m)pukclap, clack
Manggarai cépuksound of rapping, tapping, breaking
Sasak empokburst, pop; burst out, explode
Karo Batak gupukcome to blows
Manggarai japukcrunch, chew noisily
Manggarai jipuksound of pig when eating
Old Javanese kerepuksound of clashing, clanging, clattering
Karo Batak nampukfall down, of ripe fruits, as the durian
Manggarai ŋgapoksound of a slap
Manggarai ŋgapuksound of chewing
Manggarai rapokto slap
Manggarai rempukbreaking easily (of wood), brittle
Manggarai repoksound of a slap
Manggarai repuksound of wood, bone, etc. breaking
Manggarai rimpukto break (tubers, etc.)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak selpuksnap or break in the middle (as young bamboo stalks)
Maranao simpoktouch lightly, hit lightly
Paiwan tsupukhit with a club
Teluti ufukflap (as wings), clap


*-puk₂ dust

PMP *apukdust, sawdust
Tagalog gapókrotten inside, hollowed out by weevils or termites or the like (said of wood)
Ifugaw húpukdust, sand
Bimanese numpupulverize
Pangasinan pokpókshake off dust
Bare'e rupugrit, crumbs, dust
Pangasinan sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind
Balinese sepukdust
Bontok tápukdust in the air


*-puk₃ gather, flock together

PWMP *tumpukheap, mound
Arosi ahuflock together
Bunun isʔampukgathering; assembly
Malay kelompokcluster, group
Buruese lupu-kmeet, come together
Ifugaw pukúpukmake a small heap by pouring out pounded rice, beans, peas or the like
Tiruray simfukgathered into a group
Ilokano tarapókgather, assemble, come together, flock together, associate
Javanese tempukflow together, join
Dairi-Pakpak Batak terpukcluster, group
Javanese umpuk(to heap) in a pile


*-pul blunt, dull

PMP *de(m)pulblunt, dull
PMP *dumpulblunt, dull
PPh *pulpulblunt
PMP *tumpulblunt, dull
Malay (Jakarta) kumpulblunt
Tiruray temfuldull, not sharp
Makassarese tippuluʔdull, blunt


*-pun assemble, collect, gather

PWMP *punpunassemble, gather
PMP *qi(m)puncollect, gather
PWMP *rempungather together
PWMP *ri(m)puncollect, gather
PWMP *rumpuncluster, clump
PWMP *sipungather, collect
PWMP *ti(m)puncollect, gather
PWMP *u(m)punswarm together
Ilokano appónaggregate, collection
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hurapunalight in a flock (birds)
Mongondow kapunmeet, assemble
Buruese lupu-kassemble
Casiguran Dumagat paluŋpunstack up rice stalks after harvesting
Isneg rápona large group
Kavalan sapungather, collect
Kankanaey sugpúnput their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody
Sangir tampuŋgather, collect, assemble ( < *-puŋ₁?)
Kavalan tapuntogether
Ngadha tupucrowd together in masses, gather, assemble, collect


*-puŋ₁ bunch, cluster

PMP *kampuŋassembly, meeting
PMP *puŋpuŋgather, collect
PAN *qupuŋbunch, cluster
PMP *rimpuŋtie the feet together
PWMP *tampuŋcollect, gather
Balinese ampuŋharvest rice
Hiligaynon húgpuŋbundle, bouquet
Malay rempoŋbunch; make into a bunch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rupuŋhand of bananas
Ilokano tarapóŋjoin, come together, unite, gather, assemble
Toba Batak tupuŋa rolled-up leaf; gather, assemble


*-puŋ₂ to float

PMP *apuŋto float
PWMP *gampuŋto float
Kelabit l-em-upuŋto float
Yami (Iranomilek) lepoŋ lepoŋfloating
Kelabit lupuŋa float
Malay pelampoŋfloating mark; float of line or net; impromptu raft
Malay ter-kapoŋ kapoŋbobbing up and down on the surface of water, as driftwood or a floating leaf


*-puq brittle

Maranao gepoʔbreak, as of branches or twigs of plants
Cebuano hágpuʔfor a line or rope to break under tension
Manggarai mepubrittle, fragile; decayed
Malay rapohbrittle, fragile, easily broken up (of wood attacked by dry rot or iron corroded by rust)
Bikol tapóʔbrittle (as dry twigs)


*-pus₁ end, finish

PWMP *epuscomplete, finish
PMP *kempuscome to an end
PWMP *la(m)pusgone, vanished, terminated
PMP *mampusgone, used up
PMP *puspuscompletely, to the finish
PMP *qa(m)pusterminate, reach the end
PWMP *tapusend, finish
PWMP *te(m)pusend, conclude
PMP *tu(m)pusto complete, finish
Kankanaey dokpúsfinish, complete, terminate, end; to perfect
Rembong dupusfinish
Tagalog gipósreduced to a stub; extinguished
Hiligaynon hiŋapústo end, finish, complete, terminate
Kambera hupuend, finish
Maranao iposdone with, gone away (Also Tiruray ifus 'to complete a contract, agreement or period of time')
Lakalai kaluvucome to an end; finished
Hanunóo kapúsend, last (in time). kapús-an youngest child
Kankanaey kipúsquickly exhausted; up in a short time
Kankanaey kudpúsup; consumed, wasted, finished
Isneg laŋpútfinish, complete
Iban lempusover, finished
Kankanaey luŋpúsfinished, completed, ended, finished off; perfected
Manggarai memposstump, fag-end of anything
Kankanaey ŋopúsbrand; piece of wood whose largest part has been burnt
Wolio ropufinish off, take all for oneself
Iban rupusall over, completely
Buruese sepufinished, completed, done, exhausted
Ilokano talipupústo do, etc. completely, entirely, utterly (extinguishing a debt, a lineage by death, buying up a crop; devastating a whole village, etc.)
Maranao timposact through to the finish, endure
Kankanaey toŋpúsfinished, completed, terminated, ended, concluded
Ilokano torpúsfinish, conclude, end, close, terminate
Mongondow uputend; to complete


*-pus₂ sound of escaping air

PWMP *lepusto puff, blow into
PMP *pushiss
Malay dempuspuff in one's sleep
Malay depusthe sound of a rush of air through a narrow opening, e.g. from bellows
Malay empusto blow
Javanese kepusblow on, exhale strongly
Kankanaey kippúsbreak wind noiselessly


*-put puff (O)

PMP *puputblow
PMP *putpuffing sound
PWMP *se(m)putblowpipe, shoot with a blowpipe
POc *upublow with the mouth
Kenyah kaliputblowpipe
Ilokano lípotrepeated sound of breaking wind
Nggela lovulovuto puff
Javanese sruputsipping or sucking sounds
Cebuano sulpútissue forth suddenly, pop out of

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)